Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 669

Search results for: cyber ethics

669 Preventing and Coping Strategies for Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization

Authors: Erdinc Ozturk, Gizem Akcan

Abstract:

Although there are several advantages of information and communication technologies, they cause some problems like cyber bullying and cyber victimization. Cyber bullying and cyber victimization have lots of negative effects on people. There are lots of different strategies to prevent cyber bullying and victimization. This study was conducted to provide information about the strategies that are used to prevent cyber bullying and cyber victimization. 120 (60 women, 60 men) university students whose ages are between 18 and 35 participated this study. According to findings of this study, men are more prone to cyber bullying than women. Moreover, men are also more prone to cyber victimization than women.

Keywords: cyber bullying, cyber victimization, coping strategies, sex

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
668 New Requirements of the Fifth Dimension of War: Planning of Cyber Operation Capabilities

Authors: Mehmet Kargaci

Abstract:

Transformation of technology and strategy has been the main factor for the evolution of war. In addition to land, maritime, air and space domains, cyberspace has become the fifth domain with emerge of internet. The current security environment has become more complex and uncertain than ever before. Moreover, warfare has evaluated from conventional to irregular, asymmetric and hybrid war. Weak actors such as terrorist organizations and non-state actors has increasingly conducted cyber-attacks against strong adversaries. Besides, states has developed cyber capabilities in order to defense critical infrastructure regarding the cyber threats. Cyber warfare will be key in future security environment. Although what to do has been placed in operational plans, how to do has lacked and ignored as to cyber defense and attack. The purpose of the article is to put forward a model for how to conduct cyber capabilities in a conventional war. First, cyber operations capabilities will be discussed. Second put forward the necessities of cyberspace environment and develop a model for how to plan an operation using cyber operation capabilities, finally the assessment of the applicability of cyber operation capabilities and offers will be presented.

Keywords: cyber war, cyber threats, cyber operation capabilities, operation planning

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667 Developing Cyber Security Asset Mangement Framework for UK Rail

Authors: Shruti Kohli

Abstract:

The sophistication and pervasiveness of cyber-attacks are constantly growing, driven partly by technological progress, profitable applications in organized crime and state-sponsored innovation. The modernization of rail control systems has resulted in an increasing reliance on digital technology and increased the potential for security breaches and cyber-attacks. This research track showcases the need for developing a secure reusable scalable framework for enhancing cyber security of rail assets. A cyber security framework has been proposed that is being developed to detect the tell-tale signs of cyber-attacks against industrial assets.

Keywords: cyber security, rail asset, security threat, cyber ontology

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666 Cyber Security in Russia: Offense, Defense and Strategy in Cyberspace

Authors: Da Eun Sung

Abstract:

In today’s world, cyber security has become an important international agenda. As the information age has arrived, the need for cyber defense against cyber attacks is mounting, and the significance of cyber cooperation in the international community is drawing attention. Through the course, international society has agreed that the institutionalization of international norms dealing with cyber space and cyber security is crucial ever. Nevertheless, the West, led by the United States of America, and 'the East', composed of Russia and China, have shown conflicting views on forming international norms and principles which would regulate and ward off the possible threats in cyber space. Thus, the international community hasn’t yet to reach an agreement on cyber security. In other words, the difference between both sides on the approach and understanding of principles, objects, and the definition has rendered such. Firstly, this dissertation will cover the Russia’s perception, strategy, and definition on cyber security through analyzing primary source. Then, it will delve into the two contrasting cyber security strategy between Russia and the US by comparing them. And in the conclusion, it will seek the possible solution for the cooperation in the field of cyber security. It is quite worthwhile to look into Russia’s views, which is the main counterpart to the US in this field, especially when the efforts to institutionalize cyber security by the US-led international community have met with their boundaries, and when the legitimacy of them have been challenged.

Keywords: cyber security, cyber security strategic, international relation in cyberspace, Russia

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665 Conceptualizing the Cyber Insecurity Risk in the Ethics of Automated Warfare

Authors: Otto Kakhidze, Hoda Alkhzaimi, Adam Ramey, Nasir Memon

Abstract:

This paper provides an alternative, cyber security based a conceptual framework for the ethics of automated warfare. The large body of work produced on fully or partially autonomous warfare systems tends to overlook malicious security factors as in the possibility of technical attacks on these systems when it comes to the moral and legal decision-making. The argument provides a risk-oriented justification to why technical malicious risks cannot be dismissed in legal, ethical and policy considerations when warfare models are being implemented and deployed. The assumptions of the paper are supported by providing a broader model that contains the perspective of technological vulnerabilities through the lenses of the Game Theory, Just War Theory as well as standard and non-standard defense ethics. The paper argues that a conventional risk-benefit analysis without considering ethical factors is insufficient for making legal and policy decisions on automated warfare. This approach will provide the substructure for security and defense experts as well as legal scholars, ethicists and decision theorists to work towards common justificatory grounds that will accommodate the technical security concerns that have been overlooked in the current legal and policy models.

Keywords: automated warfare, ethics of automation, inherent hijacking, security vulnerabilities, risk, uncertainty

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664 An Investigation on Organisation Cyber Resilience

Authors: Arniyati Ahmad, Christopher Johnson, Timothy Storer

Abstract:

Cyber exercises used to assess the preparedness of a community against cyber crises, technology failures and critical information infrastructure (CII) incidents. The cyber exercises also called cyber crisis exercise or cyber drill, involved partnerships or collaboration of public and private agencies from several sectors. This study investigates organisation cyber resilience (OCR) of participation sectors in cyber exercise called X Maya in Malaysia. This study used a principal based cyber resilience survey called C-Suite Executive checklist developed by World Economic Forum in 2012. To ensure suitability of the survey to investigate the OCR, the reliability test was conducted on C-Suite Executive checklist items. The research further investigates the differences of OCR in ten Critical National Infrastructure Information (CNII) sectors participated in the cyber exercise. The One Way ANOVA test result showed a statistically significant difference of OCR among ten CNII sectors participated in the cyber exercise.

Keywords: critical information infrastructure, cyber resilience, organisation cyber resilience, reliability test

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663 A Holistic Approach to Institutional Cyber Security

Authors: Mehmet Kargaci

Abstract:

It is more important to access information than to get the correct information and to transform it to the knowledge in a proper way. Every person, organizations or governments who have the knowledge now become the target. Cyber security involves the range of measures to be taken from individual to the national level. The National institutions refer to academic, military and major public and private institutions, which are very important for the national security. Thus they need further cyber security measures. It appears that the traditional cyber security measures in the national level are alone not sufficient, while the individual measures remain in a restricted level. It is evaluated that the most appropriate method for preventing the cyber vulnerabilities rather than existing measures are to develop institutional measures. This study examines the cyber security measures to be taken, especially in the national institutions.

Keywords: cyber defence, information, critical infrastructure, security

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662 Quick Reference: Cyber Attacks Awareness and Prevention Method for Home Users

Authors: Haydar Teymourlouei

Abstract:

It is important to take security measures to protect your computer information, reduce identify theft, and prevent from malicious cyber-attacks. With cyber-attacks on the continuous rise, people need to understand and learn ways to prevent from these attacks. Cyber-attack is an important factor to be considered if one is to be able to protect oneself from malicious attacks. Without proper security measures, most computer technology would hinder home users more than such technologies would help. Knowledge of how cyber-attacks operate and protective steps that can be taken to reduce chances of its occurrence are key to increasing these security measures. The purpose of this paper is to inform home users on the importance of identifying and taking preventive steps to avoid cyberattacks. Throughout this paper, many aspects of cyber-attacks will be discuss: what a cyber-attack is, the affects of cyber-attack for home users, different types of cyber-attacks, methodology to prevent such attacks; home users can take to fortify security of their computer.

Keywords: cyber-attacks, home user, prevention, security, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
661 Active Cyber Defense within the Concept of NATO’s Protection of Critical Infrastructures

Authors: Serkan Yağlı, Selçuk Dal

Abstract:

Cyber-attacks pose a serious threat to all states. Therefore, states constantly seek for various methods to encounter those threats. In addition, recent changes in the nature of cyber-attacks and their more complicated methods have created a new concept: active cyber defence (ACD). This article tries to answer firstly why ACD is important to NATO and find out the viewpoint of NATO towards ACD. Secondly, infrastructure protection is essential to cyber defence. Critical infrastructure protection with ACD means is even more important. It is assumed that by implementing active cyber defence, NATO may not only be able to repel the attacks but also be deterrent. Hence, the use of ACD has a direct positive effect in all international organizations’ future including NATO.

Keywords: active cyber defence, advanced persistent treat, critical infrastructure, NATO

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660 Cyber Operational Design and Military Decision Making Process

Authors: M. Karaman, H. Catalkaya

Abstract:

Due to the complex nature of cyber attacks and their effects ranging from personal to governmental level, it becomes one of the priority tasks for operation planners to take into account the risks, influences and effects of cyber attacks. However it can also be embedded or integrated technically with electronic warfare planning, cyber operation planning is needed to have a sole and broadened perspective. This perspective embodies itself firstly in operational design and then military decision making process. In order to find out the ill-structured problems, understand or visualize the operational environment and frame the problem, operational design can help support cyber operation planners and commanders. After having a broadened and conceptual startup with cyber operational design, military decision making process will follow the principles of design into more concrete elements like reaching results after risk management and center of gravity analysis of our and the enemy. In this paper we tried to emphasize the importance of cyber operational design, cyber operation planning and its integration to military decision making problem. In this foggy, uncertain and unaccountable cyber security environment, it is inevitable to stay away from cyber attacks. Therefore, a cyber operational design should be formed with line of operations, decisive points and end states in cyber then a tactical military decision making process should be followed with cyber security focus in order to support the whole operation.

Keywords: cyber operational design, military decision making process (MDMP), operation planning, end state

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659 Understanding Cyber Terrorism from Motivational Perspectives: A Qualitative Data Analysis

Authors: Yunos Zahri, Ariffin Aswami

Abstract:

Cyber terrorism represents the convergence of two worlds: virtual and physical. The virtual world is a place in which computer programs function and data move, whereas the physical world is where people live and function. The merging of these two domains is the interface being targeted in the incidence of cyber terrorism. To better understand why cyber terrorism acts are committed, this study presents the context of cyber terrorism from motivational perspectives. Motivational forces behind cyber terrorism can be social, political, ideological and economic. In this research, data are analyzed using a qualitative method. A semi-structured interview with purposive sampling was used for data collection. With the growing interconnectedness between critical infrastructures and Information & Communication Technology (ICT), selecting targets that facilitate maximum disruption can significantly influence terrorists. This work provides a baseline for defining the concept of cyber terrorism from motivational perspectives.

Keywords: cyber terrorism, terrorism, motivation, qualitative analysis

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658 Cyber Aggression, Cyber Bullying and the Dark Triad: Effect on Workplace Behavior and Performance

Authors: Anishya Obhrai Madan

Abstract:

In an increasingly connected world, where speed of communication attempts to match the speed of thought and thus intentions; conflict gets actioned faster using media like the internet and telecommunication technology. This has led to a new form of aggression: “cyber bullying”. The present paper attempts to integrate existing theory on bullying, and the dark triad personality traits in a work environment and extrapolate it to the cyber context.

Keywords: conflict at work, cyber bullying, dark triad of personality, toxic employee

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
657 Improving Cyber Resilience in Mobile Field Hospitals: Towards an Assessment Model

Authors: Nasir Baba Ahmed, Nicolas Daclin, Marc Olivaux, Gilles Dusserre

Abstract:

The Mobile field hospital is critical in terms of managing emergencies in crisis. It is a sub-section of the main hospitals and the health sector, tasked with delivering responsive, immediate, and efficient medical services during a crisis. With the aim to prevent further crisis, the assessment of the cyber assets follows different methods, to distinguish its strengths and weaknesses, and in turn achieve cyber resiliency. The work focuses on assessments of cyber resilience in field hospitals with trends growing in both the field hospital and the health sector in general. This creates opportunities for the adverse attackers and the response improvement objectives for attaining cyber resilience, as the assessments allow users and stakeholders to know the level of risks with regards to its cyber assets. Thus, the purpose is to show the possible threat vectors which open up opportunities, with contrast to current trends in the assessment of the mobile field hospitals’ cyber assets.

Keywords: assessment framework, cyber resilience, cyber security, mobile field hospital

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656 The Relationship between Adolescent Self Well Being and Cyber Bully/Victim Being

Authors: Nesrin Demir, Betül Demirbağ

Abstract:

In recent years, the type and content of bullying in schools changes together with technological development. Many studies attribute bullying movement to virtual platform to the widespread use of social media and internet. The main goal of this research is to determine if there is a correlation between subjective well-being as a popular conception of Positive Psychology and being cyber bully/victim. For this purpose, 287 students from various public high schools in Malatya have reached. As assessment tool, Cyber Bully/Victim Scale and Self Well Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Results were discussed in the relevant literature.

Keywords: cyber bully, cyber victim, school counseling, subjective well-being

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655 Guidance for Strengthening Ethics of Entrepreneurs in Information and Communication Technology Professional

Authors: Routsukol Sunalai

Abstract:

The objectives of this paper were to study current problem of ethics of entrepreneurs in information and communication technology professional, and to build their awareness of ethics, which would be useful as guidance for strengthening professional ethics among them. The study employed quantitative research method in order to analyze relationships or differences found in each ethics factor and report in statistics. The sample of this paper was 300 information technology users of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok. The findings revealed that the ethics factors which gained the highest and high level of opinion included possessing principles of righteousness, having trust in themselves and others, and respecting different opinions of others and accepting the fact that people of different opinions.

Keywords: communication, ethics, information, entrepreneurs

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654 A Reasoning Method of Cyber-Attack Attribution Based on Threat Intelligence

Authors: Li Qiang, Yang Ze-Ming, Liu Bao-Xu, Jiang Zheng-Wei

Abstract:

With the increasing complexity of cyberspace security, the cyber-attack attribution has become an important challenge of the security protection systems. The difficult points of cyber-attack attribution were forced on the problems of huge data handling and key data missing. According to this situation, this paper presented a reasoning method of cyber-attack attribution based on threat intelligence. The method utilizes the intrusion kill chain model and Bayesian network to build attack chain and evidence chain of cyber-attack on threat intelligence platform through data calculation, analysis and reasoning. Then, we used a number of cyber-attack events which we have observed and analyzed to test the reasoning method and demo system, the result of testing indicates that the reasoning method can provide certain help in cyber-attack attribution.

Keywords: reasoning, Bayesian networks, cyber-attack attribution, Kill Chain, threat intelligence

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653 Analysis on Cyber Threat Actors Targeting Automated Border Security Systems

Authors: Mirko Sailio

Abstract:

Border crossing automatization reduces required human resources in handling people crossing borders. As technology replaces and augments the work done by border officers, new cyber threats arise to threaten border security. This research analyses the current cyber threat actors and their capabilities. The analysis is conducted by gathering the threat actor data from a wide range of public sources. A model for a general border automatization system is presented, and its most significant cyber-security attributes are then compared to threat actor activity and capabilities in order to predict priorities in securing such systems. Organized crime and nation-state actors present the clearest threat to border cyber-security, and additional focus is given to their motivations and activities.

Keywords: border automation, cyber-security, threat actors, border cyber-security

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652 An Examination of Criminology and Cyber Crime in Contemporary Society

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

The evolving global environment has as of late seen formative difficulties bordering on cyber crime and its attendant effects. This paper looks at what constitutes an offense of cyber crime under the tenets of International Law as no nation can lay bona-fide claim in managing cyber crime as a criminal phenomenon. Therefore, there has been a plethora of ideological, conceptual and mental propositions of policies aimed at domesticating cyber crimes – an international crime. These policies were as a result of parochial consideration and social foundations which negate the spirit of internationally accepted procedures. The study also noted that the non-domestication of cyber crime laws by most countries has led to an increase in cyber crimes and its attendant effects have remained unabated. The author has pointed out emerging international rules as a panacea for a sustainable cyber crime-free society. The paper relied on documentary evidence and hence scooped much of the data from secondary sources such as text books, journals, articles and periodicals and more so, opinion papers, emanating from international criminal court. It concludes that the necessary recommendations made in this paper, if fully adopted, shall go a long way in maintaining a cyber crime-free society. Ultimately, the domestic and international law mechanisms capable of dealing with cyber crime offenses should be expanded and be made proactive in order to deal with the demands of modern day challenges.

Keywords: criminology, cyber crime, domestic law, international law

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651 Understanding Consumer Behavior Towards Business Ethics: Is it Really Important for Consumers

Authors: Ömer Akkaya, Muammer Zerenler

Abstract:

Ethics is important for all shareholders and stakeholders that a firm has in its environment. Whether a firm behaves ethically or unethically has a significant influence on consumers’ decision making and buying process. This research tries to explain business ethics from consumers’ perspective. The survey includes several questions to explain how consumers react if they know a firm behave unethically or ethically. What are consumers’ expectations regarding the ethical behavior of firm? Do consumer reward or punish the firms considering the ethics? Does it really important for consumers firms behaving ethical?

Keywords: business ethics, consumer behavior, ethics, social responsibility

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650 ISIS after the Defeat of the Islamic Caliphate: The Rise of Cyber-Jihad

Authors: Spyridon Plakoudas

Abstract:

After the capture of Al-Raqqah and the defeat of the short-lived Islamic Caliphate in 2017, everyone predicted the end of ISIS. However, ISIS proved far more resilient than initially thought. The militant group quickly regrouped from its defeat and started a low-intensity guerrilla campaign in central Iraq (near Kirkuk and Mosul) and north-eastern Syria (near Deir ez-Zorr). At the same time, ISIS doubled down on its cyber-campaign; actually, ISIS is as active on the cyber-domain as during the peak of its power in 2015. This paper, a spin-off paper from a co-authored book on the Syrian Civil War (due to be published by Rowman and Littlefield), intends to examine how ISIS operates in the cyber-domain and how this "Cyber-Caliphate" under re-construction is associated with its post-2017 strategy. This paper will draw on the discipline of War Studies (with an emphasis on Cyber-Security and Insurgency / Counter-Insurgency) and will benefit from the insights of interviewed experts on the field (e.g., Hassan Hasssan). This paper will explain how the successful operation of ISIS in the cyber-space preserves the myth of the “caliphate” amongst its worldwide followers (against the odds) and sustains the group’s ongoing insurgency in Syria and Iraq; in addition, this paper will suggest how this cyber-threat can be countered best.

Keywords: ISIS, cyber-jihad, Syrian Civil War, cyber-terrorism, insurgency and counter-insurgency

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649 Examining Cyber Crime and Its Impacts on E-Banking in Nigeria

Authors: Auwal Nata'ala

Abstract:

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has had impacts in almost every area human endeavor. From business, industries, banks to none profit organizations. ICT has simplified business process such as sorting, summarizing, coding, updating and generating a report in a real-time processing mode. However, the use of these ICT facilities such as computer and internet has also brought unintended consequences of criminal activities such as spamming, credit card frauds, ATM frauds, phishing, identity theft, denial of services and other related cyber crimes. This study sought to examined cyber-crime and its impact on the banking institution in Nigeria. It also examined the existing policy framework and assessed the success of the institutional countermeasures in combating cyber crime in the banking industry. This paper X-ray’s cyber crimes, policies issues and provides insight from a Nigeria perspective.

Keywords: cyber crimes, e-banking, policies, ICT

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648 A Systematic Approach for Analyzing Multiple Cyber-Physical Attacks on the Smart Grid

Authors: Yatin Wadhawan, Clifford Neuman, Anas Al Majali

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In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of the smart grid system in the presence of multiple cyber-physical attacks on its distinct functional components. We discuss attack-defense scenarios and their effect on smart grid resilience. Through contingency simulations in the Network and PowerWorld Simulator, we analyze multiple cyber-physical attacks that propagate from the cyber domain to power systems and discuss how such attacks destabilize the underlying power grid. The analysis of such simulations helps system administrators develop more resilient systems and improves the response of the system in the presence of cyber-physical attacks.

Keywords: smart grid, gas pipeline, cyber- physical attack, security, resilience

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647 Achieving Maximum Performance through the Practice of Entrepreneurial Ethics: Evidence from SMEs in Nigeria

Authors: S. B. Tende, H. L. Abubakar

Abstract:

It is acknowledged that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may encounter different ethical issues and pressures that could affect the way in which they strategize or make decisions concerning the outcome of their business. Therefore, this research aimed at assessing entrepreneurial ethics in the business of SMEs in Nigeria. Secondary data were adopted as source of corpus for the analysis. The findings conclude that a sound entrepreneurial ethics system has a significant effect on the level of performance of SMEs in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government needs to provide both guiding and physical structures; as well as learning systems that could inculcate these entrepreneurial ethics.

Keywords: culture, entrepreneurial ethics, performance, SME

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646 Cyber Supply Chain Resilient: Enhancing Security through Leadership to Protect National Security

Authors: Katie Wood

Abstract:

Cyber criminals are constantly on the lookout for new opportunities to exploit organisation and cause destruction. This could lead to significant cause of economic loss for organisations in the form of destruction in finances, reputation and even the overall survival of the organization. Additionally, this leads to serious consequences on national security. The threat of possible cyber attacks places further pressure on organisations to ensure they are secure, at a time where international scale cyber attacks have occurred in a range of sectors. Stakeholders are wanting confidence that their data is protected. This is only achievable if a business fosters a resilient supply chain strategy which is implemented throughout its supply chain by having a strong cyber leadership culture. This paper will discuss the essential role and need for organisations to adopt a cyber leadership culture and direction to learn about own internal processes to ensure mitigating systemic vulnerability of its supply chains. This paper outlines that to protect national security there is an urgent need for cyber awareness culture change. This is required in all organisations, regardless of their sector or size, to implementation throughout the whole supplier chain to support and protect economic prosperity to make the UK more resilient to cyber-attacks. Through businesses understanding the supply chain and risk management cycle of their own operates has to be the starting point to ensure effective cyber migration strategies.

Keywords: cyber leadership, cyber migration strategies, resilient supply chain strategy, cybersecurity

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645 Cybercrimes in Nigeria: Its Causes, Effects and Solutions

Authors: Uzoma Igboji

Abstract:

Cybercrimes involves crimes committed on the internet using the computer as a tool or targeted victim. In Nigeria today, there are many varieties of crimes that are committed on the internet daily, some are directed to the computers while the others are directed to the computer users. Cyber terrorism, identity theft, internet chat room, piracy and hacking are identified as types of cyber crimes. Usually, these crimes are perpetrated in forms of like sending of fraudulent and bogus financial proposals from cyber crimes to innocent internet users. The increasing rates of cyber crimes have become strong threats to the society, organizations and country’s reputation, E-commerce growth, denial of innocent Nigerian opportunity abroad and reduced productivity. This study identified some of the causes of cybercrimes to include urbanization, high rate of unemployment, corruption, easy accessibility to internet and weak implementation of cyber crimes in Nigeria. Therefore, internet users should inculcate the habit of continuously updating their knowledge about the ever changing ICTs through this, they can be well informed about the current trends in cybercrimes and how the cybercrimes carryout their dubious activities. Thus, how they can devise means of protecting their information from cyber criminals. Internet users should be security conscious at all times .Recommendations were proposed on how these crimes can be minimized if not completely eradicated.

Keywords: cyber-crimes, cyber-terrorism, cyber-criminals, Nigeria

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644 Cybercrime Stage Based Intervention: Through the Eyes of a Cyber Threat Actor

Authors: Jonathan W. Z. Lim, Vrizlynn L. L. Thing

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Cybercrimes are on the rise, in part due to technological advancements, as well as increased avenues of exploitation. Sophisticated threat actors are leveraging on such advancements to execute their malicious intentions. The increase in cybercrimes is prevalent, and it seems unlikely that they can be easily eradicated. A more serious concern is that the community may come to accept the notion that this will become the trend. As such, the key question revolves around how we can reduce cybercrime in this evolving landscape. In our paper, we propose to build a systematic framework through the lens of a cyber threat actor. We explore the motivation factors behind the crimes and the crime stages of the threat actors. We then formulate intervention plans so as to discourage the act of committing malicious cyber activities and also aim to integrate ex-cyber offenders back into society.

Keywords: crime motivations, crime prevention, cybercrime, ex-cyber criminals

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643 Cyber-Bullying Beyond Parental Control in High Schools

Authors: Eke Chidi Idi

Abstract:

School violence is a global phenomenon that affects one of the core institutions of modern society to some degree across many countries, and on a global scale. Within this context, this study explores the impact of parental control on perpetrators of cyber bullying as a form of school-based violence in high schools in uMgungundlovu district of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. Insights for this study were drawn from 18 in-depth interviews and two (2) focus group forums. The key themes that emerged from the findings include: (1) Parents are ignorant of their children involvement in cyber-crimes (2) Parents cannot adequately monitor what their children do on their cell phones (3) Female learners are the most affected as victims of cyber-crime.

Keywords: school, violence, parental control, cyber bullying

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642 Corporate Codes of Ethics and Earnings Discretion: International Evidence

Authors: Chu Chen, Giorgio Gotti, Tony Kang, Michael Wolfe

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This study examines the role of codes of ethics in reducing the extent to which managers’ act opportunistically in reporting earnings. Corporate codes of ethics, by clarifying the boundaries of ethical corporate behaviors and making relevant social norms more salient, have the potential to deter managers from engaging in opportunistic financial reporting practices. In a sample of international companies, we find that the quality of corporate codes of ethics is associated with higher earnings quality, i.e., lower discretionary accruals. Our results are confirmed for a subsample of firms more likely to be engaging in opportunistic reporting behavior, i.e., firms that just meet or beat analysts’ forecasts. Further, codes of ethics play a greater role in reducing earnings management for firms in countries with weaker investor protection mechanisms. Our results suggest that corporate codes of ethics can be a viable alternative to country-level investor protection mechanisms in curbing aggressive reporting behaviors.

Keywords: corporate ethics policy, code of ethics, business ethics, earnings discretion, accruals

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641 Need, Relevancy and Impact of Ethics Education in Accounting Profession

Authors: Mrigakshi Das

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The ethics of a business is currently a high profile issue owing to sensational corporate scandals that had taken place in many countries causing extensive damages to the economy and society. These corporate scandals question the morality of businessmen in general and accountants in particular. It is argued that the accountants have been the main contributors to the decline in ethical standards of a business. This researcher has reviewed the need and impact of ethics education in accounting profession. Despite of ethical interventions, the rate of accounting scandals are increasing and have left the public questioning that has the profession become really less ethical?

Keywords: accounting, ethics education and intervention in accounting, accounting education, accounting profession, moral reasoning and development, ethics education

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640 A Levinasian Perspective on the Field of Applied Ethics

Authors: Payman Tajalli, Steven Segal

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Applied ethics is an area of ethics which is looked upon most favorably as the most appropriate and useful for educational purposes; after all if ethics finds no application would any investment of time, effort and finance by the educational institutions be warranted? The current approaches to ethics in business and management often entail appealing to various types of moral theories and to this end almost every major philosophical approach has been enlisted. In this paper, we look at ethics through the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to argue that since ethics is ‘first philosophy’ it can neither be rule-based nor rule-governed, not something that can be worked out first and then applied to a given situation, hence the overwhelming emphasis on ‘applied ethics’ as a field of study in business and management education is unjustified. True ethics is not applied ethics. This assertion does not mean that teaching ethical theories and philosophies need to be abandoned rather it is the acceptance of the fact that an increase in cognitive awareness of such theories and ethical models and frameworks, or the mastering of techniques and procedures for ethical decision making, will not affect the desired ethical transformation in our students. Levinas himself argued for an ethics without a foundation, not one that required us to go ‘beyond good and evil’ as Nietzsche contended, rather an ethics which necessitates going ‘before good and evil'. Such an ethics does not provide us with a set of methods or techniques or a decision tree that enable us determine the rightness of an action and what we ought to do, rather it is about a way of being, an ethical posture or approach one takes in the inter-subjective relationship with the other that holds the promise of ethical conduct. Ethics in this Levinasian sense then is one of infinite and unconditional responsibility for the other person in relationship, an ethics which is not subject to negotiation, calculation or reciprocity, and as such it could neither be applied nor taught through conventional pedagogy with its focus on knowledge transfer from the teacher to student, and to this end Levinas offers a non-maieutic, non-conventional approach to pedagogy. The paper concludes that from a Levinasian perspective on ethics and education, we may need to guide our students to move away from the clear and objective professionalism of the management and applied ethics towards the murky individual spiritualism. For Levinas, this is ‘the Copernican revolution’ in ethics.

Keywords: business ethics, ethics education, Levinas, maieutic teaching, ethics without foundation

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