Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 106

Search results for: Oryza sativa L.

106 Cyanobacterial Biofertilizer Technology for Rice Producing Farmers at Nashik District

Authors: Krishna N. Gaikwad, V. R. Kakulte

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main cereal crop of tribal people of western part of Nasik district. There is a wide fluctuation in yield due to the factors like uncertain rains, pest diseases, socio-economic status of farmers, lack of awareness and traditional knowledge of farmers about agro-practices. In order to achieve more yield, it is a need to adopt low cost, eco-friendly blue green algal biofertilizer technology. Communication of useful information to needy people is basic need in present situation. The paper reports different communication modes of paddy technologies, adoption about BGA technology, attitudinal changes of farmers and yield of rice production during year 2011 and 2012. The results indicate that there is significant effect of communication modes of improved BGA technology on rice yield.

Keywords: rice, BGA, biofertilizer, Oryza sativa L.

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105 Effects of Rice Plant Extracts and Phenolic Allelochemicals on Seedling Growth of Radish

Authors: Mohammad Shamim Hasan Mandal, Phu Minh, Do Tan Khang, Phung Thi Tuyen, Tran Dang Xuan

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major crops of Vietnam which has more than thousands of varieties. Many of the local varieties have greater potentiality but they are in danger of extinct. Rice plant contains many secondary metabolites that are allelopathic to other plants. Seven rice varieties were cultivated in the field condition at Hiroshima University, Japan; stems and leaves from each variety were collected later, they were extracted with methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid contents were high in ethyl acetate extracts. DPPH antioxidant assay results showed that the ethyl acetate extracts had the higher IC50 value. Therefore, the ethyl acetate extracts were selected for laboratory experimentation through petri dish assay. Results showed that the two-local variety Re nuoc and Nan chon completely inhibited the germination of radish seedlings. Further laboratory bioassay and field experimentation will be conducted to validate the laboratory bioassay findings.

Keywords: allelopathy, bioassay, Oryza sativa, Raphanus sativus

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104 Marker Assisted Selection of Rice Genotypes for Xa5 and Xa13 Bacterial Leaf Blight Resistance Genes

Authors: P. Sindhumole, K. Soumya, R. Renjimol

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major staple food crop over the world. It is prone to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, out of which Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is the most rampant. Management of this disease through chemicals or any other means is very difficult. The best way to control BLB is by the development of Host Plant Resistance. BLB resistance is not an activity of a single gene but it involves a cluster of more than thirty genes reported. Among these, Xa5 and Xa13 genes are two important ones, which can be diagnosed through marker assisted selection using closely linked molecular markers. During 2014, the first phase of field screening using forty traditional rice genotypes was carried out and twenty resistant symptomless genotypes were identified. Molecular characterisation of these genotypes using RM 122 SSR marker revealed the presence of Xa5 gene in thirteen genotypes. Forty-two traditional rice genotypes were used for the second phase of field screening for BLB resistance. Among these, sixteen resistant genotypes were identified. These genotypes, along with two susceptible check genotypes, were subjected to marker assisted selection for Xa13 gene, using the linked STS marker RG-136. During this process, presence of Xa13 gene could be detected in ten resistant genotypes. In future, these selected genotypes can be directly utilised as donors in Marker assisted breeding programmes for BLB resistance in rice.

Keywords: oryza sativa, SSR, STS, marker, disease, breeding

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103 Efficient Microspore Isolation Methods for High Yield Embryoids and Regeneration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: S. M. Shahinul Islam, Israt Ara, Narendra Tuteja, Sreeramanan Subramaniam

Abstract:

Through anther and microspore culture methods, complete homozygous plants can be produced within a year as compared to the long inbreeding method. Isolated microspore culture is one of the most important techniques for rapid development of haploid plants. The efficiency of this method is influenced by several factors such as cultural conditions, growth regulators, plant media, pretreatments, physical and growth conditions of the donor plants, pollen isolation procedure, etc. The main purpose of this study was to improve the isolated microspore culture protocol in order to increase the efficiency of embryoids, its regeneration and reducing albinisms. Under this study we have tested mainly three different microspore isolation procedures by glass rod, homozeniger and by blending and found the efficiency on gametic embryogenesis. There are three types of media viz. washing, pre-culture and induction was used. The induction medium as AMC (modified MS) supplemented by 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l), kinetin (0.5 mg/l) and higher amount of D-Manitol (90 g/l) instead of sucrose and two types of amino acids (L-glutamine and L-serine) were used. Out of three main microspore isolation procedure by homogenizer isolation (P4) showed best performance on ELS induction (177%) and green plantlets (104%) compared with other techniques. For all cases albinisims occurred but microspore isolation from excised anthers by glass rod and homogenizer showed lesser numbers of albino plants that was also one of the important findings in this study.

Keywords: androgenesis, pretreatment, microspore culture, regeneration, albino plants, Oryza sativa

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102 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Nine Genotypes of Thai Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Pitchaon Maisuthisakul, Ladawan Changchub

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple diet in Thailand. Rice cultivation is traditional occupation of Thailand which passed down through generations. The 1 Rai 1 san project is new agricultural theory according to sufficient economy using green technology without using chemical substances. This study was conducted to evaluate total phenolics using HPLC and colorimetric methods including total anthocyanin content of Thai rice extracting by simulated gastric and intestinal condition and to estimate antioxidant capacity using DPPH and thiocyanate methods. Color and visible spectrum of rice grains were also investigated. Rice grains were classified into three groups according to their color appearance. The light brown grain genotypes are Sin Lek, Jasmine 105, Lao Tek and Hawm Ubon. The red group is Sang Yod and Red Jasmine. Genotypes Kum, Hawm Kanya and Hawm Nil are black rice grains. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was found in only black rice genotypes, whereas chlorogenic acid was found in all rice grains. The black rice had higher phenolic content than red and light brown samples. Phenolic acids constitute a small portion of phenolic compounds after digestion in human and contribute to the antioxidant activity of Thai rice grains. Anthocyanin contents of all rice extracts ranged from 45.9 to 442.1 mg CGE/kg. All rice extracts showed the antioxidant efficiency lower than ferulic acid. Genotype Kum and Hawm nil exhibited the ability of antioxidant efficiency higher than α-tocopherol. Interestingly, the visible spectrum of only black rice genotypes showed the maximum peak at 530-540 nm. The results suggest that consumption of black rice gives more health benefits of grain to consumer.

Keywords: rice, phenolic, antioxidant, anthocyanin

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101 Avian and Rodent Pest Infestations of Lowland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Evaluation of Attributable Losses in Savanna Transition Environment

Authors: Okwara O. S., Osunsina I. O. O., Pitan O. R., Afolabi C. G.

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) belongs to the family poaceae and has become the most popular food. Globally, this crop is been faced with the menace of vertebrate pests, of which birds and rodents are the most implicated. The study avian and rodents’ infestations and the evaluation of attributable losses was carried out in 2020 and 2021 with the objectives of identifying the types of bird and rodent species associated with lowland rice and to determine the infestation levels, damage intensity, and the crop loss induced by these pests. The experiment was laid out in a split plot arrangement fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), with the main plots being protected and unprotected groups and the sub-plots being four rice varieties, Ofada, WITA-4, NERICA L-34, and Arica-3. Data collection was done over a 16-week period, and the data obtained were transformed using square root transformation model before Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done at 5% probability level. The results showed the infestation levels of both birds and rodents across all the treatment means of thevarieties as not significantly different (p > 0.05) in both seasons. The damage intensity by these pests in both years were also not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the means of the varieties, which explains the diverse feeding nature of birds and rodents when it comes to infestations. The infestation level under the protected group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the infestation level recorded under the unprotected group.Consequently, an estimated crop loss of 91.94 % and 90.75 % were recorded in 2020 and 2021, respectively, andthe identified pest birds were Ploceus melanocephalus, Ploceus cuculatus, and Spermestes cucullatus. Conclusively, vertebrates pest cause damage to lowland rice which could result to a high percentage crop loss if left uncontrolled.

Keywords: pests, infestations, evaluation, losses, rodents, avian

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100 In Silico Study of the Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Nigella sativa

Authors: Ammar Ouahab, Meriem Houichi , Sanna Mihoubi

Abstract:

Background: Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, belongs to the Ranunculaceae family. It has many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory; anti-bacterial; anti-hepatotoxic activities etc. Materials: In order to predict the pharmacological activity of Nigella Sativa’s compounds, some web based servers were used, namely, PubChem, Molinspiration, ADMET-SAR, PASS online and PharMapper. In addition to that, AutoDOCK was used to investigate the different molecular interactions between the selected compounds and their target proteins. Results: All compounds displayed a stable interaction with their targets and satisfactory binding energies, which means that they are active on their targets. Conclusion: Nigella sativa is an effective medicinal plant that has several ethno-medical uses; the latter uses are proven herein via an in-silico study of their pharmacological activities.

Keywords: Nigella sativa, AutoDOCK, PubChem, Molinspiration, ADMET-SAR, PharMapper, PASS online server, docking

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99 Invitro Study of Anti-Leishmanial Property of Nigella Sativa Methanalic Black Seed Extract

Authors: Tawqeer Ali Syed, Prakash Chandra

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of Nigella sativa black seed extract. This well-known plant extract was taken from the botanical garden of Kashmir. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of these plants were screened for their antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major using 3‑(4.5‑dimethylthiazol‑2yl)‑2.5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay or MTT assay. Results: The methanolic extract of Nigella sativa showed potential antileishmanial activity at an inhibition% value of 80.29% ± 0.65%. IC 50 was calculated after 48 hours to be 964.3 µg/ml. Conclusion: Considering these results, these medicinal plants from Kashmir could serve as potential drug sources for antileishmanial compounds.

Keywords: MTT assay, antileishmanial, cell viability, Nigella sativa

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98 Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Root-Nodules of Medicago sativa in Al-Ahasa Region

Authors: Ashraf Y. Z. Khalifa, Mohammed A. Almalki

Abstract:

Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) is an important forage crop legume worldwide including Saudia Arabia due to its high nutritive value. Soil bacteria exist in root or root-nodules of Medicago sativa in either symbiotic relationships or in associations. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria that live in association with non-nodulated roots of Medicago sativa growing in Al-Ahsaa region, Saudia Arabia. Several bacterial strains were isolated from sterilized roots of Medicago sativa. Strains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic relationships analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The strains utilized 50% (10 out of 20) of the different chemical substrates contained in the API20E strip. In general, many strains had the ability to ferment/oxidise all the carbohydrate tested except for rhamnose and the polyol carbohydrate, inositol. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene indicated that the strains were closely related to the genus Bacillus. Furthermore, the growth parameters of Vigna sinensis were enhanced upon single-inoculation of the isolated strains, compared to the uninoculated control plants. The results highlighted that the root-nodules of Medicago sativa harbor non-nodulating bacterial strains that could have significant agricultural applications.

Keywords: Medicago sativa, endophytic bacteria, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis

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97 Structure Elucidation of Isolated Active Compounds from Nigella sativa and Calotropis procera and Their Efficacy for Treatment of Asthma

Authors: Intisar S. A. Elzein

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In Saudi Arabia parts of Nigella sativa, and Calotropis procera are commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cough, eczema and other diseases. The purpose of the study is to identify chemical constituents of Nigella sativa seed and Calotropis procera leave isolated by the bioassay guided fractionation process and find out their relevance to the alleged efficacy of the plant in treating asthma. The medicinal properties of both plants for asthma treatment referred to the rich abundance of thymoquinone and phytol compounds isolated from the essential oil of their seed and leave extracts, which they can form a part of molecules of vitamin K.

Keywords: asthma, Calotropis procera, chemical constituents, Nigella sativa, vitamin K

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96 Production of Vermiwash from Medicinal Plants and Its Potential Use as Fungicide against the Alternaria Alternata (fr.) Keissl. Affecting Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Guyana

Authors: Abdullah Ansari, Sinika Rambaran, Sirpaul Jaikishun

Abstract:

Vermiwash could be used to enhance plant productivity and resistance to some harmful plant pathogens, as well as provide benefit through the disposal of waste matter. Alternaria rot caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., is a common soil-borne pathogen that results in postharvest fruit rot of cucumbers, peppers and other cash crops. The production and distribution of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) could be severely affected by Alternaria rot. Fungicides are the traditional treatment however; they are not only expensive but can also cause environmental and health problems. Vermiwash was prepared from various medicinal plants (Ocimum tenuiflorum L. {Tulsi}, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. {neem}, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf. {lemon grass} and Oryza sativa L. {paddy straw} and applied, in vitro, to A. alternata to investigate their effectiveness as organic alternatives to traditional fungicides. All of the samples of vermiwash inhibited the growth of A. alternata. The inhibitive effects on the fungus appeared most effective when A. indica and O. tenuiflorum were used in the production of the vermiwash. Using the serial dilution method, vermiwash from O. tenuiflorum showed the highest percent of inhibition (93.2%), followed by C. citratus (74.7%), A. indica (68.7%), O. sativa, combination, and combination without worms. Using the sterile disc diffusion method, all of the samples produced zones of inhibition against A. alternata. Vermiwash from A. indica produced a zone of inhibition, averaging 15.3mm, followed by O. tenuiflorum (14.0mm), combination without worms, combination, C. citratus and O. sativa. Nystatin produced a zone of inhibition of 10mm. The results indicate that vermiwash is not simply an organic alternative to more traditional chemical fungicides, but it may in fact be a better and more effective product in treating certain fungal plant infections, particularly A. alternata.

Keywords: vermiwash, earthworms, soil, bacteria, alternaria alternata, antifungal, antibacterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
95 Physical Parameters Influencing the Yield of Nigella Sativa Oil Extracted by Hydraulic Pressing

Authors: Hadjadj Naima, K. Mahdi, D. Belhachat, F. S. Ait Chaouche, A. Ferradji

Abstract:

The Nigella Sativa oil yield extracted by hydraulic pressing is influenced by the pressure temperature and size particles. The optimization of oil extraction is investigated. The rate of extraction of the whole seeds is very weak, a crushing of seeds is necessary to facilitate the extraction. This rate augments with the rise of the temperature and the pressure, and decrease of size particles. The best output (66%) is obtained for a granulometry lower than 1mm, a temperature of 50°C and a pressure of 120 bars.

Keywords: oil, Nigella sativa, extraction, optimization, temperature, pressure

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94 Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, F. Acheuk, M. Djouabi, M. Oukili, R. Ghezraoui, W. Lakhdari, R. Allouane

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia, Black cumin is grown to India, through Sudan and Ethiopia. It is widely cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Afghanistan and Europe. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Despite its plethora of uses for treating various diseases, it has garnered very little scientific interest so far, particularly in Algeria. For this study, the seeds of Algerian Nigella sativa L cultivated in the area of Magra (M’sila) in northern Algeria, were collected in summer. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Nigella sativa as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against four pathogenic bacterial strains and two pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in flavonoïds, and in alkaloids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against all the species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Escerichia coli (14 mm, 12.33 mm) and an antifungic activity against Aspergillus niger (11.66 mm, 9 mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Nigella sativa seeds which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

Keywords: Nigella sativa, phytochemistry, antimicrobial activity, Algeria

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93 Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella Sativa L. (Renunculaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, F.Acheuk, M. Djouabi, M. Oukili, R. Ghezraoui, W. Lakhdari, R. Allouane

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia, Black cumin is grown to India, through Sudan and Ethiopia. It is widely cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Afghanistan and Europe. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Despite its plethora of uses for treating various diseases, it has garnered very little scientific interest so far, particularly in Algeria. For this study, the seeds of Algerian Nigella sativa L cultivated in the area of Magra (M’sila) in northern Algeria, were collected in summer. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Nigella sativa as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against four pathogenic bacterial strains and two pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in flavonoïds, and in alkaloids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against all the species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Escerichia coli (14 mm, 12.33 mm) and an antifungic activity against Aspergillus niger (11.66 mm, 9 mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Nigella sativa seeds which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

Keywords: Algeria, antimicrobial activity, Nigella sativa, phytochemistry

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92 Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Capacities of Pre-Germinated and Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Superjami and Superhongmi)

Authors: Soo Im Chung, Lara Marie Pangan Lo, Yao Cheng Zhang, Su Jin Nam, Xingyue Jin, Mi Young Kang

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most widely consumed grains. Due to the growing number of demand as a potential functional food and nutraceutical source and the increasing awareness of people towards healthy diet and good quality of living, more researches dwell upon the development of new rice cultivars for population consumption. However, studies on the antioxidant capacities of newly developed rice were limited as well as the effects of germination in these rice cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed to focus on analysis of the antioxidant potential of pre-germinated and germinated pigmented rice cultivars in South Korea such as purple cultivar Superjami (SJ) and red cultivar Super hongmi (SH) in comparison with the non-pigmented Normal Brown (NB) Rice. The powdered rice grain samples were extracted with 80% methanol and their antioxidant activities were determined. The Results showed that pre-germinated pigmented rice cultivars have higher Fe2+ Chelating Ability (Fe2+), Reducing Power (RP), 2,2´-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging and Superoxide Dismutase activity than the control NB rice. Moreover, it is revealed that germination process induced a significant increased in the antioxidant activities of all the rice samples regardless of their strains. Purple rice SJ showed greater Fe2+ (88.82 + 0.53%), RP (0.82 + 0.01) , ABTS (143.63 + 2.38 mg VCEAC/100 g) and SOD (59.31 + 0.48%) activities than the red grain SH and the control NB having the lowest antioxidant potential among the three (3) rice samples examined. The Effective concentration at 50% (EC50) of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Hydroxyradical (-OH) Scavenging activity for the rice samples were also obtained. SJ showed lower EC50 in terms of its DPPH (3.81 + 0.15 mg/mL) and –OH (5.19 + 0.08 mg/mL) radical scavenging activities than the red grain SH and control NB rice indicating that at lower concentrations, it can readily exhibit antioxidant effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results clearly suggest the higher antioxidant potential of pigmented rice varieties as compared with the widely consumed NB rice. Also, it is revealed in the study that even at lower concentrations, pigmented rice varieties can exhibit their antioxidant activities. Germination process further enhanced the antioxidant capacities of the rice samples regardless of their types. With these results at hand, these new rice varieties can be further developed as a good source of bio functional elements that can help alleviate the growing number of cases of metabolic disorders.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, germinated rice, pigmented rice, super hongmi, superjami

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91 Quality of Donut Supplemented with Hom Nin Rice Flour

Authors: Supatchalee Sirichokworrakit, Pannin Intasen, Chansuda Angkawut

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Hom Nin rice (Oryza Sativa L.) was processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour in donuts. The donuts were prepared with 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% Hom Nin rice flour (HNF). The donuts were subjected to proximate, texture, color and sensory evaluations. The results of the study revealed that the ash, moisture, crude fiber contents increased while crude fat and protein contents decreased as the level of HNF increased. The hardness and chewiness of donut increased as the HNF increased but the cohesiveness, springiness, and specific volume decreased. Color of donut (L*, a*, and b* values) decreased with the addition of HNF. Overall acceptability for the 20-40% HNF additions did not differ significantly from the score of the 100% wheat flour.

Keywords: Hom Nin rice, donut, texture evaluation, sensory evaluation

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90 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi

Abstract:

A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: molybdenum, phosphorus, uptake, rice,

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89 Control of Helminthosporiosis in Oryza sativa Varieties Treated with 24-Epibrassinolide

Authors: Kuate Tueguem William Norbert, Ngoh Dooh Jules Patrice, Kone Sangou Abdou Nourou, Mboussi Serge Bertrand, Chewachang Godwill Mih, Essome Sale Charles, Djuissi Tohoto Doriane, Ambang Zachee

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the development of rice helminthosporiosis caused by Bipolaris oryzae and its influence on the improvement of growth parameters and induction of the synthesis of defense substances in the rice plants. The experimental asset up involved a multifactorial split-plot with two varieties (NERICA 3 and local variety KAMKOU) and five treatments (T0: control, T1: EBR, T2: BANKO PLUS (fungicide), T3: NPK (chemical fertilizer), T4: mixture: NPK + BANKO PLUS + EBR) with three repetitions. Agro-morphological and epidemiological parameters, as well as substances for plant resistance, were evaluated over two growing seasons. The application of the EBR induced significant growth of the rice plants for the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons on the two varieties tested compared to the T0 treatment. At 74 days after sowing (DAS), NERICA 3 showed plant heights of 58.9 ± 5.4; 83.1 ± 10.4; 86.01 ± 9.4; 69.4 ± 11.1 and 87.12 ± 7.4 cm at T0; T1; T2; T3, and T4, respectively. Plant height for the variety KAMKOU varied from 87,12 ± 8,1; 88.1 ± 8.1 and 92.02 ± 6.3 cm in T1, T2, and T3 to 74.1 ± 8.6 and 74.21 ± 11.4 cm in T0 and T3. In accordance with the low rate of expansion of helminthosporiosis in experimental plots, EBR (T1) significantly reduced the development of the disease with severities of 0.0; 1.29, and 2.04%, respectively at 78; 92, and 111 DAS on the variety NERICA 3 compared with1; 3.15 and 3.79% in the control T0. The reduction of disease development/severity as a result of the application of EBR is due to the induction of acquired resistance of rice varieties through increased phenol (13.73 eqAG/mg/PMF) and total protein (117.89 eqBSA/mg/PMF) in the T1 treatment against 5.37 eqAG/mg/PMF and 104.97 eqBSA/mg/PMF in T0 for the NERICA 3 variety. Similarly, on the KAMKOU variety, 148.53 eqBSA/mg/PMF were protein and 6.10 eqAG/mg/PMF of phenol in T1. In summary, the results show the significant effect of EBR on plant growth, yield, synthesis of secondary metabolites and defense proteins, and disease resistance. The EBR significantly reduced losses of rice grains by causing an average gain of about 1.55 t/ha compared to the control and 1.00 t/ha compared to the NPK-based treatment for the two varieties studied. Further, the enzymatic activities of PPOs, POXs, and PR2s were higher in leaves from treated EBR-based plants. These results show that 24-epibrassinolide can be used in the control of helminthosporiosis of rice to reduce disease and increase yields.

Keywords: Oryza sativa, 24-epibrassinolide, helminthosporiosis, secondary metabolites, PR proteins, acquired resistance

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88 Quantitative Analysis of the High-Value Bioactive Components of Pre-Germinated and Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Superjami and Superhongmi)

Authors: Lara Marie Pangan Lo, Soo Im Chung, Yao Cheng Zhang, Xingyue Jin, Mi Young Kang

Abstract:

Being the world’s most consumed grain crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) demands’ have increase and this prompted the development of new rice cultivars with high bio-functional properties than the commonly used white rice. Ordinary rice variety is already known to be a potential source for a number of nutritional as well as bioactive compounds. To further enhance the rice’s nutritive values, germination is done in addition to making it more tasty and palatable when cooked. Pigmented rice, on the other hand, has become increasingly popular in the recent years for their greater antioxidant potential and other nutraceutical properties which can help alleviate the occurrence of the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases. Combining these two (2) parameters, this research study is sought to quantitatively determine the pre-germinated and germinated quantities of the major bioactive compounds of South Korea’s newly developed purplish pigmented rice grain cultivar Superjami (SJ) and red pigmented rice grain Superhongmi (SH) and compare them against the non-pigmented Normal Brown (NB) rice variety. Powdered rice grain cultivars were subjected to 72-hour germination period and the quantities of GABA, γ-oryzanol, ferulic acid, tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues were compared against their pre-germinated condition using γ- amino butyric acid (GABA) analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results revealed the effectiveness of germination in enhancing the bioactive components in all rice samples. GABA contents in germinated rice cultivars increased by more than 10-fold following the order: SJ >SH >NB. In addition, purple rice variety (SJ) has higher total γ-oryzanol and ferulic acid contents which increased by > 2-fold after germination followed by the red cultivar SH then the control, NB. Germinated varieties also possess higher total tocotrienol content than their pre-germinated state. As for the total tocopherol content, SJ has higher quantity, but the red-pigmented SH (0.16 mg/kg) is shown to have lower total tocopherol content than the control rice NB (0.86 mg/kg). However, all tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues were present only in small amounts ( < 3.0 mg/kg) in all pre-germinated and germinated samples. In general, all of the analyzed pigmented rice cultivars were found to possess higher bioactive compounds than the control NB rice variety. Also, regardless of their strain, germinated rice samples have higher bioactive compounds than their pre-germinated counterparts. This only shows the effectiveness of germinating rice in enhancing bioactive constituents. Overall, these results suggest the potential of the pigmented rice varieties as natural source of nutraceuticals in bio-functional food development.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, germinated rice, superhongmi, superjami

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87 Studying the Anti-Cancer Effects of Thymoquinone on Tumor Cells Through Natural Killer Cells Activity

Authors: Nouf A. Aldarmahi, Nesrin I. Tarbiah, Nuha A. Alkhattabi, Huda F. Alshaibi

Abstract:

Nigella sativa which is known as dark cumin is a well-known example for a widely applicable herbal medicine. Nigella sativa can be effective in a variety of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, bronchitis, gastrointestinal upset, and cancer. The anticancer effect of Nigella sativa appeared to be mediated by immune-modulatory effect through stimulating human natural killer (NK) cells. This is a type of lymphocytes which is part of the innate immunity, also known as the first line of defense in the body against pathogens. This study investigated the effect of thymoquinone as a major component of Nigella sativa on the molecular cytotoxic pathway of NK cell and the role of thymoquinone therapeutic effect on NK cells. NK cells were cultured with breast tumor cells in different ways and cultured media was collected and the concentration of perforin, granzyme B and interferon-α were measured by ELISA. The cytotoxic effect of NK cells on breast tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of thymoquinone, with increased activity of perforin in NK cells. This improved anticancer effect of thymoquinone on breast cancer cells.

Keywords: breast cancer, cancer cells, natural killer cells, thymoquinone

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86 Investigation of Cytotoxic Compounds in Ethyl Acetate and Chloroform Extracts of Nigella sativa Seeds by Sulforhodamine-B Assay-Guided Fractionation

Authors: Harshani Uggallage, Kapila D. Dissanayaka

Abstract:

A Sulforhodamine-B assay-guided fractionation on Nigella sativa seeds was conducted to determine the presence of cytotoxic compounds against human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Initially, a freeze-dried sample of Nigella sativa seeds was sequentially extracted into solvents of increasing polarities. Crude extracts from the sequential extraction of Nigella sativa seeds in chloroform and ethyl acetate showed the highest cytotoxicity. The combined mixture of these two extracts was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using a modified Kupchan method of partitioning, followed by Sephadex® LH-20 chromatography. This chromatographic separation process resulted in a column fraction with a convincing IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 13.07µg/ml, which is considerable for developing therapeutic drug leads against human hepatoma. Reversed phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was finally conducted for the same column fraction, and the result indicates the presence of one or several main cytotoxic compounds against human HepG2 cells.

Keywords: cytotoxic compounds, half-maximal inhibitory concentration, high-performance liquid chromatography, human HepG2 cells, nigella sativa seeds, Sulforhodamine-B assay

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85 Evaluation of Toxic Elements in Thai Rice Samples

Authors: W. Srinuttrakul, V. Permnamtip

Abstract:

Toxic elements in rice samples are great concern in Thailand because rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for Thai people. Furthermore, rice is an economic crop of Thailand for export. In this study, the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in rice samples collected from the paddy fields in the northern, northeastern and southern regions of Thailand were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in 55 rice samples were 0.112±0.056, 0.029±0.037 and 0.031±0.033 mg kg-1, respectively. All rice samples showed As, Cd and Pb lower than the limit data of Codex. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of As, Cd, and Pb from rice consumption were 0.026±0.013, 0.007±0.009 and 0.007±0.008 mg day-1, respectively. The percentage contribution to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values of As, Cd and Pb for Thai male (body weight of 69 kg) was 17.6%, 9.7%, and 2.9%, respectively, and for Thai female (body weight of 57 kg) was 21.3%, 11.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The findings indicated that all studied rice samples are safe for consumption.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, ICP-MS, lead, rice

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84 Protecting Physicochemical Properties of Black Cumin Seed (Nigella sativa) Oil and Developing Value Added Products

Authors: Zeliha Ustun, Mustafa Ersoz

Abstract:

In the study, a traditional herbal supplement black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil properties has been studied to protect the main quality parameters by a new supplement application. Black cumin seed and its oil is used as a dietary supplement and preferred traditional remedy in Africa, Asia and Middle East for centuries. Now it has been consuming by millions of people in America and Europe as natural supplements and/or phytotherapeutic agents to support immune system, asthma, allergic rinnitis etc. by the scientists’ advices. With the study, it is aimed to prove that soft gelatin capsules are a new and more practical way of usage for Nigella sativa oil that has a longer stability. With the study soft gelatin capsules formulation has been developed to protect cold pressed black cumin seed oil physicochemical properties for a longer period. The product design has been developed in laboratory and implemented in pilot scale soft gelatin capsule manufacturing. Physicochemical properties (peroxide value, free fatty acids, fatty acid composition, refractive index, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matters) of Nigella sativa oil soft gelatin capsules and Nigella sativa oil in liquid form in amber glass bottles have been compared and followed for 8 months. The main parameters for capsules and liquid form found that for free fatty acids 2.29±0.03, 3.92±0.11 % oleic acid, peroxide 23.11±1.18, 27.85±2.50 meqO2/kg, refractive index at 20 0C 1.4738±0.00, 1.4737±0.00, soap 0 ppm, moisture and volatility 0.32±0.01, 0.36±0.01 %, iodine value 123.00±0.00, 122.00±0.00 wijs, saponification value 196.25±0.46, 194.13±0.35 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter 7.72±0.13, 6.88±0.36 g/kg respectively. The main fatty acids are found that linoleic acid 56.17%, oleic acid 24.64%, palmitic acid 11,94 %. As a result, it is found that cold pressed Nigella sativa oil soft gelatin capsules physicochemical properties are more stable than the Nigella sativa oil stored in glass bottles.

Keywords: black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil, cold press, nutritional supplements, soft gelatin capsule

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83 Assessment Of Factors Affecting Sustainability of Rice (Oryza sativa) Processing and Marketing in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. M. Omoare, O. O. Sofowora, W. O. Oyediran

Abstract:

The study was carried out to assess the factors affecting the sustainability of rice processing and marketing in Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) respondents for the study. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the objectives while hypotheses were analyzed with Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result showed that most (85%) of the respondents was less than 50 years old and had been in rice business for more than 6 years. The majority (66.67%) of the respondents got their capitals from cooperative societies. All (100%) the respondents used rice as household food security and source of income. However, efficient rice processing and marketing were affected by inadequate manpower capacity development and inputs. There was a positive and significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics and processing techniques (p < 0.05). It is hereby recommended that extension service providers should introduce improved rice processing systems to the rice millers traders in the study area.

Keywords: sustainability, rice processing, marketing, constraints, millers traders

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82 Effect of Nigella sativa on Blood Pressure, Vascular Reactivity, Inflammatory Biomarkers and Nitric Oxide in L-Name-Induced Hypertensive Rats

Authors: Kamsiah Jaarin, Yusof Kamisah, Faizah Othman Nurul Akmal Muhammad, Zakiah Jubri, Qodriyah Mohd Saad, Srijit Das

Abstract:

Forty (40) normotensive adult male Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months weighing 180-200 g were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats per group: (1) normotensive control; (2) hypertensive rats; (3) hypertensive rats treated with Nigella sativa (2.5 ml/kg/day); and (4) hypertensive rats treated with nicardipine (5 mg/kg/day). After acclimatization, the hypertensive rats of the group 2, 3 and 4 were induced to be hypertensive by giving NW–nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 30 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water for consecutive 7 days. After one week, rats in the group 3 were given a daily oral dose of 2.5 ml/kg/day of Nigella sativa (NS) by oral gavage. Rats in the group 4 were given nicardipine (5 mg/kg/day) via oral gavages. All rats in this study received L-NAME continuously throughout the treatment duration. The blood pressure will be measured pre-treatment and weekly for 8 weeks using power lab. Blood was taken before and at the end of study for measurement of nitric oxide. At the end of 8 weeks, the rats are sacrificed and descending thoracic aorta was disserted for measurement of vascular reactivity, and intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1). Nigella sativa reduced both systolic and diastolic BP compared to control and L-name group. The BP lowering effect of NS was comparable to nicardipine a calcium antagonist. The blood pressure lowering effect of NS was accompanied with an increasing relaxation response to nitroprusside and acetylcholine and reducing vasoconstriction response to epinephrine. L-NAME and nicardipine on the other hand, reduced plasma nitric oxide concentration. In contrast, NS increased NO concentration. However, Nigella sativa had no significant effect on aortic VCAM- 1 and ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion; Nigella sativa oil reduces both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in L-NAME treated rats. The antihypertensive effect of NS was comparable to nicardipine. The BP lowering effect may be mediated via stimulating nitric oxide release from vascular endothelium.

Keywords: Nigella sativa, ICAM, VCAM, blood pressure, vascular reactivity

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81 Determination of Phytostearol in Serial Grains

Authors: Sumonthip Kongtun Janphuk

Abstract:

Ten cereal grains that usually used as ingredients in healthy products were studied for phytosteryl glucoside contents. β-sitosteryl glucoside in 10 cereal grains, including Phasecolus vulgaris L. (kidney bean), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus), Vigna radiate L. (mung bean), Coix lacrymajobi (job’tears), Oryza sativa. (red rice), Glycine max L. Merrill. (soybean),Cucurbita maschata Decne (pumpkin) and Helianthas annuus (sunflower seeds), were analyzed using Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All grains were extracted with methanol before analysis. Red bean showed the maximum phytosteryl glucoside content of 0.42% w/w. The content of others were as follows: pumpkin seed 0.173%, mung bean 0.099 %, soybean 0.07%, dried moringa seed 0.067%, lotus seed 0.044%, sorghum 0.032%, sunflower seed 0.016%, Job's tears 0.012%, and brown rice 0.006%.

Keywords: cereal grains, phytosterol, β-sitosteryl glucoside, food analysis.

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80 Identification of Salt Responsive Proteins in Rice Leaf Sheath (Oryza sativa L.) with Nanoliquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Kanlaya Kong-Ngern, Chutima Homwonk, Sittiruk Roytrakul

Abstract:

In this research, we compared the proteomic profile of two rice leaf sheaths under salt stress, Thai moderately salt tolerant rice (Leaung Anan), and high salt tolerant rice (Pokkali). Seeds were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 days before NaCl was introduced initially at the level of 12 dS m⁻¹ for 10 days. Then the leaf sheath proteomes were analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE and NanoLC-MS/MS. In this study, 873 proteins were detected. Among these proteins, 219 proteins were known proteins and the other proteins were unnamed and unknown proteins. By using Mev software, we found that only 31 proteins in treated plants of both rice cultivars significantly expressed, 21 proteins were up-regulated and 10 proteins were down-regulated. Interestingly, the intensity of the 3 proteins in the Leaung Anan more expressed than in the Pokkali. The results indicate that the up-regulated proteins were more expressed in less tolerant rice may play an important role in helping rice to survive under salt stress.

Keywords: mass spectrometry, proteomics, rice leaf sheaths, salt stress

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79 Protective Effect of Nigella sativa Oil and Its Neutral Lipid Fraction on Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat Model

Authors: Asma Mosbah, Hanane Khither, Kamelia Mosbah, Noreddine Kacem Chaouche, Mustapha Benboubetra

Abstract:

In the present investigation, total oil (TO) and its neutral lipid fraction (NLF) extracted from the seed of the well know studied medicinal plant Nigella sativa were tested for their therapeutically effect on alcohol-induced liver injury in rat model. Male Albino rats were divided into five groups of eight animals each and fed a Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for experimental groups and dextran for control group, for a period of six weeks. Afterwards, rats received, orally, treatments with Nigella sativa extracts (TO, NLF) and N- acetylcysteine (NAC) as a positive control for four weeks. Activities of antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Biochemical parameters for kidney and liver functions, in treated and non treated rats, were evaluated throughout the time course of an experiment. Liver histological changes were taken into account. Enzymatic activities of both SOD and CAT increased significantly in rats treated with NLF and TO. While MDA level decreased in TO and NLF treated rats, GSH level increased significantly in TO and NLF treated rats. We noted equally a decrease in liver enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP. Microscopic observation of slides from the liver of ethanol treated rats showed a severe hepatotoxicity with lesions. Treatment with fractions leads to an improvement in liver lesions and a marked reduction in necrosis and infiltration. As a conclusion, both extracts of Nigella sativa seeds, TO and NLF, possess an important therapeutic protective potential against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity, antioxidant enzymes, Nigella sativa seeds, oil fractions

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78 Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of a Combination Extract of Nigella Sativa & Cinnamomum Cassia in Streptozotocin Induced Type-I Diabetic Rats

Authors: Ginpreet Kaur, Mohammad Yasir Usmani, Mohammed Kamil Khan

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is a disease with a high global burden and results in significant morbidity and mortality. In India, the number of people suffering with diabetes is expected to rise from 19 to 57 million in 2025. At present, interest in herbal remedies is growing to reduce the side effects associated with conventional dosage form like oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to investigate the antidiabetic activities of combinatorial extract of N. sativa & C. cassia in Streptozotocin induced type-I Diabetic Rats. Thus, the present study was undertaken to screen postprandial glucose excursion potential through α- glucosidase inhibitory activity (In Vitro) and effect of combinatorial extract of N. sativa & C. cassia in Streptozotocin induced type-I Diabetic Rats (In Vivo). In addition changes in body weight, plasma glucose, lipid profile and kidney profile were also determined. The IC50 values for both extract and Acarbose was calculated by extrapolation method. Combinatorial extract of N. sativa & C. cassia at different dosages (100 and 200 mg/kg orally) and Metformin (50 mg/kg orally) as the standard drug was administered for 28 days and then biochemical estimation, body weights and OGTT (Oral glucose tolerance test) were determined. Histopathological studies were also performed on kidney and pancreatic tissue. In In-Vitro the combinatorial extract shows much more inhibiting effect than the individual extracts. The results reveals that combinatorial extract of N. sativa & C. cassia has shown significant decrease in plasma glucose (p<0.0001), total cholesterol and LDL levels when compared with the STZ group The decreasing level of BUN and creatinine revealed the protection of N. sativa & C. cassia extracts against nephropathy associated with diabetes. Combination of N. sativa & C. cassia significantly improved glucose tolerance to exogenously administered glucose (2 g/kg) after 60, 90 and 120 min interval on OGTT in high dose streptozotocin induced diabetic rats compared with the untreated control group. Histopathological studies shown that treatment with N. sativa & C. cassia extract alone and in combination restored pancreatic tissue integrity and was able to regenerate the STZ damaged pancreatic β cells. Thus, the present study reveals that combination of N. sativa & C. cassia extract has significant α- glucosidase inhibitory activity and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment.

Keywords: lipid levels, OGTT, diabetes, herbs, glucosidase

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77 Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobacteria (Rhizobium mililoti 2011) Enhances the Tolerance and the Accumulation of Cadmium in Medicago sativa

Authors: Tahar Ghnaya, Majda Mnasri, Hanen Zaier, Rim Ghabriche, Chedly Abdelly

Abstract:

It is known that the symbiotic association between plant and microorganisms are beneficial for plant growth and resistance to metal stress. Hence, it was demonstrated that Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have a positive effect on host plants growing in metal polluted soils. Legume plants are those which normally associate to rhizobacteria in order to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect this type of symbiosis on the tolerance and the accumulation of Cd. We chose Medicago sativa, as a modal for host legume plants and Rhizobium mililoti 2011 as rhizobial strain. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants of M. sativa were submitted during three month to 0, 50, and 100 mgCd/kg dry soil. Results showed that the presence of Cd in the medium induced, in both inoculated and non-inoculated plants, a chlorosis and necrosis. However, these symptoms were more pronounced in non-inoculated plants. The beneficial effect of inoculation of M. sativa with R. meliloti, on plant growth was confirmed by the measurement of biomass production which showed that the symbiotic association between host plant and rhizobacteria alleviates significantly Cd effect on biomass production, so inoculated plants produced more dry weight as compared to non-inoculated ones in the presence of all Cd tretments. On the other hand, under symbiosis conditions, Cd was more accumulated in different plant organs. Hence, in these plants, shoot Cd concentration reached 425 and it was 280 µg/gDW in non-inoculated ones in the presence of 100 ppm Cd. This result suggests that symbiosis enhances the absorption and translocation of Cd in this plant. In nodules and roots, we detected the highest Cd concentrations, demonstrating that these organs are able to concentrate Cd in their tissues. These data confirm that M. sataiva, cultivated in symbiosis with Rhizobium mililoti could be used in phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils.

Keywords: Cd, phytoremediation, Medicago sativa, Arbuscular mycorrhizal

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