Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16902

Search results for: high entropy alloy

16902 Undercooling of Refractory High-Entropy Alloy

Authors: Liang Hu

Abstract:

The innovation of refractory high-entropy alloy (RHEA) formed from refractory metals W, Ta, Mo, Nb, Hf, V, and Zr was firstly implemented in 2010 to obtain better strength at high temperature than conventional HEAs based on Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni. Due to the refractory characteristic and high chemical activity at elevated temperature, electrostatic levitation technique has been utilized to fulfill the rapid solidification of RHEA. Several RHEAs consisting W, Ta, Mo, Nb, Zr have been selected to perform the undercooling and rapid solidification by ESL. They are substantially undercooled by up to 0.2TL. The evolution of as-solidified microstructure and component redistribution with undercooling have been investigated by SEM, EBSD, and EPMA analysis. According to the EPMA results of composing elements at different undercooling levels, the chemical distribution relevant to undercooling was also analyzed.

Keywords: chemical distribution, high-entropy alloy, rapid solidification, undercooling

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16901 Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Cryo Rolled and Annealed Ductile TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Mokali Veeresham

Abstract:

The microstructure and texture evolution of cryo rolled and annealed ductile TaHfNbZrTi refractory high entropy alloy was investigated. To obtain that, the alloy is severely cryo rolled and subsequently annealed for the recrystallization process. The cryo rolled – 90% shows the presence of very fine grains and microstructural heterogeneity. The cryo rolled samples are annealed at a temperature ranging from 800°C to 1400°C, the partial recrystallization is observed at 800°C annealed condition, and at higher annealing temperatures the complete recrystallization process is noticed. The development of ND fiber texture is observed after the annealing.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloy, cryo-rolling, annealing, microstructure, texture

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16900 High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Al0.2CoCrFeNiMo0.5 High Entropy alloy

Authors: Yasam Palguna, Rajesh Korla

Abstract:

The efficiency of thermally operated systems can be improved by increasing the operating temperature, thereby decreasing the fuel consumption and carbon footprint. Hence, there is a continuous need for replacing the existing materials with new alloys with higher temperature working capabilities. During the last decade, multi principal element alloys, commonly known as high entropy alloys are getting more attention because of their superior high temperature strength along with good high temperature corrosion and oxidation resistance, The present work focused on the microstructure and high temperature tensile behavior of Al0.2CoCrFeNiMo0.5 high entropy alloy (HEA). Wrought Al0.2CoCrFeNiMo0.5 high entropy alloy, produced by vacuum induction melting followed by thermomechanical processing, is tested in the temperature range of 200 to 900oC. It is exhibiting very good resistance to softening with increasing temperature up to 700oC, and thereafter there is a rapid decrease in the strength, especially beyond 800oC, which may be due to simultaneous occurrence of recrystallization and precipitate coarsening. Further, it is exhibiting superplastic kind of behavior with a uniform elongation of ~ 275 % at 900 oC temperature and 1 x 10-3 s-1 strain rate, which may be due to the presence of fine stable equi-axed grains. Strain rate sensitivity of 0.3 was observed, suggesting that solute drag dislocation glide might be the active mechanism during superplastic kind of deformation. Post deformation microstructure suggesting that cavitation at the sigma phase-matrix interface is the failure mechanism during high temperature deformation. Finally, high temperature properties of the present alloy will be compared with the contemporary high temperature materials such as ferritic, austenitic steels, and superalloys.

Keywords: high entropy alloy, high temperature deformation, super plasticity, post-deformation microstructures

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16899 Synthesis Using Sintering and Characterisation of FeCrCoNiZn Alloy Using SEM and Nanoindentation

Authors: Steadyman Chikumba, Vasudeva Vereedhi Rao

Abstract:

This paper reports on the synthesis of FeCrCoNiZn and its characterisation using SEM and nanoindentation. The high entropy alloy FeCrCoNiZn was fabricated using spark plasma sintering at a temperature of 1100ᵒC from powders mixed for 9 hours. The powders mixture was equimolar, and the resultant microstructure had a single crystalline structure when studied under SEM. Several nano Vickers hardness measurements were taken on a polished surface etched by Nital solution. The hardness ranged from 711 Vickers to a maximum of 1773.2. The alloy FeCrCoNiZn showed a nano hardness of 1070 Vickers and a modulus of elasticity of 460.4 MPa. The process managed to fabricate a very hard material that can find applications where wear resistance is desired.

Keywords: high entropy alloy, FeCrVNiZn, nanohardness, SEM

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16898 Effect of Aluminium Content on Bending Properties and Microstructure of AlₓCoCrFeNi Alloy Fabricated by Induction Melting

Authors: Marzena Tokarewicz, Malgorzata Gradzka-Dahlke

Abstract:

High-entropy alloys (HEAs) have gained significant attention due to their great potential as functional and structural materials. HEAs have very good mechanical properties (in particular, alloys based on CoCrNi). They also show the ability to maintain their strength at high temperatures, which is extremely important in some applications. AlCoCrFeNi alloy is one of the most studied high-entropy alloys. Scientists often study the effect of changing the aluminum content in this alloy because it causes significant changes in phase presence and microstructure and consequently affects its hardness, ductility, and other properties. Research conducted by the authors also investigates the effect of aluminium content in AlₓCoCrFeNi alloy on its microstructure and mechanical properties. AlₓCoCrFeNi alloys were prepared by vacuum induction melting. The obtained samples were examined for chemical composition, microstructure, and microhardness. The three-point bending method was carried out to determine the bending strength, bending modulus, and conventional bending yield strength. The obtained results confirm the influence of aluminum content on the properties of AlₓCoCrFeNi alloy. Most studies on AlₓCoCrFeNi alloy focus on the determination of mechanical properties in compression or tension, much less in bending. The achieved results provide valuable information on the bending properties of AlₓCoCrFeNi alloy and lead to interesting conclusions.

Keywords: bending properties, high-entropy alloys, induction melting, microstructure

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16897 High Pressure Torsion Deformation Behavior of a Low-SFE FCC Ternary Medium Entropy Alloy

Authors: Saumya R. Jha, Krishanu Biswas, Nilesh P. Gurao

Abstract:

Several recent investigations have revealed medium entropy alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties than their high entropy counterparts. This clearly establishes that although a higher entropy plays a vital role in stabilization of particular phase over complex intermetallic phases, configurational entropy is not the primary factor responsible for the high inherent strengthening in these systems. Above and beyond a high contribution from friction stresses and solid solution strengthening, strain hardening is an important contributor to the strengthening in these systems. In this regard, researchers have developed severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques like High Pressure Torsion (HPT) to incorporate very high shear strain in the material, thereby leading to ultrafine grained (UFG) microstructures, which cause manifold increase in the strength. The presented work demonstrates a meticulous study of the variation in mechanical properties at different radial displacements from the center of HPT tested equiatomic ternary FeMnNi synthesized by casting route, which is a low stacking fault energy FCC alloy that shows significantly higher toughness than its high entropy counterparts like Cantor alloy. The gradient in grain sizes along the radial direction of these specimens has been modeled using microstructure entropy for predicting the mechanical properties, which has also been validated by indentation tests. The dislocation density is computed by FEM simulations for varying strains and validated by analyzing synchrotron diffraction data. Thus, the proposed model can be utilized to predict the strengthening behavior of similar systems deformed by HPT subjected to varying loading conditions.

Keywords: high pressure torsion, severe plastic deformation, configurational entropy, dislocation density, FEM simulation

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16896 Recrystallization Microstructure Studies of Cold-Rolled Ta0.5Nb0.5Hf0.5ZrTi1.5 Non-Equiatomic Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Veeresham Mokali

Abstract:

Recrystallization microstructure and grain growth studies of Ta₀.₅Nb₀.₅Hf₀.₅ZrTi₁.₅ refractory high entropy alloy have been explored in the present work. The as-cast Ta₀.₅Nb₀.₅Hf₀.₅ZrTi₁.₅ alloy was cold-rolled to 90% in several passes at room temperature and further subjected to annealing treatment for recrystallization at 800°C, 1000°C, 1250°C, and 1400°C temperatures for one hour. However, the characterization of heavily cold-rolled and annealed condition specimens was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EBSD). The cold-rolled specimens showed the development of an inhomogeneous microstructure. Upon annealing, recrystallized microstructures were achieved; in addition to that, the coarsening of microstructure with raising annealing temperature noticed in the range of 800°C – 1400°C annealed temperatures.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, cold-rolling, recrystallization, microstructure

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16895 Excellent Combination of Tensile Strength and Elongation of Novel Reverse Rolled TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Mokali Veeresham

Abstract:

In this work, the high-entropy alloy TaNbHfZrTi was processed at room temperature by each step novel reverse rolling up to a 90% reduction in thickness. The reverse rolled 90% samples subsequently used for annealing at 800°C and 1000°C temperatures for 1h to understand phase stability, microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. The reverse rolled 90% condition contains BCC single-phase; upon annealing at 800°C temperature, the formation of secondary phase BCC-2 prevailed. The partial recrystallization and complete recrystallization microstructures were developed for annealed at 800°C and 1000°C temperatures, respectively. The reverse rolled condition, and 1000°C annealed temperature exhibit extraordinary room temperature tensile properties with high tensile strength (UTS) 1430MPa and 1556 MPa without compromising loss of ductility consists of an appreciable amount of 21% and 20% elongation, respectively.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, reverse rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties

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16894 Conformal Noble Metal High-Entropy Alloy Nanofilms by Atomic Layer Deposition for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Reaction/Oxygen Evolution Reaction Electrocatalysis Applications

Authors: Jing Lin, Zou Yiming, Goei Ronn, Li Yun, Amanda Ong Jiamin, Alfred Tok Iing Yoong

Abstract:

High-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings comprise multiple (five or more) principal elements that give superior mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. However, the current synthesis methods of HEA coating still face huge challenges in facile and controllable preparation, as well as conformal integration, which seriously restricts their potential applications. Herein, we report a controllable synthesis of conformal quinary HEA coating consisting of noble metals (Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, and Pd) by using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a post-annealing approach. This approach realizes low temperature (below 200 °C), precise control (nanoscale), and conformal synthesis (over complex substrates) of HEA coating. Furthermore, the resulting quinary HEA coating shows promising potential as a platform for catalysis, exhibiting substantially enhanced electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances as compared to other noble metal-based structures such as single metal coating or multi-layered metal composites.

Keywords: high-entropy alloy, thin-film, catalysis, water splitting, atomic layer deposition

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16893 Study on Hydrogen Isotope Permeability of High Entropy Alloy Coating

Authors: Long Wang, Yongjin Feng, Xiaofang Luo

Abstract:

Tritium permeation through structural materials is a significant issue for fusion demonstration (DEMO) reactor blankets in terms of fuel cycle efficiency and radiological safety. Reduced activation ferritic (RAFM) steel CLF-1 is a prime candidate for the China’s CFETR blanket structural material, facing high permeability of hydrogen isotopes at reactor operational temperature. To confine tritium as much as possible in the reactor, surface modification of the steels including fabrication of tritium permeation barrier (TPB) attracts much attention. As a new alloy system, high entropy alloy (HEA) contains at least five principal elements, each of which ranges from 5 at% to 35 at%. This high mixing effect entitles HEA extraordinary comprehensive performance. So it is attractive to lead HEA into surface alloying for protective use. At present, studies on the hydrogen isotope permeability of HEA coatings is still insufficient and corresponding mechanism isn’t clear. In our study, we prepared three kinds of HEA coatings, including AlCrTaTiZr, (AlCrTaTiZr)N and (AlCrTaTiZr)O. After comprehensive characterization of SEM, XPS, AFM, XRD and TEM, the structure and composition of the HEA coatings were obtained. Deuterium permeation tests were conducted to evaluate the hydrogen isotope permeability of AlCrTaTiZr, (AlCrTaTiZr)N and (AlCrTaTiZr)O HEA coatings. Results proved that the (AlCrTaTiZr)N and (AlCrTaTiZr)O HEA coatings had better hydrogen isotope permeation resistance. Through analyzing and characterizing the hydrogen isotope permeation results of the corroded samples, an internal link between hydrogen isotope permeation behavior and structure of HEA coatings was established. The results provide valuable reference in engineering design of structural and TPB materials for future fusion device.

Keywords: high entropy alloy, hydrogen isotope permeability, tritium permeation barrier, fusion demonstration reactor

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16892 Development of Impressive Tensile Properties of Hybrid Rolled Ta0.5Nb0.5Hf0.5ZrTi1.5 Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: M. Veeresham

Abstract:

The microstructure, texture, phase stability, and tensile properties of annealed Ta0.5Nb0.5Hf0.5ZrTi1.5 alloy have been investigated in the present research. The alloy was severely hybrid-rolled up to 93.5% thickness reduction, subsequently rolled samples subjected to an annealing treatment at 800 °C and 1000 °C temperatures for 1 h. Consequently, the rolled condition and both annealed temperatures have a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure. Furthermore, quantitative texture measurements (orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis) and microstructural examinations (analytical electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps) permitted to establish a good relationship between annealing texture and microstructure and universal testing machine (UTM) utilized for obtaining the mechanical properties. Impressive room temperature tensile properties combination with the tensile strength (1380 MPa) and (24.7%) elongation is achieved for the 800 °C heat-treated condition. The evolution of the coarse microstructure featured in the case of 1000 °C annealed temperature ascribed to the influence of high thermal energy.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, hybrid-rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties

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16891 Phase Stability and Grain Growth Kinetics of Oxide Dispersed CoCrFeMnNi

Authors: Prangya P. Sahoo, B. S. Murty

Abstract:

The present study deals with phase evolution of oxide dispersed CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy as a function of amount of added Y2O3 during mechanical alloying and analysis of grain growth kinetics of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy without and with oxide dispersion. Mechanical alloying of CoCrFeMnNi resulted in a single FCC phase. However, evolution of chromium carbide was observed after heat treatment between 1073 and 1473 K. Comparison of grain growth time exponents and activation energy barrier is also reported. Micro structural investigations, using electron microscopy and EBSD techniques, were carried out to confirm the enhanced grain growth resistance which is attributed to the presence oxide dispersoids.

Keywords: grain growth kinetics, mechanical alloying, oxide dispersion, phase evolution

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16890 Effect of Carbon Additions on FeCrNiMnTi High Entropy Alloy

Authors: C. D. Gomez-Esparza, Z. V. Hernandez-Castro, C. A. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, R. Martinez-Sanchez, A. Duarte-Moller

Abstract:

Recently, the high entropy alloys (HEA) are the focus of attention in metallurgical and materials science due to their desirable and superior properties in comparison to conventional alloys. The HEA field has promoted the exploration of several compositions including the addition of non-metallic elements like carbon, which in traditional metallurgy is mainly used in the steel industry. The aim of this work was the synthesis of equiatomic FeCrNiMnTi high entropy alloys, with minor carbon content, by mechanical alloying and sintering. The effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes and graphite were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness test. The structural and microstructural characteristics of the equiatomic alloys, as well as their hardness were compared with those of an austenitic AISI 321 stainless steel processed under the same conditions. The results showed that porosity in bulk samples decreases with carbon nanotubes addition, while the equiatomic composition favors the formation of titanium carbide and increased the AISI 321 hardness more than three times.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, graphite, high entropy alloys, mechanical alloying

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16889 Influence of Sintering Temperature on Microhardness and Tribological Properties of Equi-Atomic Ti-Al-Mo-Si-W Multicomponent Alloy

Authors: Rudolf L. Kanyane, Nicolaus Malatji, Patritia A. Popoola

Abstract:

Tribological failure of materials during application can lead to catastrophic events which also carry economic penalties. High entropy alloys (HEAs) have shown outstanding tribological properties in applications such as mechanical parts were moving parts under high friction are required. This work aims to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on microhardness properties and tribological properties of novel equiatomic TiAlMoSiW HEAs fabricated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of Spark plasma sintering temperature on morphological evolution and phase formation was also investigated. The microstructure and the phases formed for the developed HEAs were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) respectively. The microhardness and tribological properties were studied using a diamond base microhardness tester Rtec tribometer. The developed HEAs showed improved mechanical properties as the sintering temperature increases.

Keywords: sintering, high entropy alloy, microhardness, tribology

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16888 On q-Non-extensive Statistics with Non-Tsallisian Entropy

Authors: Petr Jizba, Jan Korbel

Abstract:

We combine an axiomatics of Rényi with the q-deformed version of Khinchin axioms to obtain a measure of information (i.e., entropy) which accounts both for systems with embedded self-similarity and non-extensivity. We show that the entropy thus obtained is uniquely solved in terms of a one-parameter family of information measures. The ensuing maximal-entropy distribution is phrased in terms of a special function known as the Lambert W-function. We analyze the corresponding ‘high’ and ‘low-temperature’ asymptotics and reveal a non-trivial structure of the parameter space.

Keywords: multifractals, Rényi information entropy, THC entropy, MaxEnt, heavy-tailed distributions

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16887 Tensile Properties of Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium High Entropy Alloys

Authors: Sefiu A. Bello, Nasirudeen K. Raji, Jeleel A. Adebisi, Sadiq A. Raji

Abstract:

Pure metals are not used in most cases for structural applications because of their limited properties. Presently, high entropy alloys (HEAs) are emerging by mixing comparative proportions of metals with the aim of maximizing the entropy leading to enhancement in structural and mechanical properties. Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium (AlSiNiFeV) alloy was developed using stir cast technique and analysed. Results obtained show that the alloy grade G0 contains 44 percentage by weight (wt%) Al, 32 wt% Si, 9 wt% Ni, 4 wt% Fe, 3 wt% V and 8 wt% for minor elements with tensile strength and elongation of 106 Nmm-2 and 2.68%, respectively. X-ray diffraction confirmed intermetallic compounds having hexagonal closed packed (HCP), orthorhombic and cubic structures in cubic dendritic matrix. This affirmed transformation from the cubic structures of elemental constituents of the HEAs to the precipitated structures of the intermetallic compounds. A maximum tensile strength of 188 Nmm-2 with 4% elongation was noticed at 10wt% of silica addition to the G0. An increase in tensile strength with an increment in silica content could be attributed to different phases and crystal geometries characterizing each HEA.

Keywords: HEAs, phases model, aluminium, silicon, tensile strength, model

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16886 Time's Arrow and Entropy: Violations to the Second Law of Thermodynamics Disrupt Time Perception

Authors: Jason Clarke, Michaela Porubanova, Angela Mazzoli, Gulsah Kut

Abstract:

What accounts for our perception that time inexorably passes in one direction, from the past to the future, the so-called arrow of time, given that the laws of physics permit motion in one temporal direction to also happen in the reverse temporal direction? Modern physics says that the reason for time’s unidirectional physical arrow is the relationship between time and entropy, the degree of disorder in the universe, which is evolving from low entropy (high order; thermal disequilibrium) toward high entropy (high disorder; thermal equilibrium), the second law of thermodynamics. Accordingly, our perception of the direction of time, from past to future, is believed to emanate as a result of the natural evolution of entropy from low to high, with low entropy defining our notion of ‘before’ and high entropy defining our notion of ‘after’. Here we explored this proposed relationship between entropy and the perception of time’s arrow. We predicted that if the brain has some mechanism for detecting entropy, whose output feeds into processes involved in constructing our perception of the direction of time, presentation of violations to the expectation that low entropy defines ‘before’ and high entropy defines ‘after’ would alert this mechanism, leading to measurable behavioral effects, namely a disruption in duration perception. To test this hypothesis, participants were shown briefly-presented (1000 ms or 500 ms) computer-generated visual dynamic events: novel 3D shapes that were seen either to evolve from whole figures into parts (low to high entropy condition) or were seen in the reverse direction: parts that coalesced into whole figures (high to low entropy condition). On each trial, participants were instructed to reproduce the duration of their visual experience of the stimulus by pressing and releasing the space bar. To ensure that attention was being deployed to the stimuli, a secondary task was to report the direction of the visual event (forward or reverse motion). Participants completed 60 trials. As predicted, we found that duration reproduction was significantly longer for the high to low entropy condition compared to the low to high entropy condition (p=.03). This preliminary data suggests the presence of a neural mechanism that detects entropy, which is used by other processes to construct our perception of the direction of time or time’s arrow.

Keywords: time perception, entropy, temporal illusions, duration perception

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16885 Structure-Phase States of Al-Si Alloy After Electron-Beam Treatment and Multicycle Fatigue

Authors: Krestina V. Alsaraeva, Victor E. Gromov, Sergey V. Konovalov, Anna A. Atroshkina

Abstract:

Processing of Al-19.4Si alloy by high intensive electron beam has been carried out and multiple increase in fatigue life of the material has been revealed. Investigations of structure and surface modified layer destruction of Al-19.4Si alloy subjected to multicycle fatigue tests to fracture have been carried out by methods of scanning electron microscopy. The factors responsible for the increase of fatigue life of Al-19.4Si alloy have been revealed and analyzed.

Keywords: Al-19.4Si alloy, high intensive electron beam, multicycle fatigue, structure

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16884 Dry High Speed Orthogonal Turning of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

Authors: M. Benghersallah, G. List, G. Sutter

Abstract:

The present work is an experimental study on the dry high speed turning of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The objective of this study is to see for high cutting speeds, how wear occurs on the face of insert and how to evolve cutting forces and chip formation. Cutting speeds tested is 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 m/min in orthogonal turning with a carbide insert tool H13A uncoated on a cylindrical titanium alloy part. Investigation on the wear inserts with 3D scanning microscope revered the crater formation is instantaneous and a chip adhesion (welded chip) causes detachment of carbide particles. Cutting forces increase and stabilize before removing the tool. The chip reaches a very high temperature.

Keywords: titanium alloy, dry hjgh speed turning, wear insert, MQL technique

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16883 Properties of Magnesium-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloy Added with Palladium and Titanium Hydride

Authors: Jun Ying Lin, Tzu Hsiang Yen, Cha'o Kuang Chen

Abstract:

Nowadays, the great majority believe that there is great potentiality in hydrogen storage alloy storing hydrogen by physical and chemical absorption. However, the hydrogen storage alloy is limited by high operation temperature. Scientists find that adding transition elements can improve the properties of hydrogen storage alloy. In this research, outstanding improvements of kinetic and thermal properties are given by the addition of Palladium and Titanium hydride to Magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloy. Magnesium-based alloy is the main material, into which TiH2 / Pd are added separately. Following that, materials are milled by a Planetary Ball Miller at 650 rpm. TGA/DSC and PCT measure the capacity, spending time and temperature of abs/des-orption. Additionally, SEM and XRD analyze the structures and components of material. It is clearly shown that Pd is beneficial to kinetic properties. 2MgH2-0.1Pd has the highest capacity of all the alloys listed, approximately 5.5 wt%. Secondly, there are not any new Ti-related compounds found from XRD analysis. Thus, TiH2, considered as the catalyst, leads to the condition of 2MgH2-TiH2 and 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd efficiently absorbing hydrogen in low temperature. 2MgH2-TiH2 can reach roughly 3.0 wt% in 82.4 minutes at 50°C and 8 minutes at 100°C, while2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd can reach 2.0 wt% in 400 minutes at 50°C and in 48 minutes at 100°C. The lowest temperature of 2MgH2-0.1Pd and 2MgH2-TiH2 is similar (320°C), otherwise the lowest temperature of 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd decrease by 20°C. From XRD, it can be observed that PdTi2 and Pd3Ti are produced by mechanical alloying when adding Pd as well as TiH2 into MgH2. Due to the synergistic effects between Pd and TiH2, 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd owns the lowest dehydrogenation temperature. Furthermore, the Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) curve of 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd is measured at different temperature, 370°C, 350°C, 320°C and 300°C separately. The plateau pressure is given form the PCT curves above. In accordance to different plateau pressures, enthalpy and entropy in the Van’t Hoff equation can be solved. In 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd, the enthalpy is 74.9 KJ/mol and the entropy is 122.9 J/mol. Activation means that hydrogen storage alloy undergoes repeat abs/des-orpting processes. It plays an important role in the abs/des-orption. Activation shortens the abs/des-orption time because of the increase in surface area. From SEM, it is clear that the grain size and surface become smaller and rougher

Keywords: hydrogen storage materials, magnesium hydride, abs-/des-orption performance, Plateau pressure

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16882 Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: I. Arockiarani

Abstract:

The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making problems.

Keywords: entropy measure, Hausdorff distance, neutrosophic set, soft set

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16881 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: M. Farnush

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.

Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristics

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16880 Preparation of Nb Silicide-Based Alloy Powder by Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation (HDH) Reaction

Authors: Gi-Beom Park, Hyong-Gi Park, Seong-Yong Lee, Jaeho Choi, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The Nb silicide-based alloy has the excellent high-temperature strength and relatively lower density than the Ni-based superalloy; therefore, it has been receiving a lot of attention for the next generation high-temperature material. To enhance the high temperature creep property and oxidation resistance, Si was added to the Nb-based alloy, resulting in a multi-phase microstructure with metal solid solution and silicide phase. Since the silicide phase has a low machinability due to its brittle nature, it is necessary to fabricate components using the powder metallurgy. However, powder manufacturing techniques for the alloys have not yet been developed. In this study, we tried to fabricate Nb-based alloy powder by the hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reaction. The Nb-based alloy ingot was prepared by vacuum arc melting and it was annealed in the hydrogen atmosphere for the hydrogenation. After annealing, the hydrogen concentration was increased from 0.004wt% to 1.22wt% and Nb metal phase was transformed to Nb hydride phase. The alloy after hydrogenation could be easily pulverized into powder by ball milling due to its brittleness. For dehydrogenation, the alloy powders were annealed in the vacuum atmosphere. After vacuum annealing, the hydrogen concentration was decreased to 0.003wt% and Nb hydride phase was transformed back to Nb metal phase.

Keywords: Nb alloy, Nb metal and silicide composite, powder, hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reaction

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16879 Fuzzy Logic Modeling of Evaluation the Urban Skylines by the Entropy Approach

Authors: Murat Oral, Seda Bostancı, Sadık Ata, Kevser Dincer

Abstract:

When evaluating the aesthetics of cities, an analysis of the urban form development depending on design properties with a variety of factors is performed together with a study of the effects of this appearance on human beings. Different methods are used while making an aesthetical evaluation related to a city. Entropy, in its preliminary meaning, is the mathematical representation of thermodynamic results. Measuring the entropy is related to the distribution of positional figures of a message or information from the probabilities standpoint. In this study, analysis of evaluation the urban skylines by the entropy approach was modelled with Rule-Based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy (RBMTF) modelling technique. Input-output parameters were described by RBMTF if-then rules. Numerical parameters of input and output variables were fuzzificated as linguistic variables: Very Very Low (L1), Very Low (L2), Low (L3), Negative Medium (L4), Medium (L5), Positive Medium (L6), High (L7), Very High (L8) and Very Very High (L9) linguistic classes. The comparison between application data and RBMTF is done by using absolute fraction of variance (R2). The actual values and RBMTF results indicated that RBMTF can be successfully used for the analysis of evaluation the urban skylines by the entropy approach. As a result, RBMTF model has shown satisfying relation with experimental results, which suggests an alternative method to evaluation of the urban skylines by the entropy approach.

Keywords: urban skylines, entropy, rule-based Mamdani type, fuzzy logic

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16878 On the Topological Entropy of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Graziano Chesi

Abstract:

The topological entropy plays a key role in linear dynamical systems, allowing one to establish the existence of stabilizing feedback controllers for linear systems in the presence of communications constraints. This paper addresses the determination of a robust value of the topological entropy in nonlinear dynamical systems, specifically the largest value of the topological entropy over all linearized models in a region of interest of the state space. It is shown that a sufficient condition for establishing upper bounds of the sought robust value of the topological entropy can be given in terms of a semidefinite program (SDP), which belongs to the class of convex optimization problems.

Keywords: non-linear system, communication constraint, topological entropy

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16877 Determination of the Cooling Rate Dependency of High Entropy Alloys Using a High-Temperature Drop-on-Demand Droplet Generator

Authors: Saeedeh Imani Moqadam, Ilya Bobrov, Jérémy Epp, Nils Ellendt, Lutz Mädler

Abstract:

High entropy alloys (HEAs), having adjustable properties and enhanced stability compared with intermetallic compounds, are solid solution alloys that contain more than five principal elements with almost equal atomic percentage. The concept of producing such alloys pave the way for developing advanced materials with unique properties. However, the synthesis of such alloys may require advanced processes with high cooling rates depending on which alloy elements are used. In this study, the micro spheres of different diameters of HEAs were generated via a drop-on-demand droplet generator and subsequently solidified during free-fall in an argon atmosphere. Such droplet generators can generate individual droplets with high reproducibility regarding droplet diameter, trajectory and cooling while avoiding any interparticle momentum or thermal coupling. Metallography as well as X-ray diffraction investigations for each diameter of the generated metallic droplets where then carried out to obtain information about the microstructural state. To calculate the cooling rate of the droplets, a droplet cooling model was developed and validated using model alloys such as CuSn%6 and AlCu%4.5 for which a correlation of secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and cooling rate is well-known. Droplets were generated from these alloys and their SDAS was determined using quantitative metallography. The cooling rate was then determined from the SDAS and used to validate the cooling rates obtained from the droplet cooling model. The application of that model on the HEA then leads to the cooling rate dependency and hence to the identification of process windows for the synthesis of these alloys. These process windows were then compared with cooling rates obtained in processes such as powder production, spray forming, selective laser melting and casting to predict if a synthesis is possible with these processes.

Keywords: cooling rate, drop-on-demand, high entropy alloys, microstructure, single droplet generation, X-ray Diffractometry

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16876 Characteristic of Ta Alloy Coating Films on Near-Net Shape with Different Current Densities Using MARC Process

Authors: Young Jun Lee, Tae Hyuk Lee, Kyoung Tae Park, Jong Hyeon Lee

Abstract:

The harsh atmosphere of the sulfur-iodine process used for producing hydrogen requires better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties that is possible to obtain with pure tantalum. Ta-W alloy is superior to pure tantalum but is difficult to alloy due to its high melting temperature. In this study, substrates of near-net shape (Swagelok® tube ISSG8UT4) were coated with Ta-W using the multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt (LiF-NaF-K2TaF7) at different current densities (1, 2 and 4mA/cm2). Ta-4W coating films of uniform coating thicknesses, without any entrapped salt, were successfully deposited on Swagelok tube by electrodeposition at 1 mA/cm2. The resulting coated film with a corrosion rate of less than 0.011 mm/year was attained in hydriodic acid at 160°C, and hardness up to 12.9 % stronger than pure tantalum coated film. The alloy coating films also contributed to significant enhancement of corrosion resistance.

Keywords: tantalum, tantalum alloy, tungsten alloy, electroplating

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
16875 Dual-Phase High Entropy (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅) BxCy Ceramics Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Ana-Carolina Feltrin, Daniel Hedman, Farid Akhtar

Abstract:

High entropy ceramic (HEC) materials are characterized by their compositional disorder due to different metallic element atoms occupying the cation position and non-metal elements occupying the anion position. Several studies have focused on the processing and characterization of high entropy carbides and high entropy borides, as these HECs present interesting mechanical and chemical properties. A few studies have been published on HECs containing two non-metallic elements in the composition. Dual-phase high entropy (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)BxCy ceramics with different amounts of x and y, (0.25 HfC + 0.25 ZrC + 0.25 VC + 0.25 TiB₂), (0.25 HfC + 0.25 ZrC + 0.25 VB2 + 0.25 TiB₂) and (0.25 HfC + 0.25 ZrB2 + 0.25 VB2 + 0.25 TiB₂) were sintered from boride and carbide precursor powders using SPS at 2000°C with holding time of 10 min, uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa and under Ar atmosphere. The sintered specimens formed two HEC phases: a Zr-Hf rich FCC phase and a Ti-V HCP phase, and both phases contained all the metallic elements from 5-50 at%. Phase quantification analysis of XRD data revealed that the molar amount of hexagonal phase increased with increased mole fraction of borides in the starting powders, whereas cubic FCC phase increased with increased carbide in the starting powders. SPS consolidated (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)BC0.5 and (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)B1.5C0.25 had respectively 94.74% and 88.56% relative density. (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)B0.5C0.75 presented the highest relative density of 95.99%, with Vickers hardness of 26.58±1.2 GPa for the borides phase and 18.29±0.8 GPa for the carbides phase, which exceeded the reported hardness values reported in the literature for high entropy ceramics. The SPS sintered specimens containing lower boron and higher carbon presented superior properties even though the metallic composition in each phase was similar to other compositions investigated. Dual-phase high entropy (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅H₀.₂₅)BxCy ceramics were successfully fabricated in a boride-carbide solid solution and the amount of boron and carbon was shown to influence the phase fraction, hardness of phases, and density of the consolidated HECs. The microstructure and phase formation was highly dependent on the amount of non-metallic elements in the composition and not only the molar ratio between metals when producing high entropy ceramics with more than one anion in the sublattice. These findings show the importance of further studies about the optimization of the ratio between C and B for further improvements in the properties of dual-phase high entropy ceramics.

Keywords: high-entropy ceramics, borides, carbides, dual-phase

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16874 Linear Study of Electrostatic Ion Temperature Gradient Mode with Entropy Gradient Drift and Sheared Ion Flows

Authors: M. Yaqub Khan, Usman Shabbir

Abstract:

History of plasma reveals that continuous struggle of experimentalists and theorists are not fruitful for confinement up to now. It needs a change to bring the research through entropy. Approximately, all the quantities like number density, temperature, electrostatic potential, etc. are connected to entropy. Therefore, it is better to change the way of research. In ion temperature gradient mode with the help of Braginskii model, Boltzmannian electrons, effect of velocity shear is studied inculcating entropy in the magnetoplasma. New dispersion relation is derived for ion temperature gradient mode, and dependence on entropy gradient drift is seen. It is also seen velocity shear enhances the instability but in anomalous transport, its role is not seen significantly but entropy. This work will be helpful to the next step of tokamak and space plasmas.

Keywords: entropy, velocity shear, ion temperature gradient mode, drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
16873 Reasons for Non-Applicability of Software Entropy Metrics for Bug Prediction in Android

Authors: Arvinder Kaur, Deepti Chopra

Abstract:

Software Entropy Metrics for bug prediction have been validated on various software systems by different researchers. In our previous research, we have validated that Software Entropy Metrics calculated for Mozilla subsystem’s predict the future bugs reasonably well. In this study, the Software Entropy metrics are calculated for a subsystem of Android and it is noticed that these metrics are not suitable for bug prediction. The results are compared with a subsystem of Mozilla and a comparison is made between the two software systems to determine the reasons why Software Entropy metrics are not applicable for Android.

Keywords: android, bug prediction, mining software repositories, software entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 505