Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: Mohadese Hashemi

58 Optimization, Characterization and Stability of Trachyspermum copticum Essential Oil Loaded in Niosome Nanocarriers

Authors: Mohadese Hashemi, Elham Akhoundi Kharanaghi, Fatemeh Haghiralsadat, Mojgan Yazdani, Omid Javani, Mahboobe Sharafodini, Davood Rajabi

Abstract:

Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles in aqueous media resulting in closed bilayer structures that can be used as carriers of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. The use of niosomes for encapsulation of essential oils (EOs) is an attractive new approach to overcome their physicochemical stability concerns include sensibility to oxygen, light, temperature, and volatility, and their reduced bioavailability which is due to low solubility in water. EOs are unstable and fragile volatile compounds which have strong interest in pharmaceutical due to their medicinal properties such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antioxidant activities without side effects. Trachyspermum copticum (ajwain) is an annual aromatic plant with important medicinal properties that grows widely around Mediterranean region and south-west Asian countries. The major components of the ajwain oil were reported as thymol, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, and carvacrol which provide antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to formulate ajwain essential oil-loaded niosomes to improve water solubility of natural product and evaluate its physico-chemical features and stability. Ajwain oil was obtained through steam distillation using a clevenger-type apparatus and GC/MS was applied to identify the main components of the essential oil. Niosomes were prepared by using thin film hydration method and nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, dispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, and morphology.

Keywords: trachyspermum copticum, ajwain, niosome, essential oil, encapsulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
57 Enhancement in Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. through Niosome Nanocarries

Authors: Fatemeh Haghiralsadat, Mohadese Hashemi, Elham Akhoundi Kharanaghi, Mojgan Yazdani, Mahboobe Sharafodini, Omid Javani

Abstract:

Niosomes are colloidal particles formed from the self-assembly of non-ionic surfactants in aqueous medium resulting in closed bilayer structures. As a consequence of this hydrophilic and hydrophobic structure, niosomes have the capacity to entrap compounds of different solubilities. Niosomes are promising vehicle for drug delivery which protect sensitive drugs and improve the therapeutic index of drugs by restricting their action to target cells. Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile compounds such as terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components that have been used for many biological properties including bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and other medicinal properties. Encapsulation of essential oils in niosomes can be an attractive method to overcome their limitation such as volatility, easily decomposition by heat, humidity, light, or oxygen. Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) is an aromatic plant included in the Apiaceae family and is used to flavor foods, added to fragrances, and for medical preparations which is indigenous to Egypt, the Mediterranean region, Iran and India. The major components of the Cumin oil were reported as cuminaldehyde, γ -terpinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, p-mentha-1, 3-dien-7-al, and p-mentha-1, 4-dien-7-al which provide the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to formulate Cumin essential oil-loaded niosomes to improve water solubility of natural product and evaluate its physico-chemical features and stability. Cumin oil was obtained through steam distillation using a clevenger-type apparatus and GC/MS was applied to identify the main components of the essential oil. Niosomes were prepared by using thin film hydration method and nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, dispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, and morphology.

Keywords: Cuminum cyminum L., Cumin, niosome, essential oil, encapsulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
56 Seismic Response of Viscoelastic Dampers for Steel Structures

Authors: Ali Khoshraftar, S. A. Hashemi

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the advantages of Viscoelastic Dampers (VED) to be used as energy-absorbing devices in buildings. The properties of VED are briefly described. The analytical studies of the model structures exhibiting the structural response reduction due to these viscoelastic devices are presented. Computer simulation of the damped response of a multi-storey steel frame structure shows significant reduction in floor displacement levels.

Keywords: dampers, seismic evaluation, steel frames, viscoelastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
55 Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karbalaei Aghamolki, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Fateh Chand Oad, Hamed Zakikhani, Hawa Zee Jaafar, Sharifh Kharidah, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Shahram Soltani

Abstract:

The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were: growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted at 38oC+2 (day) and 22oC+2 (night) for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashsemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr receiving heat stress during booting stage. In all growing conditions and growth stages, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion and flag leaf length. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield slightly decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. Similar results were found in all other exotic cultivars recording to lower grain yield in the heat stress condition during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Keywords: rice, growth, heat, temperature, stress, morphology, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
54 Effects of Surface Topography on Roughness of Glazed Ceramic Substrates

Authors: R. Sarjahani, M. Sheikhattar, S. Javadpour, B. Hashemi

Abstract:

Glazes and their surface characterization is an important subject for ceramic industries. Fabrication of a super smooth surface resistant to stains is a big improvement for those industries. In this investigation, surface topography of popular glazes such as Zircon and Titania based opaque glazes, calcium based matte glaze and transparent glaze has been analyzed by Marsurf M300, SEM, EDS and XRD. Results shows that surface roughness of glazes seriously depends on surface crystallinity, crystal size and shapes.

Keywords: crystallinity, glaze, surface roughness, topography

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53 Application of Acer velutinum for Absorbing Heavy Metal, Mercury, from the Environment

Authors: Seyed Armin Hashemi, Somayeh Rahimzadeh

Abstract:

One-year seedlings of Acer velutinum were provided from plantations and the solution of Mercuric chloride was developed in 20,40 and 60 mg/l concentrations, then this solution was added to the soil and the Acer velutinum were placed in a vase. Six months after seedlings’ growth, the leaf, stem and roots were separated. The results were investigated by variance analysis and Duncan test. The highest level of mercury accumulation in the organs of leaf, stem and root was 45.67, 40 and 55 mg/kg, respectively. According to the obtained results from this research, the velutinum species was appropriate for refining the soils contaminated by mercury.

Keywords: heavy metals, acer velutinum, mercury, phytoremediation

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52 Probabilistic Robustness Assessment of Structures under Sudden Column-Loss Scenario

Authors: Ali Y Al-Attraqchi, P. Rajeev, M. Javad Hashemi, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a probabilistic incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of a full reinforced concrete building subjected to column loss scenario for the assessment of progressive collapse. The IDA is chosen to explicitly account for uncertainties in loads and system capacity. Fragility curves are developed to predict the probability of progressive collapse given the loss of one or more columns. At a broader scale, it will also provide critical information needed to support the development of a new generation of design codes that attempt to explicitly quantify structural robustness.

Keywords: fire, nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis, progressive collapse, structural engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
51 Determinants of Conference Service Quality as Perceived by International Attendees

Authors: Shiva Hashemi, Azizan Marzuki, S. Kiumarsi

Abstract:

In recent years, conference destinations have been highly competitive; therefore, it is necessary to know about the behaviours of conference participants such as the process of their decision-making and the assessment of perceived conference quality. A conceptual research framework based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model is presented in this research to get better understanding factors that influence it. This research study highlights key factors presented in previous studies in which behaviour intentions of participants are affected by the quality of conference. Therefore, this study is believed to provide an idea that conference participants should be encouraged to contribute to the quality and behaviour intention of the conference.

Keywords: conference, attendees, service quality, perceives value, trust, behavioural intention.

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50 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi

Abstract:

A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: molybdenum, phosphorus, uptake, rice,

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49 Uranium Adsorption Using a Composite Material Based on Platelet SBA-15 Supported Tin Salt Tungstomolybdophosphoric Acid

Authors: H. Aghayan, F. A. Hashemi, R. Yavari, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

In this work, a new composite adsorbent based on a mesoporous silica SBA-15 with platelet morphology and tin salt of tungstomolybdophosphoric (TWMP) acid was synthesized and applied for uranium adsorption from aqueous solution. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infra-red, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, and then, effect of various parameters such as concentration of metal ions and contact time on adsorption behavior was examined. The experimental result showed that the adsorption process was explained by the Langmuir isotherm model very well, and predominant reaction mechanism is physisorption. Kinetic data of adsorption suggest that the adsorption process can be described by the pseudo second-order reaction rate model.

Keywords: platelet SBA-15, tungstomolybdophosphoric acid, adsorption, uranium ion

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
48 User Experience Measurement of User Interfaces

Authors: Mohammad Hashemi, John Herbert

Abstract:

Quantifying and measuring Quality of Experience (QoE) are important and difficult concerns in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Quality of Service (QoS) and the actual User Interface (UI) of the application are both important contributors to the QoE of a user. This paper describes a framework that measures accurately the way a user uses the UI in order to model users' behaviours and profiles. It monitors the use of the mouse and use of UI elements with accurate time measurement. It does this in real-time and does so unobtrusively and efficiently allowing the user to work as normal with the application. This real-time accurate measurement of the user's interaction provides valuable data and insight into the use of the UI, and is also the basis for analysis of the user's QoE.

Keywords: user modelling, user interface experience, quality of experience, user experience, human and computer interaction

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47 The Relationship between School Belonging, Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Tabriz High School Students

Authors: F. Pari, E. Fathiazar, T. Hashemi, M. Pari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to examine the role of self-efficacy and school belonging in the academic achievement of Tabriz high school students in grade 11. Therefore, using a random cluster method, 377 subjects were selected from the whole students of Tabriz high schools. They filled in the School Belonging Questionnaire (SBQ) and General Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were analyzed using correlational as well as multiple regression methods. Findings demonstrate self-efficacy and school belonging have significant roles in the prediction of academic achievement. On the other hand, the results suggest that considering the gender variable there is no significant difference between self-efficacy and school belonging. On the whole, cognitive approaches could be effective in the explanation of academic achievement.

Keywords: school belonging, self-efficacy, academic achievement, high school

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46 Healthy Lifestyle and Risky Behaviors amongst Students of Physical Education High Schools

Authors: Amin Amani, Masomeh Reihany Shirvan, Mahla Nabizadeh Mashizi, Mohadese Khoshtinat, Mohammad Elyas Ansarinia

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is the relationship between a healthy lifestyle and risky behavior in physical education students of Bojnourd schools. The study sample consisted of teenagers studying in second and third grade of Bojnourd's high schools. According to level sampling, 604 students studying in the second grade, and 600 students studying in third grade were tested from physical education schools in Bojnourd. For sample selection, populations were divided into 4 area including north, East, West and South. Then according to the number of students of each area, sample size of each level was determined. Two questionnaires were used to collect data in this study which were consisted of three parts: The demographic data, Iranian teenagers' risk taking (IARS) and prevention methods with emphasize on the importance of family role were examined. The Central and dispersion indices, such as standard deviation, multiple variance analysis, and multivariate regression analysis were used. Results showed that the observed F is significant (P ≤ 0.01) and 21% of variance related to risky behavior is explained by the lack of awareness. Given the significance of the regression, the coefficients of risky behavior in teenagers in prediction equation showed that each of teenagers' risky behavior can have an impact on healthy lifestyle.

Keywords: healthy lifestyle, high-risk behavior, students, physical education

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
45 QoS-CBMG: A Model for e-Commerce Customer Behavior

Authors: Hoda Ghavamipoor, S. Alireza Hashemi Golpayegani

Abstract:

An approach to model the customer interaction with e-commerce websites is presented. Considering the service quality level as a predictive feature, we offer an improved method based on the Customer Behavior Model Graph (CBMG), a state-transition graph model. To derive the Quality of Service sensitive-CBMG (QoS-CBMG) model, process-mining techniques is applied to pre-processed website server logs which are categorized as ‘buy’ or ‘visit’. Experimental results on an e-commerce website data confirmed that the proposed method outperforms CBMG based method.

Keywords: customer behavior model, electronic commerce, quality of service, customer behavior model graph, process mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
44 Non-Singular Gravitational Collapse of a Dust Cloud in Einstein-Cartan Theory

Authors: Amir Hadi Ziaie, Mostafa Hashemi, Shahram Jalalzadeh

Abstract:

It is now known that the end state of the collapse process of a dense star under its own gravity is the formation of a spacetime singularity. This is the spacetime event where the energy density and spacetime curvature diverge, and the classical general relativity breaks down. As we know, a realistic star is composed of fermions so that their spin effects could alter the final fate of the collapse scenario. The underlying theory within which the inclusion of spin effects can be worked out is the Einstein-Cartan theory. In this theory, the spacetime torsion which is defined as a geometrical quantity, is related to an intrinsic angular momentum of fermions (spin). In this work, we study the collapse process of a homogeneous spin fluid in such a framework and show that taking into account the spin effects of the collapsing cloud could prevent the formation of spacetime singularity.

Keywords: gravitational collapse, einstein-cartan theory, spacetime singularity, black hole physics

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43 The Effects of Modern Materials on the Moisture Resistance Performance of Architectural Buildings

Authors: Leyli Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hoda Mortazavi Alavi, Amirhossein Habibzadeh

Abstract:

At present, the atmospheric and environmental factors impose massive damages to buildings. Thus, to reduce these damages, researchers pay more attention on qualitative and quantitative characteristic of buildings materials. Condensation is one of the problems in Contemporary Sustecture Design. It could cause serious damages to the frontage, interior and structural elements of buildings. As a result, taking preventative steps to avoid condensation from occurring in buildings will help prevent avoidable and costly problems in the future. Hence, the aim of this paper is to answer the question: “Does the use of advanced materials cause the reduction of condensation formed on the walls?" In response to those flaws, this paper considered similar articles and selected 20 buildings randomly from contemporary architecture of developing countries which have been built in recent decade from 2002 to 2012, to find out the mutual relation between the usage of advanced materials and level of condensation damages. This consideration shows that by using advanced materials, we will have fewer damages.

Keywords: condensation, advanced materials, contemporary sustecture, moisture

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42 Analytical Solution for Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Analysis of Unsaturated Porous Media Using AG Method

Authors: Davood Yazdani Cherati, Hussein Hashemi Senejani

Abstract:

In this paper, a convenient analytical solution for a system of coupled differential equations, derived from thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of three-phase porous media such as unsaturated soils is developed. This kind of analysis can be used in various fields such as geothermal energy systems and seepage of leachate from buried municipal and domestic waste in geomaterials. Initially, a system of coupled differential equations, including energy, mass, and momentum conservation equations is considered, and an analytical method called AGM is employed to solve the problem. The method is straightforward and comprehensible and can be used to solve various nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). Results indicate the accuracy of the applied method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

Keywords: AGM, analytical solution, porous media, thermo-hydro-mechanical, unsaturated soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
41 Location Choice of Firms in an Unequal Length Streets Model: Game Theory Approach as an Extension of the Spoke Model

Authors: Kiumars Shahbazi, Salah Salimian, Abdolrahim Hashemi Dizaj

Abstract:

Locating is one of the key elements in success and survival of industrial centers and has great impact on cost reduction of establishment and launching of various economic activities. In this study, streets with unequal length model have been used that is the classic extension of Spoke model; however with unlimited number of streets with uneven lengths. The results showed that the spoke model is a special case of streets with unequal length model. According to the results of this study, if the strategy of enterprises and firms is to select both price and location, there would be no balance in the game. Furthermore, increased length of streets leads to increased profit of enterprises and with increased number of streets, the enterprises choose locations that are far from center (the maximum differentiation), and the enterprises' output will decrease. Moreover, the enterprise production rate will incline toward zero when the number of streets goes to infinity, and complete competition outcome will be achieved.

Keywords: locating, Nash equilibrium, streets with unequal length model, streets with unequal length model

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
40 Comparison Learning Vocabulary Implicitly and Explicitly

Authors: Akram Hashemi

Abstract:

This study provided an empirical evidence for learners of elementary level of language proficiency to investigate the potential role of contextualization in vocabulary learning. Prior to the main study, pilot study was performed to determine the reliability and validity of the researcher-made pretest and posttest. After manifesting the homogeneity of the participants, the participants (n = 90) were randomly assigned into three equal groups, i.e., two experimental groups and a control group. They were pretested by a vocabulary test, in order to test participants' pre-knowledge of vocabulary. Then, vocabulary instruction was provided through three methods of visual instruction, the use of context and the use of conventional techniques. At the end of the study, all participants took the same posttest in order to assess their vocabulary gain. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is a significant difference between learning vocabulary visually and learning vocabulary contextually. The results of paired sample t-test showed that different teaching strategies have significantly different impacts on learners’ vocabulary gains. Also, the contextual strategy was significantly more effective than visual strategy in improving students’ performance in vocabulary test.

Keywords: vocabulary instruction, explicit instruction, implicit instruction, strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
39 Effect of Nitrogen Management on Nitrogen Uptake, Dry Matter Production and Some Yield Parameters

Authors: Mandana Tayefe, Ebrahim Amiri, Azin Nasrollah Zade

Abstract:

Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on nitrogen uptake, dry matter production, yield and some yield components of rice (Hashemi, Kazemi, Khazar) was investigated in an experiment as factorial in RCBD with 3 replications in a paddy light soil at Guilan province, Iran, 2008-2009. In this experiment, four treatments including: N1-control (no N fertilizer); N2- 30 kgN/ha; N3- 60 kgN/ha; N4- 90 kgN/ha were compared. Results showed that total biomass (8386 kg/ha), grain yield (3662 kg/ha), panicles m-2 (235.8) and total grain per panicle (103.8) were reached the highest value at high nitrogen level. Among the varieties the highest total biomass (7734 kg/ha), grain yield (3414 kg/ha) and total grain per panicle (78.2) belonged to Khazar. Dry matter, total N uptake was varied in different cultivars significantly and Khazar variety had the highest contents. Total biomass and total N uptake was varied significantly with the increasement of the amount of nitrogen applied. As total biomass and total N uptake increased with increasing in N fertilizing.

Keywords: rice, nitrogen, nitrogen uptake, dry matter

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38 Ethical and Personality Factors and Accounting Professional Judgement

Authors: Shannon Hashemi, Alireza Daneshfar

Abstract:

Accounting ethical awareness has been widely promoted in recent years both in academia and in practice. However, the effectiveness of ethical awareness on accountants' judgment and choice of action is still debatable. This study investigates whether Machiavellianism and gender, as significant personality factors, influence the effect of ethical awareness on accountants' decision-making. Using an experiment, the results of ANOVA tests show that although introducing ethical awareness positively influences the accountants' judgment and choice of action, such an effect is significantly moderated by the accountants' Machiavellianism score and gender. Specifically, the test results show that the effect of introducing ethical awareness was higher on males with low Machiavellian score. The results also show that when the Machiavellian scores were high, the effect of ethical awareness was lower for both males and females. Applications of the results are discussed for accounting professionals as well as accounting ethics educators and researchers.

Keywords: ethical awareness, accounting decision making, Machiavellianism, ANOVA, ethics, accounting education

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
37 Studying Frame-Resistant Steel Structures under Near Field Ground Motion

Authors: S. A. Hashemi, A. Khoshraftar

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of the vertical seismic component on the non-linear dynamics analysis of three different structures. The subject structures were analyzed and designed according to recent codes. This paper considers three types of buildings: 5-, 10-, and 15-story buildings. The non-linear dynamics analysis of the structures with assuming elastic-perfectly-plastic behavior was performed using Ram Perform-3D software; the horizontal component was taken into consideration with and without the incorporation of the corresponding vertical component. Dynamic responses obtained for the horizontal component acting alone were compared with those obtained from the simultaneous application of both seismic components. The results show that the effect of the vertical component of the ground motion may increase the axial load significantly in the interior columns and consequently, the stories. The plastic mechanisms would be changed. The P-Delta effect is expected to increase. The punching base plate shear of the columns should be considered. Moreover, the vertical component increases the input energy when the structures exhibit inelastic behavior and are taller.

Keywords: inelastic behavior, non-linear dynamic analysis, steel structure, vertical component

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36 Assessment of Pollution Cd, Pb and as in Rice Cultivation in Savadkooh

Authors: Ghazal Banitahmasb, Nazanin Khakipour

Abstract:

More than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced and consumed in Asia. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water environments is a serious and growing problem. Toxin by human activities causes pollution in soils so that the intensity of metals in soils was exceeded. This study was done on 7 samples of rice cultivated in Savadkooh of Mazandaran province and soils; they were grown. The amount of heavy metals Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium were measured by atomic absorption. The test results showed that the amount of Lead in rice strain, Tarom A, was 0.768 ppm, the maximum amount of Cadmium in rice strain, Hashemi B, was 0.09 ppm and the highest levels of Arsenic was in red Tarom, 0.39 ppm. According to the results obtained in this study can be found all rice grown in Savadkooh city of Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead, but the measurements are less than specified in the national standard, and their use is safe for consumers. These results also indicate that positive and significant correlation between the studied heavy metals in soil and rice strains that grow there and by increasing the amount of heavy metals in the soil, the amount of these metals in crops grown on them is also increasing.

Keywords: heavy metals, Oryza sativa L., soil pollution, Savadkooh

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35 Investigating the Effect of Aesthetics of Wisdom and Thought on Islamic-Iranian Architecture and Modern Western Architecture: Considering the Position of Islamic Philosophy and Western Philosophy in the Art of Architecture

Authors: Hamid Mohamad Hosein Zadeh Hashemi

Abstract:

In this article, in order to recognize the value of aesthetics of the place of wisdom and mysticism on Islamic art-architecture, and compare it with the influence of philosophy and thought on the "modern art of architecture" of the West, it examines the position of wisdom and philosophy in art Architecture ". In this regard, one can point out the unique status of "art of architecture" in human societies, which in two cultures of the East and West, based on the ideas of Islamic wisdom and Western thought, has taken a dual path, so that even today, even from the original And the basic "art of architecture" of its primary and academic has turned away and has undergone some kind of transformation. To this end, we examine some of the "aesthetics" positions based on the "art of architecture" in the broad sense of the word, in order to reflect on the historical course of this art, and with regard to the position of Islamic thought and Western thought, each of which originated from, but based on The basis of cultures, climate, and sociology, and others, are ultimately the result of an arbitrary result, namely the achievement of the aesthetic position of wisdom and mysticism on the "Islamic-Iranian" architecture of art "and its opposition to the position of philosophy and thought On modern art of modern architecture of the West.

Keywords: aesthetics, art, philosophy, the art of Architecture, wisdom

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34 Theory of Gyrotron Amplifier in a Vane-Loaded Waveguide with Inner Dielectric Material

Authors: Reyhaneh Hashemi, Shahrooz Saviz

Abstract:

In his study, we have survey the theory of gyrotron amplifier in a vane-loaded waveguide with inner dielectric material. Dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves emitted by a cylindrical waveguide that provided with wedge-shaped metal vanes projecting radially inward from the wall of the guide and exited in the transverse-electric mode was analysed. From numerical analysis of this dispersion relation, it is shown that the stability behavior of the fast-wave mode is dependent of the dielectric constant. With a small axial momentum spreed, a super bandwidth is shown to be attainable by a mixed mode operation. Also, with the utilization from the numeric analysis of relation dispersion. We show that in the –speed mode, the constant is independent de-electric. With the ratio of dispersion of smell, high –bandwith was obtained for the combined mode. And at the end, we were comparing the result of our work (vane-loaded) by the waveguide with a smooth wall.

Keywords: gyrotron amplifier, waveguide, vane-loaded waveguide, dielectric material, dispersion relation, cylindrical waveguide, fast-wave mode, mixed mode operation

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33 Pollution of Cadmium in Green Space of Rasht City and Environmental Health

Authors: Seyed Armin Hashemi, Somayeh Rahimzadeh

Abstract:

The urban green space and environment should be considered to be among the most fundamental elements of the sustainability of natural and human life in the new citizenship. The present research is intended to evaluate the impact of irrigation using urban wastewater of Cadmium (Cd) in the soil and leaves of the pine trees of Rasht in the forest territories of Rasht. For this purpose, following the exact specification of the geographical and topographical attributes of under treatment area, 100 sample trees were implemented randomly –systematically in each compound studied. Approaching the end of growth season, five trees were selected randomly in each of the plats and samples of leaves were collected from the parts near to the end of the crown and the part which was adjacent to the light. At the foot of each of the trees selected, a soil profile was dug and samples of soil were extracted from three depths of 0-20, centimeters. The measurements done in the laboratory showed that the density of nutritious elements of the samples of leaf and soil in the compound irrigated with wastewater .The results of the present research suggest that urban can be used as a source of irrigation whereas muck can be employed in forestation and irrigation with precise and particular supervision and control.

Keywords: irrigation, forestation, urban waste water, pine, wastewater

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32 Evaluation Rabbit Serum of the Immunodominant Proteins of Mycobacterium avium Paratuberculosis Extracts

Authors: Maryam Hashemi, Nematollah Razmi, Rasool Madani

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M. paratuberculosis is a slow growing mycobactin dependent mycobacterial species known to be the causative agent of Johne’s disease in all species of domestic ruminants worldwide. JD is characterized by gradual weight loss; decreased milk production. Excretion of the organism may occur for prolonged periods (1 to 2.5 years) before the onset of clinical disease. In recent years, researchers focus on identification a specific antigen of MAP to use in diagnosis test and preparation of effective vaccine. In this paper, for production of polyclonal antibody against proteins of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis cell wall a rabbit immunization at a certain time period with antigen. After immunization of the animal, blood samples were collected from the rabbit for producing enriched serum. Antibodies were purified with ion exchange chromatography. For exact measurement of interaction, western blotting test was used and as it is demonstrated in the study, sharp bands appear in nitrocellulose paper and specific bands were 50 and 150 KD molecular weight. These were indicating immunodominant proteins.

Keywords: immunodominant, paratuberculosis, Western blotting, cell wall proteins, protein purification

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31 Enzymatic Activities of Two Iranian Wheat Cultivars Infected with Fusarium Culmorum

Authors: Parastoo Motallebi, Vahid Niknam, Hassan Ebrahimzadeh, Majid Hashemi

Abstract:

Wheat, the most strategically important worldwide crop, is widely grown in various countries. Based on international wheat production statistics (FAOSTAT database), the total production of wheat in 2012 was 13.8 in Iran. Fusarium culmorum is one of the principal causative agents of Fusarium crown rot (FCR), an overwhelming disease of wheat and barley which is in the early stages causing yield losses, stand reductions and rotting of root and lower stem tissues. In this study inoculation of two wheat seedlings of the susceptible cultivar Falat and the partially field-resistant cultivar Pishtaz were carried out in greenhouse conditions and root samples were taken for 6 days. The activity of peroxidase (POX) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzymes were analyzed to identify possible relations between resistance and enzymatic activities. Although the POX and PPO activities in both geno types increased, this significant increase was more dominant in Pishtaz. The results showed an earlier elevation in the activity of these defense related enzymes in semi-resistant cv. Pishtaz after inoculation, suggested that the activities of POX and PPO in wheat geno types play an important role in the induction of resistance to this disease.

Keywords: Defense responses, Fusarium culmorum, Wheat

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30 Language Development and Growing Spanning Trees in Children Semantic Network

Authors: Somayeh Sadat Hashemi Kamangar, Fatemeh Bakouie, Shahriar Gharibzadeh

Abstract:

In this study, we target to exploit Maximum Spanning Trees (MST) of children's semantic networks to investigate their language development. To do so, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of word-embedding networks. The networks are made of words children learn prior to the age of 30 months as the nodes and the links which are built from the cosine vector similarity of words normatively acquired by children prior to two and a half years of age. These networks are weighted graphs and the strength of each link is determined by the numerical similarities of the two words (nodes) on the sides of the link. To avoid changing the weighted networks to the binaries by setting a threshold, constructing MSTs might present a solution. MST is a unique sub-graph that connects all the nodes in such a way that the sum of all the link weights is maximized without forming cycles. MSTs as the backbone of the semantic networks are suitable to examine developmental changes in semantic network topology in children. From these trees, several parameters were calculated to characterize the developmental change in network organization. We showed that MSTs provides an elegant method sensitive to capture subtle developmental changes in semantic network organization.

Keywords: maximum spanning trees, word-embedding, semantic networks, language development

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29 Determination of Parasitic Load in Different Tissues of Murine Toxoplasmosis after Immunization by Excretory-Secretory Antigens using Real Time QPCR

Authors: Ahmad Daryani, Yousef Dadimoghaddam, Mehdi Sharif, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Baghar Hashemi

Abstract:

Background: Excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n= 18) and control (n= 18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2 weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. Results: ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P= 0.000). Conclusion: These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis.

Keywords: parasitic load, murine toxoplasmosis, immunization, excretory-secretory antigens, real time QPCR

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