Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: Poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB)

121 Investigation of the Properties of Epoxy Modified Binders Based on Epoxy Oligomer with Improved Deformation and Strength Properties

Authors: Hlaing Zaw Oo, N. Kostromina, V. Osipchik, T. Kravchenko, K. Yakovleva


The process of modification of ed-20 epoxy resin synthesized by vinyl-containing compounds is considered. It is shown that the introduction of vinyl-containing compounds into the composition based on epoxy resin ED-20 allows adjusting the technological and operational characteristics of the binder. For improvement of the properties of epoxy resin, following modifiers were selected: polyvinylformalethyl, polyvinyl butyral and composition of linear and aromatic amines (Аramine) as a hardener. Now the big range of hardeners of epoxy resins exists that allows varying technological properties of compositions, and also thermophysical and strength indicators. The nature of the aramin type hardener has a significant impact on the spatial parameters of the mesh, glass transition temperature, and strength characteristics. Epoxy composite materials based on ED-20 modified with polyvinyl butyral were obtained and investigated. It is shown that the composition of resins based on derivatives of polyvinyl butyral and ED-20 allows obtaining composite materials with a higher complex of deformation-strength, adhesion and thermal properties, better water resistance, frost resistance, chemical resistance, and impact strength. The magnitude of the effect depends on the chemical structure, temperature and curing time. In the area of concentrations, where the effect of composite synergy is appearing, the values of strength and stiffness significantly exceed the similar parameters of the individual components of the mixture. The polymer-polymer compositions form their class of materials with diverse specific properties that ensure their competitive application. Coatings with high performance under cyclic loading have been obtained based on epoxy oligomers modified with vinyl-containing compounds.

Keywords: epoxy resins, modification, vinyl-containing compounds, deformation, strength properties

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120 Rheological and Self-Healing Properties of Poly (Vinyl Butyral)

Authors: Sunatda Arayachukiat, Shogo Nobukawa, Masayuki Yamaguchi


A new self-healing material was developed utilizing molecular entanglements for poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) containing plasticizers. It was found that PVB shows autonomic self-healing behavior even below the glass transition temperature Tg because of marked molecular motion at surface. Moreover, the plasticizer addition enhances the chain mobility, leading to good healing behavior.

Keywords: Poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB), rheological properties, self-healing behaviour, molecular diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
119 Comparison of Processing Conditions for Plasticized PVC and PVB

Authors: Michael Tupý, Jaroslav Císař, Pavel Mokrejš, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová


The worldwide problem is that the recycled PVB is wildly stored in landfills. However, PVB have very similar chemical properties such as PVC. Moreover, both of them are used in plasticized form. Thus, the thermal properties of plasticized PVC obtained from primary production and the PVB was obtained by recycling of windshields are compared. It is carried out in order to find degradable conditions and decide if blend of PVB/PVC can be processable together. Tested PVC contained 38 % of plasticizer diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and PVB was plasticized with 28 % of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). Thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition of both vinyl polymers are compared such as DSC and OOT analysis. The tensile strength analysis is added.

Keywords: polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl butyral, recycling, reprocessing, thermal analysis, decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
118 The Compositional Effects on Electrospinning of Gelatin and Polyvinyl-alcohol Mixed Nanofibers

Authors: Yi-Chun Wu, Nai-Yun Chang, Chuan LI


This study investigates a feasible range of composition for the mixture of gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol to form nanofibers by electrospinning. Gelatin, one of the most available naturally derived hydrogels of amino acids, is a popular choice for food additives, cosmetic ingredients, biomedical implants, or dressing of its non-toxic and biodegradable nature. Nevertheless, synthetic hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol has long been used as a thickening agent for adhesion purposes. Many biomedical devices are also containing polyvinyl-alcohol as a major content, such as eye drops and contact lenses. To discover appropriate compositions of gelatin and polyvinyl-alcohol for electrospun nanofibers, polymer solutions of different volumetric ratios between gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol were prepared for electrospinning. The viscosity, surface tension, pH value, and electrical conductance of polymer solutions were measured. On the nanofibers, the vibrational modes of molecular structures in nanofibers were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphologies and surface chemical elements of fibers were examined by the scanning electron microscope and the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The hydrophilicity of nanofiberswas evaluated by the water contact angles on the surface of the fibers. To further test the biotoxicity of nanofibers, an in-vitro 3T3 fibroblasts culture further tested the biotoxicity of the electrospun nanofibers. Throughstatistical analyses of the experimental data, it is found that the polyvinyl-alcohol rich composition (the volumetric ratio of gelatin/polyvinyl-alcohol < 1) would be a preferable choice for the formation of nanofibers by the current setup of electrospinning. These electrospun nanofibers tend to be hydrophilic with no biotoxicity threat to the 3T3 fibroblasts.

Keywords: gelatin, polyvinyl-alcohol, nanofibers, electrospinning, spin coating

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117 Use of Recycled PVB as a Protection against Carbonation

Authors: Michael Tupý, Vít Petránek


The paper is focused on testing of the poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) layer which had the function of a CO2 insulating protection against concrete and mortar carbonation. The barrier efficiency of PVB was verified by the measurement of diffusion characteristics. Two different types of PVB were tested; original extruded PVB sheet and PVB sheet made from PVB dispersion which was obtained from recycled windshields. The work deals with the testing CO2 diffusion when polymer sheets were exposed to a CO2 atmosphere (10% v/v CO2) with 0% RH. The excellent barrier capability against CO2 permeability of original and also recycled types of PVB layers was observed. This application of PVB waste can bring advantageous use in civil engineering and significant environmental contribution.

Keywords: windshield, poly(vinyl butyral), mortar, diffusion, carbonatation, polymer waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
116 Mechanical Properties of Recycled Plasticized PVB/PVC Blends

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Christian Carrot, Caroline Pillon, Vít Petránek


The mechanical properties of blends consisting of plasticized poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of using recycled PVB waste derived from windshields. PVC was plasticized with 38% of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), while PVB was plasticized with 28% of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). The optimal process conditions for the PVB/PVC blend in 1:1 ratio were determined. Entropy was used in order to theoretically predict the blends miscibility. The PVB content of each blend composition used was ranging from zero to 100%. Tensile strength and strain were tested. In addition, a comparison between recycled and original PVB, used as constituents of the blend, was performed.

Keywords: poly(vinyl butyral), poly(vinyl chloride), windshield, polymer waste, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
115 Smart Material for Bacterial Detection Based on Polydiacetylene/Polyvinyl Butyrate Fiber Composites

Authors: Pablo Vidal, Misael Martinez, Carlos Hernandez, Ananta R. Adhikari, Luis Materon, Yuanbing Mao, Karen Lozano


Conjugated polymers are smart materials that show tremendous practical applications in diverse subjects. Polydiacetylenes are conjugated polymers with special optical properties. In response to the environmental changes such as pH and molecular binding, it changes its color. Such an interesting chromic and emissive behavior of polydiacetylenes make them a highly popular polymer in wide areas, including biomedicine such as a biosensor. In this research, we used polyvinyl butyrate as a matrix to fibrillate polydiacetylenes. We initially prepared polyvinyl butyrate/diacetylene matrix using forcespinning technique. They were then polymerized to form polyvinyl butyrate/polydiacetylene (PVB/PDA). These matrices then studied for their bio-sensing response to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The sensing ability of the PVB/PDA biosensor was observed as early as 30 min in the presence of bacteria at 37°C. Now our effort is to decrease this effective temperature to room temperature to make this device applicable in the general daily life. These chromic biosensors will find extensive application not only alert the infection but also find other promising applications such as wearable sensors and diagnostic systems.

Keywords: smart material, conjugated polymers, biosensor, polyvinyl butyrate/polydiacetylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
114 The Effect of Size, Thickness, and Type of the Bonding Interlayer on Bullet Proof Glass as per EN 1063

Authors: Rabinder Singh Bharj, Sandeep Kumar


This investigation presents preparation of sample and analysis of results of ballistic impact test as per EN 1063 on the size, thickness, number, position, and type of the bonding interlayer Polyvinyl Butyral, Poly Carbonate and Poly Urethane on bullet proof glass. It was observed that impact energy absorbed by bullet proof glass increases with the increase of the total thickness from 33mm to 42mm to 51mm for all the three samples respectively. Absorption impact energy is greater for samples with more number of bonding interlayers than with the number of glass layers for uniform increase in total sample thickness. There is no effect on the absorption impact energy with the change in position of the bonding interlayer.

Keywords: absorbed energy, bullet proof glass, laminated glass, safety glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
113 A Study on the Synthetic Resin of Fire Risk Using the Room Corner Test

Authors: Ji Hun Choi, Seung Un Chae, Kyeong Suk Cho


Synthetic resins are widely used in various fields including electricity, engineering, construction and agriculture. Many of interior and exterior finishing materials for buildings are synthetic resin products. In this study, full-scale fire tests were conducted on polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and urethane in accordance with the “ISO 9705: Fire test - Full-scale room test for surface products” to measure heat release rate, toxic gas emission and smoke production rate. Based on the tests, fire growth pattern and fire risk were analyzed. Findings from the tests conducted on polyvinyl chloride and urethane are as follows. The total heat release rate and total smoke production rate of polyvinyl chloride were 98.89MW and 5284.41m2, respectively and its highest CO2 concentration was 0.149%. The values obtained from the test with urethane were 469.94 MW, 3396.28 m2 and 1.549%. While heat release rate and CO2 concentration were higher in urethane implying its high combustibility, smoke production rate was 1.5 times higher in polyvinyl chloride. Follow-up tests are planned to be conducted to accumulate data for the evaluation of heat emission and fire risk associated with synthetic resins.

Keywords: synthetic resins, fire test, full-scale test, heat release rate, smoke production rate, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, urethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
112 Testing of the Decreasing Bond Strength of Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive by Low Temperatures

Authors: Pavel Boška, Jan Bomba, Tomáš Beránek, Jiří Procházka


When using wood products bonded by polyvinyl acetate, glues such as windows are the most limiting element of degradation of the glued joint due to weather changes. In addition to moisture and high temperatures, the joint may damage the low temperature below freezing point, where dimensional changes in the material and distortion of the adhesive film occur. During the experiments, the joints were exposed to several degrees of sub-zero temperatures from 0 °C to -40 °C and then to compare how the decreasing temperature affects the strength of the joint. The experiment was performed on wood beech samples (Fagus sylvatica), bonded with PVAc with D3 resistance and the shear strength of bond was measured. The glued and treated samples were tested on a laboratory testing machine, recording the strength of the joint. The statistical results have given us information that the strength of the joint gradually decreases with decreasing temperature, but a noticeable and statistically significant change is achieved only at very low temperatures.

Keywords: adhesives, bond strength, low temperatures, polyvinyl acetate

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
111 Dipicolinate Complex of Oxovanadium(Iv) with 4,4′-Dimethoxy-2,2′-Bipyridyl as a New Generation Ziegler-Natta Precatalyst

Authors: Joanna Drzeżdżon


Polyvinyl alcohol and its derivatives such as 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol have found application in many industries. They are mainly used for the production of adhesives, thickeners and stabilizers of emulsion paints, and surgical threads. Moreover, polyvinyl alcohol derivatives are indispensable reagents in the synthesis of hemiacetals. Polyolefins derived from polyvinyl alcohol are obtained by using catalysts belonging to complex compounds of transition metal ions. The aim of the studies is to the synthesis of a new complex, i.e. dipicolinate oxovanadium(IV) complex with 4,4’-dimethoxy-2,2’-bipyridyl, and to determine its catalytic activities. Moreover, the another aim of the studies was to set conditions for 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol oligomerization. The catalytic system has been based on the dipicolinate complex of oxovanadium(IV) with 4,4’-dimethoxy-2,2’-bipyridyl and MMAO-12. The results of the studies showed that how a new oxovanadium(IV) complex compound effects on the 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol oligomerization. Moreover, the results revealed that new catalytic material is a highly active catalyst for the investigated oligomerization.

Keywords: 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol, oligomerization, dipicolinate, vanadium, methylaluminoxane

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110 Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Impact Response on High-Speed Train Windshield

Authors: Wen Ma, Yong Peng, Zhixiang Li


Security journey is a vital focus on the field of Rail Transportation. Accidents caused by the damage of the high-speed train windshield have occurred many times and have given rise to terrible consequences. Train windshield consists of tempered glass and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film. In this work, the quasi-static tests and the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were carried out first to obtain the mechanical properties and constitutive model for the tempered glass and PVB film. These tests results revealed that stress and Young’s modulus of tempered glass were wake-sensitive to strain rate, but stress and Young’s modulus of PVB film were strong-sensitive to strain rate. Then impact experiment of the windshield was carried out to investigate dynamic response and failure characteristics of train windshield. In addition, a finite element model based on the combined finite element method was proposed to investigate fracture and fragmentation responses of train windshield under different-velocity impact. The results can be used for further design and optimization of the windshield for high-speed train application.

Keywords: constitutive model, impact response, mechanism properties, PVB film, tempered glass

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109 Corrosivity of Smoke Generated by Polyvinyl Chloride and Polypropylene with Different Mixing Ratios towards Carbon Steel

Authors: Xufei Liu, Shouxiang Lu, Kim Meow Liew


Because a relatively small fire could potentially cause damage by smoke corrosion far exceed thermal fire damage, it has been realized that the corrosion of metal exposed to smoke atmospheres is a significant fire hazard, except for toxicity or evacuation considerations. For the burning materials in an actual fire may often be the mixture of combustible matters, a quantitative study on the corrosivity of smoke produced by the combustion of mixture is more conducive to the application of the basic theory to the actual engineering. In this paper, carbon steel samples were exposed to smoke generated by polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene, two common combustibles in industrial plants, with different mixing ratios in high humidity for 120 hours. The separate and combined corrosive effects of smoke were examined subsequently by weight loss measurement, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was found that, although the corrosivity of smoke from polypropylene was much smaller than that of smoke from polyvinyl chloride, smoke from polypropylene enhanced the major corrosive effect of smoke from polyvinyl chloride to carbon steel. Furthermore, the corrosion kinetics of carbon steel under smoke were found to obey the power function. Possible corrosion mechanisms were also proposed. All the analysis helps to provide basic information for the determination of smoke damage and timely rescue after fire.

Keywords: corrosion kinetics, corrosion mechanism, mixed combustible, SEM/EDS, smoke corrosivity, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
108 Polyvinyl Alcohol Processed Templated Polyaniline Films: Preparation, Characterization and Assessment of Tensile Strength

Authors: J. Subbalakshmi, G. Dhruvasamhith, S. M. Hussain


Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most extensively studied material among the conducting polymers due to its simple synthesis by chemical and electrochemical routes. PANIs have advantages of chemical stability and high conductivity making their commercial applications quite attractive. However, to our knowledge, very little work has been reported on the tensile strength properties of templated PANIs processed with polyvinyl alcohol and also, detailed study has not been carried out. We have investigated the effect of small molecule and polymers as templates on PANI. Stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of trisodium citrate (TSC), poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) templated PANIs were prepared through chemical synthesis, processed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and were fabricated into films by solution casting. Absorption and infra-red spectra were studied to gain insight into the possible molecular interactions. Surface morphology was studied through scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. Interestingly, tensile testing studies revealed least strain for pure PVA when compared to the blends of templated PANI. Furthermore, among the blends, TSC templated PANI possessed maximum elasticity. The ultimate tensile strength for PVA processed, PEG-templated PANI was found to be five times more than other blends considered in this study. We establish structure–property correlation with morphology, spectral characterization and tensile testing studies.

Keywords: surface morphology, processed films, polyvinyl alcohol, templated polyanilines, tensile testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
107 Study of the Physical Aging of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Authors: Mohamed Ouazene


The insulating properties of the polymers are widely used in electrical engineering for the production of insulators and various supports, as well as for the insulation of electric cables for medium and high voltage, etc. These polymeric materials have significant advantages both technically and economically. However, although the insulation with polymeric materials has advantages, there are also certain disadvantages such as the influence of the heat which can have a detrimental effect on these materials. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the polymers used in a plasticized state in the cable insulation to medium and high voltage. The studied material is polyvinyl chloride (PVC 4000 M) from the Algerian national oil company whose formula is: Industrial PVC 4000 M is in the form of white powder. The test sample is a pastille of 1 mm thick and 1 cm in diameter. The consequences of increasing the temperature of a polymer are modifications; some of them are reversible and others irreversible [1]. The reversible changes do not affect the chemical composition of the polymer, or its structure. They are characterized by transitions and relaxations. The glass transition temperature is an important feature of a polymer. Physical aging of PVC is to maintain the material for a longer or shorter time to its glass transition temperature. The aim of this paper is to study this phenomenon by the method of thermally stimulated depolarization currents. Relaxations within the polymer have been recorded in the form of current peaks. We have found that the intensity decreases for more residence time in the polymer along its glass transition temperature. Furthermore, it is inferred from this work that the phenomenon of physical aging can have important consequences on the properties of the polymer. It leads to a more compact rearrangement of the material and a reconstruction or reinforcement of structural connections.

Keywords: depolarization currents, glass transition temperature, physical aging, polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

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106 Effect of Relative Humidity on Corrosion Behavior of SN-0.7Cu Solder under Polyvinyl Chloride Fire Smoke Atmosphere

Authors: Qian Li, Shouxiang Lu


With the rapid increase in electric power use, wire and cable fire occur more and more frequent. The fire smoke has a corrosive effect on the solders, which seriously affects the function of electronic equipment. In this research, the effect of environment relative humidity on corrosion behavior of Sn-0.7Cu solder has been researched under 140 g·m⁻³ polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire smoke atmosphere. The mass loss of Sn-0.7Cu solder increased with the relative humidity. Furthermore, the microstructures and corrosion mechanism were analyzed by using SEM, EDS, XRD, and XPS. The result shows that Sn₂₁Cl₁₆(OH)₁₄O₆ is the main corrosion products and the corrosion process is an electrochemical reaction. The present work could provide guidance to the risk assessment for electronic equipment rescue after a fire.

Keywords: corrosion, fire smoke, relative humidity, Sn-0.7Cu solder

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105 Bending Test Characteristics for Splicing of Thermoplastic Polymer Using Hot Gas Welding

Authors: Prantasi Harmi Tjahjanti, Iswanto Iswanto, Edi Widodo, Sholeh Pamuji


Materials of the thermoplastic polymer when they break is usually thrown away, or is recycled which requires a long process. The purpose of this study is to splice the broken thermoplastic polymer using hot gas welding with different variations of welding wire/electrodes. Materials of thermoplastic polymer used are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by using welding wire like the three materials. The method is carried out by using hot gas welding; there are two materials that cannot be connected, namely PE with PVC welding wire, and PP with PVC welding wire. The permeable liquid penetrant test is PP with PE welding wire, and PVC with PE welding wire. The best bending test result with the longest elongation is PE with PE welding wire with a bending test value of 179.03 kgf/mm². The microstructure was all described in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations.

Keywords: thermoplastic polymers, bending test, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), hot gas welding, bending test

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
104 Nanoindentation and Physical Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride/Styrene Co-Maleic Anhydride Blend Reinforced by Organo-Bentonite

Authors: D. E. Abulyazied, S. M. Mokhtar, A. M. Motawie


Polymer blends represent an important class of materials in engineering applications. The incorporation of clay nanofiller may provide new opportunities for this type of materials to enhance their applications. This article reports on the effects of clay on the structure and properties of polymer blends nanocomposites, based on Polyvinyl chloride PVC and styrene co-maleic anhydride SMA blend. Modification of the Egyptian Bentonite EB was carried out using organo-modifier namely; octadecylamine ODA. Before the modification, the cation exchange capacity CEC of the EB was measured. The octadecylamine bentonite ODA-B was characterized using Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction XRD, and Transition Electron Microscope TEM. A blend of Polyvinyl chloride PVC and styrene co-maleic anhydride SMA (50:50) was prepared in Tetra Hydro Furan (THF). Then nanocomposites of PVC/SMA/ODA-B were prepared by solution intercalation polymerization from 0.50% up to 5% by weight of ODA-B. The nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, TEM. Thermal, nanoindentation, swelling and electrical properties of the nanocomposites were measured. The morphology of the nanocomposites showed that ODA-B achieved good dispersion in the PVC/SMA matrix. Incorporation of 0.5 %, 1%, 3% and 5% by weight nanoclay into the PVC/SMA blends results in an improvement in nanohardness of 16%, 76%, 92%, and 68% respectively. The elastic modulus increased from 4.59 GPa for unreinforced PVC/SMA blend to 6.30 GPa (37% increase) with the introduction of 3% by weight nanoclay. The cross-link density of the nanocomposites increases with increasing the content of ODA-B.

Keywords: PVC, SMA, nanocomposites, nanoindentation, organo-bentonite

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103 Methane Plasma Modified Polyvinyl Alcohol Scaffolds for Melanocytes Cultivation

Authors: B. Kodedova, E. Filova, M. Kralovic, E. Amler


Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin characterized by loss of melanocyte in the epidermis that leads to white lesions. One of the possible treatments is autologous transplantation of melanocytes. Biodegradable electrospun polymeric nanofibers provide good mechanical properties and could serve as suitable scaffold for epithelial cells cultivation and follow up transplantation. Moreover the microarchitecture of nanofibers mimics the structure of extracellular matrix and its porosity allows nutrients and waste exchange. The aim of this work was to develop biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric scaffolds suitable for autologous melanocytes transplantation. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were modified by cold methane plasma to lower their hydrofility and to achieve better adhesion, proliferation and viability of the murine melanocyte (Melan-a). Cells were seeded on the modified scaffolds and their adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and melanin synthesis was evaluated and compared to non-modified scaffolds. Results clearly indicate that cold methane plasma modified PVA nanofibers are suitable for melanocyte cultivation and may be future candidate for vitiligo treatment. Furthermore, the nanofibers can be functionalized with various bioactive substances, for enhancement of the melanocyte proliferation, melanogenesis or healing and regenerative processes. The project was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports NPU I: LO1309 and by Grant Agency of Charles University (grant No. 1228214).

Keywords: melanocyte, nanofibers, polyvinyl alcohol, plasma modification

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102 Release of PVA from PVA/PA Compounds into Water Solutions

Authors: J. Klofac, P. Bazant, I. Kuritka


This work is focused on the preparation of polymeric blend composed of polyamide (PA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with the intention to explore its basic characteristics important for potential use in medicine, especially for drug delivery systems. PA brings brilliant mechanical properties to the blend while PVA is inevitable due to its water solubility. Blend with different PA/PVA ratios were prepared and the release study of PVA into the water was carried out in a time interval 0-48 hours via the gravimetric method. The weight decrease is caused by the leaching of PVA domains what can be also followed by the optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the thermal properties and the miscibility of blend components were evaluated by the differential scanning calorimeter. On the bases of performed experiments, it was found that the kinetics, continuity development and micro structure features of PA/PVA blends is strongly dependent on the blend composition and miscibility of its components.

Keywords: releas study, polyvinyl alcohol, polyamide morphology, polymeric blend

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101 Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Glass Cylindrical Shell with Hinged Free Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ebru Dural, M. Zulfu Asık


Laminated glass is a kind of safety glass, which is made by 'sandwiching' two glass sheets and a polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer in between them. When the glass is broken, the interlayer in between the glass sheets can stick them together. Because of this property, the hazards of sharp projectiles during natural and man-made disasters reduces. They can be widely applied in building, architecture, automotive, transport industries. Laminated glass can easily undergo large displacements even under their own weight. In order to explain their true behavior, they should be analyzed by using large deflection theory to represent nonlinear behavior. In this study, a nonlinear mathematical model is developed for the analysis of laminated glass cylindrical shell which is free in radial directions and restrained in axial directions. The results will be verified by using the results of the experiment, carried out on laminated glass cylindrical shells. The behavior of laminated composite cylindrical shell can be represented by five partial differential equations. Four of the five equations are used to represent axial displacements and radial displacements and the fifth one for the transverse deflection of the unit. Governing partial differential equations are derived by employing variational principles and minimum potential energy concept. Finite difference method is employed to solve the coupled differential equations. First, they are converted into a system of matrix equations and then iterative procedure is employed. Iterative procedure is necessary since equations are coupled. Problems occurred in getting convergent sequence generated by the employed procedure are overcome by employing variable underrelaxation factor. The procedure developed to solve the differential equations provides not only less storage but also less calculation time, which is a substantial advantage in computational mechanics problems.

Keywords: laminated glass, mathematical model, nonlinear behavior, PVB

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100 A Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study to Explore Role of Chain Length in Predicting Useful Characteristic Properties of Commodity and Engineering Polymers

Authors: Lokesh Soni, Sushanta Kumar Sethi, Gaurav Manik


This work attempts to use molecular simulations to create equilibrated structures of a range of commercially used polymers. Generated equilibrated structures for polyvinyl acetate (isotactic), polyvinyl alcohol (atactic), polystyrene, polyethylene, polyamide 66, poly dimethyl siloxane, poly carbonate, poly ethylene oxide, poly amide 12, natural rubber, poly urethane, and polycarbonate (bisphenol-A) and poly ethylene terephthalate are employed to estimate the correct chain length that will correctly predict the chain parameters and properties. Further, the equilibrated structures are used to predict some properties like density, solubility parameter, cohesive energy density, surface energy, and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. The simulated densities for polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polypropylene, and polycarbonate are 1.15 g/cm3, 1.125 g/cm3, 1.02 g/cm3, 0.84 g/cm3 and 1.223 g/cm3 respectively are found to be in good agreement with the available literature estimates. However, the critical repeating units or the degree of polymerization after which the solubility parameter showed saturation were 15, 20, 25, 10 and 20 respectively. This also indicates that such properties that dictate the miscibility of two or more polymers in their blends are strongly dependent on the chosen polymer or its characteristic properties. An attempt has been made to correlate such properties with polymer properties like Kuhn length, free volume and the energy term which plays a vital role in predicting the mentioned properties. These results help us to screen and propose a useful library which may be used by the research groups in estimating the polymer properties using the molecular simulations of chains with the predicted critical lengths. The library shall help to obviate the need for researchers to spend efforts in finding the critical chain length needed for simulating the mentioned polymer properties.

Keywords: Kuhn length, Flory Huggins interaction parameter, cohesive energy density, free volume

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99 Adhesive Based upon Polyvinyl Alcohol And Chemical Modified Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) Starch

Authors: Samantha Borja, Vladimir Valle, Pamela Molina


The development of adhesives from renewable raw materials attracts the attention of the scientific community, due to it promises the reduction of the dependence with materials derived from oil. This work proposes the use of modified 'oca (Oxalis tuberosa)' starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the elaboration of adhesives for lignocellulosic substrates. The investigation focused on the formulation of adhesives with 3 different PVA:starch (modified and native) ratios (of 1,0:0,33; 1,0:1,0; 1,0:1,67). The first step to perform it was the chemical modification of starch through acid hydrolysis and a subsequent urea treatment to get carbamate starch. Then, the adhesive obtained was characterized in terms of instantaneous viscosity, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and shear strength. The results showed that viscosity and mechanical tests exhibit data with the same tendency in relation to the native and modified starch concentration. It was observed that the data started to reduce its values to a certain concentration, where the values began to grow. On the other hand, two relevant bands were found in the FTIR spectrogram. The first in 3300 cm⁻¹ of OH group with the same intensity for all the essays and the other one in 2900 cm⁻¹, belonging to the group of alkanes with a different intensity for each adhesive. On the whole, the ratio PVA:starch (1:1) will not favor crosslinking in the adhesive structure and causes the viscosity reduction, whereas, in the others ones, the viscosity is higher. It was also observed that adhesives made with modified starch had better characteristics, but the adhesives with high concentrations of native starch could equal the properties of the adhesives made with low concentrations of modified starch.

Keywords: polyvinyl alcohol, PVA, chemical modification, starch, FTIR, viscosity, shear strength

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98 Enhanced Dimensional Stability of Rigid PVC Foams Using Glass Fibers

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Murtatha M. Jamel, Parisa Khoshnoud, Subhashini Gunashekar


Two types of glass fibers having different lengths (1/16" and 1/32") were added into rigid PVC foams to enhance the dimensional stability of extruded rigid Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) foam at different concentrations (0-20 phr) using a single screw profile extruder. PVC foam-glass fiber composites (PVC-GF) were characterized for their dimensional stability, structural, thermal, and mechanical properties. Experimental results show that the dimensional stability, heat resistance, and storage modulus were enhanced without compromising the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites. Overall, foam composites which were prepared with longer glass fibers exhibit better mechanical and thermal properties than those prepared with shorter glass fibers due to higher interlocking between the fibers and the foam cells, which result in better load distribution in the matrix.

Keywords: polyvinyl chloride, PVC foam, PVC composites, polymer composites, glass fiber composites, reinforced polymers

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97 Mass Transfer of Paracetamol from the Crosslinked Carrageenan-Polyvinyl Alcohol Film

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Rieke Ulfha Noviyanti, Sri Sutriyani, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina


In this research, carrageenan extracted from seaweed Eucheuma cottonii was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and then crosslinked using glutaraldehyde (GA). The obtained hydrogel films were applied to control the drug release rate of paracetamol. The aim of this research was to develop a mathematical model that can be used to describe the mass transfer rate of paracetamol from the hydrogel film into buffer solution. The effect of weight ratio carrageenan-PVA (5: 0, 1: 0.5, 1: 1, 1: 2, 0: 5) on the parameters of the mathematical model was investigated also. Based on the experimental data, the proposed mathematical model could describe the mass transfer rate of paracetamol. The weight ratio of carrageenan-PVA greatly affected the amount of paracetamol absorbed in the hydrogel film and the mass transfer rate of paracetamol.

Keywords: carrageenan-PVA, crosslinking, glutaraldehyde, hydrogel, paracetamol, mass transfer

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96 Nanocellulose Incorporated Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel

Authors: Rosli Mohd Yunus, Zianor Azrina Zianon Abdin, Mohammad Dalour Hossen Beg, Ridzuan Ramli


Recently, nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has gained considerable interest as a promising biomaterial due to their outstanding properties such as high surface area, high mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. The NCC also has good stability in water which is compatible for mixing of water based polymer solution or emulsions with NCC. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) contained different amount of lignocellulosic materials such as lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose is the most significant materials that can be extracted from EFB as nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). In this work the nanocrystalline cellulose were produced through acid hydrolysis together with ultrasound technique. The morphology of NCC was characterized by TEM, thermal behavior has been studied with DSC, TGA analysis. Structural properties were illustrated X-Ray diffraction as well as FTIR. The hydrogel was produced using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with different concentration of NCC. The hydrogel composite was characterized by swelling ratio, crosslinking density, mechanical properties and morphology.

Keywords: nanocellulose, oil palm, hydrogel, water treatment

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95 Evaluation of Engineering Cementitious Composites (ECC) with Different Percentage of Fibers

Authors: Bhaumik Merchant, Ajay Gelot


Concrete is good in compression but if any type of strain applied to it, it starts to fail. Where the steel is good tension, it can bear the deflection up to its elastic limits. This project is based on behavior of engineered cementitious composited (ECC) when it is replaced with the different amount of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Fibers. As for research, PVA fibers is used with cementitious up to 2% to evaluate the optimum amount of fiber on which we can find the maximum compressive, tensile and flexural strength. PVA is basically an adhesive which is used to formulate glue. Generally due to excessive loading, cracks develops which concludes to successive damage to the structural component. In research plasticizer is used to increase workability. With the help of optimum amount of PVA fibers, it can limit the crack widths up to 60µm to 100µm. Also can be used to reduce resources and funds for rehabilitation of structure. At the starting this fiber concrete can be double the cost as compare to conventional concrete but as it can amplify the duration of structure, it will be less costlier than the conventional concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, engineered cementitious composites, flexural strength, polyvinyl alcohol fibers, rehabilitation of structures

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94 Measurements of Scattering Cross Sections for 5.895 keV Photons in Various Polymers

Authors: H. Duggal, G. Singh, G. Singh, A. Bhalla, S. Kumar, J. S. Shahi, D. Mehta


The total differential cross section for scattering of the 5.895 keV photons by various polymers has been measured at scattering angle of 135o. The experimental measurements were carried out using the energy dispersive setup involving annular source of the 55Fe radioisotope and a low energy germanium (LEGe) detector. The cross section values are measured for 20 polymer targets namely, Paraffin Wax, Polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE), Cellulose, Silicone oil, Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyvinyl purrolidone (PVP), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Kapton, Mylar, Chitosan, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Bakelite, Carbopol, Chlorobutyl rubber (CBR), Polyetylene glycol (PEG), Polysorbate-20, Nylon-6, Cetyl alcohol, Carboxyl methyl sodium cellulose and Sodium starch glucolate. The measurements were performed in vacuum so as to avoid scattering contribution due to air and strong absorption of low energy photons in the air column. In the present investigations, the geometrical factor and efficiency of the detector were determined by measuring the K x-rays emitted from the 22Ti and 23V targets excited by the Mn K x-rays in the same experimental set up. The measured scattering cross sections have been compared with the sum of theoretically calculated elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections. The theoretical elastic (Rayleigh) scattering cross sections based on the various form factor approximations, namely, non-relativistic form factor (NF), relativistic form factor (RF), modified form factor (MF), and MF with anomalous scattering factor (ASF) as well as the second order S-matrix formalisms, and the inelastic scattering differential cross sections based on the Klein-Nishina formula after including the inelastic scattering function (KN+ISF) have been calculated. The experimental results show fairly good agreement with theoretical cross sections.

Keywords: photon, polymers, elastic and inelastic, scattering cross sections

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93 Synthesis and Characterization of SiO2/PVA/ SPEEK Composite Membrane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Yusuf Ansari, Asad Abbas


Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a very efficient and promising energy conversion device. Although Nafion® is considered as benchmark materials for membrane used in PEM fuel cell, it has limitations that restrict its uses. Alternative materials for the membrane is always a challenging field for researchers. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is one of the promising material for membrane due to its chemical and mechanical stability and lower cost. In this work, SPEEK is synthesized, and property booster such as silica nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are also added to analyse changes in properties such as water uptake, IEC, and conductivity. It has been found that adding PVA support high water uptake and proton conductivity but at large amount of PVA reduces the proton conductivity due to very high water uptake. Adding silica enhances water uptake and proton conductivity.

Keywords: PEM Membrane, sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), silica fumes (SiO2), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

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92 Nanoindentation Behavior and Physical Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride /Styrene Co-Maleic Anhydride Blend Reinforced by Nano-Bentonite

Authors: Dalia Elsawy Abulyazied, Samia Mohamad Mokhtar, Ahmed Magdy Motawie


This article studies the effects of nano-bentonite on the structure and properties of polymer blends nanocomposites, based on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and styrene co-maleic anhydride (SMA) blend. Modification of Egyptian bentonite (EB) is carried out using organo-modifier namely; octadecylamine (ODA). Octadecylamine bentonite (ODA-B) is characterized using FTIR, XRD and TEM. Nanocomposites of PVC/SMA/ODA-B are prepared by solution intercalation polymerization from 0.50 up to 5 phr. The nanocomposites are characterized by XRD and TEM. Thermal behavior of the nanocomposites is studied. The effect of different content of ODA-B on the nano-mechanical properties is investigated by a nano-indentation test method. Also the swelling and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are measured. The morphology of the nanocomposites shows that ODA-B achieved good dispersion in the PVC/SMA matrix. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites is enhanced due to the presence of the ODA-B. Incorporation of 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 phr. ODA-B into the PVC/SMA blends results in an improvement in nano-hardness of 16%, 76%, 92%, and 68% respectively. The elastic modulus increased by 37% from 4.59 GPa for unreinforced PVC/SMA blend to 6.30 GPa for 3 phr. The cross-link density and the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites are increased with increasing the content of ODA-B.

Keywords: PVC, SMA, nanocomposites, nano-bentonite, nanoindentation, crosslink density

Procedia PDF Downloads 391