Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2892

Search results for: dispersion relation

2892 Characteristics of Speed Dispersion in Urban Expressway

Authors: Fujian Wang, Shubin Ruan, Meiwei Dai

Abstract:

Speed dispersion has tight relation to traffic safety. In this paper, several kinds of indicating parameters (the standard speed deviation, the coefficient of variation, the deviation of V85 and V15, the mean speed deviations, and the difference between adjacent car speeds) are applied to investigate the characteristics of speed dispersion, where V85 and V15 are 85th and 15th percentile speed, respectively. Their relationships are into full investigations and the results show that: there exists a positive relation (linear) between mean speed and the deviation of V85 and V15; while a negative relation (quadratic) between traffic flow and standard speed deviation. The mean speed deviation grows exponentially with mean speed while the absolute speed deviation between adjacent cars grows linearly with the headway. The results provide some basic information for traffic management.

Keywords: headway, indicating parameters, speed dispersion, urban expressway

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2891 Theory of Gyrotron Amplifier in a Vane-Loaded Waveguide with Inner Dielectric Material

Authors: Reyhaneh Hashemi, Shahrooz Saviz

Abstract:

In his study, we have survey the theory of gyrotron amplifier in a vane-loaded waveguide with inner dielectric material. Dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves emitted by a cylindrical waveguide that provided with wedge-shaped metal vanes projecting radially inward from the wall of the guide and exited in the transverse-electric mode was analysed. From numerical analysis of this dispersion relation, it is shown that the stability behavior of the fast-wave mode is dependent of the dielectric constant. With a small axial momentum spreed, a super bandwidth is shown to be attainable by a mixed mode operation. Also, with the utilization from the numeric analysis of relation dispersion. We show that in the –speed mode, the constant is independent de-electric. With the ratio of dispersion of smell, high –bandwith was obtained for the combined mode. And at the end, we were comparing the result of our work (vane-loaded) by the waveguide with a smooth wall.

Keywords: gyrotron amplifier, waveguide, vane-loaded waveguide, dielectric material, dispersion relation, cylindrical waveguide, fast-wave mode, mixed mode operation

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2890 Modeling and Computational Validation of Dispersion Curves of Guide Waves in a Pipe Using ANSYS

Authors: A. Perdomo, J. R. Bacca, Q. E. Jabid

Abstract:

In recent years, technological and investigative progress has been achieved in the area of monitoring of equipment and installation as a result of a deeper understanding of physical phenomenon associated with the non-destructive tests (NDT). The modal analysis proposes an efficient solution to determine the dispersion curves of an arbitrary waveguide cross-sectional. Dispersion curves are essential in the discontinuity localization based on guided waves. In this work, an isotropic hollow cylinder is dynamically analyzed in ANSYS to obtain resonant frequencies and mode shapes all of them associated with the dispersion curves. The numerical results provide the relation between frequency and wavelength which is the foundation of the dispersion curves. Results of the simulation process are validated with the software GUIGW.

Keywords: ansys APDL, dispersion curves, guide waves, modal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2889 Interesting Behavior of Non-Thermal Plasma Photonic Crystals

Authors: A. Mousavi, S. Sadegzadeh

Abstract:

In this research, the effect of non-thermal micro plasma with non-Maxwellian distribution function on the one dimensional plasma photonic crystals containing alternate plasma-dielectric layers, has been studied. By using Kronig Penny model, the dispersion relation of electromagnetic modes for such a periodic structure is obtained. In this study we take two plasma photonic crystals with different dielectric layers: the first one with Silicon monoxide named PPCI, and the second one with Tellurium dioxide named PPCII. The effects of the plasma layer thickness and the material of the dielectric layer on the plasma photonic crystal band gaps have been illustrated in the dispersion relation and the group velocity figures. Results revealed that in such a system, the non-thermal plasma exerts stronger limit on the wave’s propagation. In another word, for the non-thermal plasma photonic crystals (NPPC), there are two distinct regions in the dispersion plot. The upper region consists of alternate band gaps in such a way that both width and length of the bands decrease gradually as the band gaps order increases. Whereas in the lower region where v_ph > 20 c (for PPCI), waves will not be allowed to propagate.

Keywords: band gap, dispersion relation, non-thermal plasma, plasma photonic crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
2888 Designing a Dispersion Flattened Single Mode PCF for E-Band to U-Band with Less Effective Area

Authors: Shabbir Chowdhury

Abstract:

A signal is broadened when it is gone through a channel, this phenomenon is known as dispersion. And dispersion is different for different wavelength. So bandwidth become limited. Research have tried to design an optical fiber with flattened dispersion to use more bandwidth and also for wavelength division multiplexing. In this paper, a single mode photonic crystal fiber with a flattened dispersion and less effective area has been proposed where silica is used as fiber materials. The effective dispersion varies from -1.996 to 0.1783 [ps/(nm-km)] for enter E-band to U-band. This fiber will take only 3.048 [micrometer^2] (for 1.75 micrometer wavelength). Silica is being used as the fiber material.

Keywords: photonic crystal fiber, dispersion, bandwidth, chromatic dispersion, effective dispersion, dispersion compensation, effective area, effective refractive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
2887 Forecast Dispersion, Investor Sentiment and the Cross Section of Stock Returns

Authors: Guoyu Lin

Abstract:

This paper explores the role investor sentiment plays in the relationship between analyst forecast dispersion and stock returns. With short sale constraints, stock prices are determined by the optimistic investors. During the high sentiment periods when investors suffer more from psychological bias, there are more optimistic investors. This is the first paper to document that following the high sentiment periods, stocks with the most analyst forecast dispersion are overpriced, earning significantly negative returns, while those with the least analyst forecast dispersion are not overpriced as the degree of belief dispersion is low. However, following the low sentiment periods, both are not overpriced. A portfolio which longs the least dispersed stocks and shorts the most dispersed stocks yields significantly positive returns only following the high sentiment periods. My findings can potentially reconcile the puzzling risk effect and mispricing effect in the literature. The risk (mispricing) effect suggests a positive (negative) relation between analyst forecast dispersion and future stock returns. Presumably, the magnitude of the mispricing effect depends on the proportion of irrational investors and their bias, which is positively related to investor sentiment. During the high sentiment period, the mispricing effect takes over and the overall effect is negative. During the low sentiment period, the percentage of irrational investors is mediate, and the mispricing effect and the risk effect counter each other, leading to insignificant relation.

Keywords: analyst forecast dispersion, short-sale constraints, investor sentiment, stock returns

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2886 Effect of Viscosity on Propagation of MHD Waves in Astrophysical Plasma

Authors: Alemayehu Mengesha, Solomon Belay

Abstract:

We determine the general dispersion relation for the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in an astrophysical plasma by considering the effect of viscosity with an anisotropic pressure tensor. Basic MHD equations have been derived and linearized by the method of perturbation to develop the general form of the dispersion relation equation. Our result indicates that an astrophysical plasma with an anisotropic pressure tensor is stable in the presence of viscosity and a strong magnetic field at considerable wavelength. Currently, we are doing the numerical analysis of this work.

Keywords: astrophysical, magnetic field, instability, MHD, wavelength, viscosity

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2885 Effect of Rotation on Love Wave Propagation in Piezoelectric Medium with Corrugation

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary

Abstract:

The present study analyses the propagation of Love wave in rotating piezoelectric layer lying over an elastic substrate with corrugated boundaries. The appropriate solutions in the considered medium satisfy the required boundary conditions to obtain the dispersion relation of Love wave for charge free as well as electrically shorted cases. The effects of rotation are shown by graphically on the non-dimensional speed of the Love wave. In addition to classical case, some existing results have been deduced as particular case of the present study. The present study may be useful in rotation sensor and SAW devices.

Keywords: corrugation, dispersion relation, love wave, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
2884 Analytical Solutions for Geodesic Acoustic Eigenmodes in Tokamak Plasmas

Authors: Victor I. Ilgisonis, Ludmila V. Konovaltseva, Vladimir P. Lakhin, Ekaterina A. Sorokina

Abstract:

The analytical solutions for geodesic acoustic eigenmodes in tokamak plasmas with circular concentric magnetic surfaces are found. In the frame of ideal magnetohydrodynamics the dispersion relation taking into account the toroidal coupling between electrostatic perturbations and electromagnetic perturbations with poloidal mode number |m| = 2 is derived. In the absence of such a coupling the dispersion relation gives the standard continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes. The analysis of the existence of global eigenmodes for plasma equilibria with both off-axis and on-axis maximum of the local geodesic acoustic frequency is performed.

Keywords: tokamak, MHD, geodesic acoustic mode, eigenmode

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2883 Influence of Corrugation and Loosely Bonded Interface on the Propagation of Torsional Wave Propagation in a Viscoelastic Layer

Authors: Amrita Das, Abhishek Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The present paper calibrates the efficacy of corrugated and loosely bonded common interface of a viscoelastic layer and a dry sandy Gibson half-space on the propagation of torsional surface wave. Using suitable boundary conditions, the dispersion relation for the concerned problem is deduced in complex form. Numerical computation of the real part of the obtained dispersion relation gives the dispersion curve whereas the imaginary part bestows the damping curves. The use of Whittaker’s function and Bessel’s functions are among the major concerns of the paper. The investigation of the influence of the affecting parameters viz. heterogeneities, sandiness, Biot’s gravity parameter, initial stresses, loosely bonded interface, corrugation and internal friction on the phase velocity as well as damped velocity of torsional wave, through numerical discussion and graphical illustration, is among the major highlights of the current study.

Keywords: corrugation, dry sandy Gibson half-space, loosely bonded interface, torsional wave, viscoelastic layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
2882 Combination Rule for Homonuclear Dipole Dispersion Coefficients

Authors: Giorgio Visentin, Inna S. Kalinina, Alexei A. Buchachenko

Abstract:

In the ambit of intermolecular interactions, a combination rule is defined as a relation linking a potential parameter for the interaction of two unlike species with the same parameters for interaction pairs of like species. Some of their most exemplificative applications cover the construction of molecular dynamics force fields and dispersion-corrected density functionals. Here, an extended combination rule is proposed, relating the dipole-dipole dispersion coefficients for the interaction of like target species to the same coefficients for the interaction of the target and a set of partner species. The rule can be devised in two different ways, either by uniform discretization of the Casimir-Polder integral on a Gauss-Legendre quadrature or by relating the dynamic polarizabilities of the target and the partner species. Both methods return the same system of linear equations, which requires the knowledge of the dispersion coefficients for interaction between the partner species to be solved. The test examples show a high accuracy for dispersion coefficients (better than 1% in the pristine test for the interaction of Yb atom with rare gases and alkaline-earth metal atoms). In contrast, the rule does not ensure correct monotonic behavior of the dynamic polarizability of the target species. Acknowledgment: The work is supported by Russian Science Foundation grant # 17-13-01466.

Keywords: combination rule, dipole-dipole dispersion coefficient, Casimir-Polder integral, Gauss-Legendre quadrature

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2881 Electron Beam Effects on Kinetic Alfven Waves in the Cold Homogenous Plasma

Authors: Jaya Shrivastava

Abstract:

The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, growth/damping rate and associated currents in the presence of electron beam in homogenous plasma. Kinetic effects of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. The plasma parameters appropriate to plasma sheet boundary layer are used. It is found that downward electron beam affects the dispersion relation, growth/damping-rate and associated currents in cold electron limit.

Keywords: magnetospheric physics, plasma waves and instabilities, electron beam, space plasma physics, wave-particle interactions

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2880 Evaluation of the Adsorption Adaptability of Activated Carbon Using Dispersion Force

Authors: Masao Fujisawa, Hirohito Ikeda, Tomonori Ohata, Miho Yukawa, Hatsumi Aki, Takayoshi Kimura

Abstract:

We attempted to predict adsorption coefficients by utilizing dispersion energies. We performed liquid-phase free energy calculations based on gas-phase geometries of organic compounds using the DFT and studied the relationship between the adsorption of organic compounds by activated carbon and dispersion energies of the organic compounds. A linear correlation between absorption coefficients and dispersion energies was observed.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, prediction, dispersion energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
2879 Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chin-Ting Kuo, Yung-Chun Yang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research, pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore the dispersion phenomenon in the microchannel of a optical biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred in different geometric shapes of microchannels. The simulation results showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations resulting in minimum dispersion.

Keywords: CFD simulations, dispersion, microfluidic, optical waveguide sensors

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2878 Amplification of electromagnetic pulse by conducting cone

Authors: E. S. Manuylovich, V. A. Astapenko, P. A. Golovinsky

Abstract:

The dispersion relation binding the constant of propagation and frequency is calculated for silver cone. The evolution of the electric field of ultrashort pulse during its propagation in conical structure is considered. Increasing of electric field during pulse propagation to the top of the cone is observed. Reduction of the pulse duration at a certain distance is observed. The dependence of minimum pulse duration on initial chirp and cone angle is investigated.

Keywords: ultrashort pulses, surface plasmon polariton, dispersion, silver cone

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2877 Resistive Instability in a Multi Ions Hall Thrusters Plasma

Authors: Sukhmander Singh

Abstract:

Hall thrusters are preferred over chemical thrusters because of its high exhaust velocity (around 10 times higher) and high specific impulse. The propellant Xenon is ionized inside the channel and controlled by the magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is such that only electrons get magnetized and ions remain unmagnetized because of larger Larmor radius as compared with the length of the channel of the device. There is quite a possibility of the existence of multi ions in a Hall thruster plasma because of dust contribution or another process which take place in the chamber. In this paper, we have derived the dispersion relation for multi ions resistive instability in a hall plasma. The analytical approach is also used to find out the propagating speed and the growth rate of the instability. In addition, some growing waves are also found to exist in the plasma. The dispersion relation is solved numerically to see the behavior of the instability with the plasma parameters viz, the temperature of plasma species, wave number, drift velocity, collision frequency, magnetic field.

Keywords: instability, resisitive, thrusters, waves

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2876 Effect of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Chemical Reactions on Peristaltic Flow of a Jeffrey Fluid in an Asymmetric Channel

Authors: G. Ravi Kiran, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

In this paper, the dispersion of a solute in the peristaltic flow of a Jeffrey fluid in the presence of both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions has been discussed. The average effective dispersion coefficient has been found using Taylor's limiting condition under long wavelength approximation. It is observed that the average dispersion coefficient increases with amplitude ratio which implies that dispersion is more in the presence of peristalsis. The average effective dispersion coefficient increases with Jeffrey parameter in the cases of both homogeneous and combined homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. Further, dispersion decreases with a phase difference, homogeneous reaction rate parameters, and heterogeneous reaction rate parameter.

Keywords: peristalsis, dispersion, chemical reaction, Jeffrey fluid, asymmetric channel

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2875 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: the linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2874 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Ahmed Bakry, Moustafa Ahmed

Abstract:

We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: bit error rate, dispersion, frequency chirp, fiber communications, semiconductor laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 534
2873 Effects of Dispersion on Peristaltic Flow of a Micropolar Fluid Through a Porous Medium with Wall Effects in the Presence of Slip

Authors: G. Ravi Kiran, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of slip boundary condition and wall properties on the dispersion of a solute matter in peristaltic flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid through a porous medium. Long wavelength approximation, Taylor's limiting condition and dynamic boundary conditions at the flexible walls are used to obtain the average effective dispersion coefficient in the presence of combined homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. The effects of various pertinent parameters on the effective dispersion coefficient are discussed. It is observed that peristalsis enhances dispersion. It also increases with micropolar parameter, cross viscosity coefficient, Darcy number, slip parameter and wall parameters. Further, dispersion decreases with homogenous chemical reaction rate and heterogeneous chemical reaction rate.

Keywords: chemical reaction, dispersion, peristalsis, slip condition, wall properties

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2872 Ultra-Low Chromatic Dispersion, Low Confinement Loss, and Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding photonic crystal fiber (IG-PCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600 nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of IG-PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: optical communication systems, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 530
2871 CFD Modeling of Pollutant Dispersion in a Free Surface Flow

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Said, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec

Abstract:

In this work, we determine the turbulent dynamic structure of pollutant dispersion in two-phase free surface flow. The numerical simulation was performed using ANSYS Fluent. The flow study is three-dimensional, unsteady and isothermal. The study area has been endowed with a rectangular obstacle to analyze its influence on the hydrodynamic variables and progression of the pollutant. The numerical results show that the hydrodynamic model provides prediction of the dispersion of a pollutant in an open channel flow and reproduces the recirculation and trapping the pollutant downstream near the obstacle.

Keywords: CFD, free surface, polluant dispersion, turbulent flows

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
2870 Model of Cosserat Continuum Dispersion in a Half-Space with a Scatterer

Authors: Francisco Velez, Juan David Gomez

Abstract:

Dispersion effects on the Scattering for a semicircular canyon in a micropolar continuum are analyzed, by using a computational finite element scheme. The presence of microrotational waves and the dispersive SV waves affects the propagation of elastic waves. Here, a contrast with the classic model is presented, and the dependence with the micropolar parameters is studied.

Keywords: scattering, semicircular canyon, wave dispersion, micropolar medium, FEM modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
2869 Pd Supported on Activated Carbon: Effect of Support Texture on the Dispersion of Pd

Authors: Ji Sun Kim, Jae Ho Baek, Kyeong Ho Kim, Ji Hae Ha, Seong Soo Hong, Jung-Wook Park, Man Sig Lee

Abstract:

Carbon supported palladium catalysts have been used in many industrial reactions, especially for hydrogenation in the fine chemical industry. Porous carbons had been widely used as catalyst supports due to its higher surface area and larger pore volume. The specific surface area, pore structure and surface chemical functional groups of porous carbon affects metal dispersion and particle size. In this paper, we confirm the effect of support texture on the dispersion of Pd. Pd catalyst supported on activated carbon having various specific surface area were characterized by BET, XRD and FE-TEM. Catalyst activity and dispersion of prepared catalyst were evaluated on the basis of the CO adsorption capacity by CO-chemisorption. As concluding remark to this part of our study, let us note that specific area of carbon play important role on the synthesis of Pd/C catalyst/.

Keywords: carbon, dispersion, Pd/C, specific are, support

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2868 Evaluation of the Impact of Green Infrastructure on Dispersion and Deposition of Particulate Matter in Near-Roadway Areas

Authors: Deeksha Chauhan, Kamal Jain

Abstract:

Pollutant concentration is high in near-road environments, and vegetation is an effective measure to mitigate urban air quality problems. This paper presents the influence of roadside green infrastructure in dispersion and Deposition of Particulate matter (PM) by the ENVI-met Simulations. Six green infrastructure configurations were specified (i) hedges only, (ii) trees only, (iii) a mix of trees and shrubs (iv) green barrier (v) green wall, and (vi) no tree buffer were placed on both sides of the road. The changes in concentrations at all six scenarios were estimated to identify the best barrier to reduce the dispersion and deposition of PM10 and PM2.5 in an urban environment.

Keywords: barrier, concentration, dispersion, deposition, Particulate matter, pollutant

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2867 Numerical Study of Blackness Factor Effect on Dark Solitons

Authors: Khelil Khadidja

Abstract:

In this paper, blackness of dark solitons is considered. The exact combination between nonlinearity and dispersion is responsible of solitons stability. Dark solitons get born when dispersion is abnormal and balanced by nonlinearity, at the opposite of brillant solitons which is born by normal dispersion and nonlinearity together. Thanks to their stability, dark solitons are suitable for transmission by optical fibers. Dark solitons which are a solution of Nonlinear Schrodinger equation are simulated with Matlab to discuss the influence of coefficient of blackness. Results show that there is a direct proportion between the coefficient of blackness and the intensity of dark soliton. Those gray solitons are stable and convenient for transmission.

Keywords: abnormal dispersion, nonlinearity, optical fiber, soliton

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2866 Quantification of Dispersion Effects in Arterial Spin Labelling Perfusion MRI

Authors: Rutej R. Mehta, Michael A. Chappell

Abstract:

Introduction: Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is an increasingly popular perfusion MRI technique, in which arterial blood water is magnetically labelled in the neck before flowing into the brain, providing a non-invasive measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF). The accuracy of ASL CBF measurements, however, is hampered by dispersion effects; the distortion of the ASL labelled bolus during its transit through the vasculature. In spite of this, the current recommended implementation of ASL – the white paper (Alsop et al., MRM, 73.1 (2015): 102-116) – does not account for dispersion, which leads to the introduction of errors in CBF. Given that the transport time from the labelling region to the tissue – the arterial transit time (ATT) – depends on the region of the brain and the condition of the patient, it is likely that these errors will also vary with the ATT. In this study, various dispersion models are assessed in comparison with the white paper (WP) formula for CBF quantification, enabling the errors introduced by the WP to be quantified. Additionally, this study examines the relationship between the errors associated with the WP and the ATT – and how this is influenced by dispersion. Methods: Data were simulated using the standard model for pseudo-continuous ASL, along with various dispersion models, and then quantified using the formula in the WP. The ATT was varied from 0.5s-1.3s, and the errors associated with noise artefacts were computed in order to define the concept of significant error. The instantaneous slope of the error was also computed as an indicator of the sensitivity of the error with fluctuations in ATT. Finally, a regression analysis was performed to obtain the mean error against ATT. Results: An error of 20.9% was found to be comparable to that introduced by typical measurement noise. The WP formula was shown to introduce errors exceeding 20.9% for ATTs beyond 1.25s even when dispersion effects were ignored. Using a Gaussian dispersion model, a mean error of 16% was introduced by using the WP, and a dispersion threshold of σ=0.6 was determined, beyond which the error was found to increase considerably with ATT. The mean error ranged from 44.5% to 73.5% when other physiologically plausible dispersion models were implemented, and the instantaneous slope varied from 35 to 75 as dispersion levels were varied. Conclusion: It has been shown that the WP quantification formula holds only within an ATT window of 0.5 to 1.25s, and that this window gets narrower as dispersion occurs. Provided that the dispersion levels fall below the threshold evaluated in this study, however, the WP can measure CBF with reasonable accuracy if dispersion is correctly modelled by the Gaussian model. However, substantial errors were observed with other common models for dispersion with dispersion levels similar to those that have been observed in literature.

Keywords: arterial spin labelling, dispersion, MRI, perfusion

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2865 New Result for Optical OFDM in Code Division Multiple Access Systems Using Direct Detection

Authors: Cherifi Abdelhamid

Abstract:

In optical communication systems, OFDM has received increased attention as a means to overcome various limitations of optical transmission systems such as modal dispersion, relative intensity noise, chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion and self-phase modulation. The multipath dispersion limits the maximum transmission data rates. In this paper we investigate OFDM system where multipath induced intersymbol interference (ISI) is reduced and we increase the number of users by combining OFDM system with OCDMA system using direct detection Incorporate OOC (orthogonal optical code) for minimize a bit error rate.

Keywords: OFDM, OCDMA, OOC (orthogonal optical code), (ISI), prim codes (Pc)

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
2864 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: optical communication systems, nanostructured, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 492
2863 Improving the Prediction of Hazardous Material Dispersion in an Urban Environment

Authors: Nebila Lichiheb, Bruce Hicks, William Pendergrass, LaToya Myles

Abstract:

Concerns about the consequences of intentional and adversarial releases of hazardous materials and the emissions from industrialization and traffic have resulted in a growing level of research focused on dispersion in urban areas. Several dispersion models have been developed to analyze and predict the transport and dispersion of hazardous contaminants, and they usually rely on meteorological information obtained from the meteorological models of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS). In this context, it has been shown that classical meteorological models from the NWS provide an inadequate basis for atmospheric dispersion forecasts in Washington, D.C. In recognition of this deficiency, a program called DCNet was established by NOAA in 2003 to collect a large database of meteorological measurements in Washington, D.C. The goal of DCNet has been the provision of real-time meteorological observations over Washington, D.C. to support the use of atmospheric transport and diffusion models as well as to improve the prediction of the weather affecting residents. The DCNet data represent a large, relatively uniform urban city covering a broad spectrum of weather conditions, which permits an unparalleled description of atmospheric flow behavior over this type of terrain. DCNet data have been compared against NWS model outputs to produce adjustments to the basic physics and approximation parameters controlling dispersion model calculations. In this study, HYSPLIT dispersion model has been chosen as a test model with which to analyze the contribution of these adjustments to the production of greatly improved dispersion forecasts. HYSPLIT is one of the most extensively used transport and dispersion models in the global atmospheric sciences community. In general, the proposed adjustments could also be used for many different conventional dispersion forecasting systems in Washington, D.C. to determine impacts from the airborne release of chemicals and other contaminants.

Keywords: dispersion, hazardous material, Washington D.C, HYSPLIT model

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