Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: instabilities

73 Analysis of Two-Phase Flow Instabilities in Conventional Channel of Nuclear Power Reactor

Authors: M. Abdur Rashid Sarkar, Riffat Mahmud

Abstract:

Boiling heat transfer plays a crucial role in cooling nuclear reactor for safe electricity generation. A two phase flow is susceptible to thermal-hydrodynamic instabilities, which may cause flow oscillations of constant amplitude or diverging amplitude. These oscillations may induce boiling crisis, disturb control systems, or cause mechanical damage. Based on their mechanisms, various types of instabilities can be classified for a nuclear reactor. From a practical engineering point of view one of the major design difficulties in dealing with multiphase flow is that the mass, momentum, and energy transfer rates and processes may be quite sensitive to the geometric configuration of the heat transfer surface. Moreover, the flow within each phase or component will clearly depend on that geometric configuration. The complexity of this two-way coupling presents a major challenge in the study of multiphase flows and there is much that remains to be done. Yet, the parametric effects on flow instability such as the effect of aspect ratio, pressure drop, channel length, its orientation inlet subcooling and surface roughness etc. have been analyzed. Another frequently occurring instability, known as the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability has been briefly reviewed. Various analytical techniques for predicting parametric effect on the instability are analyzed in terms of their applicability and accuracy.

Keywords: two phase flows, boiling crisis, thermal-hydrodynamic instabilities, water cooled nuclear reactors, kelvin–helmholtz instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
72 Dynamic Study of a Two Phase Thermosyphon Loop

Authors: Selva Georgena D., Videcoq Etienne, Caner Julien, Benselama Adel, Girault Manu

Abstract:

A Two-Phase Thermosyphon Loop (TPTL) is a passive cooling system which does not require a pump to function. Therefore, TPTL is a simple and robust device and its physics is complex to describe because of the coupled phenomena: heat flux, nucleation, fluid dynamics and gravitational effects. Moreover, the dynamic behavior of TPTL shows some physical instabilities and the actual occurrence of such a behavior remains unknown. The aim of this study is to propose a thermal balance of the TPTL to better identify the fundamental reasons for the appearance of the instabilities.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, passive cooling system, thermal reliability, thermal experimental study, liquid-vapor phase change

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
71 Direct Visualization of Shear Induced Structures in Wormlike Micellar Solutions by Microfluidics and Advanced Microscopy

Authors: Carla Caiazza, Valentina Preziosi, Giovanna Tomaiuolo, Denis O'Sullivan, Vincenzo Guida, Stefano Guido

Abstract:

In the last decades, wormlike micellar solutions have been extensively used to tune the rheological behavior of home care and personal care products. This and other successful applications underlie the growing attention that both basic and applied research are devoting to these systems, and to their unique rheological and flow properties. One of the key research topics is the occurrence of flow instabilities at high shear rates (such as shear banding), with the possibility of appearance of flow induced structures. In this scenario, microfluidics is a powerful tool to get a deeper insight into the flow behavior of a wormlike micellar solution, as the high confinement of a microfluidic device facilitates the onset of the flow instabilities; furthermore, thanks to its small dimensions, it can be coupled with optical microscopy, allowing a direct visualization of flow structuring phenomena. Here, the flow of a widely used wormlike micellar solution through a glass capillary has been studied, by coupling the microfluidic device with μPIV techniques. The direct visualization of flow-induced structures and the flow visualization analysis highlight a relationship between solution structuring and the onset of discontinuities in the velocity profile.

Keywords: flow instabilities, flow-induced structures, μPIV, wormlike micelles

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
70 Multi-Modal Film Boiling Simulations on Adaptive Octree Grids

Authors: M. Wasy Akhtar

Abstract:

Multi-modal film boiling simulations are carried out on adaptive octree grids. The liquid-vapor interface is captured using the volume-of-fluid framework adjusted to account for exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy across the interface. Surface tension effects are included using a volumetric source term in the momentum equations. The phase change calculations are conducted based on the exact location and orientation of the interface; however, the source terms are calculated using the mixture variables to be consistent with the one field formulation used to represent the entire fluid domain. The numerical model on octree representation of the computational grid is first verified using test cases including advection tests in severely deforming velocity fields, gravity-based instabilities and bubble growth in uniformly superheated liquid under zero gravity. The model is then used to simulate both single and multi-modal film boiling simulations. The octree grid is dynamically adapted in order to maintain the highest grid resolution on the instability fronts using markers of interface location, volume fraction, and thermal gradients. The method thus provides an efficient platform to simulate fluid instabilities with or without phase change in the presence of body forces like gravity or shear layer instabilities.

Keywords: boiling flows, dynamic octree grids, heat transfer, interface capturing, phase change

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
69 Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Stability Analyses in Mixed Convection of a Viscoelastic Fluid in a Porous Medium

Authors: P. Naderi, M. N. Ouarzazi, S. C. Hirata, H. Ben Hamed, H. Beji

Abstract:

The stability of mixed convection in a Newtonian fluid medium heated from below and cooled from above, also known as the Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard problem, has been extensively investigated in the past decades. To our knowledge, mixed convection in porous media has received much less attention in the published literature. The present paper extends the mixed convection problem in porous media for the case of a viscoelastic fluid flow owing to its numerous environmental and industrial applications such as the extrusion of polymer fluids, solidification of liquid crystals, suspension solutions and petroleum activities. Without a superimposed through-flow, the natural convection problem of a viscoelastic fluid in a saturated porous medium has already been treated. The effects of the viscoelastic properties of the fluid on the linear and nonlinear dynamics of the thermoconvective instabilities have also been treated in this work. Consequently, the elasticity of the fluid can lead either to a Hopf bifurcation, giving rise to oscillatory structures in the strongly elastic regime, or to a stationary bifurcation in the weakly elastic regime. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the main horizontal flow on the linear and characteristics of these two types of instabilities. Under the Boussinesq approximation and Darcy's law extended to a viscoelastic fluid, a temporal stability approach shows that the conditions for the appearance of longitudinal rolls are identical to those found in the absence of through-flow. For the general three-dimensional (3D) perturbations, a Squire transformation allows the deduction of the complex frequencies associated with the 3D problem using those obtained by solving the two-dimensional one. The numerical resolution of the eigenvalue problem concludes that the through-flow has a destabilizing effect and selects a convective configuration organized in purely transversal rolls which oscillate in time and propagate in the direction of the main flow. In addition, by using the mathematical formalism of absolute and convective instabilities, we study the nature of unstable three-dimensional disturbances. It is shown that for a non-vanishing through-flow, general three-dimensional instabilities are convectively unstable which means that in the absence of a continuous noise source these instabilities are drifted outside the porous medium, and no long-term pattern is observed. In contrast, purely transversal rolls may exhibit a transition to absolute instability regime and therefore affect the porous medium everywhere including in the absence of a noise source. The absolute instability threshold, the frequency and the wave number associated with purely transversal rolls are determined as a function of the Péclet number and the viscoelastic parameters. Results are discussed and compared to those obtained from laboratory experiments in the case of Newtonian fluids.

Keywords: instability, mixed convection, porous media, and viscoelastic fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
68 Impinging Acoustics Induced Combustion: An Alternative Technique to Prevent Thermoacoustic Instabilities

Authors: Sayantan Saha, Sambit Supriya Dash, Vinayak Malhotra

Abstract:

Efficient propulsive systems development is an area of major interest and concern in aerospace industry. Combustion forms the most reliable and basic form of propulsion for ground and space applications. The generation of large amount of energy from a small volume relates mostly to the flaming combustion. This study deals with instabilities associated with flaming combustion. Combustion is always accompanied by acoustics be it external or internal. Chemical propulsion oriented rockets and space systems are well known to encounter acoustic instabilities. Acoustic brings in changes in inter-energy conversion and alter the reaction rates. The modified heat fluxes, owing to wall temperature, reaction rates, and non-linear heat transfer are observed. The thermoacoustic instabilities significantly result in reduced combustion efficiency leading to uncontrolled liquid rocket engine performance, serious hazards to systems, assisted testing facilities, enormous loss of resources and every year a substantial amount of money is spent to prevent them. Present work attempts to fundamentally understand the mechanisms governing the thermoacoustic combustion in liquid rocket engine using a simplified experimental setup comprising a butane cylinder and an impinging acoustic source. Rocket engine produces sound pressure level in excess of 153 Db. The RL-10 engine generates noise of 180 Db at its base. Systematic studies are carried out for varying fuel flow rates, acoustic levels and observations are made on the flames. The work is expected to yield a good physical insight into the development of acoustic devices that when coupled with the present propulsive devices could effectively enhance combustion efficiency leading to better and safer missions. The results would be utilized to develop impinging acoustic devices that impinge sound on the combustion chambers leading to stable combustion thus, improving specific fuel consumption, specific impulse, reducing emissions, enhanced performance and fire safety. The results can be effectively applied to terrestrial and space application.

Keywords: combustion instability, fire safety, improved performance, liquid rocket engines, thermoacoustics

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
67 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanism of Stratified Liquid Mixing in a Cylinder

Authors: Chai Mingming, Li Lei, Lu Xiaoxia

Abstract:

In this paper, the mechanism of stratified liquids’ mixing in a cylinder is investigated. It is focused on the effects of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and rotation of the cylinder on liquid interface mixing. For miscible liquids, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique is applied to record the concentration field for one liquid. Intensity of Segregation (IOS) is used to describe the mixing status. For immiscible liquids, High Speed Camera is adopted to record the development of the interface. The experiment of RTI indicates that it plays a great role in the mixing process, and meanwhile the large-scale mixing is triggered, and subsequently the span of the stripes decreases, showing that the mesoscale mixing is coming into being. The rotation experiments show that the spin-down process has a great role in liquid mixing, during which the upper liquid falls down rapidly along the wall and crashes into the lower liquid. During this process, a lot of interface instabilities are excited. Liquids mix rapidly in the spin-down process. It can be concluded that no matter what ways have been adopted to speed up liquid mixing, the fundamental reason is the interface instabilities which increase the area of the interface between liquids and increase the relative velocity of the two liquids.

Keywords: interface instability, liquid mixing, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, spin-down process, spin-up process

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
66 Large Eddy Simulation Approach for Unsteady Analysis of the Flow Behavior inside a Dual Counter Rotating Axial Swirler

Authors: Foad Vashahi, Shahnaz Rezaei, Jeekeun Lee

Abstract:

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was performed on a dual counter rotating axial swirler in a confined rectangular configuration. Grids were constructed based on a primary Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation and then were refined based on the Kolmogorov length scale. Water as cold flow condition was applied and results were compared via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The focus was to investigate the flow behavior within the region before the flare and very close to the exit of the swirler. This region contributes to a highly unsteady flow behavior and requires great attention to enhancing the flame stability in gas turbine combustor and swirl burners. The PVC formation within the central core flow is strongly related to the peaks of pressure or axial velocity spectrum and up to two distinct peaks at the swirler mouth could be observed. Here, spectra analysis in iso-thermal condition inside the swirler where the inner swirler dominates the flow, showed a higher potential of instabilities with three to four distinct peaks where moving forward to the exit of swirler the number of peaks is decreased. In addition to this, the central axis corresponds to no peaks of instabilities while further away in the radial direction, several peaks exist.

Keywords: axial counter rotating swirler, large eddy simulation (LES), precessing vortex core (PVC), power spectral density (PSD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
65 Numerical Modelling of Immiscible Fluids Flow in Oil Reservoir Rocks during Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes

Authors: Zahreddine Hafsi, Manoranjan Mishra , Sami Elaoud

Abstract:

Ensuring the maximum recovery rate of oil from reservoir rocks is a challenging task that requires preliminary numerical analysis of different techniques used to enhance the recovery process. After conventional oil recovery processes and in order to retrieve oil left behind after the primary recovery phase, water flooding in one of several techniques used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In this research work, EOR via water flooding is numerically modeled, and hydrodynamic instabilities resulted from immiscible oil-water flow in reservoir rocks are investigated. An oil reservoir is a porous medium consisted of many fractures of tiny dimensions. For modeling purposes, the oil reservoir is considered as a collection of capillary tubes which provides useful insights into how fluids behave in the reservoir pore spaces. Equations governing oil-water flow in oil reservoir rocks are developed and numerically solved following a finite element scheme. Numerical results are obtained using Comsol Multiphysics software. The two phase Darcy module of COMSOL Multiphysics allows modelling the imbibition process by the injection of water (as wetting phase) into an oil reservoir. Van Genuchten, Brooks Corey and Levrett models were considered as retention models and obtained flow configurations are compared, and the governing parameters are discussed. For the considered retention models it was found that onset of instabilities viz. fingering phenomenon is highly dependent on the capillary pressure as well as the boundary conditions, i.e., the inlet pressure and the injection velocity.

Keywords: capillary pressure, EOR process, immiscible flow, numerical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
64 Preparation of Electrospun PLA/ENR Fibers

Authors: Jaqueline G. L. Cosme, Paulo H. S. Picciani, Regina C. R. Nunes

Abstract:

Electrospinning is a technique for the fabrication of nanoscale fibers. The general electrospinning system consists of a syringe filled with polymer solution, a syringe pump, a high voltage source and a grounded counter electrode. During electrospinning a volumetric flow is set by the syringe pump and an electric voltage is applied. This forms an electric potential between the needle and the counter electrode (collector plate), which results in the formation of a Taylor cone and the jet. The jet is moved towards the lower potential, the counter electrode, wherein the solvent of the polymer solution is evaporated and the polymer fiber is formed. On the way to the counter electrode, the fiber is accelerated by the electric field. The bending instabilities that occur form a helical loop movements of the jet, which result from the coulomb repulsion of the surface charge. Trough bending instabilities the jet is stretched, so that the fiber diameter decreases. In this study, a thermoplastic/elastomeric binary blend of non-vulcanized epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) and poly(latic acid) (PLA) was electrospun using polymer solutions consisting of varying proportions of PCL and NR. Specifically, 15% (w/v) PLA/ENR solutions were prepared in /chloroform at proportions of 5, 10, 25, and 50% (w/w). The morphological and thermal properties of the electrospun mats were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The SEM images demonstrated the production of micrometer- and sub-micrometer-sized fibers with no bead formation. The blend miscibility was evaluated by thermal analysis, which showed that blending did not improve the thermal stability of the systems.

Keywords: epoxidized natural rubber, poly(latic acid), electrospinning, chemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
63 Nonlinear Waves in Two-Layer Systems with Heat Release/Consumption at the Interface

Authors: Ilya Simanovskii

Abstract:

Nonlinear convective flows developed under the joint action of buoyant and thermo-capillary effects in a two-layer system with periodic boundary conditions on the lateral walls have been investigated. The influence of an interfacial heat release on oscillatory regimes has been studied. The computational regions with different lengths have been considered. It is shown that the development of oscillatory instability can lead to the appearance of different no steady flows.

Keywords: interface, instabilities, two-layer systems, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
62 Genetic Instabilities in Marine Bivalve Following Benzo(α)pyrene Exposure: Utilization of Combined Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Comet Assay

Authors: Mengjie Qu, Yi Wang, Jiawei Ding, Siyu Chen, Yanan Di

Abstract:

Marine ecosystem is facing intensified multiple stresses caused by environmental contaminants from human activities. Xenobiotics, such as benzo(α)pyrene (BaP) have been discharged into marine environment and cause hazardous impacts on both marine organisms and human beings. As a filter-feeder, marine mussels, Mytilus spp., has been extensively used to monitor the marine environment. However, their genomic alterations induced by such xenobiotics are still kept unknown. In the present study, gills, as the first defense barrier in mussels, were selected to evaluate the genetic instability alterations induced by the exposure to BaP both in vivo and in vitro. Both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and comet assay were applied as the rapid tools to assess the environmental stresses due to their low money- and time-consumption. All mussels were identified to be the single species of Mytilus coruscus before used in BaP exposure at the concentration of 56 μg/l for 1 & 3 days (in vivo exposure) or 1 & 3 hours (in vitro). Both RAPD and comet assay results were showed significantly increased genomic instability with time-specific altering pattern. After the recovery period in 'in vivo' exposure, the genomic status was as same as control condition. However, the relative higher genomic instabilities were still observed in gill cells after the recovery from in vitro exposure condition. Different repair mechanisms or signaling pathway might be involved in the isolated gill cells in the comparison with intact tissues. The study provides the robust and rapid techniques to exam the genomic stability in marine organisms in response to marine environmental changes and provide basic information for further mechanism research in stress responses in marine organisms.

Keywords: genotoxic impacts, in vivo/vitro exposure, marine mussels, RAPD and comet assay

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
61 Linear Evolution of Compressible Görtler Vortices Subject to Free-Stream Vortical Disturbances

Authors: Samuele Viaro, Pierre Ricco

Abstract:

Görtler instabilities generate in boundary layers from an unbalance between pressure and centrifugal forces caused by concave surfaces. Their spatial streamwise evolution influences transition to turbulence. It is therefore important to understand even the early stages where perturbations, still small, grow linearly and could be controlled more easily. This work presents a rigorous theoretical framework for compressible flows using the linearized unsteady boundary region equations, where only the streamwise pressure gradient and streamwise diffusion terms are neglected from the full governing equations of fluid motion. Boundary and initial conditions are imposed through an asymptotic analysis in order to account for the interaction of the boundary layer with free-stream turbulence. The resulting parabolic system is discretize with a second-order finite difference scheme. Realistic flow parameters are chosen from wind tunnel studies performed at supersonic and subsonic conditions. The Mach number ranges from 0.5 to 8, with two different radii of curvature, 5 m and 10 m, frequencies up to 2000 Hz, and vortex spanwise wavelengths from 5 mm to 20 mm. The evolution of the perturbation flow is shown through velocity, temperature, pressure profiles relatively close to the leading edge, where non-linear effects can still be neglected, and growth rate. Results show that a global stabilizing effect exists with the increase of Mach number, frequency, spanwise wavenumber and radius of curvature. In particular, at high Mach numbers curvature effects are less pronounced and thermal streaks become stronger than velocity streaks. This increase of temperature perturbations saturates at approximately Mach 4 flows, and is limited in the early stage of growth, near the leading edge. In general, Görtler vortices evolve closer to the surface with respect to a flat plate scenario but their location shifts toward the edge of the boundary layer as the Mach number increases. In fact, a jet-like behavior appears for steady vortices having small spanwise wavelengths (less than 10 mm) at Mach 8, creating a region of unperturbed flow close to the wall. A similar response is also found at the highest frequency considered for a Mach 3 flow. Larger vortices are found to have a higher growth rate but are less influenced by the Mach number. An eigenvalue approach is also employed to study the amplification of the perturbations sufficiently downstream from the leading edge. These eigenvalue results are compared with the ones obtained through the initial value approach with inhomogeneous free-stream boundary conditions. All of the parameters here studied have a significant influence on the evolution of the instabilities for the Görtler problem which is indeed highly dependent on initial conditions.

Keywords: compressible boundary layers, Görtler instabilities, receptivity, turbulence transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
60 An Advanced Method of Minimizing Unforeseen Disruptions within a Manufacturing System: A Case Study of Amico, South Africa

Authors: Max Moleke

Abstract:

Manufacturing industries are faced with different types of problems. One of the most important role of controlling and monitoring a production process is to actually determine how to deal with unforeseen disruption when they arise. A majority of manufacturing tern to spend huge amount of money in order to meet up with their customers requirements and demand but due to instabilities within the manufacturing process, this objectives and goals are difficult to be achieved. In this research, we have developed a feedback control system that can minimize instability within the manufacturing system in order to boost the system output and productivity.

Keywords: disruption, scheduling, manufacturing, instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
59 Uncertainty Quantification of Fuel Compositions on Premixed Bio-Syngas Combustion at High-Pressure

Authors: Kai Zhang, Xi Jiang

Abstract:

Effect of fuel variabilities on premixed combustion of bio-syngas mixtures is of great importance in bio-syngas utilisation. The uncertainties of concentrations of fuel constituents such as H2, CO and CH4 may lead to unpredictable combustion performances, combustion instabilities and hot spots which may deteriorate and damage the combustion hardware. Numerical modelling and simulations can assist in understanding the behaviour of bio-syngas combustion with pre-defined species concentrations, while the evaluation of variabilities of concentrations is expensive. To be more specific, questions such as ‘what is the burning velocity of bio-syngas at specific equivalence ratio?’ have been answered either experimentally or numerically, while questions such as ‘what is the likelihood of burning velocity when precise concentrations of bio-syngas compositions are unknown, but the concentration ranges are pre-described?’ have not yet been answered. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods can be used to tackle such questions and assess the effects of fuel compositions. An efficient probabilistic UQ method based on Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) techniques is employed in this study. The method relies on representing random variables (combustion performances) with orthogonal polynomials such as Legendre or Gaussian polynomials. The constructed PCE via Galerkin Projection provides easy access to global sensitivities such as main, joint and total Sobol indices. In this study, impacts of fuel compositions on combustion (adiabatic flame temperature and laminar flame speed) of bio-syngas fuel mixtures are presented invoking this PCE technique at several equivalence ratios. High-pressure effects on bio-syngas combustion instability are obtained using detailed chemical mechanism - the San Diego Mechanism. Guidance on reducing combustion instability from upstream biomass gasification process is provided by quantifying the significant contributions of composition variations to variance of physicochemical properties of bio-syngas combustion. It was found that flame speed is very sensitive to hydrogen variability in bio-syngas, and reducing hydrogen uncertainty from upstream biomass gasification processes can greatly reduce bio-syngas combustion instability. Variation of methane concentration, although thought to be important, has limited impacts on laminar flame instabilities especially for lean combustion. Further studies on the UQ of percentage concentration of hydrogen in bio-syngas can be conducted to guide the safer use of bio-syngas.

Keywords: bio-syngas combustion, clean energy utilisation, fuel variability, PCE, targeted uncertainty reduction, uncertainty quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
58 Experimental Investigations of a Modified Taylor-Couette Flow

Authors: Ahmed Esmael, Ali El Shrif

Abstract:

In this study the instability problem of a modified Taylor-Couette flow between two vertical coaxial cylinders of radius R1, R2 is considered. The modification is based on the wavy shape of the inner cylinder surface, where inner cylinders with different surface amplitude and wavelength are used. The study aims to discover the effect of the inner surface geometry on the instability phenomenon that undergoes Taylor-Couette flow. The study reveals that the transition processes depends strongly on the amplitude and wavelength of the inner cylinder surface and resulting in flow instabilities that are strongly different from that encountered in the case of the classical Taylor-Couette flow.

Keywords: hydrodynamic instability, Modified Taylor-Couette Flow, turbulence, Taylor vortices

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
57 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling

Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao

Abstract:

Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.

Keywords: coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shafts

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
56 Application of the Material Point Method as a New Fast Simulation Technique for Textile Composites Forming and Material Handling

Authors: Amir Nazemi, Milad Ramezankhani, Marian Kӧrber, Abbas S. Milani

Abstract:

The excellent strength to weight ratio of woven fabric composites, along with their high formability, is one of the primary design parameters defining their increased use in modern manufacturing processes, including those in aerospace and automotive. However, for emerging automated preform processes under the smart manufacturing paradigm, complex geometries of finished components continue to bring several challenges to the designers to cope with manufacturing defects on site. Wrinklinge. g. is a common defectoccurring during the forming process and handling of semi-finished textile composites. One of the main reasons for this defect is the weak bending stiffness of fibers in unconsolidated state, causing excessive relative motion between them. Further challenges are represented by the automated handling of large-area fiber blanks with specialized gripper systems. For fabric composites forming simulations, the finite element (FE)method is a longstanding tool usedfor prediction and mitigation of manufacturing defects. Such simulations are predominately meant, not only to predict the onset, growth, and shape of wrinkles but also to determine the best processing condition that can yield optimized positioning of the fibers upon forming (or robot handling in the automated processes case). However, the need for use of small-time steps via explicit FE codes, facing numerical instabilities, as well as large computational time, are among notable drawbacks of the current FEtools, hindering their extensive use as fast and yet efficient digital twins in industry. This paper presents a novel woven fabric simulation technique through the application of the material point method (MPM), which enables the use of much larger time steps, facing less numerical instabilities, hence the ability to run significantly faster and efficient simulationsfor fabric materials handling and forming processes. Therefore, this method has the ability to enhance the development of automated fiber handling and preform processes by calculating the physical interactions with the MPM fiber models and rigid tool components. This enables the designers to virtually develop, test, and optimize their processes based on either algorithmicor Machine Learning applications. As a preliminary case study, forming of a hemispherical plain weave is shown, and the results are compared to theFE simulations, as well as experiments.

Keywords: material point method, woven fabric composites, forming, material handling

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
55 Electron Beam Effects on Kinetic Alfven Waves in the Cold Homogenous Plasma

Authors: Jaya Shrivastava

Abstract:

The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, growth/damping rate and associated currents in the presence of electron beam in homogenous plasma. Kinetic effects of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. The plasma parameters appropriate to plasma sheet boundary layer are used. It is found that downward electron beam affects the dispersion relation, growth/damping-rate and associated currents in cold electron limit.

Keywords: magnetospheric physics, plasma waves and instabilities, electron beam, space plasma physics, wave-particle interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
54 Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of DNA Binding Properties of the Archaeal Mini Chromosome Maintenance Complex

Authors: Amna Abdalla Mohammed Khalid, Pietro Parisse, Silvia Onesti, Loredana Casalis

Abstract:

Basic cellular processes as DNA replication are crucial to cell life. Understanding at the molecular level the mechanisms that govern DNA replication in proliferating cells is fundamental to understand disease connected to genomic instabilities, as a genetic disease and cancer. A key step for DNA replication to take place, is unwinding the DNA double helix and this carried out by proteins called helicases. The archaeal MCM (minichromosome maintenance) complex from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus have being studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), imaging in air and liquid (Physiological environment). The accurate analysis of AFM topographic images allowed to understand the static conformations as well the interaction dynamic of MCM and DNA double helix in the present of ATP.

Keywords: DNA, protein-DNA interaction, MCM (mini chromosome manteinance) complex, atomic force microscopy (AFM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
53 Characterization of Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets Based on Transmission Holographic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

Authors: B. Zare-Farsani, M. Valieghbal, M. Tarkashvand, A. H. Farahbod

Abstract:

To provide the conditions for nuclear fusion by high energy and powerful laser beams, it is required to have a high degree of symmetry and surface uniformity of the spherical capsules to reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities. In this paper, we have used the digital microscopic holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer to study the quality of targets for inertial fusion. The interferometric pattern of the target has been registered by a CCD camera and analyzed by Holovision software. The uniformity of the surface and shell thickness are investigated and measured in reconstructed image. We measured shell thickness in different zone where obtained non uniformity 22.82 percent.  

Keywords: inertial confinement fusion, mach-zehnder interferometer, digital holographic microscopy, image reconstruction, holovision

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
52 Magnetic Fluctuations in the Terrestrial Magnetosheath

Authors: Alexandre Gurchumelia, Luca Sorriso-Valvo, David Burgess, Khatuna Elbakidze, Oleg Kharshiladze, Diana Kvaratskhelia

Abstract:

The terrestrial magnetosheath is a highly turbulent medium, with a high level of magnetic1field fluctuations throughout a broad range of scales. These often include an inertial range where a2magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade is observed. The multifractal properties of the turbulent3cascade, strictly related to intermittency, are observed here during the transition from quasi-parallel to4quasi-perpendicular magnetic field with respect to the bow-shock normal. The different multifractal5behavior in the two regions is analyzed. A standard coarse-graining technique has been used6to evaluate the generalized dimensions and the corresponding multifractal spectrumf(α). A7p-model fit provided a quantitative measure of multifractality and intermittency, to be compared with8standard indicators: the width of the multifractal spectrum, the peak of the kurtosis, and its scaling9exponent. Results show a clear transition and sharp differences in the intermittency properties for the two regions.

Keywords: magnetos heath, turbulence, multifractal, instabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
51 Plastic Deformation of Mg-Gd Solid Solutions between 4K and 298K

Authors: Anna Kula, Raja K. Mishra, Marek Niewczas

Abstract:

Deformation behavior of Mg-Gd solid solutions have been studied by a combination of measurements of mechanical response, texture and dislocation substructure. Increase in Gd content strongly influences the work-hardening behavior and flow characteristics in tension and compression. Adiabatic instabilities have been observed in all alloys at 4K under both tension and compression. The frequency and the amplitude of adiabatic stress oscillations increase with Gd content. Profuse mechanical twinning has been observed under compression, resulting in a texture dominated by basal component parallel to the compression axis. Under tension, twining is less active and the texture evolution is affected mostly by slip. Increasing Gd concentration leads to the reduction of the tension and compression asymmetry due to weakening of the texture and stabilizing more homogenous twinning and slip, involving basal and non-basal slip systems.

Keywords: Mg-Gd alloys, mechanical properties, work hardening, twinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
50 Quantom Magnetic Effects of P-B Fusion in Plasma Focus Devices

Authors: M. Habibi

Abstract:

The feasibility of proton-boron fusion in plasmoids caused by magneto hydrodynamics instabilities in plasma focus devices is studied analytically. In plasmoids, fusion power for 76 keV < Ti < 1500 keV exceeds bremsstrahlung loss (W/Pb=5.39). In such situation gain factor and the ratio of Te to Ti for a typical 150 kJ plasma focus device will be 7.8 and 4.8 respectively. Also with considering the ion viscous heating effect, W/Pb and Ti/Te will be 2.7 and 6 respectively. Strong magnetic field will reduces ion-electron collision rate due to quantization of electron orbits. While approximately there is no change in electron-ion collision rate, the effect of quantum magnetic field makes ions much hotter than electrons which enhance the fraction of fusion power to bremsstrahlung loss. Therefore self-sustained p-11B fusion reactions would be possible and it could be said that p-11B fuelled plasma focus device is a clean and efficient source of energy.

Keywords: plasmoids, p11B fuel, ion viscous heating, quantum magnetic field, plasma focus device

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
49 Swirling Flows with Heat Transfer in a Cylindrical under Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: B. Mahfoud, R. Harouz

Abstract:

The present work examine numerically the effect of axial magnetic field on mixed convection through a cylindrical cavity, filled with a liquid metal and having a rotating top and bottom disks. Effects of Richardson number (Ri = 0, 0.5, 1, and 2) and Hartman number (Ha = 0, 5, 10, and 20) on temperature and flow fields were analyzed. The basic state of this system is steady and axisymmetric, when the counter-rotation is sufficiently large, producing a free shear layer. This shear layer is unstable and different complex flows appear successively: steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 1; travelling waves and steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 2. Mixed modes and azimuthal wavenumber of 3 are also found with increasing Hartmann number. The stability diagram (Recr-Ha) corresponding to the axisymmetric-three-dimensional transition for increasing values of the axial magnetic field is obtained.

Keywords: axisymmetric, counter-rotating, instabilities, magnetohydrodynamic, magnetic field, wavenumber

Procedia PDF Downloads 476
48 Analysis and Prediction of the Behavior of the Landslide at Ain El Hammam, Algeria Based on the Second Order Work Criterion

Authors: Zerarka Hizia, Akchiche Mustapha, Prunier Florent

Abstract:

The landslide of Ain El Hammam (AEH) is characterized by a complex geology and a high hydrogeology hazard. AEH's perpetual reactivation compels us to look closely at its triggers and to better understand the mechanisms of its evolution in mass and in depth. This study builds a numerical model to simulate the influencing factors such as precipitation, non-saturation, and pore pressure fluctuations, using Plaxis software. For a finer analysis of instabilities, we use Hill's criterion, based on the sign of the second order work, which is the most appropriate material stability criterion for non-associated elastoplastic materials. The results of this type of calculation allow us, in theory, to predict the shape and position of the slip surface(s) which are liable to ground movements of the slope, before reaching the rupture given by the plastic limit of Mohr Coulomb. To validate the numerical model, an analysis of inclinometer measures is performed to confirm the direction of movement and kinematic of the sliding mechanism of AEH’s slope.

Keywords: landslide, second order work, precipitation, inclinometers

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
47 Use of Landsat OLI Images in the Mapping of Landslides: Case of the Taounate Province in Northern Morocco

Authors: S. Benchelha, H. Chennaoui, M. Hakdaoui, L. Baidder, H. Mansouri, H. Ejjaaouani, T. Benchelha

Abstract:

Northern Morocco is characterized by relatively young mountains experiencing a very important dynamic compared to other areas of Morocco. The dynamics associated with the formation of the Rif chain (Alpine tectonics), is accompanied by instabilities essentially related to tectonic movements. The realization of important infrastructures (Roads, Highways,...) represents a triggering factor and favoring landslides. This paper is part of the establishment of landslides susceptibility map and concerns the mapping of unstable areas in the province of Taounate. The landslide was identified using the components of the false color (FCC) of images Landsat OLI: i) the first independent component (IC1), ii) The main component (PC), iii) Normalized difference index (NDI). This mapping for landslides class is validated by in-situ surveys.

Keywords: landslides, False Color Composite (FCC), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Normalized Difference Index (NDI), Normalized Difference Mid Red Index (NDMIDR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
46 Far-Field Acoustic Prediction of a Supersonic Expanding Jet Using Large Eddy Simulation

Authors: Jesus Ruano, Asensi Oliva

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic field generated by a jet expansion is computed via three dimensional compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Finite Volume Method (FVM) will be the discretization used during this simulation as well as hybrid schemes based on Kinetic Energy Preserving (KEP) schemes and up-winding Godunov based schemes with instabilities detectors. Velocity and pressure fields will be stored at different surfaces near the jet, but far enough to enclose all the fluctuations, in order to use them as input for the acoustic solver. The acoustic field is obtained in the far-field region at several locations by means of a hybrid method based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation. This equation will be formulated in the spectral domain, via Fourier Transform of the acoustic sources, which are modeled from the results of the initial simulation. The obtained results will allow the study of the broadband noise generated as well as sound directivities.

Keywords: far-field noise, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings, finite volume method, large eddy simulation, jet noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
45 The Role of Nozzle-Exit Conditions on the Flow Field of a Plane Jet

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo

Abstract:

This article reviews the role of nozzle-exit conditions on the flow field of a plane jet. The jet issuing from a sharp-edged orifice plate at a Reynolds number (Re=18000) with nozzle aspect ratio (AR=72) exhibits the greatest shear-layer instabilities, highest entrainment and jet-spreading rates compared to the radially contoured nozzle. The growth rate of the shear-layer is the highest for the orifice-jet although this property could be amplified for larger Re or AR. A local peak in turbulent energy is found at x=10h. The peak appears to be elevated for an orifice-jet with lower Re or AR. The far-field energy sustained by the orifice-jet exceeds the contoured case although a higher Re and AR may enhance this value. The spectra displays the largest eddies generated by the contoured nozzle. However, the frequency of coherent eddies is higher for the orifice-jet, with a larger magnitude achievable for lower Re and AR.

Keywords: plane jet, Reynolds number, nozzle-exit conditions, nozzle geometry, aspect ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
44 A Lagrangian Hamiltonian Computational Method for Hyper-Elastic Structural Dynamics

Authors: Hosein Falahaty, Hitoshi Gotoh, Abbas Khayyer

Abstract:

Performance of a Hamiltonian based particle method in simulation of nonlinear structural dynamics is subjected to investigation in terms of stability and accuracy. The governing equation of motion is derived based on Hamilton's principle of least action, while the deformation gradient is obtained according to Weighted Least Square method. The hyper-elasticity models of Saint Venant-Kirchhoff and a compressible version similar to Mooney- Rivlin are engaged for the calculation of second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, respectively. Stability along with accuracy of numerical model is verified by reproducing critical stress fields in static and dynamic responses. As the results, although performance of Hamiltonian based model is evaluated as being acceptable in dealing with intense extensional stress fields, however kinds of instabilities reveal in the case of violent collision which can be most likely attributed to zero energy singular modes.

Keywords: Hamilton's principle of least action, particle-based method, hyper-elasticity, analysis of stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 258