Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Riadh Al-Mahaidi

18 Probabilistic Robustness Assessment of Structures under Sudden Column-Loss Scenario

Authors: Ali Y Al-Attraqchi, P. Rajeev, M. Javad Hashemi, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


This paper presents a probabilistic incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of a full reinforced concrete building subjected to column loss scenario for the assessment of progressive collapse. The IDA is chosen to explicitly account for uncertainties in loads and system capacity. Fragility curves are developed to predict the probability of progressive collapse given the loss of one or more columns. At a broader scale, it will also provide critical information needed to support the development of a new generation of design codes that attempt to explicitly quantify structural robustness.

Keywords: fire, nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis, progressive collapse, structural engineering

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17 BAN Logic Proof of E-passport Authentication Protocol

Authors: Safa Saoudi, Souheib Yousfi, Riadh Robbana


E-passport is a relatively new electronic document which maintains the passport features and provides better security. It deploys new technologies such as biometrics and Radio Frequency identification (RFID). The international civil aviation organization (ICAO) and the European union define mechanisms and protocols to provide security but their solutions present many threats. In this paper, a new mechanism is presented to strengthen e-passport security and authentication process. We propose a new protocol based on Elliptic curve, identity based encryption and shared secret between entities. Authentication in our contribution is formally proved with BAN Logic verification language. This proposal aims to provide a secure data storage and authentication.

Keywords: e-passport, elliptic curve cryptography, identity based encryption, shared secret, BAN Logic

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16 Effect of Impact Load on the Bond between Steel and CFRP Laminate

Authors: Alaa Al-Mosawe, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


Carbon fiber reinforced polymers have been wildly used to strengthen steel structural elements. Those structural elements are normally subjected to static, dynamic, fatigue loadings during their life time. CFRP laminate is one of the common methods to strengthen these structures under the subjected loads. A number of researches have been focused on the bond characteristics of CFRP sheets to steel members under static, dynamic and fatigue loadings. There is a lack in understanding the behavior of the CFRP laminates under impact loading. This paper is showing the effect of high load rate on this bond. CFRP laminate CFK 150/2000 was used to strengthen steel joint by using Araldite 420 epoxy. The results showed that applying high load rate has a significant effect on the bond strength while a little influence on the effective bond length.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joints, bond strength, CFRP laminate, impact tensile loading

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15 Occurrence of Aspidiscus cristatus (Lamarck) in the 'Marnes De Smail' from the Bellezma-Batna Range (Algeria): An Index Species for the Middle Cenomanian 

Authors: Salmi-Laouar Sihem, Aouissi Riadh


The Cenomanian formations of the Bellezma-Batna Range are yielding very diversified fossiliferous beds. Among the abundant and well-preserved fossils stands out Aspidiscus cristatus (Lamarck). This taxon is assigned to the Family Latomeandridae (Alloiteau) for the presence of six symmetry axes. The outer morphology of sampled specimens documents a low-energy environment with a high sedimentary rate and a mud-supported bottom. Its provincialism evidences some characteristic thermal gradients of the marked Tethysian climatic areas. Biometric measurements are given. Coral size increases from the North towards the southeastern Tethysian margin where waters are supposed warmer; this feature is also underlined by a frequent bio-erosion of sampled specimens. Its limited stratigraphic range makes it a good candidate for an index species for the Middle Cenomanian.

Keywords: Aspidiscus cristatus, coral, Middle Cenomanian, Batna, Bellezma, Algeria

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14 Sustainable Building Design for Energy Efficiency and Healthier Electromagnetic Environment

Authors: Riadh Habash, Kristina Djukic, Gandhi Habash


Sustainable design is one of the emerging milestones in building construction. This concept is defined as buildings that on a yearly average consume as much energy as they generate using renewable energy sources. Realization of sustainable buildings requires a wide range of technologies, systems and solutions with varying degrees of complexity and sophistication, depending upon the location and surrounding environmental conditions. This paper will address not only the role of the above technologies and solutions but will provide solutions to reduce the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the building as much as possible so that the occupiers can recover from electro-hyper-sensitivity, if any. The objective is to maximize energy efficiency, optimize occupant comfort, reduce dependency on the grid and provide safer and healthier EMF environment especially for hypersensitive people. Creative architectural and engineering solutions that capitalize on the design of energy efficient technologies; combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) microgrid (MG); and EMF mitigation will be presented.

Keywords: sustainable buildings, energy efficiency, thermal simulation, electromagnetic environment

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13 Consumers’ Attitude towards Marketing Recreational Marijuana

Authors: Nizar Souiden, Riadh Ladhari


Like tobacco and alcohol, recreational marijuana falls under the umbrella of ‘sin’ industries’. Notwithstanding this general negative image surrounding marijuana use, some scholars argue that most of the widely believed claims made about recreational marijuana users are irrelevant and that marijuana use can even improve individuals’ decision-making. This study intends to shed light on this particular product category (i.e., marijuana) often overlooked or portrayed as taboo from a business view. More specifically, it investigates whether legalizing the consumption of recreational marijuana would be perceived as ethical and whether companies/organizations involved in the commercialization of this particular product would be held socially responsible. Based on primary data collected in Canada, this study aims to answer the following questions: 1) What moral thoughts do individuals hold with regard to the consumption of recreational marijuana? 2) How do these moral thoughts determine consumers’ attitude toward the consumption of recreational marijuana? Regardless of the legalization of recreational marijuana in some countries such as Canada, probing people’s opinions, and investigating their attitudes toward the consumption of recreational marijuana is of important interest to different stakeholders such as consumers, public organizations, private businesses, and trade associations.

Keywords: recreational marijuana, moral thoughts, ethics, attitude

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12 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behaviour of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-to-concrete joints.

Keywords: FRP, concrete bond, control, fatigue, finite element model

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11 Study of Hydraulic and Tectonic Fracturation within Zemlet El Beidha Area (North Chott Range)

Authors: Nabil Abaab, Dhaou Akrout, Riadh Ahmadi, Mabrouk Montacer


The study of fluid pressure and its evolution have a critical importance as they lead to understanding the tectonic history of the region. Therefore, the present work focuses on a microtectonic study of tectonic and hydraulic fracture at the anticline structure of Zemlet El Beidha (North Chott range). The study and the analysis of several stations of tectonic and hydraulic fracture allow revealing the witnesses of a paléosurpression in the deposits of Lower Cretaceous (Bouhedma Formation). In fact, we noticed that the overpressure is directly involved in the creation of various types of fractures as evidenced by the different measures and the stereographic projections. Thus, the orientations of fibers of mineralization that fills the Beefs type fracture have the same direction as the main constraint. Furthermore, we discussed the different overpressure build-up mechanisms. The results showed that tectonics is likely, responsible for this anomaly. This is confirmed by the description of the fibers and the projection of the different measurements of Beefs. The mineralization transformation from gypsum to anhydrite is heavily involved in this stress regime especially in the presence of all necessary conditions of dehydration of gypsum.

Keywords: Zemlet El Beidha, overpressure, tectonic fracture, hydraulic fracture, gypsum beefs

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10 A Review of Different Studies on Hidden Markov Models for Multi-Temporal Satellite Images: Stationarity and Non-Stationarity Issues

Authors: Ali Ben Abbes, Imed Riadh Farah


Due to the considerable advances in Multi-Temporal Satellite Images (MTSI), remote sensing application became more accurate. Recently, many advances in modeling MTSI are developed using various models. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of studies using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). First of all, we provide a background of using HMM and their applications in this context. A comparison of the different works is discussed, and possible areas and challenges are highlighted. Secondly, we discussed the difference on vegetation monitoring as well as urban growth. Nevertheless, most research efforts have been used only stationary data. From another point of view, in this paper, we describe a new non-stationarity HMM, that is defined with a set of parts of the time series e.g. seasonal, trend and random. In addition, a new approach giving more accurate results and improve the applicability of the HMM in modeling a non-stationary data series. In order to assess the performance of the HMM, different experiments are carried out using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI time series of the northwestern region of Tunisia and Landsat time series of tres Cantos-Madrid in Spain.

Keywords: multi-temporal satellite image, HMM , nonstationarity, vegetation, urban

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9 An Adaptive Dimensionality Reduction Approach for Hyperspectral Imagery Semantic Interpretation

Authors: Akrem Sellami, Imed Riadh Farah, Basel Solaiman


With the development of HyperSpectral Imagery (HSI) technology, the spectral resolution of HSI became denser, which resulted in large number of spectral bands, high correlation between neighboring, and high data redundancy. However, the semantic interpretation is a challenging task for HSI analysis due to the high dimensionality and the high correlation of the different spectral bands. In fact, this work presents a dimensionality reduction approach that allows to overcome the different issues improving the semantic interpretation of HSI. Therefore, in order to preserve the spatial information, the Tensor Locality Preserving Projection (TLPP) has been applied to transform the original HSI. In the second step, knowledge has been extracted based on the adjacency graph to describe the different pixels. Based on the transformation matrix using TLPP, a weighted matrix has been constructed to rank the different spectral bands based on their contribution score. Thus, the relevant bands have been adaptively selected based on the weighted matrix. The performance of the presented approach has been validated by implementing several experiments, and the obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of this approach compared to various existing dimensionality reduction techniques. Also, according to the experimental results, we can conclude that this approach can adaptively select the relevant spectral improving the semantic interpretation of HSI.

Keywords: band selection, dimensionality reduction, feature extraction, hyperspectral imagery, semantic interpretation

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8 A Review on 3D Smart City Platforms Using Remotely Sensed Data to Aid Simulation and Urban Analysis

Authors: Slim Namouchi, Bruno Vallet, Imed Riadh Farah


3D urban models provide powerful tools for decision making, urban planning, and smart city services. The accuracy of this 3D based systems is directly related to the quality of these models. Since manual large-scale modeling, such as cities or countries is highly time intensive and very expensive process, a fully automatic 3D building generation is needed. However, 3D modeling process result depends on the input data, the proprieties of the captured objects, and the required characteristics of the reconstructed 3D model. Nowadays, producing 3D real-world model is no longer a problem. Remotely sensed data had experienced a remarkable increase in the recent years, especially data acquired using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). While the scanning techniques are developing, the captured data amount and the resolution are getting bigger and more precise. This paper presents a literature review, which aims to identify different methods of automatic 3D buildings extractions either from LiDAR or the combination of LiDAR and satellite or aerial images. Then, we present open source technologies, and data models (e.g., CityGML, PostGIS, Cesiumjs) used to integrate these models in geospatial base layers for smart city services.

Keywords: CityGML, LiDAR, remote sensing, SIG, Smart City, 3D urban modeling

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7 Geochemical Characterization of the Fahdene Formation in the Kef-Tedjerouine Area (Northwestern Tunisia)

Authors: Tahani Hallek, Dhaou Akrout, Riadh Ahmadi, Mabrouk Montacer


The present work is an organo-geochemical study of the Fahdene Formation outcrops at the Mahjouba region belonging to the Eastern part of the Kalaat Senan structure in northwestern Tunisia (the Kef-Tedjerouine area). The analytical study of the organic content of the samples collected, allowed us to point out that the Formation in question is characterized by an average to good oil potential. This fossilized organic matter has a planktonic marine origin (type II), as indicated by the relatively high values of hydrogen index. Tmax values are in the range 440°C and attest a thermal stage of the oil window beginning. Mineralogical study found the existence of macro and micro fractures that are parallel to rock stratification or oblique with a high density. Fill standpoint, the major component of the mineralized veins is the fibrous calcite with bitumen traces. The composition of these fractures is mainly due to the availability of chemical elements scattered in the surrounding rock. As for the origin of these fractures, we assume that fluid pressure processes are heavily involved, together with the regional compressional tectonic stress regime. The Fahdene Formation has a great importance in conventional oil development as a potential source rock, and even in terms of unconventional oil exploitation through the intense fracturing allowing the percolation of gas shale and facilitating its exploitation.

Keywords: fluid pressure, fracturation, oil exploration, organic matter

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6 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Prestressing Bars

Authors: Haifa Saleh, Kamiran Abduka, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


The effectiveness of using pre-stressing steel bars for shear strengthening of high strength reinforced concrete (RC) slabs was assessed. Two large-scale RC slabs were tested, one without shear reinforcement and the second strengthened against punching shear failure using pre-stressing steel bars. The two slabs had the same dimensions, flexural reinforcement ratio, loading and support arrangements. The experimental program including the method of strengthening, set up and instrumentation are described in this paper. The experimental results are analyzed and discussed in terms of the structural behavior of the RC slabs, the performance of pre-stressing steel bolts and failure modes. The results confirmed that the shear strengthening technique increased the shear capacity, ductility and yield capacity of the slab by up to 15%, 44%, and 22%, respectively compared to the unstrengthened slab. The strengthening technique also successfully contributed to changing the failure mode from a brittle punching shear mode to ductile flexural failure mode. Vic3D digital image correlation system (photogrammetry) was also used in this research. This technique holds several advantages over traditional contact instrumentations including that it is inexpensive, it produces results that are simple to analyze and it is remote visualization technique. The displacement profile along the span of the slab and rotation has been found and compared with the results obtained from traditional sensors. The performance of the photogrammetry technique was very good and the results of both measurements were in very close agreement.

Keywords: flat slab, photogrammetry, punching shear, strengthening

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5 A Spatial Hypergraph Based Semi-Supervised Band Selection Method for Hyperspectral Imagery Semantic Interpretation

Authors: Akrem Sellami, Imed Riadh Farah


Hyperspectral imagery (HSI) typically provides a wealth of information captured in a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum for each pixel in the image. Hence, a pixel in HSI is a high-dimensional vector of intensities with a large spectral range and a high spectral resolution. Therefore, the semantic interpretation is a challenging task of HSI analysis. We focused in this paper on object classification as HSI semantic interpretation. However, HSI classification still faces some issues, among which are the following: The spatial variability of spectral signatures, the high number of spectral bands, and the high cost of true sample labeling. Therefore, the high number of spectral bands and the low number of training samples pose the problem of the curse of dimensionality. In order to resolve this problem, we propose to introduce the process of dimensionality reduction trying to improve the classification of HSI. The presented approach is a semi-supervised band selection method based on spatial hypergraph embedding model to represent higher order relationships with different weights of the spatial neighbors corresponding to the centroid of pixel. This semi-supervised band selection has been developed to select useful bands for object classification. The presented approach is evaluated on AVIRIS and ROSIS HSIs and compared to other dimensionality reduction methods. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach compared to many existing dimensionality reduction methods for HSI classification.

Keywords: dimensionality reduction, hyperspectral image, semantic interpretation, spatial hypergraph

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4 Seismic Reflection Highlights of New Miocene Deep Aquifers in Eastern Tunisia Basin (North Africa)

Authors: Mourad Bédir, Sami Khomsi, Hakim Gabtni, Hajer Azaiez, Ramzi Gharsalli, Riadh Chebbi


Eastern Tunisia is a semi-arid area; located in the northern Africa plate; southern Mediterranean side. It is facing water scarcity, overexploitation, and decreasing of water quality of phreatic water table. Water supply and storage will not respond to the demographic and economic growth and demand. In addition, only 5 109 m3 of rainwater from 35 109 m3 per year renewable rain water supply can be retained and remobilized. To remediate this water deficiency, researches had been focused to near new subsurface deep aquifers resources. Among them, Upper Miocene sandstone deposits of Béglia, Saouaf, and Somaa Formations. These sandstones are known for their proven Hydrogeologic and hydrocarbon reservoir characteristics in the Tunisian margin. They represent semi-confined to confined aquifers. This work is based on new integrated approaches of seismic stratigraphy, seismic tectonics, and hydrogeology, to highlight and characterize these reservoirs levels for aquifer exploitation in semi-arid area. As a result, five to six third order sequence deposits had been highlighted. They are composed of multi-layered extended sandstones reservoirs; separated by shales packages. These reservoir deposits represent lowstand and highstand system tracts of these sequences, which represent lowstand and highstand system tracts of these sequences. They constitute important strategic water resources volumes for the region.

Keywords: Tunisia, Hydrogeology, sandstones, basin, seismic, aquifers, modeling

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3 Identification of Deposition Sequences of the Organic Content of Lower Albian-Cenomanian Age in Northern Tunisia: Correlation between Molecular and Stratigraphic Fossils

Authors: Tahani Hallek, Dhaou Akrout, Riadh Ahmadi, Mabrouk Montacer


The present work is an organic geochemical study of the Fahdene Formation outcrops at the Mahjouba region belonging to the Eastern part of the Kalaat Senan structure in northwestern Tunisia (the Kef-Tedjerouine area). The analytical study of the organic content of the samples collected, allowed us to point out that the Formation in question is characterized by an average to good oil potential. This fossilized organic matter has a mixed origin (type II and III), as indicated by the relatively high values of hydrogen index. This origin is confirmed by the C29 Steranes abundance and also by tricyclic terpanes C19/(C19+C23) and tetracyclic terpanes C24/(C24+C23) ratios, that suggest a marine environment of deposit with high plants contribution. We have demonstrated that the heterogeneity of organic matter between the marine aspect, confirmed by the presence of foraminifera, and the continental contribution, is the result of an episodic anomaly in relation to the sequential stratigraphy. Given that the study area is defined as an outer platform forming a transition zone between a stable continental domain to the south and a deep basin to the north, we have explained the continental contribution by successive forced regressions, having blocked the albian transgression, allowing the installation of the lowstand system tracts. This aspect is represented by the incised valleys filling, in direct contact with the pelagic and deep sea facies. Consequently, the Fahdene Formation, in the Kef-Tedjerouine area, consists of transgressive system tracts (TST) brutally truncated by extras of continental progradation; resulting in a mixed influence deposition having retained a heterogeneous organic material.

Keywords: molecular geochemistry, biomarkers, forced regression, deposit environment, mixed origin, Northern Tunisia

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2 The Effect of the Adhesive Ductility on Bond Characteristics of CFRP/Steel Double Strap Joints Subjected to Dynamic Tensile Loadings

Authors: Haider Al-Zubaidy, Xiao-Ling Zhao, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


In recent years, the technique adhesively-bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has found its way into civil engineering applications and it has attracted a widespread attention as a viable alternative strategy for the retrofitting of civil infrastructure such as bridges and buildings. When adopting this method, adhesive has a significant role and controls the general performance and degree of enhancement of the strengthened and/or upgraded structures. This is because the ultimate member strength is highly affected by the failure mode which is considerably dependent on the utilised adhesive. This paper concerns with experimental investigations on the effect of the adhesive used on the bond between CFRP patch and steel plate under medium impact tensile loading. Experiment were conducted using double strap joints and these samples were prepared using two different types of adhesives, Araldite 420 and MBrace saturant. Drop mass rig was used to carry out dynamic tests at impact speeds of 3.35, 4.43 and m/s while quasi-static tests were implemented at 2mm/min using Instrone machine. In this test program, ultimate load-carrying capacity and failure modes were examined for all loading speeds. For both static and dynamic tests, the adhesive type has a significant effect on ultimate joint strength. It was found that the double strap joints prepared using Araldite 420 showed higher strength than those prepared utilising MBrace saturant adhesive. Failure mechanism for joints prepared using Araldite 420 is completely different from those samples prepared utilising MBrace saturant. CFRP failure is the most common failure pattern for joints with Araldite 420, whereas the dominant failure for joints with MBrace saturant adhesive is adhesive failure.

Keywords: CFRP/steel double strap joints, adhesives of different ductility, dynamic tensile loading, bond between CFRP and steel

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1 Stochastic Matrices and Lp Norms for Ill-Conditioned Linear Systems

Authors: Riadh Zorgati, Thomas Triboulet


In quite diverse application areas such as astronomy, medical imaging, geophysics or nondestructive evaluation, many problems related to calibration, fitting or estimation of a large number of input parameters of a model from a small amount of output noisy data, can be cast as inverse problems. Due to noisy data corruption, insufficient data and model errors, most inverse problems are ill-posed in a Hadamard sense, i.e. existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution are not guaranteed. A wide class of inverse problems in physics relates to the Fredholm equation of the first kind. The ill-posedness of such inverse problem results, after discretization, in a very ill-conditioned linear system of equations, the condition number of the associated matrix can typically range from 109 to 1018. This condition number plays the role of an amplifier of uncertainties on data during inversion and then, renders the inverse problem difficult to handle numerically. Similar problems appear in other areas such as numerical optimization when using interior points algorithms for solving linear programs leads to face ill-conditioned systems of linear equations. Devising efficient solution approaches for such system of equations is therefore of great practical interest. Efficient iterative algorithms are proposed for solving a system of linear equations. The approach is based on a preconditioning of the initial matrix of the system with an approximation of a generalized inverse leading to a stochastic preconditioned matrix. This approach, valid for non-negative matrices, is first extended to hermitian, semi-definite positive matrices and then generalized to any complex rectangular matrices. The main results obtained are as follows: 1) We are able to build a generalized inverse of any complex rectangular matrix which satisfies the convergence condition requested in iterative algorithms for solving a system of linear equations. This completes the (short) list of generalized inverse having this property, after Kaczmarz and Cimmino matrices. Theoretical results on both the characterization of the type of generalized inverse obtained and the convergence are derived. 2) Thanks to its properties, this matrix can be efficiently used in different solving schemes as Richardson-Tanabe or preconditioned conjugate gradients. 3) By using Lp norms, we propose generalized Kaczmarz’s type matrices. We also show how Cimmino's matrix can be considered as a particular case consisting in choosing the Euclidian norm in an asymmetrical structure. 4) Regarding numerical results obtained on some pathological well-known test-cases (Hilbert, Nakasaka, …), some of the proposed algorithms are empirically shown to be more efficient on ill-conditioned problems and more robust to error propagation than the known classical techniques we have tested (Gauss, Moore-Penrose inverse, minimum residue, conjugate gradients, Kaczmarz, Cimmino). We end on a very early prospective application of our approach based on stochastic matrices aiming at computing some parameters (such as the extreme values, the mean, the variance, …) of the solution of a linear system prior to its resolution. Such an approach, if it were to be efficient, would be a source of information on the solution of a system of linear equations.

Keywords: conditioning, generalized inverse, linear system, norms, stochastic matrix

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