Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 344

Search results for: epoxy resins

344 Preparation and Flame-Retardant Properties of Epoxy Resins Containing Organophosphorus Compounds

Authors: Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Corneliu Hamciuc, Vicente Javier Forrat Perez


The present work describes the preparation of new organophosphorus compounds with high content of phosphorus followed by the incorporation of these compounds into epoxy resin systems in order to investigate the phosphorus effect in terms of thermal stability, flame-retardant and mechanical properties of modified epoxy resins. Thus, two new organophosphorus compounds have been synthesized and fully characterized. 6-Oxido-6H-dibenz[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphorinyl-phenylcarbinol has been prepared by the addition reaction of P–H group of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide to carbonyl group of benzaldehyde. By treating the phenylcarbinol derivative with POCl3 a new phosphorus compound was obtained, having a content of 12.227% P. The organophosphorus compounds have been purified by recrystallization while their chemical structures have been confirmed by melting point measurements, FTIR and HNMR spectroscopies. In the next step various flame-retardant epoxy resins with different content of phosphorus have been prepared starting from a commercial epoxy resin and using dicyandiamide (DICY) as a latent curing agent in the presence of an accelerator. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to investigate the behavior and kinetics of curing process of thermosetting systems. The results showed that the best curing characteristic and glass transition temperature are obtained at a ratio of epoxy resin: DICY: accelerator equal to 94:5:1. The thermal stability of the phosphorus-containing epoxy resins was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen and air, DSC, SEM and LOI test measurements.

Keywords: epoxy resins, flame retardant properties, phosphorus-containing compounds, thermal stability

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343 Investigation of the Properties of Epoxy Modified Binders Based on Epoxy Oligomer with Improved Deformation and Strength Properties

Authors: Hlaing Zaw Oo, N. Kostromina, V. Osipchik, T. Kravchenko, K. Yakovleva


The process of modification of ed-20 epoxy resin synthesized by vinyl-containing compounds is considered. It is shown that the introduction of vinyl-containing compounds into the composition based on epoxy resin ED-20 allows adjusting the technological and operational characteristics of the binder. For improvement of the properties of epoxy resin, following modifiers were selected: polyvinylformalethyl, polyvinyl butyral and composition of linear and aromatic amines (Аramine) as a hardener. Now the big range of hardeners of epoxy resins exists that allows varying technological properties of compositions, and also thermophysical and strength indicators. The nature of the aramin type hardener has a significant impact on the spatial parameters of the mesh, glass transition temperature, and strength characteristics. Epoxy composite materials based on ED-20 modified with polyvinyl butyral were obtained and investigated. It is shown that the composition of resins based on derivatives of polyvinyl butyral and ED-20 allows obtaining composite materials with a higher complex of deformation-strength, adhesion and thermal properties, better water resistance, frost resistance, chemical resistance, and impact strength. The magnitude of the effect depends on the chemical structure, temperature and curing time. In the area of concentrations, where the effect of composite synergy is appearing, the values of strength and stiffness significantly exceed the similar parameters of the individual components of the mixture. The polymer-polymer compositions form their class of materials with diverse specific properties that ensure their competitive application. Coatings with high performance under cyclic loading have been obtained based on epoxy oligomers modified with vinyl-containing compounds.

Keywords: epoxy resins, modification, vinyl-containing compounds, deformation, strength properties

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342 Anti-Bubble Painting Booth for Wood Coating Resins

Authors: Abasali Masoumi, Amir Gholamian Bozorgi


To have the best quality in wood products such as tabletops and inlay-woods, applying two principles are required: aesthetic and protection against the destructive agent. Artists spent a lot of time creating a masterwork project and also for better demonstrating beautiful appearance and preserving it for hundred years. So they need good material and appropriate method to finish it. As usual, wood painters use polyester or epoxy resins. These finishes need a special skill to use and then give a fantastic paint film and clearness. If we let resins dry in exposure to environmental agents such as unstable temperature, dust and etc., no doubt it becomes cloudy, crack, blister and much wood dust and air bubbles in it. We have designed a special wood coating booth (IR-Patent No: 70429) for wood-coating resins (polyester and epoxy), and this booth provides an adjustable space to control factors that is necessary to have a good finish in the end. Anti-bubble painting booth has the ability to remove bubbles from resin, precludes the cracking process and causes the resin to be the best. With this booth drying time of resin is reduced from 24 hours to 6 hours by fixing the optimum temperature, and it is very good for saving time. This booth is environment-friendly and never lets the poisonous vapors and other VOC (Volatile organic components) enter to workplace atmosphere because they are very harmful to humans.

Keywords: wood coating, epoxy resin, polyester resin, wood finishes

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341 Advanced Phosphorus-Containing Polymer Materials towards Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Epoxy Thermosets

Authors: Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Corneliu Hamciuc


Nowadays, epoxy materials are extensively used in ever more areas and under ever more demanding environmental conditions due to their remarkable combination of properties, light weight and ease of processing. However, these materials greatly increase the fire risk due to their flammability and possible release of toxic by-products as a result of their chemical composition which consists mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Therefore, improving the fire retardant behaviour to prevent the loss of life and property is of particular concern among government regulatory bodies, consumers and manufacturers alike. Modification of epoxy resins with organophosphorus compounds, as reactive flame retardants or additives, is the key to achieving non-flammable advanced epoxy materials. Herein, a detailed characterization of fire behaviour for a series of phosphorus-containing epoxy thermosets is reported. A carefully designed phosphorus flame retardant additive was simply blended with a bifunctional bisphenol-A based epoxy resin. Further thermal cross-linking in the presence of various aminic hardeners led to eco-friendly flame retardant epoxy resins. The type of hardener, concentration of flame retardant additive, compatibility between the components of the mixture, char formation and morphology, thermal stability, flame retardant mechanisms were investigated. It was found that even a very low content of phosphorus introduced into the epoxy matrix increased the limiting oxygen index value to about 30%. In addition, the peak of the heat release rate value decreased up to 45% as compared to the one of the neat epoxy system. The main flame retardant mechanism was the condensed-phase one as revealed by SEM and XPS measurements.

Keywords: condensed-phase mechanism, eco-friendly phosphorus flame retardant, epoxy resin, thermal stability

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340 Eco-Friendly Natural Filler Based Epoxy Composites

Authors: Suheyla Kocaman, Gulnare Ahmetli


In this study, acrylated soybean oil (AESO) was used as modifying agent for DGEBF-type epoxy resin (ER). AESO was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt % with ER. Composites with eco-friendly natural fillers-banana bark and seashell were prepared. MNA was used as a hardener. Effect of banana peel (BP) and seashell (SSh) fillers on mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, elongation at break, and hardness of M-ERs were investigated. The structure epoxy resins (M-ERs) cured with MNA and sebacic acid (SAc) hardeners were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Tensile test results show that Young’s (elastic) modulus, tensile strength and hardness of SSh particles reinforced with M-ERs were higher than the M-ERs reinforced with banana bark.

Keywords: biobased composite, epoxy resin, mechanical properties, natural fillers

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
339 Nanomaterials for Archaeological Stone Conservation: Re-Assembly of Archaeological Heavy Stones Using Epoxy Resin Modified with Clay Nanoparticles

Authors: Sayed Mansour, Mohammad Aldoasri, Nagib Elmarzugi, Nadia A. Al-Mouallimi


The archaeological large stone used in construction of ancient Pharaonic tombs, temples, obelisks and other sculptures, always subject to physicomechanical deterioration and destructive forces, leading to their partial or total broken. The task of reassembling this type of artifact represent a big challenge for the conservators. Recently, the researchers are turning to new technologies to improve the properties of traditional adhesive materials and techniques used in re-assembly of broken large stone. The epoxy resins are used extensively in stone conservation and re-assembly of broken stone because of their outstanding mechanical properties. The introduction of nanoparticles to polymeric adhesives at low percentages may lead to substantial improvements of their mechanical performances in structural joints and large objects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of clay nanoparticles in enhancing the performances of epoxy adhesives used in re-assembly of archaeological massive stone by adding proper amounts of those nanoparticles. The nanoparticles reinforced epoxy nanocomposite was prepared by direct melt mixing with a nanoparticles content of 3% (w/v), and then mould forming in the form of rectangular samples, and used as adhesive for experimental stone samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to investigate the morphology of the prepared nanocomposites, and the distribution of nanoparticles inside the composites. The stability and efficiency of the prepared epoxy-nanocomposites and stone block assemblies with new formulated adhesives were tested by aging artificially the samples under different environmental conditions. The effect of incorporating clay nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of epoxy adhesives was evaluated comparatively before and after aging by measuring the tensile, compressive, and Elongation strength tests. The morphological studies revealed that the mixture process between epoxy and nanoparticles has succeeded with a relatively homogeneous morphology and good dispersion in low nano-particles loadings in epoxy matrix was obtained. The results show that the epoxy-clay nanocomposites exhibited superior tensile, compressive, and Elongation strength. Moreover, a marked improvement of the mechanical properties of stone joints increased in all states by adding nano-clay to epoxy in comparison with pure epoxy resin.

Keywords: epoxy resins, nanocomposites, clay nanoparticles, re-assembly, archaeological massive stones, mechanical properties

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338 Amine Hardeners with Carbon Nanotubes Dispersing Ability for Epoxy Coating Systems

Authors: Szymon Kugler, Krzysztof Kowalczyk, Tadeusz Spychaj


An addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) can simultaneously improve many features of epoxy coatings, i.e. electrical, mechanical, functional and thermal. Unfortunately, this nanofiller negatively affects visual properties of the coatings, such as transparency and gloss. The main reason for the low visual performance of CNT-modified epoxy coatings is the lack of compatibility between CNT and popular amine curing agents, although epoxy resins based on bisphenol A are indisputable good CNT dispersants. This is a serious obstacle in utilization of the coatings in advanced applications, demanding both high transparency and electrical conductivity. The aim of performed investigations was to find amine curing agents exhibiting affinity for CNT, and ensuring good performance of epoxy coatings with them. Commercially available CNT was dispersed in epoxy resin, as well as in different aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and aromatic amines, using one of two dispergation methods: ultrasonic or mechanical. The CNT dispersions were subsequently used in the preparation of epoxy coating compositions and coatings on a transparent substrate. It was found that amine derivative of bio-based cardanol, as well as modified o-tolylbiguanide exhibit significant CNT, dispersing properties, resulting in improved transparent/electroconductive performance of epoxy coatings. In one of prepared coating systems just 0.025 wt.% (250 ppm) of CNT was enough to obtain coatings with semi conductive properties, 83% of transparency as well as perfect chemical resistance to methyl-ethyl ketone and improved thermal stability. Additionally, a theory of the influence of amine chemical structure on CNT dispersing properties was proposed.

Keywords: bio-based cardanol, carbon nanotubes, epoxy coatings, tolylbiguanide

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337 Effect of Oil Shale Alkylresorcinols on Physico-Chemical and Thermal Properties of Polycondensation Resins

Authors: Ana Jurkeviciute, Larisa Grigorieva, Ksenia Moskvinа


Oil shale alkylresorcinols are formed as a by-product in oil shale processing. They are unique raw material for chemical industry. Polycondensation resins obtaining is one of the worthwhile directions of oil shale alkylresorcinols use. These resins are widely applied in many branches of industry such as wood-working, metallurgic, tire, rubber products, construction etc. Possibility of resins obtaining using overall alkylresorcinols will allow to cheapen finished products on their base and to widen the range of resins offered on the market. Synthesis of polycondensation resins on the basis of alkylresorcinols was conducted by several methods in the process of investigations. In the formulations a part of resorcinol was replaced by fractions of oil shale alkylresorcinols containing different amount of 5-methylresorcinol (40-80 mass %). Some resins were modified by aromatic alkene at the stage of synthesis. Thermal stability and degradation behavior of resins were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method both in an inert nitrogen environment and in an oxidative environment of air. TGA integral curves were obtained and processed in dynamic mode for interval of temperatures from 25 to 830 °C. Rate of temperature rise was 5°C/min, gas flow rate - 50 ml/min. Resins power for carbonization was evaluated by carbon residue. Physical-chemical parameters of the resins were determined. Content of resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinol not reacted in the process of synthesis were determined by gas chromatography method.

Keywords: resorcinol, oil shale alkylresorcinols, aromatic alkene, polycondensation resins, modified resins

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336 Substitution of Formaldehyde in Phenolic Resins with Innovative and Bio-Based Vanillin Derived Compounds

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Ghislain David


Phenolic resins are industrially used in a wide range of applications from commodity and construction materials to high-technology aerospace industry. They are mainly produced from the reaction between phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. Nevertheless, formaldehyde is a highly volatile and hazardous compound, classified as a Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reprotoxic chemical (CMR). Vanillin is a bio-based and non-toxic aromatic aldehyde compound obtained from the abundant lignin resources. Also, its aromaticity is very interesting for the synthesis of phenolic resins with high thermal stability. However, because of the relatively low reactivity of its aldehyde function toward phenolic compounds, it has never been used to synthesize phenolic resins. We developed innovative functionalization reactions and designed new bio-based aromatic aldehyde compounds from vanillin. Those innovative compounds present improved reactivity toward phenolic compounds compared to vanillin. Moreover, they have target structures to synthesize highly cross-linked phenolic resins with high aromatic densities. We have obtained phenolic resins from substituted vanillin, thus without the use of any aldehyde compound classified as CMR. The analytical tests of the cured resins confirmed that those bio-based resins exhibit high levels of performance with high thermal stability and high rigidity properties

Keywords: phenolic resins, formaldehyde-free, vanillin, bio-based, non-toxic

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
335 The Effect of Mixing and Degassing Conditions on the Properties of Epoxy/Anhydride Resin System

Authors: Latha Krishnan, Andrew Cobley


Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Also, the changes in the mechanical properties of the cured resin were studied by three-point bending test. It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.

Keywords: anhydride epoxy, curing behaviour, degassing, void occurrence

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
334 Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Modified Epoxy Resin for Pipeline Repair

Authors: Siti Nur Afifah Azraai, Lim Kar Sing, Nordin Yahaya, Norhazilan Md Noor


This experimental study consists of a characterization of epoxy grout where an amount of 2% of graphene nanoplatelets particles were added to commercial epoxy resin to evaluate their behavior regarding neat epoxy resin. Compressive tests, tensile tests and flexural tests were conducted to study the effect of graphene nanoplatelets on neat epoxy resin. By comparing graphene-based and neat epoxy grout, there is no significant increase of strength due to weak interface in the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy composites. From this experiment, the tension and flexural strength of graphene-based epoxy grouts is slightly lower than ones of neat epoxy grout. Nevertheless, the addition of graphene has produced more consistent results according to a smaller standard deviation of strength. Furthermore, the graphene has also improved the ductility of the grout, hence reducing its brittle behaviour. This shows that the performance of graphene-based grout is reliably predictable and able to minimize sudden rupture. This is important since repair design of damaged pipeline is of deterministic nature.

Keywords: composite, epoxy resin, graphene nanoplatelets, pipeline

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333 Newly Developed Epoxy-Polyol and Epoxy- Polyurethane from Renewable Resources

Authors: Akintayo Emmanuel Temitope, Akintayo Cecilia Olufunke, Ziegler Thomas


Bio-polyols are important components in polyurethane industries. The preliminary studies into the synthesis of bio-polyol products (epoxy-polyol and epoxyl-polyurethanes) from Jatropha curcas were investigated. The reactions were followed by both infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance. Physico-chemical characterisation of the samples for iodine value (IV), acid value (AV), saponification value (SV) and hydroxyl value (HV) were carried out. Thermal transitions of the products were studied by heating 5 mg of the sample from 20ºC to 800ºC and then cooling down to -500ºC on a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The preparation of epoxylpolyol and polyurethane from Jatropha curcas oil was smooth and efficient. Results of film and solubility properties revealed that coatings of Jatropha curcas epoxy-polyurethanes performed better with increased loading of toluylene 2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) up to 2 wt% while their solvent resistance decreased beyond a TDI loading of 1.2 wt%. DSC analysis shows the epoxy-polyurethane to be less stable compared to the epoxy-polyol.

Keywords: synthesis, epoxy-polyol, epoxy-polyurethane, jatropha curcas oil

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332 Polyampholytic Resins: Advances in Ion Exchanging Properties

Authors: N. P. G. N. Chandrasekara, R. M. Pashley


Ion exchange (IEX) resins are commonly available as cationic or anionic resins but not as polyampholytic resins. This is probably because sequential acid and base washing cannot produce complete regeneration of polyampholytic resins with chemically attached anionic and cationic groups in close proximity. The ‘Sirotherm’ process, developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) in Melbourne, Australia was originally based on the use of a physical mixture of weakly basic (WB) and weakly acidic (WA) ion-exchange resin beads. These resins were regenerated thermally and they were capable of removing salts from an aqueous solution at higher temperatures compared to the salt sorbed at ambient temperatures with a significant reduction of the sorption capacity with increasing temperature. A new process for the efficient regeneration of mixed bead resins using ammonium bicarbonate with heat was studied recently and this chemical/thermal regeneration technique has the capability for completely regenerating polyampholytic resins. Even so, the low IEX capacities of polyampholytic resins restrict their commercial applications. Recently, we have established another novel process for increasing the IEX capacity of a typical polyampholytic resin. In this paper we will discuss the chemical/thermal regeneration of a polyampholytic (WA/WB) resin and a novel process for enhancing its ion exchange capacity, by increasing its internal pore area. We also show how effective this method is for completely recycled regeneration, with the potential of substantially reducing chemical waste.

Keywords: capacity, ion exchange, polyampholytic resin, regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
331 Influence of Degassing on the Curing Behaviour and Void Occurrence Properties of Epoxy / Anhydride Resin System

Authors: Latha Krishnan, Andrew Cobley


Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the amount of void, void geometry and void fraction were also investigated using an optical microscope and image J software (image analysis software). It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.

Keywords: anhydride epoxy, curing behaviour, degassing, void occurrence

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
330 Effect of TEOS Electrospun Nanofiber Modified Resin on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite

Authors: Dattaji K. Shinde, Ajit D. Kelkar


Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of fiber reinforced polymer composite is an important property for most of the structural applications. Matrix modification is an effective method used to improve the interlaminar shear strength of composite. In this paper, EPON 862/w epoxy system was modified using Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) which were produced using electrospinning method. Unmodified and nanofibers modified resins were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP) using H-VARTM method. The ILSS of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites (GFRP) was investigated. The study shows that introduction of TEOS ENFs in the epoxy resin enhanced the ILSS of GFRPby 15% with 0.6% wt. fraction of TEOS ENFs.

Keywords: electrospun nanofibers, H-VARTM, interlaminar shear strength, matrix modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
329 Formation and Characterization of the Epoxy Resin-Porous Glass Interphases

Authors: Aleksander Ostrowski, Hugh J. Byrne, Roland Sanctuary


Investigation of the polymer interphases is an emerging field nowadays. In many cases interphases determine the functionality of a system. There is a great demand for exploration of fundamental understanding of the interphases and elucidation of their formation, dimensions dependent on various influencing factors, change of functional properties, etc. The epoxy applied on porous glass penetrates its pores with an extent dependent on the pore size, temperature and epoxy components mixing ratio. Developed over the recent time challenging sample preparation procedure allowed to produce very smooth epoxy-porous glass cross-sections. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the epoxy-porous glass interphases. It allowed for chemical differentiation between different regions at the cross-section and determination of the degree of cure of epoxy system in the porous glass.

Keywords: interphases, Raman spectroscopy, epoxy, porous glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
328 Characterization of Biocomposites Based on Mussel Shell Wastes

Authors: Suheyla Kocaman, Gulnare Ahmetli, Alaaddin Cerit, Alize Yucel, Merve Gozukucuk


Shell wastes represent a considerable quantity of byproducts in the shellfish aquaculture. From the viewpoint of ecofriendly and economical disposal, it is highly desirable to convert these residues into high value-added products for industrial applications. So far, the utilization of shell wastes was confined at relatively lower levels, e.g. wastewater decontaminant, soil conditioner, fertilizer constituent, feed additive and liming agent. Shell wastes consist of calcium carbonate and organic matrices, with the former accounting for 95-99% by weight. Being the richest source of biogenic CaCO3, shell wastes are suitable to prepare high purity CaCO3 powders, which have been extensively applied in various industrial products, such as paper, rubber, paints and pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the shell waste could be further processed to be the filler of polymer composites. This paper presents a study on the potential use of mussel shell waste as biofiller to produce the composite materials with different epoxy matrices, such as bisphenol-A type, CTBN modified and polyurethane modified epoxy resins. Morphology and mechanical properties of shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material. The effects of shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. It was shown that in all composites, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values increase with the increase of mussel shell particles content from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, while the elongation at break decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. The highest Young’s modulus values were determined for bisphenol-A type epoxy composites.

Keywords: biocomposite, epoxy resin, mussel shell, mechanical properties

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327 Proposition Model of Micromechanical Damage to Predict Reduction in Stiffness of a Fatigued A-SMC Composite

Authors: Houssem Ayari


Sheet molding compounds (SMC) are high strength thermoset moulding materials reinforced with glass treated with thermocompression. SMC composites combine fibreglass resins and polyester/phenolic/vinyl and unsaturated acrylic to produce a high strength moulding compound. These materials are usually formulated to meet the performance requirements of the moulding part. In addition, the vinyl ester resins used in the new advanced SMC systems (A-SMC) have many desirable features, including mechanical properties comparable to epoxy, excellent chemical resistance and tensile resistance, and cost competitiveness. In this paper, a proposed model is used to take into account the Young modulus evolutions of advanced SMC systems (A-SMC) composite under fatigue tests. The proposed model and the used approach are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: composites SFRC, damage, fatigue, Mori-Tanaka

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326 Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Nano TiO2 and Clay Filler Filled Epoxy Composites

Authors: A. Mimaroglu, H. Unal


In this study, the mechanical properties of nano filled epoxy composites were evaluated. The matrix material is epoxy. nano fillers are Al2O3, TiO2 and clay added in 2.5- 10 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Mechanical tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the filler content had a high influence on the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites.

Keywords: nano, epoxy, composite, fillers, clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
325 Effect of Epoxy-ZrP Nanocomposite Top Coating on Inorganic Barrier Layer

Authors: Haesook Kim, Ha Na Ra, Mansu Kim, Hyun Gi Kim, Sung Soo Kim


Epoxy-ZrP (α-zirconium phosphate) nanocomposites were coated on inorganic barrier layer such as sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD) to improve the barrier properties and protect the layer. ZrP nanoplatelets were synthesized using a reflux method and exfoliated in the polymer matrix. The barrier properties of coating layer were characterized by measuring water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). The WVTR dramatically decreased after epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite coating, while maintaining the optical properties. It was also investigated the effect of epoxy-ZrP coating on inorganic layer after bending and reliability test. The optimal structure composed of inorganic and epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite layers was used in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) encapsulation.

Keywords: α-zirconium phosphate, barrier properties, epoxy nanocomposites, OLED encapsulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
324 Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of MWCNTs-Modified Epoxy Resin

Authors: M. Dehghan, R. Al-Mahaidi, I. Sbarski


An industrial epoxy adhesive used in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)-strengthening systems was modified by dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanocomposites were fabricated using solvent-assisted dispersion method and ultrasonic mixing. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile tests were conducted to study the effect of nanotubes dispersion on the thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy composite. Experimental results showed a substantial enhancement in the decomposition temperature and tensile properties of epoxy composite, while, the glass transition temperature (Tg) was slightly reduced due to the solvent effect. The morphology of the epoxy nanocomposites was investigated by SEM. It was proved that using solvent improves the nanotubes dispersion. However, at contents higher than 2 wt. %, nanotubes started to re-bundle in the epoxy matrix which negatively affected the final properties of epoxy composite.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymer, epoxy, multi-walled carbon nanotube, DMA, glass transition temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
323 Influence of Micro Fillers Content on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites

Authors: H. Unal, A. Mimaroglu, I. Ozsoy


In this study, the mechanical properties of micro filled epoxy composites were investigated. The matrix material is epoxy. Micro fillers are Al2O3 and TiO2 added in 10-30 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Tensile, three point bending and hardness tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break, flexural strength, flexural modulus and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites is highly influenced by micro filler content.

Keywords: composites, epoxy, fillers, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
322 Dielectric Properties of MWCNT-Muscovite/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Authors: Nur Suraya Anis Ahmad Bakhtiar, Hazizan Md Akil


In the present work, the dielectric properties of Epoxy/MWCNTs-muscovite HYBRID and MIXED composites based on ratio 30:70 were studies. The multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by two method; (a) muscovite-MWCNTs hybrids were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and (b) physically mixing of muscovite with MWCNTs. The effect of different preparations of the composites and filler loading was evaluated. It is revealed that the dielectric constants of HYBRID epoxy composites are slightly higher compared to MIXED epoxy composites. It is also indicated that the dielectric constant increased by increases the MWCNTs filler loading.

Keywords: muscovite, epoxy, dielectric properties, hybrid composite

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321 Physicochemical Characterization of Medium Alkyd Resins Prepared with a Mixture of Linum usitatissimum L. and Plukenetia volubilis L. Oils

Authors: Antonella Hadzich, Santiago Flores


Alkyds have become essential raw materials in the coating and paint industry, due to their low cost, good application properties and lower environmental impact in comparison with petroleum-based polymers. The properties of these oil-modified materials depend on the type of polyunsaturated vegetable oil used for its manufacturing, since a higher degree of unsaturation provides a better crosslinking of the cured paint. Linum usitatissimum L. (flax) oil is widely used to develop alkyd resins due to its high degree of unsaturation. Although it is intended to find non-traditional sources and increase their commercial value, to authors’ best knowledge a natural source that can replace flaxseed oil has not yet been found. However, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, of Peruvian origin, contains a similar fatty acid polyunsaturated content to the one reported for Linum usitatissimum L. oil. In this perspective, medium alkyd resins were prepared with a mixture of 50% of Linum usitatissimum L. oil and 50% of Plukenetia volubilis L. oil. Pure Linum usitatissimum L. oil was also used for comparison purposes. Three different resins were obtained by varying the amount of glycerol and pentaerythritol. The synthesized alkyd resins were characterized by FT-IR, and physicochemical properties like acid value, colour, viscosity, density and drying time were evaluated by standard methods. The pencil hardness and chemical resistance behaviour of the cured resins were also studied. Overall, it can be concluded that medium alkyd resins containing Plukenetia volubilis L. oil have an equivalent behaviour compared to those prepared purely with Linum usitatissimum L. oil. Both Plukenetia volubilis L. oil and pentaerythritol have a remarkable influence on certain physicochemical properties of medium alkyd resins.

Keywords: alkyd resins, flaxseed oil, pentaerythritol, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, protective coating

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320 Flammability of Banana Fibre Reinforced Epoxy/Sodium Bromate Blend: Investigation of Variation in Mechanical Properties

Authors: S. Badrinarayanan, R. Vimal, H. Sivaraman, P. Deepak, R. Vignesh Kumar, A. Ponshanmugakumar


In the present study, the flammability properties of banana fibre reinforced epoxy/ sodium bromate blended composites are studied. Two sets of composite material were prepared, one formed by blending sodium bromate with epoxy matrix and other with neat epoxy matrix. Epoxy resin was blended with various weight fractions of sodium bromate, 4%, 8% and 12%. The composite made with plain epoxy matrix was used as the standard reference material. The mechanical tests, heat deflection tests and flammability tests were carried out on all the composite samples. Flammability test shows the improved flammability properties of the sodium bromated banana-epoxy composite. The modification in flammability properties of the composites by the addition of sodium bromate results in the reduced mechanical properties. The fractured surfaces under various mechanical testing were analysed using morphological analysis done using scanning electron microscope.

Keywords: banana fibres, epoxy resin, sodium bromate, flammability test, heat deflection

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319 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki


This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nano tubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: CNT, epoxy, carbon fiber, RC columns

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318 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar


In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane

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317 Nanotechnology for Flame Retardancy of Thermoset Resins

Authors: Ewa Kicko Walczak, Grazyna Rymarz


In recent years, nanotechnology has been successfully applied for flame retardancy of polymers, in particular for construction materials. The consumption of thermoset resins as a construction polymers materials is approximately over one million tone word wide. Excellent mechanical, relatively high heat and thermal stability of their type of polymers are proven for variety applications, e.g. transportation, electrical, electronic, building part industry. Above applications in addition to the strength and thermal properties also requires -referring to the legal regulation or recommendation - an adequate level of flammability of the materials. This publication present the evaluation was made of effectiveness of flame retardancy of halogen-free hybrid flame retardants(FR) as compounds nitric/phosphorus modifiers that act with nanofillers (nano carbons, organ modified montmorillonite, nano silica, microsphere) in relation to unsaturated polyester/epoxy resins and glass-reinforced on base this resins laminates(GRP) as a final products. The analysis of the fire properties provided proof of effective flame retardancy of the tested composites by defining oxygen indices values (LOI), with the use of thermogravimetric methods (TGA) and combustion head (CH). An analysis of the combustion process with Cone Calorimeter (CC) method included in the first place N/P units and nanofillers with the observed phenomenon of synergic action of compounds. The fine-plates, phase morphology and rheology of composites were assessed by SEM/ TEM analysis. Polymer-matrix glass reinforced laminates with modified resins meet LOI over 30%, reduced in a decrease by 70% HRR (according to CC analysis), positive description of the curves TGA and values CH; no adverse negative impact on mechanical properties. The main objective of our current project is to contribute to the general understanding of the flame retardants mechanism and to investigate the corresponding structure/properties relationships. We confirm that nanotechnology systems are successfully concept for commercialized forms for non-flammable GRP pipe, concrete composites, and flame retardant tunnels constructions.

Keywords: fire retardants, FR, halogen-free FR nanofillers, non-flammable pipe/concrete, thermoset resins

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316 Interfacial Reactions between Aromatic Polyamide Fibers and Epoxy Matrix

Authors: Khodzhaberdi Allaberdiev


In order to understand the interactions on the interface polyamide fibers and epoxy matrix in fiber- reinforced composites were investigated industrial aramid fibers: armos, svm, terlon using individual epoxy matrix components, epoxies: diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), three- and diglycidyl derivatives of m, p-amino-, m, p-oxy-, o, m,p-carboxybenzoic acids, the models: curing agent, aniline and the compound, that depict of the structure the primary addition reaction the amine to the epoxy resin, N-di (oxyethylphenoxy) aniline. The chemical structure of the surface of untreated and treated polyamide fibers analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The impregnation of fibers with epoxy matrix components and N-di (oxyethylphenoxy) aniline has been carried out by heating 150˚C (6h). The optimum fiber loading is at 65%.The result a thermal treatment is the covalent bonds formation , derived from a combined of homopolymerization and crosslinking mechanisms in the interfacial region between the epoxy resin and the surface of fibers. The reactivity of epoxy resins on interface in microcomposites (MC) also depends from processing aids treated on surface of fiber and the absorbance moisture. The influences these factors as evidenced by the conversion of epoxy groups values in impregnated with DGEBA of the terlons: industrial, dried (in vacuum) and purified samples: 5.20 %, 4.65% and 14.10%, respectively. The same tendency for svm and armos fibers is observed. The changes in surface composition of these MC were monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the case of the purified fibers, functional groups of fibers act as well as a catalyst and curing agent of epoxy resin. It is found that the value of the epoxy groups conversion for reinforced formulations depends on aromatic polyamides nature and decreases in the order: armos >svm> terlon. This difference is due of the structural characteristics of fibers. The interfacial interactions also examined between polyglycidyl esters substituted benzoic acids and polyamide fibers in the MC. It is found that on interfacial interactions these systems influences as well as the structure and the isomerism of epoxides. The IR-spectrum impregnated fibers with aniline showed that the polyamide fibers appreciably with aniline do not react. FTIR results of treated fibers with N-di (oxyethylphenoxy) aniline fibers revealed dramatically changes IR-characteristic of the OH groups of the amino alcohol. These observations indicated hydrogen bondings and covalent interactions between amino alcohol and functional groups of fibers. This result also confirms appearance of the exo peak on Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) curve of the MC. Finally, the theoretical evaluation non-covalent interactions between individual epoxy matrix components and fibers has been performed using the benzanilide and its derivative contaning the benzimidazole moiety as a models of terlon and svm,armos, respectively. Quantum-topological analysis also demonstrated the existence hydrogen bond between amide group of models and epoxy matrix components.All the results indicated that on the interface polyamide fibers and epoxy matrix exist not only covalent, but and non-covalent the interactions during the preparation of MC.

Keywords: epoxies, interface, modeling, polyamide fibers

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315 Self-Assembling Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets on β-FeOOH Nanorods for Reducing Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin

Authors: Wei Wang, Yuan Hu


Epoxy resins (EP), one of the most important thermosetting polymers, is widely applied in various fields due to its desirable properties, such as excellent electrical insulation, low shrinkage, outstanding mechanical stiffness, satisfactory adhesion and solvent resistance. However, like most of the polymeric materials, EP has the fatal drawbacks including inherent flammability and high yield of toxic smoke, which restricts its application in the fields requiring fire safety. So, it is still a challenge and an interesting subject to develop new flame retardants which can not only remarkably improve the flame retardancy, but also render modified resins low toxic gases generation. In recent work, polymer nanocomposites based on nanohybrids that contain two or more kinds of nanofillers have drawn intensive interest, which can realize performance enhancements. The realization of previous hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and molybdenum disulfide provides us a novel route to decorate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets on the surface of β-FeOOH nanorods; the deposited LDH nanosheets can fill the network and promote the work efficiency of β-FeOOH nanorods. Moreover, the synergistic effects between LDH and β-FeOOH can be anticipated to have potential applications in reducing fire hazards of EP composites for the combination of condense-phase and gas-phase mechanism. As reported, β-FeOOH nanorods can act as a core to prepare hybrid nanostructures combining with other nanoparticles through electrostatic attraction through layer-by-layer assembly technique. In this work, LDH nanosheets wrapped β-FeOOH nanorods (LDH-β-FeOOH) hybrids was synthesized by a facile method, with the purpose of combining the characteristics of one dimension (1D) and two dimension (2D), to improve the fire resistance of epoxy resin. The hybrids showed a well dispersion in EP matrix and had no obvious aggregation. Thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimeter tests confirmed that LDH-β-FeOOH hybrids into EP matrix with a loading of 3% could obviously improve the fire safety of EP composites. The plausible flame retardancy mechanism was explored by thermogravimetric infrared (TG-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reasons were concluded: condense-phase and gas-phase. Nanofillers were transferred to the surface of matrix during combustion, which could not only shield EP matrix from external radiation and heat feedback from the fire zone, but also efficiently retard transport of oxygen and flammable pyrolysis.

Keywords: fire hazards, toxic gases, self-assembly, epoxy

Procedia PDF Downloads 73