Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2105

Search results for: relative humidity

2105 Effect of Relative Humidity on Corrosion Behavior of SN-0.7Cu Solder under Polyvinyl Chloride Fire Smoke Atmosphere

Authors: Qian Li, Shouxiang Lu


With the rapid increase in electric power use, wire and cable fire occur more and more frequent. The fire smoke has a corrosive effect on the solders, which seriously affects the function of electronic equipment. In this research, the effect of environment relative humidity on corrosion behavior of Sn-0.7Cu solder has been researched under 140 g·m⁻³ polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire smoke atmosphere. The mass loss of Sn-0.7Cu solder increased with the relative humidity. Furthermore, the microstructures and corrosion mechanism were analyzed by using SEM, EDS, XRD, and XPS. The result shows that Sn₂₁Cl₁₆(OH)₁₄O₆ is the main corrosion products and the corrosion process is an electrochemical reaction. The present work could provide guidance to the risk assessment for electronic equipment rescue after a fire.

Keywords: corrosion, fire smoke, relative humidity, Sn-0.7Cu solder

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
2104 Indoor Microclimate in a Historic Library: Considerations on the Positive Effect of Historic Books on the Stability of Indoor Relative Humidity

Authors: Magda Posani, Maria Do Rosario Veiga, Vasco Peixoto De Freitas


The presented research considers the hygrothermal data acquired in the municipal library of Porto. The library is housed in an XVIII century convent and, among all the rooms in the construction, one, in particular, was chosen for the monitoring campaign because of the presence of a great number of historic books. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as CO₂ concentration, were measured for six consecutive months, in the period December 24th - June 24th. The indoor environment of the building is controlled with a heating and cooling system that is turned on only during the opening hours of the library. The ventilation rate is low because the windows are kept closed, and there is no forced ventilation. The micro-climate is analyzed in terms of users’ comfort and degradation risks for historic books and valuable building surfaces. Through a comparison between indoor and outdoor measured hygrothermal data, indoor relative humidity appears very stable. The influence of the hygroscopicity of books on the stabilization of indoor relative humidity is therefore investigated in detail. The paper finally discusses the benefits given by the presence of historic books in libraries with intermittent heating and cooling. The possibility of obtaining a comfortable and stable indoor climate with low use of HVAC systems in these conditions, while avoiding degradation risks for books and historic building components, is further debated.

Keywords: books, historic buildings, hygroscopicity, relative humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
2103 Study of Some Epidemiological Factors Influencing the Disease Incidence in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Muhammad Asim Nazir


The investigations reported in this manuscript were carried on the screening of one hundred and seventy-eight chickpea germplasm lines/cultivars against wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. The screening was conducted in vivo (field) conditions. The field screening was accompanied with the study of some epidemiological factors affecting the occurrence and severity of the disease. Among the epidemiological factors maximum temperature range (28-40°C), minimum temperature range (12-24°C), relative humidity (19-44%), soil temperature (26-41°C) and soil moisture range (19-34°C) was studied for affecting the disease incidence/severity. The results revealed that air temperature was positively correlated with diseases. Soil temperature data revealed that in all cultivars disease incidence was maximum as 39°C. Most of the plants show 40-50% disease incidence. Disease incidence decreased at 33.5°C. The result of correlation of relative humidity of air and wilt incidence revealed that all cultivars/lines were negatively correlated with relative humidity. With increasing relative humidity wilt incidence decreased and vice versa.

Keywords: chickpea, epidemiological, screening, disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
2102 Termite Brick Temperature and Relative Humidity by Continuous Monitoring Technique

Authors: Khalid Abdullah Alshuhail, Syrif Junidi, Ideisan Abu-Abdoum, Abdulsalam Aldawoud


For the intention of reducing energy consumption, a proposed construction brick was made of imitation termite mound soil referred here as termite brick (TB). To calculate the thermal performance, a real case model was constructed by using this biomimetic brick for testing purposes. This paper aims at investigating the thermal performance of this brick during different climatic months. Its thermal behaviour was thoroughly studied over the course of four months by using continuous method (CMm). The main parameters were focused on temperature and relative humidity. It was found that the TB does not perform similarly in all four months and/or in all orientations. Each four-month model study was deeply analyzed. By using the CMm method, the model was also examined. The measuring period shows generally that internal temperature and internal humidity are higher in the roof within 2 degrees and lowest at north wall orientation. The relative humidity was also investigated systematically. The paper reveals more interesting findings.

Keywords: building material, continious monitoring, orientation, wall, temprature

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
2101 Gate Voltage Controlled Humidity Sensing Using MOSFET of VO2 Particles

Authors: A. A. Akande, B. P. Dhonge, B. W. Mwakikunga, A. G. J. Machatine


This article presents gate-voltage controlled humidity sensing performance of vanadium dioxide nanoparticles prepared from NH4VO3 precursor using microwave irradiation technique. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and Raman analyses reveal the formation of VO2 (B) with V2O5 and an amorphous phase. The BET surface area is found to be 67.67 m2/g. The humidity sensing measurements using the patented lateral-gate MOSFET configuration was carried out. The results show the optimum response at 5 V up to 8 V of gate voltages for 10 to 80% of relative humidity. The dose-response equation reveals the enhanced resilience of the gated VO2 sensor which may saturate above 272% humidity. The response and recovery times are remarkably much faster (about 60 s) than in non-gated VO2 sensors which normally show response and recovery times of the order of 5 minutes (300 s).

Keywords: VO2, VO2(B), MOSFET, gate voltage, humidity sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2100 Energy Saving in Handling the Air-Conditioning Latent-Load Using a Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner: Parametric Experimental Analysis

Authors: Mustafa Jaradat


Reasonable energy saving for dehumidification is feasible with the use of desiccants. Desiccants are able to lower the humidity content in the air irrespective of the dew point temperature. In this paper, a tube bundle liquid desiccant air conditioner was experimentally designed and evaluated using lithium chloride as a desiccant. Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of the inlet parameters on the dehumidifier performance. The results show a reduction in the relative humidity in the range of 17 to 46%, and the change in the humidity ratio was between 1.5 to 4.7 g/kg, depending on the inlet conditions. A water removal rate in the range between 0.54 and 1.67 kg/h was observed. The effects of air relative humidity and the desiccant flow rate on the dehumidifier’s performance were investigated. It was found that the moisture removal rate remarkably increased with increasing desiccant flow rate and air inlet humidity ratio. The dehumidifier effectiveness increased sharply with increasing desiccant flow rate. Also, it was found that the dehumidifier effectiveness slightly decreased with air humidity ratio.

Keywords: air conditioning, dehumidification, desiccant, lithium chloride, tube bundle

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
2099 Higher Relative Humidity from Pipping Increases Physical Problems in the Broiler Chicks

Authors: M. A. Nogueira, M. Thimotheo, G. C. Ripamonte, S. C. C. Aguiar, M. H. S. Ulian, J. C. Goncalves Netto, I. C. Boleli


Increasing in the relative humidity during the last incubation day is a usual practice in the commercial hatchery to facilitate hatching. This study analyzed whether higher relative humidity improves eclodibility as well as chick quality, and alters the hatch window. Fertile eggs (65- 67g) produced by 53 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®) were incubated at 37.5°C and 31°C in the wet bulb in incubators with automatic control of temperature and egg turning (1 each hour). Two-hundred ten were distributed randomly in three treatments: 31°C in the wet bulb from internal pipping (BI-31), 33°C from internal pipping (BI-33), and 33°C from external pipping (BE-33), all three hatchers maintained at 37.5°C and without egg turning. For this, eggs were checked for internal pipping by ovoscopy and external pipping by visual observation through the transparent cover of the incubators each hour from day 18 of incubation. No significant differences in the hatchability (BI-31:79.61%, BI-33:77.63%, BE-33:80.77%; by Q-square test, P > 0.05). Absence of significant effects of the treatments were also observed for incubation duration (BI-31:488.58 h, BI-33:488.30 h, BE-33:489.04 h), and chick body weight (BI-31: 49.40g, BI-33: 49.74g, BE-33: 49.34g) and quality scores (BI-31: 90.02, BI-33: 87.56, BE-33: 92.28 points), by variance analysis (P > 0.05). However, BI-33 increased the incidence of feathering and leg problems and remaining of alantoic membrane, and BE-33 increased the incidence of problems with feathering, navel and yolk sac and reduced the leg problems, compared to BI-31. In sum, the results show higher relative humidity from internal or external pipping did not influence hatchability and incubation duration, but reduced chick quality, affecting the incubation efficiency.

Keywords: chick quality, hatchability, hatcher humidity, incubation duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2098 Experimental Investigation of Counter-Flow Ranque–Hilsch Vortex Tube Using Humid Air

Authors: Hussein M. Maghrabie, M. Attalla, Hany. A. Mohamed, M. Salem, E. Specht


An experimental investigation is carried out on counter-flow Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT). The present work is carried out to study the effect of nozzle aspect ratio, tube length and the inlet pressure (P_i) on the coefficient of performance and energy separation of a RHVT. Further, the effect of moist air with different relative humidity (RH) 40, 60, 80 % is also achieved. The air relative humidity is adjusted using air humidification/dehumidification unit. The experimental study accomplished for number of nozzle N=6, with inner diameter D=7.5 mm., and length of the vortex tube (L) 75, 97.5, and 112.5 mm. The results show that the relative humidity has a significant effect on coefficient of performance and energy separation of a RHVT.

Keywords: COP, counter-flow Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube, energy separation, humid air

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
2097 Comfort Sensor Using Fuzzy Logic and Arduino

Authors: Samuel John, S. Sharanya


Automation has become an important part of our life. It has been used to control home entertainment systems, changing the ambience of rooms for different events etc. One of the main parameters to control in a smart home is the atmospheric comfort. Atmospheric comfort mainly includes temperature and relative humidity. In homes, the desired temperature of different rooms varies from 20 °C to 25 °C and relative humidity is around 50%. However, it varies widely. Hence, automated measurement of these parameters to ensure comfort assumes significance. To achieve this, a fuzzy logic controller using Arduino was developed using MATLAB. Arduino is an open source hardware consisting of a 24 pin ATMEGA chip (atmega328), 14 digital input /output pins and an inbuilt ADC. It runs on 5v and 3.3v power supported by a board voltage regulator. Some of the digital pins in Aruduino provide PWM (pulse width modulation) signals, which can be used in different applications. The Arduino platform provides an integrated development environment, which includes support for c, c++ and java programming languages. In the present work, soft sensor was introduced in this system that can indirectly measure temperature and humidity and can be used for processing several measurements these to ensure comfort. The Sugeno method (output variables are functions or singleton/constant, more suitable for implementing on microcontrollers) was used in the soft sensor in MATLAB and then interfaced to the Arduino, which is again interfaced to the temperature and humidity sensor DHT11. The temperature-humidity sensor DHT11 acts as the sensing element in this system. Further, a capacitive humidity sensor and a thermistor were also used to support the measurement of temperature and relative humidity of the surrounding to provide a digital signal on the data pin. The comfort sensor developed was able to measure temperature and relative humidity correctly. The comfort percentage was calculated and accordingly the temperature in the room was controlled. This system was placed in different rooms of the house to ensure that it modifies the comfort values depending on temperature and relative humidity of the environment. Compared to the existing comfort control sensors, this system was found to provide an accurate comfort percentage. Depending on the comfort percentage, the air conditioners and the coolers in the room were controlled. The main highlight of the project is its cost efficiency.

Keywords: arduino, DHT11, soft sensor, sugeno

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
2096 Long-Term Indoor Air Monitoring for Students with Emphasis on Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Exposure

Authors: Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, Jamshid Yazdani, Syavash Etemadi Nejad


One of the main indoor air parameters in classrooms is dust pollution and it depends on the particle size and exposure duration. However, there is a lake of data about the exposure level to PM2.5 concentrations in rural area classrooms. The objective of the current study was exposure assessment for PM2.5 for students in the classrooms. One year monitoring was carried out for fifteen schools by time-series sampling to evaluate the indoor air PM2.5 in the rural district of Sari city, Iran. A hygrometer and thermometer were used to measure some psychrometric parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) and Real-Time Dust Monitor, (MicroDust Pro, Casella, UK) was used to monitor particulate matters (PM2.5) concentration. The results show the mean indoor PM2.5 concentration in the studied classrooms was 135µg/m3. The regression model indicated that a positive correlation between indoor PM2.5 concentration and relative humidity, also with distance from city center and classroom size. Meanwhile, the regression model revealed that the indoor PM2.5 concentration, the relative humidity, and dry bulb temperature was significant at 0.05, 0.035, and 0.05 levels, respectively. A statistical predictive model was obtained from multiple regressions modeling for indoor PM2.5 concentration and indoor psychrometric parameters conditions.

Keywords: classrooms, concentration, humidity, particulate matters, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
2095 Analysis and Measurement on Indoor Environment of University Dormitories

Authors: Xuechen Gui, Senmiao Li, Qi Kan


Dormitory is a place for college students to study and live their daily life. The indoor environment quality of the dormitory is closely related to the physical health, mood status and work efficiency of the dormitory students. In this paper, the temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration of the dormitory in Zijingang campus of Zhejiang University have been tested for three days. The experimental results show that the concentration of carbon dioxide is related to the size of the window opens and the number of dormitory staff, and presents a high concentration of carbon dioxide at nighttime while a low concentration at daytime. In terms of temperature and humidity, there is no significant difference between different orientation and time and presents a small humidity at daytime while a high humidity at nighttime.

Keywords: dormitory, indoor environment, temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
2094 Determination of the Relative Humidity Profiles in an Internal Micro-Climate Conditioned Using Evaporative Cooling

Authors: M. Bonello, D. Micallef, S. P. Borg


Driven by increased comfort standards, but at the same time high energy consciousness, energy-efficient space cooling has become an essential aspect of building design. Its aims are simple, aiming at providing satisfactory thermal comfort for individuals in an interior space using low energy consumption cooling systems. In this context, evaporative cooling is both an energy-efficient and an eco-friendly cooling process. In the past two decades, several academic studies have been performed to determine the resulting thermal comfort produced by an evaporative cooling system, including studies on temperature profiles, air speed profiles, effect of clothing and personnel activity. To the best knowledge of the authors, no studies have yet considered the analysis of relative humidity (RH) profiles in a space cooled using evaporative cooling. Such a study will determine the effect of different humidity levels on a person's thermal comfort and aid in the consequent improvement designs of such future systems. Under this premise, the research objective is to characterise the resulting different RH profiles in a chamber micro-climate using the evaporative cooling system in which the inlet air speed, temperature and humidity content are varied. The chamber shall be modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in ANSYS Fluent. Relative humidity shall be modelled using a species transport model while the k-ε RNG formulation is the proposed turbulence model that is to be used. The model shall be validated with measurements taken using an identical test chamber in which tests are to be conducted under the different inlet conditions mentioned above, followed by the verification of the model's mesh and time step. The verified and validated model will then be used to simulate other inlet conditions which would be impractical to conduct in the actual chamber. More details of the modelling and experimental approach will be provided in the full paper The main conclusions from this work are two-fold: the micro-climatic relative humidity spatial distribution within the room is important to consider in the context of investigating comfort at occupant level; and the investigation of a human being's thermal comfort (based on Predicted Mean Vote – Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied [PMV-PPD] values) and its variation with different locations of relative humidity values. The study provides the necessary groundwork for investigating the micro-climatic RH conditions of environments cooled using evaporative cooling. Future work may also target the analysis of ways in which evaporative cooling systems may be improved to better the thermal comfort of human beings, specifically relating to the humidity content around a sedentary person.

Keywords: chamber micro-climate, evaporative cooling, relative humidity, thermal comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2093 Passive Heat Exchanger for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cooling

Authors: Ivan Tolj


Water produced during electrochemical reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell can be used for internal humidification of reactant gases; hydrogen and air. On such a way it is possible to eliminate expensive external humidifiers and simplify fuel cell balance-of-plant (BoP). When fuel cell operates at constant temperature (usually between 60 °C and 80 °C) relatively cold and dry ambient air heats up quickly upon entering channels which cause further drop in relative humidity (below 20%). Low relative humidity of reactant gases dries up polymer membrane and decrease its proton conductivity which results in fuel cell performance drop. It is possible to maintain such temperature profile throughout fuel cell cathode channel which will result in close to 100 % RH. In order to achieve this, passive heat exchanger was designed using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent). Such passive heat exchanger (with variable surface area) is suitable for small scale PEM fuel cells. In this study, passive heat exchanger for single PEM fuel cell segment (with 20 x 1 cm active area) was developed. Results show close to 100 % RH of air throughout cathode channel with increased fuel cell performance (mainly improved polarization curve) and improved durability.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, passive heat exchange, relative humidity, thermal management

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2092 Effects of Environmental Parameters on Salmonella Contaminated in Harvested Oysters (Crassostrea lugubris and Crassostrea belcheri)

Authors: Varangkana Thaotumpitak, Jarukorn Sripradite, Saharuetai Jeamsripong


Environmental contamination from wastewater discharges originated from anthropogenic activities introduces the accumulation of enteropathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals, especially in oysters, and in shellfish harvesting areas. The consumption of raw or partially cooked oysters can be a risk for seafood-borne diseases in human. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of Salmonella in oyster meat samples, and environmental factors (ambient air temperature, relative humidity, gust wind speed, average wind speed, tidal condition, precipitation and season) by using the principal component analysis (PCA). One hundred and forty-four oyster meat samples were collected from four oyster harvesting areas in Phang Nga province, Thailand from March 2016 to February 2017. The prevalence of Salmonella of each site was ranged from 25.0-36.11% in oyster meat. The results of PCA showed that ambient air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation were main factors correlated with Salmonella detection in these oysters. Positive relationship was observed between positive Salmonella in the oysters and relative humidity (PC1=0.413) and precipitation (PC1=0.607), while the negative association was found between ambient air temperature (PC1=0.338) and the presence of Salmonella in oyster samples. These results suggested that lower temperature and higher precipitation and higher relative humidity will possibly effect on Salmonella contamination of oyster meat. During the high risk period, harvesting of oysters should be prohibited to reduce pathogenic bacteria contamination and to minimize a hazard of humans from Salmonellosis.

Keywords: oyster, Phang Nga Bay, principal component analysis, Salmonella

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
2091 The Impact of Vertical Velocity Parameter Conditions and Its Relationship with Weather Parameters in the Hail Event

Authors: Nadine Ayasha


Hail happened in Sukabumi (August 23, 2020), Sekadau (August 22, 2020), and Bogor (September 23, 2020), where this extreme weather phenomenon occurred in the dry season. This study uses the ERA5 reanalysis model data, it aims to examine the vertical velocity impact on the hail occurrence in the dry season, as well as its relation to other weather parameters such as relative humidity, streamline, and wind velocity. Moreover, HCAI product satellite data is used as supporting data for the convective cloud development analysis. Based on the results of graphs, contours, and Hovmoller vertical cut from ERA5 modeling, the vertical velocity values in the 925 Mb-300 Mb layer in Sukabumi, Sekadau, and Bogor before the hail event ranged between -1.2-(-0.2), -1.5-(-0.2), -1-0 Pa/s. A negative value indicates that there is an upward motion from the air mass that trigger the convective cloud growth, which produces hail. It is evidenced by the presence of Cumulonimbus cloud on HCAI product when the hail falls. Therefore, the vertical velocity has significant effect on the hail event. In addition, the relative humidity in the 850-700 Mb layer is quite wet, which ranges from 80-90%. Meanwhile, the streamline and wind velocity in the three regions show the convergence with slowing wind velocity ranging from 2-4 knots. These results show that the upward motion of the vertical velocity is enough to form the wet atmospheric humidity and form a convergence for the growth of the convective cloud, which produce hail in the dry season.

Keywords: hail, extreme weather, vertical velocity, relative humidity, streamline

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
2090 Assessment of Personal Level Exposures to Particulate Matter among Children in Rural Preliminary Schools as an Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring

Authors: Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, J. Yazdani, S. M. Asadi, M. Rokni, A. Toosi


There are many indoor air quality studies with an emphasis on indoor particulate matters (PM2.5) monitoring. Whereas, there is a lake of data about indoor PM2.5 concentrations in rural area schools (especially in classrooms), since preliminary children are assumed to be more defenseless to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. The objective of this study was indoor PM2.5 concentration quality assessment. Fifteen preliminary schools by time-series sampling were selected to evaluate the indoor air quality in the rural district of Sari city, Iran. Data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) were measured by a hygrometer and thermometer. Particulate matters (PM2.5) were collected and assessed by Real Time Dust Monitor, (MicroDust Pro, Casella, UK). The mean indoor PM2.5 concentration in the studied classrooms was 135µg/m3 in average. The multiple linear regression revealed that a correlation between PM2.5 concentration and relative humidity, distance from city center and classroom size. Classroom size yields reasonable negative relationship, the PM2.5 concentration was ranged from 65 to 540μg/m3 and statistically significant at 0.05 level and the relative humidity was ranged from 70 to 85% and dry bulb temperature ranged from 28 to 29°C were statistically significant at 0.035 and 0.05 level, respectively. A statistical predictive model was obtained from multiple regressions modeling for PM2.5 and indoor psychrometric parameters.

Keywords: particulate matters, classrooms, regression, concentration, humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
2089 Validation of the Formula for Air Attenuation Coefficient for Acoustic Scale Models

Authors: Katarzyna Baruch, Agata Szelag, Aleksandra Majchrzak, Tadeusz Kamisinski


Methodology of measurement of sound absorption coefficient in scaled models is based on the ISO 354 standard. The measurement is realised indirectly - the coefficient is calculated from the reverberation time of an empty chamber as well as a chamber with an inserted sample. It is crucial to maintain the atmospheric conditions stable during both measurements. Possible differences may be amended basing on the formulas for atmospheric attenuation coefficient α given in ISO 9613-1. Model studies require scaling particular factors in compliance with specified characteristic numbers. For absorption coefficient measurement, these are for example: frequency range or the value of attenuation coefficient m. Thanks to the possibilities of modern electroacoustic transducers, it is no longer a problem to scale the frequencies which have to be proportionally higher. However, it may be problematic to reduce values of the attenuation coefficient. It is practically obtained by drying the air down to a defined relative humidity. Despite the change of frequency range and relative humidity of the air, ISO 9613-1 standard still allows the calculation of the amendment for little differences of the atmospheric conditions in the chamber during measurements. The paper discusses a number of theoretical analyses and experimental measurements performed in order to obtain consistency between the values of attenuation coefficient calculated from the formulas given in the standard and by measurement. The authors performed measurements of reverberation time in a chamber made in a 1/8 scale in a corresponding frequency range, i.e. 800 Hz - 40 kHz and in different values of the relative air humidity (40% 5%). Based on the measurements, empirical values of attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared with theoretical ones. In general, the values correspond with each other, but for high frequencies and low values of relative air humidity the differences are significant. Those discrepancies may directly influence the values of measured sound absorption coefficient and cause errors. Therefore, the authors made an effort to determine an amendment minimizing described inaccuracy.

Keywords: air absorption correction, attenuation coefficient, dimensional analysis, model study, scaled modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
2088 Effect of Climate Change on Runoff in the Upper Mun River Basin, Thailand

Authors: Preeyaphorn Kosa, Thanutch Sukwimolseree


The climate change is a main parameter which affects the element of hydrological cycle especially runoff. Then, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the climate change on surface runoff using land use map on 2008 and daily weather data during January 1, 1979 to September 30, 2010 for SWAT model. SWAT continuously simulate time model and operates on a daily time step at basin scale. The results present that the effect of temperature change cannot be clearly presented on the change of runoff while the rainfall, relative humidity and evaporation are the parameters for the considering of runoff change. If there are the increasing of rainfall and relative humidity, there is also the increasing of runoff. On the other hand, if there is the increasing of evaporation, there is the decreasing of runoff.

Keywords: climate, runoff, SWAT, upper Mun River basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2087 Effect of Seasons and Storage Methods on Seed Quality of Slender Leaf (Crotalaria Sp.) in Western Kenya

Authors: Faith Maina


Slender leaf (Crotalaria brevidens and Crotalaria ochroleuca), African indigenous vegetables, are an important source of nutrients, income and traditional medicines in Kenya. However, their production is constrained by poor quality seed, due to lack of standardized agronomic and storage practices. Factors that affect the quality of seed in storage include the duration of storage, seed moisture, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen pressure during storage, diseases, and pests. These factors vary with the type of storage method used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of various storage methods on seed quality of slender leaf and recommend the best methods of seed storage to the farmers in Western Kenya. Seeds from various morphotypes of slender leaf that had high germination percentage (90%) were stored in pots, jars, brown paper bags and polythene bags in Kakamega and Siaya. Other seeds were also stored in a freezer at the University of Eldoret. In Kakamega County average room temperature was 23°C and relative humidity was 85% during the storage period of May to July 2006. Between December and February 2006 the average room temperature was 26°C while relative humidity was 80% in the same county. In Siaya County, the average room temperature was 25°C and relative humidity was 80% during storage period of May to July 2006. In the same county, the average temperature was 28°C and relative humidity 65% during the period of December and February 2006. Storage duration was 90 days for each season. Seed viability and vigour, was determined for each storage method. Data obtained from storage experiments was subjected to ANOVA and T-tests using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS). Season of growth and storage methods significantly influenced seed quality in Kakamega and Siaya counties. Seeds from the long rains season had higher seed quality than those grown during the short rains season. Generally, seeds stored in pots, brown paper bags, jars and freezer had higher seed quality than those stored in polythene bags. It was concluded that in order to obtain high-quality seeds farmers should store slender leaf seeds in pots or brown paper bags or plastic jars or freezer.

Keywords: Crotalaria sp, seed, quality, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
2086 Modelling the Effects of External Factors Affecting Concrete Carbonation

Authors: Abhishek Mangal, Kunal Tongaria, S. Mandal, Devendra Mohan


Carbonation of reinforced concrete structures has emerged as one of the major challenges for Civil engineers across the world. With increasing emissions from various activities, carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has been eve rising, enhancing its penetration in porous concrete, reaching steel bars and ultimately leading to premature failure. Several literatures have been published dealing with the various interdependent variables related to carbonation. However, with innumerable variability a generalization of these data proves to be a troublesome task. This paper looks into this carbonation anomaly in concrete structures caused by various external variables such as relative humidity, concentration of CO2, curing period and ambient temperature. Significant discussions and comparisons have been presented on the basis of various studies conducted with an aim to predict the depth of carbonation as a function of these multidimensional parameters using various numerical and statistical modelling techniques.

Keywords: carbonation, curing, exposure conditions, relative humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
2085 Onion Storage and the Roof Influence in the Tropics

Authors: O. B. Imoukhuede, M. O. Ale


The periodic scarcity of onion requires an urgent solution in Nigerian agro- economy. The high percentage of onion losses incurred after the harvesting period is due to non-availability of appropriate facility for its storage. Therefore, some storage structures were constructed with different roofing materials. The response of the materials to the weather parameters like temperature and relative humidity were evaluated to know their effects on the performance of the storage structures. The temperature and relative humidity were taken three times daily alongside with the weight of the onion in each of the structures; the losses as indicated by loss indices like shrinkage, rottenness, sprouting, and colour were identified and percentage loss per week determined. The highest mean percentage loss (22%) was observed in the structure with iron roofing materials while structure with thatched materials had the lowest (9.4%); The highest temperature was observed in the structure with Asbestos roofing materials and no significant difference in the temperature value in the structure with thatched and Iron materials; highest relatively humidity was found in Asbestos roofing material while the lowest in the structure with iron matetrials. It was conclusively found that the storage structure with thatched roof had the best performance in terms of losses.

Keywords: Nigeria, onion, storage structures, weather parameters, roof materials, losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
2084 Development of the Maturity Sensor Prototype and Method of Its Placement in the Structure

Authors: Yelbek B. Utepov, Assel S. Tulebekova, Alizhan B. Kazkeyev


Maturity sensors are used to determine concrete strength by the non-destructive method. The method of placement of the maturity sensors determines their number required for a certain frame of a monolithic building. Previous studies weakly describe this aspect, giving only logical assumptions. This paper proposes a cheap prototype of an embedded wireless sensor for monitoring concrete structures, as well as an alternative strategy for placing sensors based on the transitional boundaries of the temperature distribution of concrete curing, which were determined by building a heat map of the temperature distribution, where unknown values are calculated by the method of inverse distance weighing. The developed prototype can simultaneously measure temperature and relative humidity over a smartphone-controlled time interval. It implements a maturity method to assess the in-situ strength of concrete, which is considered an alternative to the traditional shock impulse and compression testing method used in Kazakhstan. The prototype was tested in laboratory and field conditions. The tests were aimed at studying the effect of internal and external temperature and relative humidity on concrete's strength gain. Based on an experimentally poured concrete slab with randomly integrated maturity sensors, it was determined that the transition boundaries form elliptical forms. Temperature distribution over the largest diameter of the ellipses was plotted, resulting in correct and inverted parabolas. As a result, the distance between the closest opposite crossing points of the parabolas is accepted as the maximum permissible step for setting the maturity sensors. The proposed placement strategy can be applied to sensors that measure various continuous phenomena such as relative humidity. Prototype testing has also revealed Bluetooth inconvenience due to weak signal and inability to access multiple prototypes simultaneously. For this reason, further prototype upgrades are planned in future work.

Keywords: heat map, placement strategy, temperature and relative humidity, wireless embedded sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
2083 Effects of Roof Materials on Onion Storage

Authors: Imoukhuede Oladunni Bimpe, Ale Monday Olatunbosun


Periodic scarcity of onion requires urgent solution in Nigerian agro-economy. The high percentage of onion losses incurred after harvesting period is due to non-availability of appropriate facility for its storage. Therefore, some storage structures were constructed with different roofing materials. The response of the materials to the weather parameters like temperature and relative humidity were evaluated to know their effects on the performance of the storage structures. The temperature and relative humidity were taken three times daily alongside with the weight of the onion in each of the structures; the losses as indicated by loss indices like shrinkage, rottenness, sprouting and colour were identified and percentage loss per week determined. The highest mean percentage loss (22%) was observed in the structure with iron roofing materials while structure with thatched materials had the lowest (9.4%); The highest temperature was observed in the structure with Asbestos roofing materials and no significant difference in the temperature value in the structure with thatched and Iron materials; highest relatively humidity was found in Asbestos roofing material while the lowest in the structure with Iron materials. It was conclusively found that the storage structure with thatched roof had the best performance in terms of losses.

Keywords: onion, storage structures, weather parameters, roof materials, losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
2082 Numeric Modeling of Condensation of Water Vapor from Humid Air in a Room

Authors: Nguyen Van Que, Nguyen Huy The


This paper presents combined natural and forced convection of humid air flow. The film condensation of water vapour on a cold floor was investigated using ANSYS Fluent software. User-defined Functions(UDFs) were developed and added to address the issue of film condensation at the surface of the floor. Those UDFs were validated by analytical results on a flat plate. The film condensation model based on mass transfer was used to solve phase change. On the floor, condensation rate was obtained by mass fraction change near the floor. The study investigated effects of inlet velocity, inlet relative humidity and cold floor temperature on the condensation rate. The simulations were done in both 2D and 3D models to show the difference and need for 3D modeling of condensation.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, convection, condensation, relative humidity, user-defined functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
2081 Tourism Climate Index Environmental Assessment of Piranshahr

Authors: Parvaneh Ziviar Pardehei, Esmaeil Hossinnejad


In this research, the tourism climate index Miczcofski (TCI) and to assess climate Trjvng Piranshahr city tourism is discussed. The index is a systematic way to evaluate the climatic conditions for tourism. To calculate the parameters of mean monthly maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, average daily relative humidity, rainfall, sunshine and the wind speed are used. In the months of April, July, August and September of comfort there in December, January, February and March, the nerve is cold comfort factor. Baker calculation method showed that during spring and summer cooling environment, mild, pleasant, and comfortable Byvklymay there. TCI results suggest that the months of April to July are top rated and best climatic conditions in terms of comfort to the tourists. In general, indices used in this paper show that the months of April to October is the best time for tourism in the city Piranshahr.

Keywords: tourism, climate, Piranshahr city, TCI indicators and trjvng

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
2080 Indoor Temperature, Relative Humidity and CO₂ Level Assessment in a Publically Managed Hospital Building

Authors: Ayesha Asif, Muhammad Zeeshan


The sensitivity of hospital-microenvironments for all types of pollutants, due to the presence of patients with immune deficiencies, makes them complex indoor spaces. Keeping in view, this study investigated indoor air quality (IAQ) of two most sensitive places, i.e., operation theater (OT) and intensive care unit (ICU), of a publically managed hospital. Taking CO₂ concentration as air quality indicator and temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) as thermal comfort parameters, continuous monitoring of the three variables was carried out. Measurements were recorded at an interval of 1 min for weekdays and weekends, including occupational and non-occupational hours. Outdoor T and RH measurements were also used in the analysis. Results show significant variation (p < 0.05) in CO₂, T and RH values over the day during weekdays while no significant variation (p > 0.05) have been observed during weekends of both the monitored sites. Maximum observed values of CO₂ in OT and ICU were found to be 2430 and 624 ppm, T as 24.7ºC and 28.9ºC and RH as 29.6% and 32.2% respectively.

Keywords: indoor air quality, CO₂ concentration, hospital building, comfort assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
2079 Insight into the Physical Ageing of Poly(Butylene Succinate)

Authors: I. Georgousopoulou, S. Vouyiouka, C. Papaspyrides


The hydrolytic degradation of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was investigated when exposed to different humidity-temperature environments. To this direction different PBS grades were submitted to hydrolysis runs. Results indicated that the increment of hydrolysis temperature and relative humidity induced significant decrease in the molecular weight and thermal properties of the bioplastic. Τhe derived data can be considered to construct degradation kinetics based on carboxyl content variation versus time.

Keywords: hydrolytic degradation, physical ageing, poly(butylene succinate), polyester

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2078 Assessment of Power Formation in Gas Turbine Power Plants Using Different Inlet Air Cooling Systems

Authors: Nikhil V. Nayak


In this paper, the influence of air cooling intake on the gas turbine performance is presented. A comparison among different cooling systems, i.e., evaporative and cooling coil, is performed. A computer simulation model for the employed systems is developed in order to evaluate the performance of the studied gas turbine unit, at Marka Power Station, Amman, Bangalore. The performance characteristics are examined for a set of actual operational parameters including ambient temperature, relative humidity, turbine inlet temperature, pressure ratio, etc. The obtained results showed that the evaporative cooling system is capable of boosting the power and enhancing the efficiency of the studied gas turbine unit in a way much cheaper than cooling coil system due to its high power consumption required to run the vapor-compression refrigeration unit. Nevertheless, it provides full control on the temperature inlet conditions regardless of the relative humidity ratio.

Keywords: power augmentation, temperature control, evaporative cooling, cooling coil, gas turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2077 Heat and Humidity Induced Plastic Changes in Body Lipids and Starvation Resistance in the Tropical Zaprionus indianus of Wet-Dry Seasons

Authors: T. N. Girish, B. E. Pradeep, Ravi Parkash


Insects from tropical wet or dry seasons are likely to cope starvation stress through seasonal phenotypic plasticity in energy metabolites. Accordingly, we analyzed such plastic changes in Zaprionus indianus flies reared under wet or dry season-specific conditions; and also after adult acclimation at 32℃ for 1 to 6 days; and to low (40% RH) or high (70% RH) humidity. Both thermal or humidity acclimation revealed significant accumulation of body lipids for wet season flies but low humidity acclimation did not change the level of body lipids in dry season flies. Developmental and adult acclimation showed sex specific differences i.e., starvation resistance and body lipids were higher in the males of dry season but in females of wet season. We found seasonal and sex specific differences in the relative level for body lipids at death; and in the rates of accumulation or utilization of energy metabolites (body lipids, carbohydrates and proteins). Body lipids constitute the preferred energy source under starvation for flies of both the seasons. However, utilization of carbohydrates (~20% to 30%) and proteins (~20% to 25%) was evident only in dry season flies. Higher starvation resistance after thermal or humidity acclimation is achieved by increased accumulation of lipids. Adult acclimation of wet or dry season flies revealed plastic changes in mean daily fecundity despite reduction in fecundity under starvation. Thus, thermal or humidity induced plastic responses in body lipids support starvation resistance under wet or dry seasons.

Keywords: heat or humidity acclimation, plastic changes in body lipids and starvation resistance, tropical drosophilid, Wet- or Dry seasons, Zaprionus indianus

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2076 Modelling and Management of Vegetal Pest Based On Case of Xylella Fastidiosa in Alicante

Authors: Maria Teresa Signes Pont, Jose Juan Cortes Plana


Our proposal provides suitable modelling to the spread of plant pest and particularly to the propagation of Xylella fastidiosa in the almond trees. We compared the impact of temperature and humidity on the propagation of Xylella fastidiosa in various subspecies. Comparison between Balearic Islands and Alicante (Spain). Most sharpshooter and spittlebug species showed peaks in population density during the month of higher mean temperature and relative humidity (April-October), except for the splittlebug Clastoptera sp.1, whose adult population peaked from September-October (late summer and early autumn). The critical season is from when they hatch from the eggs until they are in the pre-reproductive season (January -April) to expand. We focused on winters in the egg state, which normally hatches in early March. The nymphs secrete a foam (mucilage) in which they live and that protects them from natural enemies of temperature changes and prevents dry as long as the humidity is above 75%. The interaction between the life cycles of vectors and vegetation influences the food preferences of vectors and is responsible for the general seasonal shift of the population from vegetation to trees and vice versa, In addition to the temperature maps, we have observed humidity as it affects the spread of the pest Xylella fastidiosa (Xf).

Keywords: xylella fastidiosa, almod tree, temperature, humidity, environmental model

Procedia PDF Downloads 38