Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4639

Search results for: Arab countries

4639 Determinants of Travel to Western Countries by Kuwaiti Nationals

Authors: Yvette Reisinger

Abstract:

Relatively little is known about the Arab travel market, especially the outbound travel market from Arab countries in the Middle East. The Kuwaiti travel market is the smallest yet fastest growing in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. The Kuwaiti travel market represents a great potential for the international tourism industry. Kuwaiti nationals have a very high spending power due to the Kuwaiti dinar being the highest-valued currency unit in the world. Although Europe, North America, and Asia/Pacific try to attract the Arab tourist market the number of Kuwaiti travellers attracted to these destinations is very low. The success in attracting the Kuwaiti travel market to Western countries must be guided by an analysis of the factors that affect its travel decisions. The objective of the study is to identify major factors that influence Kuwaiti nationals’ intentions to travel to Western countries. A model is developed and empirically tested on a sample of 343 Kuwaiti nationals. A series of regression analyses are run to determine the effects of different factors on Kuwaiti’s travel decisions. A Herman’s single factor test and Durbin-Watson test are used to assess the validity of the regression model. Analysis is controlled for socio-demographics. The results show that the Muslim friendly amenities and destination cognitive image exert significant effects on Kuwaiti nationals’ intentions to travel to Western countries. The study provides a better understanding of the factors that attract Kuwaiti tourists to Western countries. By knowing what encourages Kuwaitis to travel to Western countries marketers can plan and promote these countries accordingly. The study provides a foundation of future empirical research into the Kuwaiti/Arab travel market.

Keywords: Kuwaiti travel market, travel decisions, Western countries

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4638 E-government Status and Impact on Development in the Arab Region

Authors: Sukaina Al-Nasrawi, Maysoun Ibrahim

Abstract:

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected recent public administration and governance. Electronic Government (e-government) services were developed to simplify government procedures and improve interaction with citizens on one hand and to create new governance models to empower citizens and involve them in the decision-making process while increasing transparency on another hand. It is worth noting that efficient governance models enable sustainable development at the social and economic levels. Currently, the status of e-government national strategies and implementation programs vary from one country to another. This variance in the development levels of e-government initiatives and applications noted the digital divide between countries of the same region, thereby highlighting the difficulty to reach regional integration. Many Arab countries realized the need for a well-articulated e-government strategy and launched national e-government initiatives. In selected Arab countries, the focus of e-government initiatives and programs shifted from the provision of services to advanced concepts such as open data initiatives. This paper aims at over viewing the e-government achievements of Arab countries and areas for enhancement, and share best practices in the area.of the best e-government programmes from the Arab region the world. It will also shed the light on the impact of the information society in general and e-government, in specific, on the social and economic development in the Arab region.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), services, e-government, development, Arab region, digital divide, citizens

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4637 The New Family Law in Kuwait: A Step Towards International Standards

Authors: Dina Hadad

Abstract:

Women empowerment in the Arab world remains a central issue in the context of development and human rights. Akin to many societies around the globe, gender equality is yet to be achieved. This research will provide an introduction into the current legal stand of some Arab countries in terms of gender equality and women rights in the context of family law. It will look specifically into the recent family law in Kuwait and why many women consider it a positive step towards affirming their rights and their needs. Depending on comparative material from the area, the research argues that whilst some countries made efforts to promote women’s empowerment as a concept and practice throughout its policies, others have indeed some unique journeys that reflect organic and from within evolutions. Nonetheless, these efforts are yet to reflect a comprehensive structure that addresses women legal and political empowerment let alone social status. A contradiction in the realities of different Arab states is nothing new since the lack of comprehensive rights-based policy making in Arab countries has contributed to the disconnect between economic growth and development challenges.

Keywords: women empowerment, cultural challenges, gender equality, Islamic law, international standards, family law

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4636 Uncertainty and Volatility in Middle East and North Africa Stock Market during the Arab Spring

Authors: Ameen Alshugaa, Abul Mansur Masih

Abstract:

This paper sheds light on the economic impacts of political uncertainty caused by the civil uprisings that swept the Arab World and have been collectively known as the Arab Spring. Measuring documented effects of political uncertainty on regional stock market indices, we examine the impact of the Arab Spring on the volatility of stock markets in eight countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Egypt, Lebanon, Jordon, United Arab Emirate, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait. This analysis also permits testing the existence of financial contagion among equity markets in the MENA region during the Arab Spring. To capture the time-varying and multi-horizon nature of the evidence of volatility and contagion in the eight MENA stock markets, we apply two robust methodologies on consecutive data from November 2008 to March 2014: MGARCH-DCC, Continuous Wavelet Transforms (CWT). Our results indicate two key findings. First, the discrepancies between volatile stock markets of countries directly impacted by the Arab Spring and countries that were not directly impacted indicate that international investors may still enjoy portfolio diversification and investment in MENA markets. Second, the lack of financial contagion during the Arab Spring suggests that there is little evidence of cointegration among MENA markets. Providing a general analysis of the economic situation and the investment climate in the MENA region during and after the Arab Spring, this study bear significant importance for policy makers, local and international investors, and market regulators.

Keywords: Portfolio Diversification , MENA Region , Stock Market Indices, MGARCH-DCC, Wavelet Analysis, CWT

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4635 Corporate Governance and Performance of Islamic Banks in GCC Countries

Authors: Samir Srairi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of the internal corporate governance on bank performance by constructing a corporate governance index (CGI) for 27 Islamic banks operating in five Arab Gulf countries. Using content analysis on the banks’ annual reports for 3 years (2011-2013), the index construction uses information on six important corporate governance mechanisms, namely board structure, risk management, transparency and disclosure, audit committee, Sharia supervisory board and investment account holders. The results demonstrate that Islamic banks adhere to 54% of the attributes addressed in the CGI. The most frequently reported and disclosed elements are Sharia supervisory board followed by board structure and risk management. The findings related to countries revealed that only two countries, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain, possess a higher level of CGI. Our regression results provide evidence that Islamic banks with higher levels of corporate governance report high operating performance measured by return on assets and net interest margin. Finally, as of the effect of internal and external factors, we identified four variables that were associated with bank performance, namely size, equity, risk and concentration.

Keywords: governance mechanisms, corporate governance index, bank performance, Islamic banks, GCC countries

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4634 A Cross-Sectional Study on Board Certified Pharmacists in Arab Countries 2018 Update

Authors: Mohamed Anwar Hammad, Khaled Mohamed Al Akhali, Yasmin Elsobky

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Board certification is a voluntary process that confirms a pharmacist's capability, competency, education, skills, and proficiency beyond what is essential for licensure. This analysis was intended to investigate the prevalence of board-certified pharmacists in the Arab countries and compare the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Canada. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The data were mined from the BPS website. Data were managed by IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0 and presented as descriptive statistics. Of 36918 Board certified pharmacists (BCPs) until February 2018, only 4038 (10.9%) were from the outside United States of America. From 4038 BCPs, about 1782 (44.1%) were from Arab nations. Egypt has the top prevalence of the BPS among the Arab countries 937 (52.6%) BCPs. However, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia comes in the second position 442 (24.8%). Pharmacotherapy (BCPS), nutrition support pharmacy (BCNSP), critical care pharmacy (BCCCP) and oncology pharmacy (BCOP) are the highest specialties by 1474 (82.7%), 114 (6.4%), 61 (3.42%) and 60 (3.37%) respectively, while, infectious diseases pharmacy (AQID), cardiology pharmacy (AQCD) and nuclear pharmacy (BCNP) are the lowest prevalence of specialties by 7 (0.4%), 6 (0.3%) and 1 (0.06%) respectively. Added qualifications were canceled and became a new specialty in BPS as the rest of the specialties. Both infectious diseases and cardiology specialties exams are not conducted yet all over the world from the beginning of 2018. Egypt has the second prevalence 937 (2.54%), before Canada 920 (2.49%) and after United States of America 32880 (89.06%) in the worldwide in terms of BCPs. In conclusion the BCPS is the uppermost specialty; however, there is still a need for all the other specialties. In a short period, BCCCP jumped to the third position. Cardiology and infectious disease will be new specialties. Egyptian pharmacists are in the top of Arab countries, and 2nd in worldwide BCPs.

Keywords: AQCD, AQID, Arab countries, BCACP, BCCCP, BCGP, BCNP, BCNSP, BCOP, BCPPS, BCPS, BCPP, Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS), Canada, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, USA

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4633 Rear Seat Belt Use in Developing Countries: A Case Study from the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Salaheddine Bendak, Sara S. Alnaqbi

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The seat belt is a vital tool in improving traffic safety conditions and minimising injuries due to traffic accidents. Most developing countries are facing a big problems associated with the human and financial losses due to traffic accidents. One way to minimise these losses is the use of seat belts by passengers both in the front and rear seats of a vehicle; however, at the same time, close to nothing is known about the rates of seat belt utilisation among rear seat passengers in many developing countries. Therefore, there is a need to estimate these rates in order to know the extent of this problem and how people interact with traffic safety measures like seat belts and find demographic characteristics that contribute to wearing or non-wearing of seat belts with the aim of finding solutions to improve wearing rates. In this paper, an observational study was done to gather data on restraints use in motor vehicle rear seats in eight observational stations in a rapidly developing country, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and estimate a use rate for the whole country. Also, a questionnaire was used in order to study demographic characteristics affecting the wearing of seatbelts in rear seats. Results of the observational study showed that the overall wearing/usage rate was 12.3%, which is considered very low when compared to other countries. Survey results show that single, male, less educated passengers from Arab and South Asian backgrounds use seat belts reportedly less than others. Finally, solutions are put forward to improve this wearing rate based on the results of this study.

Keywords: Seat belts, traffic crashes, United Arab Emirates, rear seats

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4632 A Review of Information Systems Development in Developing Countries

Authors: B. N. Asare, O. A. Ajigini

Abstract:

Information systems (IS) are highly important in the operation of private and public organisations in developing and developed countries. Developing countries are saddled with many project failures during the implementation of information systems. However, successful information systems are greatly needed in developing countries in order to enhance their economies. This paper is highly important in view of the high failure rate of information systems in developing countries which needs to be reduced to minimum acceptable levels by means of recommended interventions. This paper centres on a review of IS development in developing countries. The paper presents evidences of the IS successes and failures in developing countries and posits a model to address the IS failures. The proposed model can then be utilised by developing countries to reduce their IS project implementation failure rate. A comparison is drawn between IS development in developing countries and developed countries. The paper provides valuable information to assist in reducing IS failure, and developing IS models and theories on IS development for developing countries.

Keywords: developing countries, information systems, IS development, information systems failure, information systems success, information systems success model

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4631 Aspects of Diglossia in Arabic Language Learning

Authors: Adil Ishag

Abstract:

Diglossia emerges in a situation where two distinctive varieties of a language are used alongside within a certain community. In this case, one is considered as a high or standard variety and the second one as a low or colloquial variety. Arabic is an extreme example of a highly diglossic language. This diglossity is due to the fact that Arabic is one of the most spoken languages and spread over 22 Countries in two continents as a mother tongue, and it is also widely spoken in many other Islamic countries as a second language or simply the language of Quran. The geographical variation between the countries where the language is spoken and the duality of the classical Arabic and daily spoken dialects in the Arab world on the other hand; makes the Arabic language one of the most diglossic languages. This paper tries to investigate this phenomena and its relation to learning Arabic as a first and second language.

Keywords: Arabic language, diglossia, first and second language, language learning

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4630 The Failure of Democracy in Libya

Authors: Ali Musbah Mohamed Elwahishi

Abstract:

Democracy is demand for the majority of people in the whole world, Specifically in the regions that are still outside the democratic life such as Libya and other Arab countries. Although democracy has spread across the world through three waves of democratization, Libya is still outside the democratic process, even recently its regime has changed. The challenges of democracy in Libya are not new, they represent accumulations over time that impeded to achieve this goal. This paper concludes that the absence of democracy in Libya because of set of factors that include: colonial legacy, oil wealth, the lack of institutions, the lack of political parties, tribal factor and recently the spread of the armed groups. These factors prevented Libya to be democratic state whether during King Idris’, Qaddafi’s or even after Qaddafi rule.

Keywords: the failure of democracy, political transition, the lack of institutions, Libya, Arab countries

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4629 Components and Public Health Impact of Population Growth in the Arab World

Authors: Asharaf Abdul Salam, Ibrahim Elsegaey, Rshood Khraif, Abdullah AlMutairi, Ali Aldosari

Abstract:

Arab World that comprises of 22 member states of Arab League undergoes rapid transition in demographic front - fertility, mortality and migration. A distinctive geographic region spread across West Asia and North East Africa unified by Arabic language shares common values and characteristics even though diverse in economic and political conditions. Demographic lag that characterizes Arab World is unique but the present trend of declining fertility combined with the existing relatively low mortality undergoes significant changes in its population size. The current research aimed at (i) assessing the growth of population, over a period of 3 decades, (ii) exploring the components and (iii) understanding the public health impact. Based on International Data Base (IDB) of US Census Bureau, for 3 time periods – 1992, 2002 and 2012; 21 countries of Arab World have been analyzed by dividing them into four geographic sectors namely Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), West Asia, Maghreb and Nile Valley African Horn. Population of Arab World grew widely during the past both through natural growth and migration. Immigrations pronounced especially in the resource intensive GCC nations not only from East Asian and central African countries but also from resource thrifty Arab nations. Migrations within the Arab World as well as outside of the Arab World remark an interesting demographic phenomenon that requires further research. But the transformations on public health statistics – impact of demographic change – depict a new era in the Arab World.

Keywords: demographic change, public health statistics, net migration, natural growth, geographic sectors, fertility and mortality, life expectancy

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4628 Impact of Trade Cooperation of BRICS Countries on Economic Growth

Authors: Svetlana Gusarova

Abstract:

The essential role in the recent development of world economy has led to the developing countries, notably to BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa). Over the next 50 years the BRICS countries are expected to be the engines of global trade and economic growth. Trade cooperation of BRICS countries can enhance their economic development. BRICS countries were among Top 10 world exporters of office and telecom equipment, of textiles, of clothing, of iron and steel, of chemicals, of agricultural products, of automotive products, of fuel and mining products. China was one of the main trading partners of all BRICS countries, maintaining close relationship with all BRICS countries in the development of trade. Author analyzed trade complementarity of BRICS countries and revealed the high level of complementarity of their trade flows in connection with availability of specialization in different types of goods. The correlation and regression analysis of communication of Intra-BRICS merchandise turnover and their GDP (PPP) revealed very strong impact on the development of their economies.

Keywords: BRICS countries, trade cooperation, complementarity, regression analysis

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4627 Regulation and Transparency: The Case of Corporate Governance Disclosure on the Internet in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Peter Oyelere, Fernando Zanella

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Corporate governance is one of the most discussed and researched issues in recent times in countries around the world, with different countries developing and adopting different governance structures, models and mechanisms. While the Codes of corporate governance have been weaved into the regulatory fabrics of most countries, it is equally critically important that their mechanisms, procedures and practices be transparent, and be transparently communicated to all stakeholders. The Internet can be a very useful and cost-effective tool for the timely and voluntary communication of corporate governance matters to stakeholders. The current paper details the results of an investigation on the extent of which companies listed in the UAE are using the Internet for communicating corporate governance issues, matters and procedures. We surveyed the websites of companies listed on the two UAE Stock Exchanges – the Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange (ADX) and the Dubai Financial Market (DFM) – to find out their level and nature of usage of the Internet for corporate governance disclosures. Regulatory and policy implications of the results of our investigation, as well as other areas for further studies, are also presented in the paper.

Keywords: corporate governance, internet financial reporting, regulation, transparency, United Arab Emirates

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4626 Motivation Among Arab Learners of English in the UK

Authors: Safa Kaka

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As more and more students are travelling to different countries to study and, in particular, to study English, the question of what motivates them to make such a large move has come under question. This is particularly pertinent in the case of Arab students who make up nearly 15% of the foreign student body in the UK. Given that the cultural differences between the UK and Arab nations are extremely wide, the decision to come to this country to study English must be driven by strong motivational forces. Numerous previous studies have considered what motivates foreign students to travel to the UK and other countries for their education or language learning but the specific motivators of Arab students have yet to be explored. This study undertakes to close that gap by examining the concepts and theories of motivation, both in general terms and in relation to English learning and foreign study. 70 Arab students currently studying in the UK were asked to participate in an online questionnaire which asked about their motivations for coming to the UK and for studying and learning English. A further six individuals were interviewed on a face to face basis. The outcomes have indicated that the factors which motivate the decision to come to the UK are similar to those that motivate the desire to learn English. In particular a motivation for self-improvement, career advancement and potential future benefits were cited by a number of respondents. Other indications were the ease of accessibility to the UK as an English speaking country, a motivation to experience different cultures and lifestyles and even political freedoms. Overall the motivations of Arab students were not found to be conspicuously different from those of other foreign students, although it was noted that their motivations did change, both positively and negatively following a period of time in the country. These changes were based on the expectations of the students pre-arrival and their actual experience of the country and its teaching approaches and establishments and were, as indicated both good and bad. The implications for the Arab student population and UK educational establishments are reviewed and future research pathways highlighted.

Keywords: motivation, Arab learners of English, language teaching, applied linguistics

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4625 Iran and the Security of the Gulf Cooperation Council States

Authors: Ibrahim Alshalan

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The Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the greatest and most powerful countries, not only in the Arabian Gulf but in the entire Middle East region. However, the Iranian regime, which came to power as a result of the 1979 revolution that resulted in overthrowing the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, has been the biggest source of threat to the stability of the Middle East since the revolution until this day. It has ambitions to dominate the neighboring Arab countries, especially Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen and Bahrain. Iran has bad relationships with countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which includes Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain. The main objective of this paper is to shed light on the deteriorating political relations between the Iranian regime on one hand and the GCC on the other, especially Saudi Arabia which is witnessing more challenges as a result of Iran's determination to develop its nuclear program. Another important objective of this paper is to identify the Iranian role in the creation of the hotbeds of conflict in addition to its responsibility for some of the region's problems. It also aims to answer the question; why does Iran insist on developing its controversial nuclear program?

Keywords: Iran, GCC, Gulf, Saudi Arabia

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4624 Meta-Analysis of Particulate Matter Production in Developing and Developed Countries

Authors: Hafiz Mehtab Gull Nasir

Abstract:

Industrial development and urbanization have significant impacts on air emissions, and their relationship diverges at different stages of economic progress. The revolution further propelled these activities as principal paths to economic and social transformation; nevertheless, the paths also promoted environmental degradation. Resultantly, both developed and developing countries undergone through fast-paced development; in which developed countries implemented legislation towards environmental pollution control however developing countries took the advantage of technology without caring about the environment. In this study, meta-analysis is performed on production of particulate matter (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5) from urbanized cities of first, second and third world countries to assess the air quality. The cities were selected based on ranked set principles. In case of PM10, third world countries showed highest PM level (~95% confidence interval of 0.74-1.86) followed by second world countries but with managed situation. Besides, first, world countries indicated the lowest pollution (~95% confidence interval of 0.12-0.2). Similarly, highest level of PM2.5 was produced by third world countries followed by the second and first world countries. Hereby, level of PM2.5 was not significantly different for both second and third world countries; however, first world countries showed minimum PM load. Finally, the study revealed different that levels of pollution status exist among different countries; whereas developed countries also devised better strategies towards pollution control while developing countries are least caring about their environmental resources. It is suggested that although industrialization and urbanization are directly involved with interference in natural elements, however, production of nature appears to be more societal rather hermetical.

Keywords: meta-analysis, particulate matter, developing countries, urbanization

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4623 Ex-Post Export Data for Differentiated Products Revealing the Existence of Productcycles

Authors: Ranajoy Bhattcharyya

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We estimate international product cycles as shifting product spaces by using 1976 to 2010 UN Comtrade data on all differentiated tradable products in all countries. We use a product space approach to identify the representative product baskets of high-, middle and low-income countries and then use these baskets to identify the patterns of change in comparative advantage of countries over time. We find evidence of a product cycle in two senses: First, high-, middle- and low-income countries differ in comparative advantage, and high-income products migrate to the middle-income basket. A similar pattern is observed for middle- and low-income countries. Our estimation of the lag shows that middle-income countries tend to quickly take up the products of high-income countries, but low-income countries take a longer time absorbing these products. Thus, the gap between low- and middle-income countries is considerably higher than that between middle- and high-income nations.

Keywords: product cycle, comparative advantage, representative product basket, ex-post data

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4622 Development and Evaluation of an Internet-Based Transdiagnostic Therapy Intervention in the Arab World

Authors: Mariam Fishere

Abstract:

The proposed research study aims at developing an Internet-based transdiagnostic treatment and evaluating its efficacy. Based on the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA), a combined low-intensity and technology supported transdiagnostic treatment protocol will be culturally adapted for usage by nonprofessional therapists in Arabic-speaking countries. This Internet-based CETA intervention will target individuals suffering from one or more of the following disorders: depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which are all major contributors to the global burden of mental illness. The growing body of research in the area of transdiagnostic treatment has proven to be effective in high-income countries (HICs), but there remain questions about its efficacy, cultural appropriateness, and validity for low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this dissertation project is to investigate the efficacy of a newly developed Internet-delivery of an evidence-based transdiagnostic treatment – CETA – for a sample of Arabic-speaking individuals suffering from at least one of the following disorders; depression, anxiety, and PTSD.

Keywords: transdiagnostic, internet-based interventions, mental health, Arab world

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4621 Ongoing Gender-Based Challenges in Post-2015 Development Agenda: A Comparative Study between Qatar and Arab States

Authors: Abdel-Samad M. Ali, Ali A. Hadi Al-Shawi

Abstract:

Discrimination against women and girls impairs progress in all domains of development articulated either in the framework of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) or in the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Paper aspires to create greater awareness among researchers and policy makers of the challenges posed by gender gaps and the opportunities created by reducing them within the Arab region. The study reveals how Arab countries are closing in on gender-oriented targets of the third and fifth MDGs. While some countries can claim remarkable achievements particularly in girls’ equality in education, there is still a long way to go to keep Arab’s commitments to current and future generations in other countries and subregions especially in the economic participation or in the political empowerment of women. No country has closed or even expected to close the economic participation gap or the political empowerment gap. This should provide the incentive to keep moving forward in the Post-2015 Agenda. Findings of the study prove that while Arab states have uneven achievements in reducing maternal mortality, Arab women remain at a disadvantage in the labour market. For Arab region especially LDCs, improving maternal health is part of the unmet agenda for the post-2015 period and still calls for intensified efforts and procedures. While antenatal care coverage is improving across the Arab region, progress is marginal in LDCs. To achieve proper realization of gender equality and empowerment of women in the Arab region in the post-2015 agenda, the study presents critical key challenges to be addressed. These challenges include: Negative cultural norms and stereotypes; violence against women and girls; early marriage and child labour; women’s limited control over their own bodies; limited ability of women to generate their own income and control assets and property; gender-based discrimination in law and in practice; women’s unequal participation in private and public decision making autonomy; and limitations in data. However, in all Arab states, gender equality must be integrated as a goal across all issues, particularly those that affect the future of a country.

Keywords: gender, equity, millennium development goals, post-2015 development agenda

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4620 The Effective Operations Competitive Advantages of Mobile Phone Service Providers across Countries: The Case of Middle East Region

Authors: Yazan Khalid Abed-Allah Migdadi

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The aim of this study is identifying the effective operations competitive advantages of mobile phone service providers across countries. All Arab countries in the Middle East region were surveyed except Syria, and 27 out of 31 service providers were surveyed. Data collected from corporations’ annual reports, websites and other professional institutions published sources. Multiple linear regression analysis test was used to identify the relationship between operations competitive advantages and market share. The effective operations competitive advantages were; diversity of offers and service accessibility

Keywords: competitive advantage, mobile telecommunication operations, Middle East, service provider

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4619 The General Trend of FDI and the Effects of These Investments for Countries: 2000-2013

Authors: Esra Cebeci

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As a result of acceleration of globalization in the 21st century economic boundaries are removed. With liberalization of capital and foreign trade, not only developed countries but also developing countries get into rapid growth efforts. In developing countries, one of the most important problem is insufficient capital accumulation. For reduce this deficit, one of the general approaches that is offered increasing amount of foreign direct investments. Also, in developing countries saving rates are low. So, foreign direct investments make possible an increase for domestic savings. In this regard, the multinational corporations are capable of these investments have importance. By providing micro-macro effects for countries, demand for these firms are many. These effects in general positive, some negative effects may able to come into being especially for developing countries. Foreign direct investments are performed buying an existing corporation, merging or greenfield investments. In recent, foreign direct investments are performed as a green field investments for developing countries. The study aims to analysis foreign direct investment trends for 2000-2013 years. In the first part of this study, the importance of foreign direct investments and their determinants are explained. In the second part, the article also shows that comparative analysis of the inward and outward investments for developing and developed countries. In conclusion, while developed countries can stand competition against other countries with these investments, developing countries can provide a sustainable growth with capital inflows.

Keywords: foreign direct investments, multinational corporations, determinants of FDI, FDI trend

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4618 Examining the Investment Behavior of Arab Women in the Stock Market

Authors: Razan Salem

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Gender plays a vital role in the stock markets because men and women differ in their behavior when investing in stocks. Accordingly, the role of gender differences in investment behavior is an increasingly important strand in the field of behavioral finance research. The investment behaviors of women relative to men have been examined in the behavioral finance literature, mainly for comparison purposes. Women's roles in the stock market have not been examined in the behavioral finance literature, however, particularly with respect to the Arab region. This study aims to contribute towards a better understanding of the investment behavior of Arab women (in regards to their risk tolerance, investment confidence, and investment literacy levels) relative to Arab men; using a sample from Arab women and men investors living in Saudi Arabia and Jordan. In order to achieve the study's main aim, the researcher used non-parametric tests, as Mann-Whitney U test, along with frequency distribution analysis to analyze the study’s primary data. The researcher distributed close-ended online questionnaires to a sample of 550 Arab male and female individuals investing in stocks in both Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The results confirm that the sample Arab women invest less in stocks compared to Arab men due to their risk-averse behaviors and limited confidence levels. The results also reveal that due to Arab women’s very low investment literacy levels, they fear from taking the risk and invest often in stocks relative to Arab men. Overall, the study’s main variables (risk tolerance, investment confidence, and investment literacy levels) have a combined effect on the investment behavior of Arab women and their limited participation in the stock market. Hence, this study is one of the very first studies that indicate the combined effect of the three main variables (which are usually studied separately in the existing literature) on the investment behavior of women, particularly Arab women. This study makes three important contributions to the growing literature on gender differences in investment behavior. First, while the behavioral finance literature documents evidence on gender differences in investment behaviors in many developed countries, there are very limited studies that investigate such differences in Arab countries. Arab women investors, generally, are ignored from the behavioral finance literature due probably to cultural barriers and data collection difficulties. Thus, this study extends the literature to include Arab women and their investment behaviors when trading stock relative to Arab men. Moreover, the study associates women investment literacy and confidence levels with their financial risk behaviors and participation in the stock market. This study provides direct evidence on Arab women's investment behaviors when trading stocks. Overall, studying Arab women investors is important to investigate whether the investment behavior identified for Western women investors are also found in Arab women investors.

Keywords: Arab women, gender differences, investment behavior, stock markets

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4617 The Impact of Governance on Happiness: Evidence from Quantile Regressions

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

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This study utilizes the quantile regression analysis to examine the impact of governance (including democratic quality and technical quality) on happiness in 101 countries worldwide, classified as “developed countries” and “developing countries”. The empirical results show that the impact of democratic quality and technical quality on happiness is significantly positive for “developed countries”, while is insignificant for “developing countries”. The results suggest that the authorities in developed countries can enhance the level of individual happiness by means of improving the democracy quality and technical quality. However, for developing countries, promoting the quality of governance in order to enhance the level of happiness may not be effective. Policy makers in developed countries may pay more attention on increasing real GDP per capita instead of promoting the quality of governance to enhance individual happiness.

Keywords: governance, happiness, multiple regression, quantile regression

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4616 Budgeting Procedures and Fiscal Stance of OECD Countries in the Wake of Global Economic Crisis

Authors: Yulia Kasperskaya, Ramon Xifré

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Budgetary procedures are considered to be important for countries’ fiscal performance. The objective of this paper is to analyze this relationship for the OECD countries in the wake of global economic crisis taking into consideration countries’ fiscal conditions and institutional arrangements. We test whether groups of countries that are fiscally different after the crisis differ in their use of budgetary procedures including performance budgeting, transparency mechanisms and medium-term expenditure framework. For this purpose, we classify OECD countries in two groups according to the variations, in debt to GDP ratio between 2008 and 2014. We then analyze the intensity of use of budget procedures taking into account countries’ economic conditions during the crisis. Our first finding is that there is no monotonic relationship between the intensity of use of these three budgetary procedures and enhanced fiscal performance. Countries showing similar fiscal performance scored differently in terms of on budgetary procedures. We, therefore, review the budgetary frameworks and trajectories of several countries that are fiscally sound. From this qualitative analysis, we derive a set of factors that may enhance the efficiency of budgetary procedures. This suggests that a given budgetary procedure may have different effects in different countries depending on their economic and administrative settings. Our results are thus in line with those studies that reject one-size-fits-all approaches.

Keywords: budget procedures, fiscal performance, OECD, performance budgeting

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4615 A Model Suggestion on Competitiveness and Sustainability of SMEs in Developing Countries

Authors: Ahmet Diken, Tahsin Karabulut

Abstract:

The factor which developing countries are in need is capital. Such countries make an effort to increase their income in order to meet their expenses for employment, infrastructure, superstructure investments, education, health and defense. The sole income of the countries is taxes collected from businesses. The businesses should drive profit and return in order to be able to toll. In a world where competition exists, different strategies may be followed by business in developing countries and they must specify their target markets. İn order to minimize cost and maximize profit, SMEs have to concentrate on target markets and select cost oriented strategy. In this study, a theoretical model is suggested that SME firms have to act as cluster between each other, and also must be optimal provider for large scale firms. SMEs’ policy must be supported by public. This relationship can benefit large scale firms to have brand over the world, and this organization increases value added for developing countries.

Keywords: competitiveness, countries, SMEs developing, sustainability

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4614 A Review on the Comparison of EU Countries Based on Research and Development Efficiencies

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Raife Merve Ön

Abstract:

Nowadays, technological progress is one of the most important components of economic growth and the efficiency of R&D activities is particularly essential for countries. This study is an attempt to analyze the R&D efficiencies of EU countries. The indicators related to R&D efficiencies should be determined in advance in order to use DEA. For this reason a list of input and output indicators are derived from the literature review. Considering the data availability, a final list is given for the numerical analysis for future research.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, economic growth, EU countries, R&D efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
4613 The Determinants of Trade Flow and Potential between Ethiopia and Group of Twenty

Authors: Terefe Alemu

Abstract:

This study is intended to examine Ethiopia’s trade flow determinants and trade potential with G20 countries whether it was overtraded or there is/are trade potential by using trade gravity model. The sources of panel data used were IMF, WDI, United Nations population division, The Heritage Foundation, Washington's No. 1 think tank online website database, online distance calculator, and others for the duration of 2010 to 2019 for 10 consecutive years. The empirical data analyzing tool used was Random effect model (REM), which is effective in estimation of time-invariant data. The empirical data analyzed using STATA software result indicates that Ethiopia has a trade potential with seven countries of G20, whereas Ethiopia overtrade with 12 countries and EU region. The Ethiopia’s and G20 countries/region bilateral trade flow statistically significant/ p<0.05/determinants were the population of G20 countries, growth domestic products of G20 countries, growth domestic products of Ethiopia, geographical distance between Ethiopia and G20 countries. The top five G20 countries exported to Ethiopia were china, United State of America, European Union, India, and South Africa, whereas the top five G20 countries imported from Ethiopia were EU, China, United State of America, Saudi Arabia, and Germany, respectively. Finally, the policy implication were Ethiopia has to Keep the consistence of trade flow with overtraded countries and improve with under traded countries through trade policy revision, and secondly, focusing on the trade determinants to improve trade flow is recommended.

Keywords: trade gravity model, trade determinants, G20, international trade, trade potential

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4612 Governance and Economic Growth: Evidence for Ten Asian Countries

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This study utilizes a frequency domain approach over the period of 1996 to 2013 to examine the causal relationship between governance and economic growth in ten Asian countries, which have different levels of democracy; classified as “Free”, “Partly Free”, and “Not Free” countries. The empirical results show that there is no Granger causality running from governance to economic growth in “Not Free” countries and “Partly Free” countries with the exception of Singapore. As for “Free” countries such as South Korea and Taiwan, there is a one-way causality running from governance to economic growth. The findings of this study indicate that policy makers in South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore could use governance index to improve their predictions of the future economic growth.

Keywords: economic growth, frequency domain, governance, granger causality

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4611 Female Entrepreneurship in Egypt: Barriers and Challenges in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring

Authors: Kate Ebere Maduforo

Abstract:

Examining the constraints faced by female entrepreneurs is an important subject which most literature on female entrepreneurship is centered on. However, the majority of the existing literature has focused on studying female entrepreneurs in developed societies. Recently, a sense of urgency that has emerged in trying to understand the challenges and motivations of female entrepreneurs in developing countries. The arousal of such interest has been attributed to women entrepreneurs in developing countries being identified as catalysts of economic development at a national level and champions of poverty eradication at the domestic level. This paper, therefore, examines the peculiar constraints faced by women-owned businesses in the mist of political chaos and instability. In this case, the issues experienced by female entrepreneurs in Egypt during the aftermath of the Arab Spring is the focus. Using the logit and probit regression models, data from the World Bank Middle East North Africa Enterprise Survey (MENA ES) are analyzed. The results identified that female entrepreneurs still lack business funding through financial institutions, but get significant funding assistance from family, friends, and money lenders. In addition, women-owned businesses promote and hire mostly women. Female entrepreneurs showed a preference for an impartial judicial system as a contributor to business growth.

Keywords: female entrepreneurship, development, Middle East, developing countries

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4610 Minorities and Soccer in the Middle East: Yelling From the Touchline

Authors: Saeb Farhan Al Ganideh

Abstract:

We draw on insights from theories of group threat and identity to explore how soccer rivalries can decode the relationship between ethnic minorities and local societies. How ethnic minorities used soccer, in the Arab countries of the Middle East, to express their racial-ethnic heritage is the main question that this paper grapples with at its most general level. The rhetoric around soccer and minorities in the Middle East show that ethnic minorities’ soccer clubs have faced varying degrees of discrimination. The paper relies on an analysis of 4 ethnic minorities’ soccer clubs, namely, Circassians in Jordan, Kurds in Syria, Sahrawis in Morocco, and Amazighs in Algeria, focusing on previous and current performance of these clubs. Ethnic minorities’ soccer clubs were the pinnacle in the Middle East region a few decades ago. Nonetheless, these soccer clubs, currently, fighting for not only their place in their countries’ local competitions but also for their existence as soccer clubs. Minorities’ soccer clubs have been plagued with challenges related to the change in political and social contexts in these countries.

Keywords: minorities, rivalries, soccer, middle east

Procedia PDF Downloads 18