Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5751

Search results for: students’ behaviors

5751 The Study of the Awareness of Sexual Risk Bahaviors and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Students

Authors: Sumitta Sawangtook, Parichart Thano

Abstract:

The purposes of research were to study the relationship between the awareness of sexual risk behaviors and sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students, and to compare the sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students by gender, education level, sweetheart’s number, achievement, sexual value, and the influence of the friendship group. The research sample of 344 sevenths through twelfth grade students in secondary school for the academic year 2014, Dindang district Bangkok was selected by simple random sampling. The research instruments are: 1) demographic questionnaire 2) evaluation form of the awareness of sexual risk behaviors 3) questionnaire about sexual value 4) questionnaire about the influence of the friendship group and 5) evaluation form of sexual risk behaviors. They were used for data collections which are subsequently analyzed by percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, One-way Analysis of Variances. The results of this study were presented as follow: 1) The awareness of sexual risk behaviors was negatively correlated with sexual risk behaviors of adolescent students (r=-.27, p=.000). 2) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had gender difference (t=5.90, p=.000). 3) There was no significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of education (t=1.41, p=.16). 4) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of sweetheart’s number (F=13.03, p=.000). 5) There was significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had the different level of achievement (F=4.77, p=.009). 6) There were significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had different level of sexual value (F=50.91, p=.000) 7) There were significant difference at .05 level in sexual risk behaviors among adolescent students who had different level of the influence of the friendship group (F=98.41, p=.000).

Keywords: the awareness of sexual risk behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, adolescent students

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5750 The Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students from Only-Child Families: A National Survey in China

Authors: Jiashu Shen

Abstract:

This study aims at exploring the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Chinese college students from the 'one-child' families compared with those with siblings. This study utilized the data from the 'National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019'. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between the 'only-child' and their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors (RSB) stratified by sex and home regions, respectively. Compared with students with siblings, the 'only-child' students scored higher in sex-related knowledge (only-child students: 4.49 ± 2.28, students with siblings: 3.60 ± 2.27). Stronger associations between only-child and more liberal sexual attitudes were found in urban areas, including the approval of premarital sexual intercourse (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.50-1.65) and multiple sexual partners (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.72-1.99). For risky sexual behaviors, being only-child is more likely to use condoms in first sexual intercourse, especially among male students (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80). Only-child students are more likely to have more sexual knowledge, more liberal sexual attitude, and less risky sexual behavior. Further health policy and sex education should focus more on students with siblings.

Keywords: attitudes and behaviors, only-child students, sexual knowledge, students with siblings

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5749 Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Related Risk Behaviors Among Thai Medical Students of Thammasat University

Authors: Patcharapa Thaweekul, Paskorn Sritipsukho

Abstract:

Background: During the training period of the 6-year medical curriculum, medical students seem to have many risk behaviors of developing obesity. This study aims to demonstrate the prevalence and risk behavior of obesity and related metabolic disorders among the final-year medical students of Thammasat University as well as the change in nutritional status during studying program. Methods: 123 participants were asked to complete the self-report questionnaires. Weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were obtained. Blood samples were drawn for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and plasma glucose. Body weight and height of the medical students in the first year were obtained from the medical report at the entry. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity at the entry to medical school was 22.0% and increased to 30.1% in the final year. Two obese students (5.4%) was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome. During 6-year curriculum, the BMI gained in male medical students were more significant as compared to female students (1.76±1.74 and 0.43±1.82 kg/m2, respectively; p <.001). The current BMI is significantly correlated with the BMI at entry. Serum LDL-C in the overweight/obese students was significantly higher as compared to the normal weight and underweight group. Sleep deprivation was a significantly frequent behavior in the overweight/obese students. Conclusion: Medical students, as having high-risk behaviors, should be assessed for the nutritional status and metabolic parameters. Medical schools should promote the healthy behaviors to increase the healthy eating and exercise habits and reduced the risk behaviors among them.

Keywords: medical students, metabolic syndrome, obesity, risk behaviors

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5748 Violence and Unintentional Injuries among Secondary School Students in Jordan

Authors: Malakeh Zuhdi Malak, Mahmoud Taher Kalaldeh

Abstract:

In Jordan, no available data exists regarding violence and unintentional injuries among secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The purpose of this study was to assess the violence and unintentional injuries among those students, and to compare these two behaviors between male and female students. A descriptive cross-sectional design was carried out on randomly selected eight comprehensive secondary schools (four schools for females and four schools for males) from the public school educational directorate located in Amman. A modified Arabic version of the General School Health Survey questionnaire was used to measure violence and unintentional injuries. A sample of 750 secondary school students was studied. The findings showed that 26.8 % of students had been physically attacked. Overall, 43.3 % of students had been involved in a physical fight and 20.1% of them had been bullied. Overall, 45.3% of students were seriously injured. There was a difference between male and female students regarding to physical attack, physical fight, and serious injuries. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop effective training program in life skills for students that functions to reduce risk-taking behaviors that often leading to violence and unintentional injuries.

Keywords: secondary school students, violence, unintentional injuries, bullying

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5747 Coherency of First Year Nursing Students' Lifestyles with Their Future Career

Authors: Maria Rodriguez-Gazquez, Sara Chaparro-Hernandez, Jose Rafael Gonzalez-Lopez

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Introduction: Nurses are models in healthy behaviors for their patients. This is why it is important for these professionals to not only have a good knowledge of healthy behaviors but also practice. Today’s nursing students will be tomorrow’s professionals and to fulfill their role in caring they not only need knowledge, they also must maintain behaviors which enable them to improve and protect both the health of others and their own. This is why the university is a unique environment of opportunities to foster the maximum potential of health. To care for others we first have to take care of ourselves. It is important for these behaviors in Nursing students to be evaluated during the years of their university education in order to design timely interventions which improve the health behaviors of the future professionals. Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the lifestyles of first year nursing students of two Universities. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. In 2014, 140 first year Nursing students of two Universities Seville –US- (Spain -Europe, n=37) and Antioquia –UA- (Colombia -South America, n=93) self-reported the FANTASTIC Lifestyle checklist. Results: Findings reveal that (I) UA students doubled the percentage of dangerous or bad lifestyles with respect to the US students, (II) the lifestyles are not appropriate in 1 of 3 of nursing students in both Universities, (II) there are statistically significant differences for family support items (higher in US), positive thinkers (higher in UA), the use of safety belts and alcohol consumption before driving (higher in US). Discussion: The nursing students are mostly young people who are at a stage in which some of the most important behaviors for adult life can still be molded. It is necessary to develop educational interventions in their Nursing curricula to strengthen healthy behaviours during training. Nursing Schools not only have the duty to train professionals, but to also be agents that foster the health, welfare and quality of those who study and work there. It must encourage knowledge and skills oriented to healthy lifestyles.

Keywords: cross-sectional studies, life style, nursing students, questionnaires

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5746 Understanding Primary School Students’ Beliefs Regarding the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviors

Authors: Astrid de Leeuw, Pierre Valois

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Environmental education is the key to enhancing or changing students’ ways of thinking and acting in order to create an environmentally robust future for all. The present study investigates the beliefs of 812 primary school students, which merit consideration when developing educational interventions. Results of multiple regression analyses reveal that educational interventions should focus on promoting students’ feelings of control over pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). For example, schools could provide recycling bins on the premises. Furthermore, it is critical to develop positive attitudes in students by stressing the various benefits of PEB for keeping our planet clean and protecting wildlife. Unfortunately, our results indicate that students believe that PEB is boring and annoying. Suggestions are offered for making PEB more interesting and relevant. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness of interventions based on the present results.

Keywords: pro-environmental behavior, primary school students, theory of planned behavior, beliefs, educational interventions

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5745 Connections among Personality, Teacher-Student Relationship, Belief in a Just World for Others and Teacher Bullying

Authors: Hui-Yu Peng, Hsiu-I Hsueh, Li-Ming Chen

Abstract:

Most studies focused on bullying behaviors among students, however few research concerns about teachers’ bullying behaviors against students. In order to have more understandings and reduce teacher bullying, it is important to examine what factors may affect teachers’ bullying behaviors. This study aimed to explore the connections between different psychological variables and teacher bullying. Four variables, neuroticism, extraversion, teacher-student relationship, and belief in a just world for others (BJW-others), were selected in this study. Four hundred and five elementary and secondary school teachers in Taiwan endorsed the self-reported surveys. Multiple regression method was used to analyze data. Results revealed that teachers’ BJW-others and extraversion did not have significant correlations with teacher bullying scores. However, closed teacher-student relationship and neuroticism can negatively and positively predict teachers’ bullying behaviors against students, respectively. Implications for preventing teacher bullying were discussed at the end of this study.

Keywords: belief in a just world for others, big five personality traits, teacher bullying, teacher-student relationship

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5744 [Keynote Talk]: A Blueprint for an Educational Trajectory: The Power of Discourse in Constructing “Naughty” and “Adorable” Kindergarten Students

Authors: Fernanda T. Orsati, Julie Causton

Abstract:

Discursive practices enacted by educators in kindergarten create a blueprint for how the educational trajectories of students with disabilities are constructed. This two-year ethnographic case study critically examine educators’ relationships with students considered to present challenging behaviors in one kindergarten classroom located in a predominantly White middle-class school district in the Northeast of the United States. Focusing on the language and practices used by one special education teacher and three teaching assistants, this paper analyzes how teacher responses to students’ behaviors constructs and positions students over one year of kindergarten education. Using a critical discourse analysis, it shows that educators understand students’ behaviors as a deficit and needing consequences. This study highlights how educators’ responses reflect students' individual characteristics including family background, socioeconomics and ability status. This paper offers in-depth analysis of two students’ stories, which evidenced that the language used by educators amplifies the social positioning of students within the classroom and creates a foundation for who they are constructed to be. Through exploring routine language and practices, this paper demonstrates that educators outlined a blueprint of kindergartners, which positioned students as learners in ways that became the ground for either a limited or a promising educational pathway for them.

Keywords: behavior, early education, special education, critical discourse analysis

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5743 The Compliance of Safe-Work Behaviors among Undergraduate Nursing Students with Different Clinical Experiences

Authors: K. C. Wong, K. L. Siu, S. N. Ng, K. N. Yip, Y. Y. Yuen, K. W. Lee, K. W. Wong, C. C. Li, H. P. Lam

Abstract:

Background: Occupational injuries among nursing profession were found related to repeated bedside nursing care, such as transfer, lifting and manual handling patients from previous studies. Likewise, undergraduate nursing students are also exposed to potential safety hazard due to their similar work nature of registered nurses. Especially, those students who worked as Temporary undergraduate nursing students (TUNS) which is a part-time clinical job in hospitals in Hong Kong who mainly assisted in providing bedside cares appeared to at high risk of work-related injuries. Several studies suggested the level of compliance with safe work behaviors was highly associated with work-related injuries. Yet, it had been limitedly studied among nursing students. This study was conducted to assess and compare the compliance with safe work behaviors and the levels of awareness of different workplace safety issues between undergraduate nursing students with or without TUNS experiences. Methods: This is a quantitative descriptive study using convenience sampling. 362 undergraduate nursing students in Hong Kong were recruited. The Safe Work Behavior relating to Patient Handling (SWB-PH) was used to assess their compliance of safe-work behaviors and the level of awareness of different workplace safety issues. Results: The results showed that most of the participants (n=250, 69.1%) who were working as TUNS. However, students who worked as TUNS had significantly lower safe-work behaviors compliance (mean SWB-PH score = 3.64±0.54) than those did not worked as TUNS (SWB-PH score=4.21±0.54) (p<0.001). Particularly, these students had higher awareness to seek help and use assistive devices but lower awareness of workplace safety issues and awareness of proper work posture than students without TUNS experiences. The students with TUNS experiences had higher engagement in help-seeking behaviors might be possibly explained by their richer clinical experiences which served as a facilitator to seek help from clinical staff whenever necessary. Besides, these experienced students were more likely to bear risks for occupational injuries and worked alone when no available aid which might be related to the busy working environment, heightened work pressures and high expectations of TUNS. Eventually, students who worked as TUNS might target on completing the assigned tasks and gradually neglecting the occupational safety. Conclusion: The findings contributed to an understanding of the level of compliance with safe work behaviors among nursing students with different clinical experiences. The results might guide the modification of current safety protocols and the introduction of multiple clinical training courses to improve nursing student’s engagement in safe work behaviors.

Keywords: Occupational safety, Safety compliance, Safe-work behavior, Nursing students

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5742 Impacts of Online Behaviors on Empathy in Medical Students

Authors: Ling-Lang Huang, Yih-Jer Wu

Abstract:

Empathy is crucial for a patient-physician relationship and medical professionalism. Internet activity, gaming, or even addiction, have been more and more common among medical students. However, there’s been no report showing whether internet behavior has a substantial impact on empathy in medical students to our best knowledge. All year-2 medical students taking the optional course 'Narrative, Comprehension, and Communication' were enrolled. Internet behaviors are divided into two groups, 'internet users without online gaming (IU)' and 'internet users with online gaming (IG)', each group was further divided into 3 groups according to their average online retention time each day (< 2, 2 - 6, > 6 hours). Empathy was evaluated by the scores of the reports and humanities reflection after watching indicated movies, and by self-measured empathy questionnaire. All students taking the year-2 optional course 'Narrative, Comprehension, and Communication' were enrolled. As compared with students in the IU group, those in the IG group had significantly lower scores for the reports (81.3 ± 3.7 vs. 86.4 ± 5.1, P = 0.014). If further dividing the students into 5 groups (IU < 2, IU 2-6, IG < 2, IG 2 - 6, and IG > 6 hours), the scores were significantly and negatively correlated to online gaming with longer hours (r = -0.556, P = 0.006). However, there was no significant difference between IU and IG groups (33.0 ± 5.4 vs. 34.8 ± 3.2, P = n.s.), in terms of scores in the self-measured empathy questionnaire, neither was there any significant trend of scores along with longer online hours across the 5 groups (r = -0.164, P = n.s.). To date, there has been no evidence showing whether different internet behaviors (with or without online gaming) have distinct impacts on empathy. Although all of the medical students had a similarly good self-perception for empathy, our data suggested that online gaming did have a negative impact on their actual expression of empathy. Our observation has brought up an important issue for pondering: May IT- or gaming-assisted medical learning actually harm students’ empathy? In conclusion, this data suggests that long hours of online gaming harms expression of empathy, though all medics think themselves a person of high empathy.

Keywords: empathy. Internet, medical students, online gaming

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5741 Associations between Parental Marital Quality and Sexual Behaviors among 50,000 Chinese University Students

Authors: Jiashu Shen

Abstract:

With the increase in the prevalence of divorce, the impact of divorce on children’s sexual and reproductive health has received wide attention, while few studies have investigated parent marital relationship. This study aims to study the relation of both parent divorce and perceived parental marital relationship with children’s sexual behaviors among Chinese university or vocational college students. The study used data from “National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019”, an internet-based survey conducted from November 2019 to February 2020, in 241 universities or vocational colleges in China. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess the relationship of perceived parental marital relationship and parents’ divorce of distinct occurrence time with sexual intercourse, risky sexual behaviors, unintended health outcomes and sexual abuse. Among 51,124 university or vocational college students, those whose parents had divorced accounted for 10.72%. Better perceived parental relationship was associated with a lower likelihood to have sexual intercourse (male: OR: 0.83, 95%CI: 0.80-0.86; female: OR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.70-0.75), sexual abuse, risky sexual behaviors and unintended health outcomes. Divorce was also found to be associated with higher risk of sexual abuse, risky sexual behaviors and unintended health outcomes. The findings highlight the importance of parental marital relationship and divorce in risky sexual behavior among young adults. The findings may provide implications on intervention programs targeting at children with divorced parents from an early stage.

Keywords: college students, divorce, family relationship, sexual behavior

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5740 Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation among Undergraduate College Students

Authors: Samantha Vennice G. Sarcia

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A person dies every 40 seconds throughout the world due to suicide-related behaviors. Suicidal ideation is a strong precursor to suicide completion. It is one of the major health challenges faced by the world today thus, it is highly substantial. The present study investigated the influence of personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics in predicting suicidal ideation. Using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised and the Big Five Inventory, the degree of suicidal ideation and the associated personality traits were identified. Out of 194 students from the allied health courses, the findings suggest that the college students are at-risk and have passive thoughts about suicide. Using multiple regression analysis, there was an identified significant relationship among the factors associated with suicidal ideation, particularly the number of persons in the household, living arrangement, attendance in church activities, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Findings can help in the development of campus-based suicide prevention programs.

Keywords: depression, personality traits, suicidal ideation, suicide

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5739 Psychosocial Determinants of School Violent Behavior and the Efficacy of Covert Sensitization in Combination with Systematic approach Therapy among Male Students in Lagos Metropolis: Implications for Student Counselors

Authors: Fidel O. Okopi, Aminu Kazeem Ibrahim

Abstract:

The study investigated psychosocial determinants ‘attitudes and self-esteem’ of school violent behaviors and the efficacy of covert sensitization therapy in combination with systematic approach therapy among male students in Lagos metropolis. Ex-post facto experimental research design was adopted for the study. The samples consisted of 39 school violent behavior students identified through the School Disciplinary Record Books and another 39 non-school violent behavior students identified through randomization. The two groups were from four randomly selected Public Senior Secondary Schools. School Violent Behavior Attitudes Scale (SVBAS) and School Violent Behavior Self-Esteem Scale (SVBSES) were used to collect data for the study. Face and Content validity with the Reliability coefficient of 0.772 for SVBAS and 0.813 for SVBSES were obtained. The results showed that the attitude of school violent behavior students do not significantly differ from that of school non-violent behavior students; the self-esteem of school violent behavior students differs significantly from that of school non-violent behavior students and that Covert Sensitization therapy in combination with Systematic Approach therapy were effective in modifying the self-esteem and attitude of school violent behavior students as surf iced in the pre-test and post-test analysis of school violent behavior students’ responses. The School counselors can modify male school violent behaviors that are traced to attitude and self-esteem with Covert Sensitization therapy in combination with Systematic Approach therapy in metropolitan areas.

Keywords: psychosocial determinants, violent behavior, covert sensitization therapy, systematic approach therapy

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5738 Using Implicit Data to Improve E-Learning Systems

Authors: Slah Alsaleh

Abstract:

In the recent years and with popularity of internet and technology, e-learning became a major part of majority of education systems. One of the advantages the e-learning systems provide is the large amount of information available about the students' behavior while communicating with the e-learning system. Such information is very rich and it can be used to improve the capability and efficiency of e-learning systems. This paper discusses how e-learning can benefit from implicit data in different ways including; creating homogeneous groups of student, evaluating students' learning, creating behavior profiles for students and identifying the students through their behaviors.

Keywords: e-learning, implicit data, user behavior, data mining

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5737 The Effect of Perceived Parental Overprotection on Morality in College Students

Authors: Sunghyun Cho, Seung-Ah Lee

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Parental overprotection is known to have negative effects such as low independence, immature emotion regulation, and immoral behaviors on children’s development. This study investigated the effects of parental overprotection on Korean college students’ moral behaviors. In order to test the hypothesis that overprotected participants are more likely to show immoral behaviors in moral dilemma situations, we measured perceived parental overprotection using Korean-Parental Overprotection Scale (K-POS), Helicopter Parenting Behaviors, and Helicopter Parenting Instrument (HPI) for 200 college students. Participants’ level of morality was assessed using two types of online experimental tasks consisting of a word-searching puzzle and a visual perception task. Based on the level of perceived parental overprotection, 14 participants with high total scores in overparenting scales and 14 participants with average total scores in the scales were assigned to a high perceived overparenting student group, and control group, respectively. Results revealed that the high perceived overparenting group submitted significantly more untruthful answers compared to the control group in the visual perception task (t = 2.72, p < .05). However, there was no significant difference in immorality in the word-searching puzzle(t = 1.30, p > .05), yielding inconsistent results for the relationship between. These inconsistent results of two tasks assessing morality may be because submitting untruthful answers in the word-searching puzzle initiated a larger sense of immorality compared to the visual perception task. Thus, even the perceived overparenting participants seemingly tended not to submit immoral answers. Further implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

Keywords: college students, morality, overparenting, parental overprotection

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5736 The Different Learning Path Analysis of Students with Different Learning Attitudes and Styles in Arts Creation

Authors: Tracy Ho, Huann-Shyang Lin, Mina Lin

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This study investigated the different learning path of students with different learning attitude and learning styles in Arts Creation. Based on direct instruction, guided-discovery learning, and discovery learning theories, a tablet app including the following three learning areas were developed for students: (1) replication and remix practice area, (2) guided creation area, and (3) free creation area. Thirty. students with different learning attitude and learning styles were invited to use this app. Students’ learning behaviors were categorized and defined. The results will provide both educators and researchers with insights that can form a useful foundation for designing different content and strategy with the application of new technologies in school teaching. It also sheds light on how an educational App can be designed to enhance Arts Creation.

Keywords: App, arts creation, learning attitude, learning style, tablet

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5735 Health Belief Model on Smoking Behaviors Causing Lung Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study in Thailand

Authors: Dujrudee Chinwong, Chanida Prompantakorn, Ubonphan Chaichana, Surarong Chinwong

Abstract:

Objective: Understanding the university students’ perceptions on smoking caused lung cancer based on the Health Belief Model should help health care providers in assisting them to quit smoking. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the University students’ health belief in smoking behaviors caused lung cancer, which based on the Health Belief Model. Methods: Data were collected from voluntary participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were students studying at a University in northern Thailand who were current smokers; they were selected using snowball sampling. Results: Of 361 students, 84% were males; 78% smoked not more than 10 cigarettes a day; 68% intended to quit smoking. Our findings, based on the health belief model, showed that 1) perceived susceptibility: participants strongly believed that if they did not stop smoking, they were at high risk of lung cancer (88%); 2) perceived severity: they strongly believed that they had a high chance of death from lung cancer if they continued smoking (84%); 3) perceived benefits: they strongly believed that quitting smoking could reduce the chance of developing lung cancer; 4) perceived barriers of quitting smoking: they strongly believed in the difficulty of quitting smoking because it needed a high effort and strong intention (69%); 5) perceived self-efficacy: however, they strongly believed that they can quit smoking right away if they had a strong intention to quit smoking (70%); 6) cues to action: they strongly believed in the support of parents (85%) and lovers (78%) in helping them to quit smoking. Further, they believed that limitation on smoking area in the University and smoking cessation services provided by the University can assist them to quit smoking. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model helps us to understand students’ smoking behaviors caused lung cancer. This could lead to designing a smoking cessation program to assist students to quit smoking.

Keywords: health belief model, lung cancer, smoking, Thailand

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5734 An Augmented-Reality Interactive Card Game for Teaching Elementary School Students

Authors: YuLung Wu, YuTien Wu, ShuMey Yu

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Game-based learning can enhance the learning motivation of students and provide a means for them to learn through playing games. This study used augmented reality technology to develop an interactive card game as a game-based teaching aid for delivering elementary school science course content with the aim of enhancing student learning processes and outcomes. Through playing the proposed card game, students can familiarize themselves with appearance, features, and foraging behaviors of insects. The system records the actions of students, enabling teachers to determine their students’ learning progress. In this study, 37 students participated in an assessment experiment and provided feedback through questionnaires. Their responses indicated that they were significantly more motivated to learn after playing the game, and their feedback was mostly positive.

Keywords: game-based learning, learning motivation, teaching aid, augmented reality

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5733 Predictors of School Drop out among High School Students

Authors: Osman Zorbaz, Selen Demirtas-Zorbaz, Ozlem Ulas

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The factors that cause adolescents to drop out school were several. One of the frameworks about school dropout focuses on the contextual factors around the adolescents whereas the other one focuses on individual factors. It can be said that both factors are important equally. In this study, both adolescent’s individual factors (anti-social behaviors, academic success) and contextual factors (parent academic involvement, parent academic support, number of siblings, living with parent) were examined in the term of school dropout. The study sample consisted of 346 high school students in the public schools in Ankara who continued their education in 2015-2016 academic year. One hundred eighty-five the students (53.5%) were girls and 161 (46.5%) were boys. In addition to this 118 of them were in ninth grade, 122 of them in tenth grade and 106 of them were in eleventh grade. Multiple regression and one-way ANOVA statistical methods were used. First, it was examined if the data meet the assumptions and conditions that are required for regression analysis. After controlling the assumptions, regression analysis was conducted. Parent academic involvement, parent academic support, number of siblings, anti-social behaviors, academic success variables were taken into the regression model and it was seen that parent academic involvement (t=-3.023, p < .01), anti-social behaviors (t=7.038, p < .001), and academic success (t=-3.718, p < .001) predicted school dropout whereas parent academic support (t=-1.403, p > .05) and number of siblings (t=-1.908, p > .05) didn’t. The model explained 30% of the variance (R=.557, R2=.300, F5,345=30.626, p < .001). In addition to this the variance, results showed there was no significant difference on high school students school dropout levels according to living with parents or not (F2;345=1.183, p > .05). Results discussed in the light of the literature and suggestion were made. As a result, academic involvement, academic success and anti-social behaviors will be considered as an important factors for preventing school drop-out.

Keywords: adolescents, anti-social behavior, parent academic involvement, parent academic support, school dropout

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5732 Working Memory Growth from Kindergarten to First Grade: Considering Impulsivity, Parental Discipline Methods and Socioeconomic Status

Authors: Ayse Cobanoglu

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Working memory can be defined as a workspace that holds and regulates active information in mind. This study investigates individual changes in children's working memory from kindergarten to first grade. The main purpose of the study is whether parental discipline methods and child impulsive/overactive behaviors affect children's working memory initial status and growth rate, controlling for gender, minority status, and socioeconomic status (SES). A linear growth curve model with the first four waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 2011 (ECLS-K:2011) is performed to analyze the individual growth of children's working memory longitudinally (N=3915). Results revealed that there is a significant variation among students' initial status in the kindergarten fall semester as well as the growth rate during the first two years of schooling. While minority status, SES, and children's overactive/impulsive behaviors influenced children's initial status, only SES and minority status were significantly associated with the growth rate of working memory. For parental discipline methods, such as giving a warning and ignoring the child's negative behavior, are also negatively associated with initial working memory scores. Following that, students' working memory growth rate is examined, and students with lower SES as well as minorities showed a faster growth pattern during the first two years of schooling. However, the findings of parental disciplinary methods on working memory growth rates were mixed. It can be concluded that schooling helps low-SES minority students to develop their working memory.

Keywords: growth curve modeling, impulsive/overactive behaviors, parenting, working memory

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5731 Investigating University Students' Attitudes towards Infertility in Terms of Socio-Demographic Variables

Authors: Yelda Kağnıcı, Seçil Seymenler, Bahar Baran, Erol Esen, Barışcan Öztürk, Ender Siyez, Diğdem M. Siyez

Abstract:

Infertility is the inability to reproduce after twelve months or longer unprotected sexual relationship. Although infertility is not a life threatening illness, it is considered as a serious problem for both the individual and the society. At this point, the importance of examining attitudes towards infertility is critical. Negative attitudes towards infertility may postpone individuals’ help seeking behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate university students’ attitudes towards infertility in terms of socio-demographic variables (gender, age, taking sexual health education, existence of an infertile individual in the social network, plans about having child and behaviors about health). The sample of the study was 9693 university students attending to 21 universities in Turkey. Of the 9693 students, % 51.6 (n = 5002) were female, % 48.4 (n = 4691) were male. The data was collected by Attitudes toward Infertility Scale developed by researchers and Personal Information Form. In data analysis first frequencies were calculated, then in order to test whether there were significant differences in attitudes towards infertility scores of university students in terms of socio-demographic variables, one way ANOVA was conducted. According to the results, it was found that female students, students who had sexual health education, who have sexual relationship experience, who have an infertile individual in their social networks, who have child plans, who have high caffeine usage and who use alcohol regularly have more positive attitudes towards infertility. On the other hand, attitudes towards infidelity did not show significant differences in terms of age and cigarette usage. When the results of the study were evaluated in general, it was seen that university students’ attitudes towards infertility were negative. The attitudes of students who have high caffeine and alcohols usage were high. It can be considered that these students are aware that their social habits are risky. Female students’ positive attitudes might be explained by their gender role. The results point out that in order to decrease university students’ negative attitudes towards infertility, there is a necessity to develop preventive programs in universities.

Keywords: infertility, attitudes, sex, university students

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5730 The Effects of Self-Reflections on Intercultural Communication Competency: A Case Study of the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith

Authors: JaeYoon Park

Abstract:

The ability to communicate effectively across different cultures is a necessary skill in today’s increasingly globalized world. Intercultural communication competency (ICC) is a way of being that benefits all members of a society in their living, learning, and working environments as well as in the context of mediated communications. This study examines the effects of self-reflection processes on the improvement of intercultural communication skills focusing on college students at the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith. A total of sixty-nine students’ works were analyzed based on the data collected in the past three years (2016, 2017 and 2018). The students in the ‘Culture and Communication’ class, each spring, completed the Diversity Awareness Profile (DAP) survey as a pre- and post-test for the course. DAP is a self-assessment tool designed by Karen Stinson and widely used in college classes, companies, and organizations to evaluate an individual’s behaviors in various intercultural settings. It can assist individuals in becoming more aware of diversity issues and also provide a foundation for developing strategies for modifying any undesirable behavior they may discover in the assessment. In addition to the DAP surveys, the students also submitted self-reflection essays that discussed their own scores. The University of Arkansas-Fort Smith is a small regional university located in the Bible Belt of the United States. White, Christian, working-class students dominate its student population. The students, whose data were collected, were predominantly seniors in college majoring in either Media Communication or International Business. Approximately, 80% of the students increased their scores, and 42% of them moved forward to a new category. The findings also indicate that the students in the underrepresented groups (i.e., women, minority, and international students) show less change in their scores and behaviors than the rest of the students (i.e., white heterosexual male students). These findings, in most part, result from the fact that the underrepresented students were already aware of diversity and intercultural issues through their personal experiences before taking the class. The white heterosexual male students demonstrated the greatest improvements, judging from their DAP scores (pre- and post-tests) and self-reflection essays. Through the class assignments and discussions, which emphasized critical thinking and self-reflection, the latter group of students not only became more aware of the meaning of their own words and behaviors, but they were also able to develop greater proficiency in intercultural communication. This e-poster presentation will analyze the findings of this research data, and also discuss the pedagogical implications of such results.

Keywords: cross-cultural communication, diversity awareness survey, self-reflection, underrepresented students

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5729 Safety Culture, Mindfulness and Safe Behaviours of Students Residing in the Halls of Residence of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria

Authors: Olajumoke Adetoun Ojeleye

Abstract:

The study assessed the safety culture, mindfulness and safe behaviors of students residing in the halls of residence of Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile Ife, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to assess the level of safety mindfulness of students residing in the halls of residence of OAU, examine their safety culture and establish whether these students are involved in unsafe practices. The study employed a cross-sectional research design and instrument used for data collection was a self-structured, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability with its reliability coefficient at 0.71 before being used for data collection. Respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling technique and the sample size was 530. Data collection took 2 weeks and analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. Results showed that about half of the respondents’ population (49.8%) was between the ages of 20-24 years. There were more males (56.2%) than females (43.8%). Although data demonstrated that majority (91.7%) of the respondents are highly safety minded and the safety culture of an equally high proportion (83.4%) was adjudged fair, a lot of improvement is needed in the area of alerting or informing management of impending dangers and studying the hall handbook to internalize its contents. The study further showed that only 43.6% of respondents had good safety practices and behaviors and majority (56.4%) had fair safety practices and behaviors. One accidental discovery of the study is the finding that not a few of the students squat their counterparts. The study recommended the establishment of clearly written out complaint procedure that is accessible and available to all hall residents, building more hostels with adequate facilities to address the issue of overcrowding and also putting systems in place in order to encourage residents to report incidences/accidents.

Keywords: safe behaviours, safety culture, safety mindfulness, student

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5728 Perceived Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Ordinary Level Students at Gatsi Secondary School

Authors: Chimeri Muzano Leonard

Abstract:

The study was carried out to investigate the perceptions of male and female Ordinary Level students on the effects of alcohol abuse at Gatsi Secondary School. The study showed that alcohol abuse has academic, social, psychological and health effects on Ordinary Level students. The negative effects comprises of death, dropping out, poor grades, poor concentration, risky behaviors, impairment of the brain and central nervous system , risky behaviors and Impairment of reproductive functioning Only students who enrolled for Ordinary Level in the 2014 academic year participated in this study. Fifty students (25 males and 25 females) were randomly selected to participate in the study. A formal survey questionnaire was used to collect data. The respondents were asked to use a scale of 0 (totally disagree) to 10 (completely agree) to indicate the extent to which they agreed with each perception. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 was used for data analysis. The Mann Whitney U test was used to test for the significance of differences in the perceptions of male and female students. No statistically significant differences were detected between males and females in most of their perceptions regarding the effects of alcohol abuse on Ordinary Level students. However, there were three perceptions found to be significantly different between male and female. They comprises of “Peers influence one to drink alcohol”, “Alcohol abuse is a major problem among male students compared to their female peers” and “ Female students should not drink beer”.It was evident from this study that Gatsi Secondary School needs to implement more effective interventions that combat alcohol abuse. A deeper analysis of the issues that predispose Ordinary Level students to alcohol abuse should inform the interventions. Consequently, unravelling the problem of negative effects of alcohol abuse was desirable because of its potential usefulness in developing strategies that might help curb the problem and presumably improve the performance of Ordinary Level students and above all the quality of education at Gatsi Secondary School.

Keywords: perceived effects, alcohol, Gatsi Secondary School, alcohol abuse

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5727 Stop Texting While Learning: A Meta-Analysis of Social Networks Use and Academic Performances

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed, Sarinya Kongtieng

Abstract:

Teachers and university lecturers face an unsolved problem, which is students’ multitasking behaviors during class time, such as texting or playing a game. It is important to examine the most powerful predictor that can result in students’ educational performances. Meta-analysis was used to analyze the research articles, which were published with the keywords, multitasking, class performance, and texting. We selected 14 research articles published during 2008-2013 from online databases, and four articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria. Effect size of each pair of variables was used as the dependent variable. The findings revealed that the students’ expectancy and value on SNSs usages is the best significant predictor of their educational performances, followed by their motivation and ability in using SNSs, prior educational performances, usage behaviors of SNSs in class, and their personal characteristics, respectively. Future study should conduct a longitudinal design to better understand the effect of multitasking in the classroom.

Keywords: meta-regression analysis, social networking sites, academic Performances, multitasking, motivation

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5726 Why Do We Need Hierachical Linear Models?

Authors: Mustafa Aydın, Ali Murat Sunbul

Abstract:

Hierarchical or nested data structures usually are seen in many research areas. Especially, in the field of education, if we examine most of the studies, we can see the nested structures. Students in classes, classes in schools, schools in cities and cities in regions are similar nested structures. In a hierarchical structure, students being in the same class, sharing the same physical conditions and similar experiences and learning from the same teachers, they demonstrate similar behaviors between them rather than the students in other classes.

Keywords: hierarchical linear modeling, nested data, hierarchical structure, data structure

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5725 Public Policy and Sexuality Education for Youth with Disabilities: Impact on Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

Authors: Alexandra M. Kriofske Mainella

Abstract:

This paper will examine the need for more aggressive public policies around bodily, reproductive and sexual health education for young people with disabilities in the United States. This paper will consider the policies around sexuality education for students in the United States and the recommendation for national standards around sexuality education. We will investigate the intersection of these policies and recommendations for students with disabilities and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): what this means for students with disabilities’ access to comprehensive sexuality education and how it affects their behaviors and outcomes.

Keywords: disability, sexuality, education, policy

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5724 An Evaluation of the Efficacy of School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

Abstract:

The following review has identified specific programs, as well as the elements of these programs, that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools. Suicide is an issue that affects many students each year. Although this is a prominent issue, there are few prevention programs used within schools. The primary objective of most prevention programs is to reduce risk factors such as depression and hopelessness, and increase protective factors like support systems and help-seeking behaviors. Most programs include a gatekeeper training model, education component, peer support group, and/or counseling/treatment. Research shows that some of these programs, like the Signs of Suicide and Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme, are effective in reducing suicide behaviors and increasing protective factors. These programs have been implemented in many countries across the world and have shown promising results. Since schools can provide easy access to adolescents, implement education programs, and train staff members and students how to identify and to report suicide behaviors, school-based programs seem to be the best way to prevent suicide among adolescents. Early intervention may be an effective way to prevent suicide. Although, since early intervention is not always an option, school-based programs in high schools have also been shown to decrease suicide attempts by up to 50%. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1.) list at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2.) identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, and 3.) describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide.

Keywords: school, suicide, prevention, programs

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5723 Level up Entrepreneurial Behaviors: A Case Study on the Use of Gamification to Encourage Entrepreneurial Acting and Thinking

Authors: Lena Murawski

Abstract:

Currently, researchers and experts from the business world recognize entrepreneurial behaviors as a decisive factor for economic success, allowing firms to adapt to changing internal and external needs. The purpose of this study is to explore how gamification can enhance entrepreneurial behaviors, reporting on a gamification project in a new venture operating in the IT sector in Germany. This article is based on data gathered from observations of pre‐ and post‐implementation in the case company. Results have indicated that the use of gamification encourages entrepreneurial behaviors, especially relating to seeking ways on how to integrate new employees, improve teamwork and communication, and to adapt existing processes to increase productivity. The interdisciplinary dialogue furthers our understanding of factors that foster entrepreneurial behaviors. The matter is of practical relevance, guiding practitioners on how to exploit the potentials of gamification to exhibit an entrepreneurial orientation in organizations.

Keywords: case study, entrepreneurial behaviors, gamification, new venture

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5722 Relationships between Screen Time, Internet Addiction and Other Lifestyle Behaviors with Obesity among Secondary School Students in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Authors: Ozen Asut, Gulifeiya Abuduxike, Imge Begendi, Mustafa O. Canatan, Merve Colak, Gizem Ozturk, Lara Tasan, Ahmed Waraiet, Songul A. Vaizoglu, Sanda Cali

Abstract:

Obesity among children and adolescents is one of the critical public health problems worldwide. Internet addiction is one of the sedentary behaviors that cause obesity due to the excessive screen time and reduced physical activities. We aimed to examine the relationships between the screen time, internet addiction and other lifestyle behaviors with obesity among high school students in the Near East College in Nicosia, Northern Cyprus. A cross-sectional study conducted among 469 secondary school students, mean age 11.95 (SD, 0.81) years. A self-administrated questionnaire was applied to assess the screen time and lifestyle behaviors. The Turkish adopted version of short-form of internet addiction test was used to assess internet addiction problems. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI and classified based on the BMI percentiles for sex and age. Descriptive analysis, Chi-Square test, and multivariate regression analysis were done. Of all, 17.2% of the participants were overweight and obese, and 18.1% had internet addictions, while 40.7% of them reported having screen time more than two hours. After adjusting the analysis for age and sex, eating snacks while watching television (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.28-7.21), self- perceived body weight (OR, 24.9; 95% CI, 9.64-64.25) and having a play station in the room (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.85 - 11.42) were significantly associated with obesity. Screen time (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 2.61-8.38; p=0.000) and having a computer in bedroom (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.01- 2.87; p=0.046) were significantly associated with internet addiction, whereas parent’s compliant regarding the lengthy technology use (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.11-0.46; p=0.000) was found to be a protective factor against internet addiction. Prolonged screen time, internet addiction, sedentary lifestyles, and reduced physical and social activities are interrelated, multi-dimensional factors that lead to obesity among children and adolescents. A family - school-based integrated approach should be implemented to tackle obesity problems.

Keywords: adolescents, internet addiction, lifestyle, Northern Cyprus, obesity, screen time

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