Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3163

Search results for: modern agriculture

3163 Modern Agriculture and Industrialization Nexus in the Nigerian Context

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon, Olabanji Ewetan

Abstract:

Modern agriculture involves the use of improved tools and equipment (instead of crude and ineffective tools) like tractors, hand operated planters, hand operated fertilizer drills and combined harvesters - which increase agricultural productivity. Farmers in Nigeria still have huge potentials to enhance their productivity. The study argues that the increase in agricultural output due to increased productivity, orchestrated by modern agriculture will promote forward linkages and opportunities in the processing sub-sector; both the manufacturing of machines and the processing of raw materials. Depending on existing incentives, foreign investment could be attracted to augment local investment in the sector. The availability of raw materials in large quantity – which prices are competitive – will attract investment in other industries. In addition, potentials for backward linkages will also be created. In a nutshell, adopting the unbalanced growth theory in favour of the agricultural sector could engender industrialization in a country with untapped potentials. The paper highlights the numerous potentials of modern agriculture that are yet to be tapped in Nigeria and also provides a theoretical analysis of how the realization of such potentials could promote industrialization in the country. The study adopts the Lewis’ theory of structural–change model and Hirschman’s theory of unbalanced growth in the design of the analytical framework. The framework will be useful in empirical studies that will guide policy formulation.

Keywords: modern agriculture, industrialization, structural change model, unbalanced growth

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3162 Modern Agriculture and Employment Generation in Nigeria: A Recursive Model Approach

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon

Abstract:

Several policies and programs initiated to address the challenge of unemployment in Nigeria seem to be inadequate. The desired structural transformation which is expected to absorb the excess labour in the economy is yet to be achieved. The agricultural sector accounts for almost half of the labour force with very low productivity. This could partly explain why the much anticipated structural transformation has not been achieved. A major reason for the low productivity is the fact that the production process is predominantly based on the use of traditional tools. In view of the underdeveloped nature of the agricultural sector, Nigeria still has huge potentials for productivity enhancement through modern technology. Aside from productivity enhancement, modern agriculture also stimulates both backward and forward linkages that promote investment and thus generate employment. Contrary to the apprehension usually expressed by many stake-holders about the adoption of modern technology by labour-abundant less-developed countries, this study showed that though there will be job loss initially, the reverse will be the case in the long-run. The outcome of this study will enhance the understanding of all stakeholders in the sector and also encourage them to adopt modern techniques of farming. It will also aid policy formulation at both sectoral and national levels. The recursive model and analysis adopted in the study is useful because it exhibits a unilateral cause-and-effect relationship which most simultaneous equation models do not. It enables the structural equations to be ordered in such a way that the first equation includes only predetermined variables on the right-hand side, while the solution for the final endogenous variable is completely determined by all equations of the system. The study examines the transmission channels and effect of modern agriculture on agricultural productivity and employment growth in Nigeria, via its forward and backward linkages. Using time series data spanning 1980 to 2014, the result of the analyses shows that: (i) a significant and positive relationship between agricultural productivity growth and modern agriculture; (ii) a significant and negative relationship between export price index and agricultural productivity growth; (iii) a significant and positive relationship between export and investment; and (iv) a significant and positive relationship between investment and employment growth. The unbalanced growth theory will be a good strategy to adopt by developing countries such as Nigeria.

Keywords: employment, modern agriculture, productivity, recursive model

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3161 Identifying the Phases of Indian Agriculture Towards Desertification: An Introspect of Karnataka State, India

Authors: Arun Das

Abstract:

Indian agriculture is acclaimed from the dates of Indus civilization (2500 BC). Since this time until the day, there were tremendous expansion in terms of space and technology has taken place. Abrupt growth in technology took place past one and half century. Consequent to this development, the land which was brought under agriculture in the initial stages of introducing agriculture for the first time, that land is not possessing the same physical condition. Either it has lost the productive capacity or modified into semi agriculture land. On the grounds of its capacity and interwoven characteristics seven phases of agriculture scenario has been identified. Most of the land is on the march of desertification. Identifying the stages and the phase of the agriculture scenario is most relevant from the point of view of food security at regional, national and at global level. Secondly decisive measure can put back the degenerating environmental condition into arrest. GIS and Remote sensing applications have been used to identify the phases of agriculture.

Keywords: agriculture phases, desertification, deforestation, foods security, transmigration

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3160 Urban Land Expansion Impact Assessment on Agriculture Land in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

Kabul city is experiencing urban land expansion in an unprecedented scale, especially since the last decade. With massive population expansion and fast economic development, urban land has increasingly expanded and encroached upon agriculture land during the urbanization history of the city. This paper evaluates the integrated urban land expansion impact on agriculture land in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the city between 1962-1964. The paper studies the temporal and spatial characteristic of agriculture land and agriculture land loss in Kabul city using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing till 2008. Many temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imageries were interpreted to detect the temporal and spatial characteristics of agriculture land loss. Different interval study periods, however, had vast difference in the agriculture land loss which is due to the urban land expansion trends in the city. the high number of Agriculture land adjacent to the city center and urban fringe have been converted into urban land during the study period in the city, as the agriculture land is highly correlated with the urban land.

Keywords: agriculture land, agriculture land loss, Kabul city, urban land expansion, urbanization

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3159 Agriculture Yield Prediction Using Predictive Analytic Techniques

Authors: Nagini Sabbineni, Rajini T. V. Kanth, B. V. Kiranmayee

Abstract:

India’s economy primarily depends on agriculture yield growth and their allied agro industry products. The agriculture yield prediction is the toughest task for agricultural departments across the globe. The agriculture yield depends on various factors. Particularly countries like India, majority of agriculture growth depends on rain water, which is highly unpredictable. Agriculture growth depends on different parameters, namely Water, Nitrogen, Weather, Soil characteristics, Crop rotation, Soil moisture, Surface temperature and Rain water etc. In our paper, lot of Explorative Data Analysis is done and various predictive models were designed. Further various regression models like Linear, Multiple Linear, Non-linear models are tested for the effective prediction or the forecast of the agriculture yield for various crops in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states.

Keywords: agriculture yield growth, agriculture yield prediction, explorative data analysis, predictive models, regression models

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3158 Assessment of the Professional Competencies of Agriculture Officers in North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Khalid Nawab, Shahid Ali, Mubashir Habib, Shakirullah Khan, Sajjad Ahmad, Javid Ullah, Ikramul Haq

Abstract:

Professionally competent Agriculture Officers (AOs) can play an important role in the development of agriculture in the country. This study was conducted in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Pakistan) to assess professional competencies of Agriculture Officers (AOs) in January 2007. Data were collected from all (112) AOs through a mailed questionnaire. The study examines existing level of professional competencies of AOs and the required level of possessed competencies needed by them for their job performance in the areas of participatory extension methodologies. Both the possessed and required levels of competencies were scaled from 1-5 on Liker scale, 1 being very low and 5 being very high. . The study revealed a numerical difference between possessed and required levels regarding the professional competencies of the participatory extension methodology. It was also observed that higher levels of job experience increase the professional competencies in participatory extension methodology. It is recommended that periodic training and refresher courses are arranged for AOs so that their learning may become more practicable to diffuse agricultural innovations among members of participatory learning groups and convey modern technologies to the end users.

Keywords: professional competency, agriculture officers, assessment and participatory extension methodology, participatory extension

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3157 Modern Literary Authors and Samuel Beckett's Trace of Lost Self in Modernity

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

Abstract:

In a depression after world wars, Beckett's plays presented a picture of the world fragmented and disrupted. Among other modern literary works, Beckett's path-breakingly innovative literature presented the parodies of pointlessness of human actions and thoughts in the world. This new dramatic style catapulted Beckett to the centre stage of modern drama, though it should be mentioned that he may not have been influenced in this without the prevailing climate of ideas. The prevailing literary attitude of Modernism indicates that the modern world is irrational and incoherent. The present study explores Samuel Beckett's literary approach to modern drama and shows how the author could create the characters stuck in a lifelong suspicious about the Self.

Keywords: modern drama, absurdity, the theatre of the absurd, existentialism, self searching

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3156 A Framework for Vacant City-Owned Land to Be Utilised for Urban Agriculture: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

Authors: P. S. Van Staden, M. M. Campbell

Abstract:

Vacant City of Cape Town-owned land lying un-utilized and -productive could be developed for land uses such as urban agriculture that may improve the livelihoods of low income families. The new City of Cape Town zoning scheme includes an Urban Agriculture zoning for the first time. Unstructured qualitative interviews among town planners revealed their optimism about this inclusion as it will provide low-income residents with opportunities to generate an income. An existing farming community at Philippi, located within the municipal boundary of the city, was approached and empirical data obtained through questionnaires provided proof that urban agriculture could be viable in a coastal metropolitan city such as Cape Town even if farmers only produce for their own households. The lease method proposed for urban agriculture is a usufruct agreement conferring the right to another party, other than the legal owner, to enjoy the use and advantages of the property.

Keywords: land uses, urban agriculture, agriculture, food engineering

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3155 A Literature Study on IoT Based Monitoring System for Smart Agriculture

Authors: Sonu Rana, Jyoti Verma, A. K. Gautam

Abstract:

In most developing countries like India, the majority of the population heavily relies on agriculture for their livelihood. The yield of agriculture is heavily dependent on uncertain weather conditions like a monsoon, soil fertility, availability of irrigation facilities and fertilizers as well as support from the government. The agricultural yield is quite less compared to the effort put in due to inefficient agricultural facilities and obsolete farming practices on the one hand and lack of knowledge on the other hand, and ultimately agricultural community does not prosper. It is therefore essential for the farmers to improve their harvest yield by the acquisition of related data such as soil condition, temperature, humidity, availability of irrigation facilities, availability of, manure, etc., and adopt smart farming techniques using modern agricultural equipment. Nowadays, using IOT technology in agriculture is the best solution to improve the yield with fewer efforts and economic costs. The primary focus of this work-related is IoT technology in the agriculture field. By using IoT all the parameters would be monitored by mounting sensors in an agriculture field held at different places, will collect real-time data, and could be transmitted by a transmitting device like an antenna. To improve the system, IoT will interact with other useful systems like Wireless Sensor Networks. IoT is exploring every aspect, so the radio frequency spectrum is getting crowded due to the increasing demand for wireless applications. Therefore, Federal Communications Commission is reallocating the spectrum for various wireless applications. An antenna is also an integral part of the newly designed IoT devices. The main aim is to propose a new antenna structure used for IoT agricultural applications and compatible with this new unlicensed frequency band. The main focus of this paper is to present work related to these technologies in the agriculture field. This also presented their challenges & benefits. It can help in understanding the job of data by using IoT and correspondence advancements in the horticulture division. This will help to motivate and educate the unskilled farmers to comprehend the best bits of knowledge given by the huge information investigation utilizing smart technology.

Keywords: smart agriculture, IoT, agriculture technology, data analytics, smart technology

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3154 Comparative Analysis of Traditional and Modern Roundabouts Using Sidra Intersection

Authors: Amir Mohammad Parvini, Amir Masoud Rahimi

Abstract:

Currently, most parts of the world have shifted from traditional roundabouts to modern roundabouts with respect to the role of roundabouts in reducing accidents, increasing safety, lowering the maintenance costs compared to traffic circles with their improper functional and safety experiences. In this study, field data collected from a current traditional roundabout was analyzed by the software AIMSUN and the obtained numbers were recorded. The modern roundabout was designed by changes in the traditional one, considering the geometric standards listed in regulations. Then, the modern roundabout was analyzed by applying a heterogeneous traffic by a micro-simulation software SIDRA (5.1). The function, capacity, and safety of the roundabout were analyzed assuming the superiority of modern roundabouts and acceptable LOS. The obtained results indicate that the function, capacity, and safety of modern roundabouts are better than traditional ones.

Keywords: traditional roundabout, traffic circles, modern roundabout, AIMSUN, SIDRA

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3153 Representation of Traditional Ornament in Modern Architecture Yogyakarta

Authors: Eni Puji Astuti

Abstract:

Yogyakarta has a rich and various form of traditional ornament which can be found on many media. Traditional Ornament has a classical form and being a local identity that can be easily recognized. The retention of traditional ornament can be done in many ways, one of them is aplicating tradisional ornament on modern architecture. This paper is aimed at identifiying the representation of traditional ornament on modern architecture in Yogyakarta. Kawung, parang, tumpal are some of Javaness motifs which often implemented on modern architecture because of their simple and welknown form. The motifs that actually aplicate on textiles ornament, recently often applied on modern architecture as aesthetical element on the facade, interior walls and furniture. The application of traditional ornaments as aesthetic architectural elements provide a strong local identity of Yogyakarta. Traditional ornaments that are applied, no longer refers to the origin local values, norms, and traditions. The form previously be simplified and adapted to the shape of minimalist style of modern architecture.

Keywords: traditional ornament, representation, Yogyakarta, modern architecture

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3152 Limestone Briquette Production and Characterization

Authors: André C. Silva, Mariana R. Barros, Elenice M. S. Silva, Douglas. Y. Marinho, Diego F. Lopes, Débora N. Sousa, Raphael S. Tomáz

Abstract:

Modern agriculture requires productivity, efficiency and quality. Therefore, there is need for agricultural limestone implementation that provides adequate amounts of calcium and magnesium carbonates in order to correct soil acidity. During the limestone process, fine particles (with average size under 400#) are generated. These particles do not have economic value in agricultural and metallurgical sectors due their size. When limestone is used for agriculture purposes, these fine particles can be easily transported by wind generated air pollution. Therefore, briquetting, a mineral processing technique, was used to mitigate this problem resulting in an agglomerated product suitable for agriculture use. Briquetting uses compressive pressure to agglomerate fine particles. It can be aided by agglutination agents, allowing adjustments in shape, size and mechanical parameters of the mass. Briquettes can generate extra profits for mineral industry, presenting as a distinct product for agriculture, and can reduce the environmental liabilities of the fine particles storage or disposition. The produced limestone briquettes were subjected to shatter and water action resistance tests. The results show that after six minutes completely submerged in water, the briquettes where fully diluted, a highly favorable result considering its use for soil acidity correction.

Keywords: agglomeration, briquetting, limestone, soil acidity correction

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3151 The Modern Significance of Chinese Traditional Gardens for the Development of Modern Eco-Garden Cities

Authors: Liang Zhang

Abstract:

Chinese traditional gardens are the historical and cultural treasures of the whole mankind, among which the excellent parts still have important guiding significance for modern urban design. Based on the background of eco-garden city and reality, through the analysis of various design elements of classical gardens, combined with the needs of today's urban development, starting from the three needs of landscape, energy saving and environmental protection. To explore how Chinese traditional gardens can be revitalized in modern urban planning.

Keywords: Chinese traditional gardens, eco-garden city, modern urban planning, urban development

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3150 The Role of ICT in Engaging Youth in Agricultural Transformation of Africa

Authors: Adebola Adedugbe

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of most countries in Africa. It employs up to 90 percent of the rural workforce, who are mostly youth and women. Engaging youths in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in agriculture is critical to economic and agricultural development of the African continent. The objective of this paper is to identify and mobilize the potentials of young Africans in agriculture through ICT and recognize their role as the dominant driver for sustainable agricultural development in Africa. This paper identifies the role of ICT as a tool for attracting youths to agriculture. The development of ICT is important in stimulating youths in SME’s to compete favorably and effectively as a way to fight poverty through job and wealth creation. It is one of the strategies for promoting entrepreneurship by increasing the availability and diversity of online information.

Keywords: Africa, agriculture, ICT, tool, youth

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3149 Sustainable Agriculture of Tribal Farmers: An Analysis in Koraput and Malkangiri Districts of Odisha, India

Authors: Amrita Mishra, Tushar Kanti Das

Abstract:

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Odisha. Sustainability of agriculture holds the key for the development of Odisha. The Sustainable Development Goals are a framework of 17 goals and 169 targets across social, economical and environmental areas of sustainable development. Among all the seventeen goals the second goal is focusing on the promotion of Sustainable Agriculture. In this research our main aim is also to contribute an understanding of effectiveness of sustainable agriculture as a tool for rural development in the selected tribal district (i.e. Koraput and Malkangiri) of Odisha. These two districts are comes under KBK districts of Odisha which are identified as most backward districts of Odisha. The objectives of our study are to investigate the effect of sustainable agriculture on the lives of tribal farmers, to study whether the farmers are empowered by their participation in sustainable agriculture initiatives to move towards their own vision of development and to study the investment and profit ratio in sustainable agriculture. This research will help in filling the major gaps in sociological studies of sustainable agriculture. This information will helpful for farmers, development organisations, donors and policy makers in formulating the development of effective initiatives and policies to support the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, we have taken 210 respondents and used various statistical techniques like chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and percentage analysis. This research shows that sustainable agriculture is an effective development strategy that benefits the tribal farmers to move towards their own vision of Good Fortune. The poor farmers who struggle to feed their families and maintain viable livelihoods on shrinking land for them sustainable agriculture are really benefited. The farmers are using homemade pesticides, manure and also getting the seeds from different development organisations and Government. So the investment in Sustainable Agriculture is very less. All farmers said their lives are now better than before. The creation of farmers groups for training and marketing for the produces was shown to be very important for empowerment.

Keywords: sustainable, agriculture, tribal farmers, development, empowerment

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3148 Spatial Pattern of Farm Mechanization: A Micro Level Study of Western Trans-Ghaghara Plain, India

Authors: Zafar Tabrez, Nizamuddin Khan

Abstract:

Agriculture in India in the pre-green revolution period was mostly controlled by terrain, climate and edaphic factors. But after the introduction of innovative factors and technological inputs, green revolution occurred and agricultural scene witnessed great change. In the development of India’s agriculture, speedy, and extensive introduction of technological change is one of the crucial factors. The technological change consists of adoption of farming techniques such as use of fertilisers, pesticides and fungicides, improved variety of seeds, modern agricultural implements, improved irrigation facilities, contour bunding for the conservation of moisture and soil, which are developed through research and calculated to bring about diversification and increase of production and greater economic return to the farmers. The green revolution in India took place during late 60s, equipped with technological inputs like high yielding varieties seeds, assured irrigation as well as modern machines and implements. Initially the revolution started in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. With the efforts of government, agricultural planners, as well as policy makers, the modern technocratic agricultural development scheme was also implemented and introduced in backward and marginal regions of the country later on. Agriculture sector occupies the centre stage of India’s social security and overall economic welfare. The country has attained self-sufficiency in food grain production and also has sufficient buffer stock. Our first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru said ‘everything else can wait but not agriculture’. There is still a continuous change in the technological inputs and cropping patterns. Keeping these points in view, author attempts to investigate extensively the mechanization of agriculture and the change by selecting western Trans-Ghaghara plain as a case study and block a unit of the study. It includes the districts of Gonda, Balrampur, Bahraich and Shravasti which incorporate 44 blocks. It is based on secondary sources of data by blocks for the year 1997 and 2007. It may be observed that there is a wide range of variations and the change in farm mechanization, i.e., agricultural machineries such as ploughs, wooden and iron, advanced harrow and cultivator, advanced thrasher machine, sprayers, advanced sowing instrument, and tractors etc. It may be further noted that due to continuous decline in size of land holdings and outflux of people for the same nature of works or to be employed in non-agricultural sectors, the magnitude and direction of agricultural systems are affected in the study area which is one of the marginalized regions of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Keywords: agriculture, technological inputs, farm mechanization, food production, cropping pattern

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3147 A Review on Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture in Southeast Nigeria

Authors: Jane O. Munonye

Abstract:

Climate change has both negative and positive effects in agricultural production. For agriculture to be sustainable in adverse climate change condition, some natural measures are needed. The issue is to produce more food with available natural resources and reduce the contribution of agriculture to climate change. The study reviewed climate change and sustainable agriculture in southeast Nigeria. Data from the study were from secondary sources. Ten scientific papers were consulted and data for the review were collected from three. The objectives of the paper were as follows: to review the effect of climate change on one major arable crop in southeast Nigeria (yam; Dioscorea rotundata); evident of climate change impact and methods for sustainable agricultural production in adverse weather condition. Some climatic parameter as sunshine, relative humidity and rainfall have negative relationship with yam production and significant at 10% probability. Crop production was predicted to decline by 25% per hectare by 2060 while livestock production has increased the incidence of diseases and pathogens as the major effect to agriculture. Methods for sustainable agriculture and damage of natural resources by climate change were highlighted. Agriculture needs to be transformed as climate changes to enable the sector to be sustainable. There should be a policy in place to facilitate the integration of sustainability in Nigeria agriculture.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, sustainability, yam

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3146 Organic Agriculture Harmony in Nutrition, Environment and Health: Case Study in Iran

Authors: Sara Jelodarian

Abstract:

Organic agriculture is a kind of living and dynamic agriculture that was introduced in the early 20th century. The fundamental basis for organic agriculture is in harmony with nature. This version of farming emphasizes removing growth hormones, chemical fertilizers, toxins, radiation, genetic manipulation and instead, integration of modern scientific techniques (such as biologic and microbial control) that leads to the production of healthy food and the preservation of the environment and use of agricultural products such as forage and manure. Supports from governments for the markets producing organic products and taking advantage of the experiences from other successful societies in this field can help progress the positive and effective aspects of this technology, especially in developing countries. This research proves that till 2030, 25% of the global agricultural lands would be covered by organic farming. Consequently Iran, due to its rich genetic resources and various climates, can be a pioneer in promoting organic products. In addition, for sustainable farming, blend of organic and other innovative systems is needed. Important limitations exist to accept these systems, also a diversity of policy instruments will be required to comfort their development and implementation. The paper was conducted to results of compilation of reports, issues, books, articles related to the subject with library studies and research. Likewise we combined experimental and survey to get data.

Keywords: develop, production markets, progress, strategic role, technology

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3145 A Syntactic Approach to Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic Language in Modern Communications

Authors: Adeyemo Abduljeeel Taiwo

Abstract:

This research is an attempt that creates a conducive atmosphere of a phonological and morphological compendium of Arabic language in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) for modern day communications. The research is carried out with the chief aim of grammatical analysis of the two broad fields of Arabic linguistics namely: Applied and Socio-Linguistics. It draws a pictorial record of Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic phonology and morphology. Thematically, it postulates and contemplates to a large degree, the theory of concord in contemporary modern Arabic language acquisition. It utilizes an analytical method while it portrays Arabic as a Semitic language that promotes linguistics and syntax among the scholars of the fields.

Keywords: Arabic language, applied linguistics, socio-linguistics, modern communications

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3144 Modeling of the Thermal Exchanges of an Intelligent Polymer Film for the Development of New Generations of Greenhouses

Authors: Ziani Zakarya, Mahdad Moustafa Yassine

Abstract:

Greenhouse farming has greatly contributed to the development of modern agriculture by optimizing crops, especially market gardening, ornamental horticulture, and recently, fruit species ... Greenhouse cultivation has enabled farmers to produce fruits and vegetables out of season while guaranteeing them a good production, and therefore a considerable gain throughout the year. However, this mode of production has shown its limits, especially in extreme conditions, such as the continental steppe climate and the Saharan climate, which are characterized by significant thermal amplitudes and strong winds, making it impossible to use conventional greenhouses for several months, of the year. In Algeria and precisely in the highlands, the use of greenhouses by farmers is very rare or occasional, especially in spring, because the limiting factors mentioned above are frequent there, causing significant damage to the plant product and to the environment. infrastructure. The same observation is observed in the Saharan regions but with less frequencies. Certainly, the use of controlled multi-chapel greenhouses would solve the problem, but at what cost? These hi-tech infrastructures are very expensive to purchase but also to maintain, so few farmers have the financial means to obtain them. In addition, the existence of intelligent and less expensive polymer films, whose properties could control greenhouse production parameters, in particular, the temperature parameter, maybe a judicious solution for the development of new generations of greenhouses that can be used in extreme conditions and normal.

Keywords: greenhouse, polymer film, modern agriculture, optimizing crops

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3143 Production and Market of Certified Organic Products in Thailand

Authors: Chaiwat Kongsom, Vitoon Panyakul

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to assess the production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. A purposive sampling technique was used to identify a sample group of 154 organic entrepreneurs for the study. A survey and in-depth interview were employed for data collection. Also, secondary data from organic agriculture certification body and publications was collected. Then descriptive statistics and content analysis technique were used to describe about production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. Results showed that there were 9,218 farmers on 213,183.68 Rai (83,309.2 acre) of certified organic agriculture land (0.29% of national agriculture land). A total of 57.8% of certified organic agricultural lands were certified by the international certification body. Organic farmers produced around 71,847 tons/year and worth around THB 1,914 million (Euro 47.92 million). Excluding primary producers, 471 operators involved in the Thai organic supply chains, including processors, exporters, distributors, green shops, modern trade shops (supermarket shop), farmer’s markets and food establishments were included. Export market was the major market channel and most of organic products were exported to Europe and North America. The total Thai organic market in 2014 was estimated to be worth around THB 2,331.55 million (Euro 58.22 million), of which, 77.9% was for export and 22.06% was for the domestic market. The largest exports of certified organic products were processed foods (66.1% of total export value), followed by organic rice (30.4%). In the domestic market, modern trade was the largest sale channel, accounting for 59.48% of total domestic sales, followed by green shop (29.47%) and food establishment (5.85%). To become a center of organic farming and trading within ASEAN, the Thai organic sector needs to have more policy support in regard to agricultural chemicals, GMO, and community land title. In addition, appropriate strategies need to be developed.

Keywords: certified organic products, production, market, Thailand

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3142 A Short Survey of Integrating Urban Agriculture and Environmental Planning

Authors: Rayeheh Khatami, Toktam Hanaei, Mohammad Reza Mansouri Daneshvar

Abstract:

The growth of the agricultural sector is known as an essential way to achieve development goals in developing countries. Urban agriculture is a way to reduce the vulnerability of urban populations of the world toward global environmental change. It is a sustainable and efficient system to respond to the environmental, social and economic needs of the city, which leads to urban sustainability. Today, many local and national governments are developing urban agriculture as an effective tool in responding to challenges such as poverty, food security, and environmental problems. In this study, we follow a perspective based on urban agriculture literature in order to indicate the urban agriculture’s benefits in environmental planning strategies in non-western countries like Iran. The methodological approach adopted is based on qualitative approach and documentary studies. A total of 35 articles (mixed quantitative and qualitative methods studies) were studied in final analysis, which are published in relevant journals that focus on this subject. Studies show the wide range of positive benefits of urban agriculture on food security, nutrition outcomes, health outcomes, environmental outcomes, and social capital. However, there was no definitive conclusion about the negative effects of urban agriculture. This paper provides a conceptual and theoretical basis to know about urban agriculture and its roles in environmental planning, and also conclude the benefits of urban agriculture for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers who seek to create spaces in cities for implementation urban agriculture in future.

Keywords: urban agriculture, environmental planning, urban planning, literature

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3141 Impact of Agricultural Infrastructure on Diffusion of Technology of the Sample Farmers in North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal

Authors: Saikat Majumdar, D. C. Kalita

Abstract:

The Agriculture sector plays an important role in the rural economy of India. It is the backbone of our Indian economy and is the dominant sector in terms of employment and livelihood. Agriculture still contributes significantly to export earnings and is an important source of raw materials as well as of demand for many industrial products particularly fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural implements and a variety of consumer goods, etc. The performance of the agricultural sector influences the growth of Indian economy. According to the 2011 Agricultural Census of India, an estimated 61.5 percentage of rural populations are dependent on agriculture. Proper Agricultural infrastructure has the potential to transform the existing traditional agriculture into a most modern, commercial and dynamic farming system in India through its diffusion of technology. The rate of adoption of modern technology reflects the progress of development in agricultural sector. The adoption of any improved agricultural technology is also dependent on the development of road infrastructure or road network. The present study was consisting of 300 sample farmers out which 150 samples was taken from the developed area and rest 150 samples was taken from underdeveloped area. The samples farmers under develop and underdeveloped areas were collected by using Multistage Random Sampling procedure. In the first stage, North 24 Parganas District have been selected purposively. Then from the district, one developed and one underdeveloped block was selected randomly. In the third phase, 10 villages have been selected randomly from each block. Finally, from each village 15 sample farmers was selected randomly. The extents of adoption of technology in different areas were calculated through various parameters. These are percentage area under High Yielding Variety Cereals, percentage area under High Yielding Variety pulses, area under hybrids vegetables, irrigated area, mechanically operated area, amount spent on fertilizer and pesticides, etc. in both developed and underdeveloped areas of North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal. The percentage area under High Yielding Variety Cereals in the developed and underdeveloped areas was 34.86 and 22.59. 42.07 percentages and 31.46 percentages for High Yielding Variety pulses respectively. In the case the area under irrigation it was 57.66 and 35.71 percent while for the mechanically operated area it was 10.60 and 3.13 percent respectively in developed and underdeveloped areas of North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal. It clearly showed that the extent of adoption of technology was significantly higher in the developed area over underdeveloped area. Better road network system helps the farmers in increasing his farm income, farm assets, cropping intensity, marketed surplus and the rate of adoption of new technology. With this background, an attempt is made in this paper to study the impact of Agricultural Infrastructure on the adoption of modern technology in agriculture in North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal.

Keywords: agricultural infrastructure, adoption of technology, farm income, road network

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3140 Evolution of Pop Art Pattern on Modern Ao Dai

Authors: Mai Anh Pham Ho

Abstract:

Ao Dai is the traditional dress of Vietnamese women that consists of a long tunic with slits on either side and wide trousers. This is the Vietnamese national costume which most common worn by women in daily life. The Vietnamese men may wear Ao Dai on special occasions like New Year Eve or Wedding Ceremony. Ao Dai is one of the few Vietnamese words that appear in English language dictionaries. Nowadays, there are variations in modern Ao Dai that consist of a short tunic on knee and slim trousers with the other materials like kaki or jeans. This paper aims to apply Pop art pattern on modern Ao Dai through the image of Vietnamese women by modifying the creation process of fashion design. It reflects on how modern culture is involved in Ao Dai and how it affects on fashion design. The research method of this paper is done through surveying the various examples of technological applications to fashion design, then the pop art pattern with the image of Vietnamese women is applied on modern Ao Dai. The results of this paper have shown through the collection of modern Ao Dai with three artworks applied the pop art pattern. In conclusion, the role of fashion technology supports and evolves the traditional value in order to establish the Vietnamese national personality as well as distinguish to other cultural values in the world.

Keywords: pop art pattern, Vietnamese national costume, modern ao dai, fashion design

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3139 Classical Myths in Modern Drama: A Study of the Vision of Jean Anouilh in Antigone

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki

Abstract:

Modern drama was characterised by realism and naturalism as dominant literary movements that focused on contemporary people and their issues to reflect the status of modern man and his environment. However, some modern dramatists have often fallen on classical mythology in ancient Greek tragedies to create a sense of the universality of the human experience. The tragic overtones of classical myths have helped modern dramatists in their attempts to create an enduring piece by evoking the majestic grandeur of the ancient myths and the heroic struggle of man against forces he cannot fight. Myths have continued to appeal to modern playwrights not only for the plot and narrative material but also for the vision and insight into the human experience and human condition. This paper intends to study how the reworking of Sophocles’ Antigone by Jean Anouilh in his Antigone, written in 1942 at the height of the Second World War and during the German occupation of his country, France, fits his own purpose and his own time. The paper will also offer an analysis of the vision in both plays to show how Anouilh has used the classical Antigone freely to produce a modern vision of the dilemma of man when faced by personal and national conflicts.

Keywords: Anouilh, Antigone, drama, Greek tragedy, modern, myth, sophocles

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3138 Conservation Agriculture and Precision Water Management in Alkaline Soils under Rice-Wheat Cropping System: Effect on Wheat Productivity and Irrigation Water Use-a Case Study from India

Authors: S. K. Kakraliya, H. S. Jat, Manish Kakraliya, P. C. Sharma, M. L. Jat

Abstract:

The biggest challenge in agriculture is to produce more food for the continually increasing world population with in the limited land and water resources. Serious water deficits and reducing natural resources are some of the major threats to the agricultural sustainability in many regions of South Asia. Food and water security may be gained by bringing improvement in the crop water productivity and the amount produced per unit of water consumed. Improvement in the crop water productivity may be achieved by pursuing alternative modern agronomics approaches, which are more friendly and efficient in utilizing natural resources. Therefore, a research trial on conservation agriculture (CA) and precision water management (PWM) was conducted in 2018-19 at Karnal, India to evaluate the effect on crop productivity and irrigation in sodic soils under rice-wheat (RW) systems of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Eight scenarios were compared varied in the tillage, crop establishment, residue and irrigarion management i.e., {First four scenarios irrigated with flood irrigation method;Sc1-Conventional tillage (CT) without residue, Sc2-CT with residue, Sc3- Zero tillage (ZT) without residue, Sc4-ZT with residue}, and {last four scenarios irrigated with sub-surface drip irrigation method; Sc5-ZT without residue, Sc6- ZT with residue, Sc7-ZT inclusion legume without residue and Sc8- ZT inclusion legume with residue}. Results revealed that CA-flood irrigation (S3, Sc4) and CA-PWM system (Sc5, Sc6, Sc7 and Sc8) recorded about ~5% and ~15% higher wheat yield, respectively compared to Sc1. Similar, CA-PWM saved ~40% irrigation water compared to Sc1. Rice yield was not different under different scenarios in the first year (kharif 2019) but almost half irrigation water saved under CA-PWM system. Therefore, results of our study on modern agronomic practices including CA and precision water management (subsurface drip irrigation) for RW rotation would be addressed the existing and future challenges in the RW system.

Keywords: Sub-surface drip, Crop residue, Crop yield , Zero tillage

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3137 Modern Proteomics and the Application of Machine Learning Analyses in Proteomic Studies of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology

Authors: Dulanjali Ranasinghe, Isuru Supasan, Kaushalya Premachandra, Ranjan Dissanayake, Ajith Rajapaksha, Eustace Fernando

Abstract:

Proteomics studies of organisms are considered to be significantly information-rich compared to their genomic counterparts because proteomes of organisms represent the expressed state of all proteins of an organism at a given time. In modern top-down and bottom-up proteomics workflows, the primary analysis methods employed are gel–based methods such as two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based methods. Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been used increasingly in modern biological data analyses. In particular, the fields of genomics, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics have seen an incremental trend in the usage of ML and AI techniques in recent years. The use of aforesaid techniques in the field of proteomics studies is only beginning to be materialised now. Although there is a wealth of information available in the scientific literature pertaining to proteomics workflows, no comprehensive review addresses various aspects of the combined use of proteomics and machine learning. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive outlook on the application of machine learning into the known proteomics workflows in order to extract more meaningful information that could be useful in a plethora of applications such as medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology.

Keywords: proteomics, machine learning, gel-based proteomics, mass spectrometry

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3136 Relationship between Food Inflation and Agriculture Lending Rate in Ghana: A Vector Autoregressive Approach

Authors: Raymond K. Dziwornu

Abstract:

Lending rate of agriculture loan has persistently been high and attributed to risk in the sector. This study examined how food inflation and agriculture lending rate react to each other in Ghana using vector autoregressive approach. Quarterly data from 2006 to 2018 was obtained from the Bank of Ghana quarterly bulletin and the Ghana Statistical Service reports. The study found that a positive standard deviation shock to food inflation causes lending rate of agriculture loan to react negatively in the short run, but positively and steadily in the long run. This suggests the need to direct appropriate policy measures to reduce food inflation and consequently, the cost of credit to the agricultural sector for its growth.

Keywords: food inflation, agriculture, lending rate, vector autoregressive, Ghana

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3135 Determinants of Intensity of Greenhouse Gas Emission in Lithuanian Agriculture

Authors: D. Makuteniene

Abstract:

Agriculture, as one of the human activities, emits a significant amount of greenhouse gas emission and undoubtedly has an impact on climate change. The main gaseous products of agricultural greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitroxadoxide. The sources and emission of these gases depend on land use, soil, crops, manure, livestock, and energy consumption. One of the indicators showing the agricultural impact on climate change is an intensity of GHG emission and its dynamics. This study analyzed the determinants of an intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuanian agriculture using data decomposition. The research revealed that, although greenhouse gas emission increased during the research period, however, agricultural net value added grew more rapidly, which contributed to a reduction of intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuania between 2000 and 2015. It was identified that during the research period intensity of greenhouse gas emission was mostly increased by the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, as compared to the change of the area of agricultural land, and by the change of the number of full-time employees, as compared to the change of net value added. Conversely, the change of energy consumption in agriculture, as compared to the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, had a bigger impact in decreasing intensity of greenhouse gas emission.

Keywords: agriculture, determinants of intensity, greenhouse gas emission, intensity

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3134 A Lost Tradition: Reflections towards Select Tribal Songs of Odisha

Authors: Akshaya K. Rath, Manjit Mahanta

Abstract:

The paper aims at examining the oral tradition of the Kondh and Oroan people of Odisha. Highlighting the translated versions of Kondh and Oroan songs—chiefly highlighting issues on agriculture—we argue that the relevance of these songs have fallen apart in the recent decades with the advancement of modern knowledge and thinking. What remains instead is a faint voice in the oral tradition that sings the past indigenous knowledge in the form of oral literature. Though there have been few attempts to document the rich cultural tradition by some individuals—Sitakant Mahapatra’s can be cited as an example—the need to document the tradition remains ever arching. In short, the thesis examines Kondh and Oroan “songs” and argues for a need to document the tradition. It also shows a comparative study on both the tribes on Agriculture which shows their cultural identity and a diversification of both the tribes in nature and how these tribal groups are associated with nature and the cycle of it.

Keywords: oral tradition, Meriah, folklore, karma, Oroan

Procedia PDF Downloads 359