Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 685

Search results for: progressive collapse

685 Investigation of the Progressive Collapse Potential in Steel Buildings with Composite Floor System

Authors: Pouya Kaafi, Gholamreza Ghodrati Amiri


Abnormal loads due to natural events, implementation errors and some other issues can lead to occurrence of progressive collapse in structures. Most of the past researches consist of 2- Dimensional (2D) models of steel frames without consideration of the floor system effects, which reduces the accuracy of the modeling. While employing a 3-Dimensional (3D) model and modeling the concrete slab system for the floors have a crucial role in the progressive collapse evaluation. In this research, a 3D finite element model of a 5-story steel building is modeled by the ABAQUS software once with modeling the slabs, and the next time without considering them. Then, the progressive collapse potential is evaluated. The results of the analyses indicate that the lack of the consideration of the slabs during the analyses, can lead to inaccuracy in assessing the progressive failure potential of the structure.

Keywords: abnormal loads, composite floor system, intermediate steel moment resisting frame system, progressive collapse

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684 An Improved Tie Force Method for Progressive Collapse Resistance Design of Precast Concrete Cross Wall Structures

Authors: M. Tohidi, J. Yang, C. Baniotopoulos


Progressive collapse of buildings typically occurs when abnormal loading conditions cause local damages, which leads to a chain reaction of failure and ultimately catastrophic collapse. The tie force (TF) method is one of the main design approaches for progressive collapse. As the TF method is a simplified method, further investigations on the reliability of the method is necessary. This study aims to develop an improved TF method to design the cross wall structures for progressive collapse. To this end, the pullout behavior of strands in grout was firstly analyzed; and then, by considering the tie force-slip relationship in the friction stage together with the catenary action mechanism, a comprehensive analytical method was developed. The reliability of this approach is verified by the experimental results of concrete block pullout tests and full scale floor-to-floor joints tests undertaken by Portland Cement Association (PCA). Discrepancies in the tie force between the analytical results and codified specifications have suggested the deficiency of TF method, hence an improved model based on the analytical results has been proposed to address this concern.

Keywords: cross wall, progressive collapse, ties force method, catenary, analytical

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683 Evaluation of Progressive Collapse of Transmission Tower

Authors: Jeong-Hwan Choi, Hyo-Sang Park, Tae-Hyung Lee


The transmission tower is one of the crucial lifeline structures in a modern society, and it needs to be protected against extreme loading conditions. However, the transmission tower is a very complex structure and, therefore, it is very difficult to simulate the actual damage and the collapse behavior of the tower structure. In this study, the actual collapse behavior of the transmission tower due to lateral loading conditions such as wind load is evaluated through the computational simulation. For that, a progressive collapse procedure is applied to the simulation. In this procedure, after running the simulation, if a member of the tower structure fails, the failed member is removed and the simulation run again. The 154kV transmission tower is selected for this study. The simulation is performed by nonlinear static analysis procedure, namely pushover analysis, using OpenSEES, an earthquake simulation platform. Three-dimensional finite element models of those towers are developed.

Keywords: transmission tower, OpenSEES, pushover, progressive collapse

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682 Probabilistic Robustness Assessment of Structures under Sudden Column-Loss Scenario

Authors: Ali Y Al-Attraqchi, P. Rajeev, M. Javad Hashemi, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


This paper presents a probabilistic incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of a full reinforced concrete building subjected to column loss scenario for the assessment of progressive collapse. The IDA is chosen to explicitly account for uncertainties in loads and system capacity. Fragility curves are developed to predict the probability of progressive collapse given the loss of one or more columns. At a broader scale, it will also provide critical information needed to support the development of a new generation of design codes that attempt to explicitly quantify structural robustness.

Keywords: fire, nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis, progressive collapse, structural engineering

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681 Progressive Collapse of Cooling Towers

Authors: Esmaeil Asadzadeh, Mehtab Alam


Well documented records of the past failures of the structures reveals that the progressive collapse of structures is one of the major reasons for dramatic human loss and economical consequences. Progressive collapse is the failure mechanism in which the structure fails gradually due to the sudden removal of the structural elements. The sudden removal of some structural elements results in the excessive redistributed loads on the others. This sudden removal may be caused by any sudden loading resulted from local explosion, impact loading and terrorist attacks. Hyperbolic thin walled concrete shell structures being an important part of nuclear and thermal power plants are always prone to such terrorist attacks. In concrete structures, the gradual failure would take place by generation of initial cracks and its propagation in the supporting columns along with the tower shell leading to the collapse of the entire structure. In this study the mechanism of progressive collapse for such high raised towers would be simulated employing the finite element method. The aim of this study would be providing clear conceptual step-by-step descriptions of various procedures for progressive collapse analysis using commercially available finite element structural analysis software’s, with the aim that the explanations would be clear enough that they will be readily understandable and will be used by practicing engineers. The study would be carried out in the following procedures: 1. Provide explanations of modeling, simulation and analysis procedures including input screen snapshots; 2. Interpretation of the results and discussions; 3. Conclusions and recommendations.

Keywords: progressive collapse, cooling towers, finite element analysis, crack generation, reinforced concrete

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680 Behavior of Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Impact Load

Authors: Hyungoo Kang, Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim


This study investigates the performance of a 2D and 3D steel moment frame subjected to vehicle collision at a first story column using LS-DYNA. The finite element models of vehicles provided by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC) are used for numerical analysis. Nonlinear dynamic time history analysis of the 2D and 3D model structures are carried out based on the arbitrary column removal scenario, and the vertical displacement of the damaged structures are compared with that obtained from collision analysis. The analysis results show that the model structure remains stable when the speed of the vehicle is 40km/h. However, at the speed of 80 and 120km/h both the 2D and 3D structures collapse by progressive collapse. The vertical displacement of the damaged joint obtained from collision analysis is significantly larger than the displacement computed based on the arbitrary column removal scenario.

Keywords: vehicle collision, progressive collapse, FEM, LS-DYNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
679 Assessment of Collapse Potential of Degrading SDOF Systems

Authors: Muzaffer Borekci, Murat Serdar Kirçil


Predicting the collapse potential of a structure during earthquakes is an important issue in earthquake engineering. Many researchers proposed different methods to assess the collapse potential of structures under the effect of strong ground motions. However most of them did not consider degradation and softening effect in hysteretic behavior. In this study, collapse potential of SDOF systems caused by dynamic instability with stiffness and strength degradation has been investigated. An equation was proposed for the estimation of collapse period of SDOF system which is a limit value of period for dynamic instability. If period of the considered SDOF system is shorter than the collapse period then the relevant system exhibits dynamic instability and collapse occurs.

Keywords: collapse, degradation, dynamic instability, seismic response

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678 Building Collapse: Factors and Resisting Mechanisms: A Review of Case Studies

Authors: Genevieve D. Fernandes, Nisha P. Naik


All through the ages in all human civilizations, men have been engaged in construction activity, not only to build their dwellings and house their activities, but also roads, bridges to facilitate means of transport, and communication etc. The main concern in this activity was to ensure safety and reduce the collapse of the buildings and other structures. But even after taking all precautions, it is impossible to guarantee safety and collapse because of several unforeseen reasons like faulty constructions, design errors, overloading, soil liquefaction, gas explosion, material degradation, terrorist attacks and economic factors also contributing to the collapse. It is also uneconomical to design the structure for unforeseen events unless they have a reasonable chance of occurrence. In order to ensure safety and prevent collapse, many guidelines have been framed by local bodies and government authorities in many countries like the United States Department of Defence (DOD), United States General Service Administration (GSA) and Euro-Codes in European Nations. Some other practices are followed to incorporate redundancies in the structure like detailing, ductile designs, tying of elements at particular locations, and provision of hinges and interconnections. It is also to be admitted that a full-proof safe design structure for accidental events cannot be prepared and implemented as it is uneconomical and the chances of such occurrences are less. This paper reviews past case studies of the collapse of structures with the aim of developing an understanding of the collapse mechanism. This study will definitely help to bring about a detailed improvement in the design to maximise the quality of the construction at a minimal cost.

Keywords: unforeseen factors, progressive collapse, collapse resisting mechanisms, column removal scenario

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677 Collapse Surface Definition of Clayey Sands

Authors: Omid Naeemifar, Ibrahim Naeimifar, Roza Rahbari


It has been shown that a certain collapse surface may be defined for loose sands in the three dimensional space in which the sample sand experiences collapse and instability leading to an unsteady and strain-softening behaviour. The unsteady state due to collapse surface may lead to such phenomena in the sand as liquefaction and flow behaviour during undrained loading. Investigating the existence of the collapse surface in Firoozkooh 161 sand and its different clay mixtures with various plasticities, the present study aims to carry out an in-depth investigation of the effects of clay percent and its plasticity on the clayey sand behaviours. The results obtained indicate that collapse surface characteristics largely depend on fine percent and its plasticity. Interesting findings are also reported in this paper on the effects of fine sand percent and its plasticity on the behavioural characteristics and liquefaction potential of clayey sands.

Keywords: critical state, collapse surface, liquefaction, clayey sand

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676 Directing the Forensic Investigation of a Catastrophic Structure Collapse: The Jacksonville Parking Garage Collapse

Authors: William C. Bracken


This paper discusses the forensic investigation of a fatality-involved catastrophic structure collapse and the special challenges faced when tasked with directing such an effort. While this paper discusses the investigation’s findings and the outcome of the event; this paper’s primary focus is on the challenges faced directing a forensic investigation that requires coordinating with governmental oversight while also having to accommodate multiple parties’ investigative teams. In particular the challenges discussed within this paper included maintaining on-site safety and operations while accommodating outside investigator’s interests. In addition this paper discusses unique challenges that one may face such as what to do about unethical conduct of interested party’s investigative teams, “off the record” sharing of information, and clandestinely transmitted evidence.

Keywords: catastrophic structure collapse, collapse investigation, Jacksonville parking garage collapse, forensic investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
675 A New Approach to Retrofit Steel Moment Resisting Frame Structures after Mainshock

Authors: Amir H. Farivarrad, Kiarash M. Dolatshahi


During earthquake events, aftershocks can significantly increase the probability of collapse of buildings, especially for those with induced damages during the mainshock. In this paper, a practical approach is proposed for seismic rehabilitation of mainshock-damaged buildings that can be easily implemented within few days after the mainshock. To show the efficacy of the proposed method, a case study nine story steel moment frame building is chosen which was designed to pre-Northridge codes. The collapse fragility curve for the aftershock is presented for both the retrofitted and non-retrofitted structures. Comparison of the collapse fragility curves shows that the proposed method is indeed applicable to reduce the seismic collapse risk.

Keywords: aftershock, the collapse fragility curve, seismic rehabilitation, seismic retrofitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
674 Non-Singular Gravitational Collapse of a Homogeneous Scalar Field in Deformed Phase Space

Authors: Amir Hadi Ziaie


In the present work, we revisit the collapse process of a spherically symmetric homogeneous scalar field (in FRW background) minimally coupled to gravity, when the phase-space deformations are taken into account. Such a deformation is mathematically introduced as a particular type of noncommutativity between the canonical momenta of the scale factor and of the scalar field. In the absence of such deformation, the collapse culminates in a spacetime singularity. However, when the phase-space is deformed, we find that the singularity is removed by a non-singular bounce, beyond which the collapsing cloud re-expands to infinity. More precisely, for negative values of the deformation parameter, we identify the appearance of a negative pressure, which decelerates the collapse to finally avoid the singularity formation. While in the un-deformed case, the horizon curve monotonically decreases to finally cover the singularity, in the deformed case the horizon has a minimum value that this value depends on deformation parameter and initial configuration of the collapse. Such a setting predicts a threshold mass for black hole formation in stellar collapse and manifests the role of non-commutative geometry in physics and especially in stellar collapse and supernova explosion.

Keywords: gravitational collapse, non-commutative geometry, spacetime singularity, black hole physics

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673 Aftershock Collapse Capacity Assessment of Mid-Rise Steel Moment Frames Subjected to As-Recorded Mainshock-Aftershock

Authors: Mohammadmehdi Torfehnejada, Serhan Senso


Aftershock collapse capacity of Special Steel Moment Frames (SSMFs) is evaluated under aftershock earthquakes by considering building heights 8 and 12 stories. The assessment evaluates the residual collapse capacity under aftershock excitation when various levels of damage have been induced by the mainshock. For this purpose, incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) under aftershock follows the mainshock imposing the intended damage level. The study results indicate that aftershock collapse capacity of this structure may decrease remarkably when the structure is subjected to large mainshock damage. The capacity reduction under aftershock is finally related to the mainshock damage level through regression equations.

Keywords: aftershock collapse capacity, special steel moment frames, mainshock-aftershock sequences, incremental dynamic analysis, mainshock damage

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672 Assessment of Causes of Building Collapse in Nigeria

Authors: Olufemi Oyedele


Building collapse (BC) in Nigeria is becoming a regular occurrence, each recording great casualties in the number of lives and materials lost. Building collapse is a situation where building which has been completed and occupied, completed but not occupied or under construction, collapses on its own due to action or inaction of man or due to natural event like earthquake, storm, flooding, tsunami or wildfire. It is different from building demolition. There are various causes of building collapse and each case requires expert judgment to decide the cause of its collapse. Rate of building collapse is a reflection of the level of organization and control of building activities and degree of sophistication of the construction professionals in a country. This study explored the use of case study by examining the causes of six (6) collapsed buildings (CB) across Nigeria. Samples of materials from the sites of the collapsed buildings were taken for testing and analysis, while critical observations were made at the sites to note the conditions of the ground (building base). The study found out that majority of the building collapses in Nigeria were due to poor workmanship, sub-standard building materials, followed by bad building base and poor design. The National Building Code 2006 is not effective due to lack of enforcement and the Physical Development Departments of states and Federal Capital Territory are just mere agents of corruption allowing all types of construction without building approvals.

Keywords: building collapse, concrete tests, differential settlement, integrity test, quality control

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671 The Effect of Resistance and Progressive Training on Hsp 70 and Glucose

Authors: F. Nameni, H. Poursadra


The present study investigated resistance and progressive training alters the expression of chaperone proteins. These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury, and provide protection. Nineteen training female in 2 groups taking part in the intervention volunteered to give blood samples. Levels of chaperone proteins were measured in response to resistance and progressive training. Hsp 70 levels were increased immediately after 2 h progressive training but decreased after resistance training. The data showed that human skeletal muscle responds to the stress of a single period of progressive training by up-regulating and resistance training by down-regulating expression of HSP70. Physical exercise can elevate core temperature and muscle temperatures and the expression pattern of HSP70 due to training status may be attributed to adaptive mechanisms.

Keywords: resistance training, heat shock proteins, leukocytes, Hsp 70

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670 Non-Singular Gravitational Collapse of a Dust Cloud in Einstein-Cartan Theory

Authors: Amir Hadi Ziaie, Mostafa Hashemi, Shahram Jalalzadeh


It is now known that the end state of the collapse process of a dense star under its own gravity is the formation of a spacetime singularity. This is the spacetime event where the energy density and spacetime curvature diverge, and the classical general relativity breaks down. As we know, a realistic star is composed of fermions so that their spin effects could alter the final fate of the collapse scenario. The underlying theory within which the inclusion of spin effects can be worked out is the Einstein-Cartan theory. In this theory, the spacetime torsion which is defined as a geometrical quantity, is related to an intrinsic angular momentum of fermions (spin). In this work, we study the collapse process of a homogeneous spin fluid in such a framework and show that taking into account the spin effects of the collapsing cloud could prevent the formation of spacetime singularity.

Keywords: gravitational collapse, einstein-cartan theory, spacetime singularity, black hole physics

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669 A Case Study of the Ground Collapse Due to Excavation Using Non-Destructive Testing

Authors: Ki-Cheong Yoo, Yushik Han, Heejeung Sohn, Jinwoo Kim


A ground collapse can be caused by natural and artificial factors. Ground collapses that have occurred frequently in Korea were observed and classified into different types by the main contributing factor. In this study, ground collapse induced by groundwater level disturbance in an excavation site was analyzed. Also, ground loosening region around the excavation site was detected and analyzed using non-destructive testing, such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) survey and Electrical Resistivity. The result of the surveys showed that the ground was loosened widely over the surrounding area of the excavation due to groundwater discharge.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, ground collapse, groundwater level, GPR (ground penetrating radar)

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668 Collapse Capacity Assessment of Inelastic Structures under Seismic Sequences

Authors: Shahrzad Mohammadi, Ghasem Boshrouei Sharq


All seismic design codes are based on the determination of the design earthquake without taking into account the effects of aftershocks in the design practice. In regions with a high level of seismicity, the occurrence of several aftershocks of various magnitudes and different time lags is very likely. This research aims to estimate the collapse capacity of a 10-story steel bundled tube moment frame subjected to as-recorded seismic sequences. The studied structure is designed according to the seismic regulations of the fourth revision of the Iranian code of practice for the seismic-resistant design of buildings (Code No.2800). A series of incremental dynamic analyses (IDA) is performed up to the collapse level of the intact structure. Then, in order to demonstrate the effects of aftershock events on the collapse vulnerability of the building, aftershock IDA analyzes are carried out. To gain deeper insight, collapse fragility curves are developed and compared for both series. Also, a study on the influence of various ground motion characteristics on collapse capacity is carried out. The results highlight the importance of considering the decisive effects of aftershocks in seismic codes due to their contribution to the occurrence of collapse.

Keywords: IDA, aftershock, bundled tube frame, fragility assessment, GM characteristics, as-recorded seismic sequences

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667 Analysis of Impact Load Induced by Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubble Collapse Using Thin Film Pressure Sensors

Authors: Moiz S. Vohra, Nagalingam Arun Prasanth, Wei L. Tan, S. H. Yeo


The understanding of generation and collapse of acoustic cavitation bubbles are prerequisites for application of cavitation erosion. Microbubbles generated due to rapid fluctuation of pressure induced by propagation of ultrasonic wave lead to formation of high velocity microjets and or shock waves upon collapse. Due to vast application of ultrasonic, it is important to characterize and understand cavitation collapse pressure under the radiating surface at different conditions. A comparative investigation is carried out to determine impact load and dynamic pressure distribution exerted upon bubble collapse using thin film pressure sensors. Measurements were recorded at different input conditions such as amplitude, stand-off distance, insertion depth of the horn inside the liquid and pulse on-off time of acoustic vibrations. Impact force of 2.97 N is recorded at amplitude of 108 μm and stand-off distance of 1 mm from the sensor film, whereas impulsive force as low as 0.4 N is recorded at amplitude of 12 μm and stand-off distance of 5 mm from the sensor film. The results drawn from the investigation indicated that variety of impact loads can be achieved by controlling generation and collapse of bubbles, making it suitable to use for numerous application.

Keywords: ultrasonic cavitation, bubble collapse, pressure mapping sensor, impact load

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666 Collapse Performance of Steel Frame with Hysteric Energy Dissipating Devices

Authors: Hyung-Joon Kim, Jin-Young Park


Energy dissipating devices (EDDs) have become more popular as seismic-force-resisting systems for building structures. However, there is little information on the collapse capacities of frames employing EDDs which are an important criterion for their seismic design. This study investigates the collapse capacities of steel frames with TADAS hysteric energy dissipative devices (HEDDs) that become an alternative to steel braced frames. To do this, 5-story steel ordinary concentrically braced frame and steel frame with HEDDs are designed and modeled. Nonlinear dynamic analyses and incremental dynamic analysis with 40 ground motions scaled to maximum considered earthquake are carried out. It is shown from analysis results that the significant enhancement in terms of the collapse capacities is found due to the introduction HEDDs.

Keywords: collapse capacity, incremental dynamic analysis, steel braced frame, TADAS hysteric energy dissipative device

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665 Collapse Capacity and Energy Absorption Mechanism of High Rise Steel Moment Frame Considering Aftershock Effects

Authors: Mohammadmehdi Torfehnejad, Serhan Sensoy


Many structures sustain damage during a mainshock earthquake but undergo severe damage under aftershocks following the mainshock. Past researches have studied aftershock effects through different methodologies, but few structural systems have been evaluated for these effects. Collapse capacity and energy absorption mechanism of the Special Steel Moment Frame (SSMF) system is evaluated in this study, under aftershock earthquakes when prior damage is caused by the mainshock. A twenty-story building is considered in assessing the residual collapse capacity and energy absorption mechanism under aftershock excitation. In addition, various levels of mainshock damage are considered and reflected through two different response parameters. Aftershock collapse capacity is estimated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) applied following the mainshock. The study results reveal that the collapse capacity of high-rise structures undergoes a remarkable reduction for high level of mainshock damage. The energy absorption in the columns is decreased by increasing the level of mainshock damage.

Keywords: seismic collapse, mainshock-aftershock effect, incremental dynamic analysis, energy absorption

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664 URM Infill in-Plane and out-of-Plane Interaction in Damage Evaluation of RC Frames

Authors: F. Longo, G. Granello, G. Tecchio, F. Da Porto


Unreinforced masonry (URM) infill walls are widely used throughout the world, also in seismic prone regions, as partitions in reinforced concrete building frames. Even if they do not represent structural elements, they can dramatically affect both strength and stiffness of RC structures by acting as a diagonal strut, modifying shear and displacements distribution along the building height, with uncertain consequences on structural safety. In the last decades, many refined models have been developed to describe infill walls effect on frame structural behaviour, but generally restricted to in-plane actions. Only very recently some new approaches were implemented to consider in-plane/out-of-plane interaction of URM infill walls in progressive collapse simulations. In the present work, a particularly promising macro-model was adopted for the progressive collapse analysis of infilled RC frames. The model allows to consider the bi-directional interaction in terms of displacement and strength capacity for URM infills, and to remove the infill contribution when the URM wall is supposed to fail during the analysis process. The model was calibrated on experimental data regarding two different URM panels thickness, modelling with particular care the post-critic softening branch. A frame specimen set representing the most common Italian structures was built considering two main normative approaches: a traditional design philosophy, corresponding to structures erected between 50’s-80’s basically designed to support vertical loads, and a seismic design philosophy, corresponding to current criteria that take into account horizontal actions. Non-Linear Static analyses were carried out on the specimen set and some preliminary evaluations were drawn in terms of different performance exhibited by the RC frame when the contemporary effect of the out-of-plane damage is considered for the URM infill.

Keywords: infill Panels macromodels, in plane-out of plane interaction, RC frames, URM infills

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663 Steel Concrete Composite Bridge: Modelling Approach and Analysis

Authors: Kaviyarasan D., Satish Kumar S. R.


India being vast in area and population with great scope of international business, roadways and railways network connection within the country is expected to have a big growth. There are numerous rail-cum-road bridges constructed across many major rivers in India and few are getting very old. So there is more possibility of repairing or coming up with such new bridges in India. Analysis and design of such bridges are practiced through conventional procedure and end up with heavy and uneconomical sections. Such heavy class steel bridges when subjected to high seismic shaking has more chance to fail by stability because the members are too much rigid and stocky rather than being flexible to dissipate the energy. This work is the collective study of the researches done in the truss bridge and steel concrete composite truss bridges presenting the method of analysis, tools for numerical and analytical modeling which evaluates its seismic behaviour and collapse mechanisms. To ascertain the inelastic and nonlinear behaviour of the structure, generally at research level static pushover analysis is adopted. Though the static pushover analysis is now extensively used for the framed steel and concrete buildings to study its lateral action behaviour, those findings by pushover analysis done for the buildings cannot directly be used for the bridges as such, because the bridges have completely a different performance requirement, behaviour and typology as compared to that of the buildings. Long span steel bridges are mostly the truss bridges. Truss bridges being formed by many members and connections, the failure of the system does not happen suddenly with single event or failure of one member. Failure usually initiates from one member and progresses gradually to the next member and so on when subjected to further loading. This kind of progressive collapse of the truss bridge structure is dependent on many factors, in which the live load distribution and span to length ratio are most significant. The ultimate collapse is anyhow by the buckling of the compression members only. For regular bridges, single step pushover analysis gives results closer to that of the non-linear dynamic analysis. But for a complicated bridge like heavy class steel bridge or the skewed bridges or complicated dynamic behaviour bridges, nonlinear analysis capturing the progressive yielding and collapse pattern is mandatory. With the knowledge of the postelastic behaviour of the bridge and advancements in the computational facility, the current level of analysis and design of bridges has moved to state of ascertaining the performance levels of the bridges based on the damage caused by seismic shaking. This is because the buildings performance levels deals much with the life safety and collapse prevention levels, whereas the bridges mostly deal with the extent damages and how quick it can be repaired with or without disturbing the traffic after a strong earthquake event. The paper would compile the wide spectrum of modeling to analysis of the steel concrete composite truss bridges in general.

Keywords: bridge engineering, performance based design of steel truss bridge, seismic design of composite bridge, steel-concrete composite bridge

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662 Comparative Study of Line Voltage Stability Indices for Voltage Collapse Forecasting in Power Transmission System

Authors: H. H. Goh, Q. S. Chua, S. W. Lee, B. C. Kok, K. C. Goh, K. T. K. Teo


At present, the evaluation of voltage stability assessment experiences sizeable anxiety in the safe operation of power systems. This is due to the complications of a strain power system. With the snowballing of power demand by the consumers and also the restricted amount of power sources, therefore, the system has to perform at its maximum proficiency. Consequently, the noteworthy to discover the maximum ability boundary prior to voltage collapse should be undertaken. A preliminary warning can be perceived to evade the interruption of power system’s capacity. The effectiveness of line voltage stability indices (LVSI) is differentiated in this paper. The main purpose of the indices is used to predict the proximity of voltage instability of the electric power system. On the other hand, the indices are also able to decide the weakest load buses which are close to voltage collapse in the power system. The line stability indices are assessed using the IEEE 14 bus test system to validate its practicability. Results demonstrated that the implemented indices are practically relevant in predicting the manifestation of voltage collapse in the system. Therefore, essential actions can be taken to dodge the incident from arising.

Keywords: critical line, line outage, line voltage stability indices (LVSI), maximum loadability, voltage collapse, voltage instability, voltage stability analysis

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661 A Case Study on the Collapse Assessment of the Steel Moment-Frame Setback High-Rise Tower

Authors: Marzie Shahini, Rasoul Mirghaderi


This paper describes collapse assessments of a steel moment-frame high-rise tower with setback irregularity, designed per the 2010 ASCE7 code, under spectral-matched ground motion records. To estimate a safety margin against life-threatening collapse, an analytical model of the tower is subjected to a suite of ground motions with incremental intensities from maximum considered earthquake hazard level to the incipient collapse level. Capability of the structural system to collapse prevention is evaluated based on the similar methodology reported in FEMA P695. Structural performance parameters in terms of maximum/mean inter-story drift ratios, residual drift ratios, and maximum plastic hinge rotations are also compared to the acceptance criteria recommended by the TBI Guidelines. The results demonstrate that the structural system satisfactorily safeguards the building against collapse. Moreover, for this tower, the code-specified requirements in ASCE7-10 are reasonably adequate to satisfy seismic performance criteria developed in the TBI Guidelines for the maximum considered earthquake hazard level.

Keywords: high-rise buildings, set back, residual drift, seismic performance

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660 Effect of Progressive Type-I Right Censoring on Bayesian Statistical Inference of Simple Step–Stress Acceleration Life Testing Plan under Weibull Life Distribution

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan


This paper discusses the effects of using progressive Type-I right censoring on the design of the Simple Step Accelerated Life testing using Bayesian approach for Weibull life products under the assumption of cumulative exposure model. The optimization criterion used in this paper is to minimize the expected pre-posterior variance of the PTH percentile time of failures. The model variables are the stress changing time and the stress value for the first step. A comparison between the conventional and the progressive Type-I right censoring is provided. The results have shown that the progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of testing on the expense of the test precision when the sample size is small. Moreover, the results have shown that using strong priors or large sample size reduces the sensitivity of the test precision to the censoring proportion. Hence, the progressive Type-I right censoring is recommended in these cases as progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of the test and doesn't affect the precision of the test a lot. Moreover, the results have shown that using direct or indirect priors affects the precision of the test.

Keywords: reliability, accelerated life testing, cumulative exposure model, Bayesian estimation, progressive type-I censoring, Weibull distribution

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659 Collapse Analysis of Planar Composite Frame under Impact Loads

Authors: Lian Song, Shao-Bo Kang, Bo Yang


Concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) structure has been widely used in construction practices due to its superior performances under various loading conditions. However, limited studies are available when this type of structure is subjected to impact or explosive loads. Current methods in relevant design codes are not specific for preventing progressive collapse of CFST structures. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulations on CFST structure under impact loads. In this study, finite element analyses are conducted on the mechanical behaviour of composite frames which composed of CFST columns and steel beams subject to impact loading. In the model, CFST columns are simulated using finite element software ABAQUS. The model is verified by test results of solid and hollow CFST columns under lateral impacts, and reasonably good agreement is obtained through comparisons. Thereafter, a multi-scale finite element modelling technique is developed to evaluate the behaviour of a five-storey three-span planar composite frame. Alternate path method and direct simulation method are adopted to perform the dynamic response of the frame when a supporting column is removed suddenly. In the former method, the reason for column removal is not considered and only the remaining frame is simulated, whereas in the latter, a specific impact load is applied to the frame to take account of the column failure induced by vehicle impact. Comparisons are made between these two methods in terms of displacement history and internal force redistribution, and design recommendations are provided for the design of CFST structures under impact loads.

Keywords: planar composite frame, collapse analysis, impact loading, direct simulation method, alternate path method

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658 Metabolic Cost and Perceived Exertion during Progressive and Randomized Walking Protocols

Authors: Simeon E. H. Davies


This study investigated whether selected metabolic responses and the perception of effort varied during four different walk protocols where speed increased progressively 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 km/hr (progressive treadmill walk (PTW); and progressive land walk (PLW); or where the participant adjusted to random changes of speed e.g. 6, 3, 7, 4, and 5 km/hr during a randomized treadmill walk (RTW); and a randomized land walk (RLW). Mean stature and mass of the seven participants was 1.75m and 70kg respectively, with a mean body fat of 15%. Metabolic measures including heart rate, relative oxygen uptake, ventilation, increased in a linear fashion up to 6 km/hr, however at 7 km/hr there was a significant increase in metabolic response notably during the PLW, and to a similar, although lesser extent in RLW, probably as a consequence of the loss of kinetic energy when turning at each cone in order to maintain the speed during each shuttle. Respiration frequency appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of physical exertion, exhibiting a rapid elevation at 5 km/hr. The perception of effort during each mode and at each speed was largely congruent during each walk protocol.

Keywords: exertion, metabolic, progressive, random, walking

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657 A Three Elements Vector Valued Structure’s Ultimate Strength-Strong Motion-Intensity Measure

Authors: A. Nicknam, N. Eftekhari, A. Mazarei, M. Ganjvar


This article presents an alternative collapse capacity intensity measure in the three elements form which is influenced by the spectral ordinates at periods longer than that of the first mode period at near and far source sites. A parameter, denoted by β, is defined by which the spectral ordinate effects, up to the effective period (2T_1), on the intensity measure are taken into account. The methodology permits to meet the hazard-levelled target extreme event in the probabilistic and deterministic forms. A MATLAB code is developed involving OpenSees to calculate the collapse capacities of the 8 archetype RC structures having 2 to 20 stories for regression process. The incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) method is used to calculate the structure’s collapse values accounting for the element stiffness and strength deterioration. The general near field set presented by FEMA is used in a series of performing nonlinear analyses. 8 linear relationships are developed for the 8structutres leading to the correlation coefficient up to 0.93. A collapse capacity near field prediction equation is developed taking into account the results of regression processes obtained from the 8 structures. The proposed prediction equation is validated against a set of actual near field records leading to a good agreement. Implementation of the proposed equation to the four archetype RC structures demonstrated different collapse capacities at near field site compared to those of FEMA. The reasons of differences are believed to be due to accounting for the spectral shape effects.

Keywords: collapse capacity, fragility analysis, spectral shape effects, IDA method

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656 Tracing the Developmental Repertoire of the Progressive: Evidence from L2 Construction Learning

Authors: Tianqi Wu, Min Wang


Research investigating language acquisition from a constructionist perspective has demonstrated that language is learned as constructions at various linguistic levels, which is related to factors of frequency, semantic prototypicality, and form-meaning contingency. However, previous research on construction learning tended to focus on clause-level constructions such as verb argument constructions but few attempts were made to study morpheme-level constructions such as the progressive construction, which is regarded as a source of acquisition problems for English learners from diverse L1 backgrounds, especially for those whose L1 do not have an equivalent construction such as German and Chinese. To trace the developmental trajectory of Chinese EFL learners’ use of the progressive with respect to verb frequency, verb-progressive contingency, and verbal prototypicality and generality, a learner corpus consisting of three sub-corpora representing three different English proficiency levels was extracted from the Chinese Learners of English Corpora (CLEC). As the reference point, a native speakers’ corpus extracted from the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays was also established. All the texts were annotated with C7 tagset by part-of-speech tagging software. After annotation all valid progressive hits were retrieved with AntConc 3.4.3 followed by a manual check. Frequency-related data showed that from the lowest to the highest proficiency level, (1) the type token ratio increased steadily from 23.5% to 35.6%, getting closer to 36.4% in the native speakers’ corpus, indicating a wider use of verbs in the progressive; (2) the normalized entropy value rose from 0.776 to 0.876, working towards the target score of 0.886 in native speakers’ corpus, revealing that upper-intermediate learners exhibited a more even distribution and more productive use of verbs in the progressive; (3) activity verbs (i.e., verbs with prototypical progressive meanings like running and singing) dropped from 59% to 34% but non-prototypical verbs such as state verbs (e.g., being and living) and achievement verbs (e.g., dying and finishing) were increasingly used in the progressive. Apart from raw frequency analyses, collostructional analyses were conducted to quantify verb-progressive contingency and to determine what verbs were distinctively associated with the progressive construction. Results were in line with raw frequency findings, which showed that contingency between the progressive and non-prototypical verbs represented by light verbs (e.g., going, doing, making, and coming) increased as English proficiency proceeded. These findings altogether suggested that beginning Chinese EFL learners were less productive in using the progressive construction: they were constrained by a small set of verbs which had concrete and typical progressive meanings (e.g., the activity verbs). But with English proficiency increasing, their use of the progressive began to spread to marginal members such as the light verbs.

Keywords: Construction learning, Corpus-based, Progressives, Prototype

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