Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 950

Search results for: Maria Luisa S. Schmidt

950 Medical Error: Concept and Description According to Brazilian Physicians

Authors: Vitor S. Mendonca, Maria Luisa S. Schmidt

Abstract:

The Brazilian medical profession is viewed as being error-free, so healthcare professionals who commit an error are condemned there. Medical errors occur frequently in the Brazilian healthcare system, so identifying better options for handling this issue has become of interest primarily for physicians. The purpose of this study is to better understand the tensions involved in the fear of making an error due to the harm and risk this would represent for those involved. A qualitative study was performed by means of the narratives of the lived experiences of ten acting physicians in the State of Sao Paulo. The concept and characterization of errors were discussed, together with the fear of making an error, the near misses or error in itself, how to deal with errors and what to do to avoid them. The analysis indicates an excessive pressure in the medical profession for error-free practices, with a well-established physician-patient relationship to facilitate the management of medical errors. The error occurs, but a lack of information and discussion often leads to its concealment due to fear or possible judgment by society or peers. The establishment of programs that encourage appropriate medical conduct in the event of an error requires coherent answers for humanization in Brazilian medical science. It is necessary to improve the discussion about medical errors and disseminate models of communication and notification of errors in Brazil.

Keywords: medical error, narrative, physician-patient relationship, qualitative research

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949 Evaluation of Deteriorated Fired Clay Bricks Based on Schmidt Hammer Tests

Authors: Laurent Debailleux

Abstract:

Although past research has focused on parameters influencing the vulnerability of brick and its decay, in practice ancient fired clay bricks are usually replaced without any particular assessment of their characteristics. This paper presents results of non-destructive Schmidt hammer tests performed on ancient fired clay bricks sampled from historic masonry. Samples under study were manufactured between the 18th and 20th century and came from facades and interior walls. Tests were performed on three distinct brick surfaces, depending on their position within the masonry unit. Schmidt hammer tests were carried out in order to measure the mean rebound value (Rn), which refers to the resistance of the surface to successive impacts of the hammer plunger tip. Results indicate that rebound values increased with successive impacts at the same point. Therefore, mean Schmidt hammer rebound values (Rn), limited to the first impact on a surface minimises the estimation of compressive strength. In addition, the results illustrate that this technique is sensitive enough to measure weathering differences, even for different surfaces of a particular sample. Finally, the paper also highlights the relevance of considering the position of the brick within the masonry when conducting particular assessments of the material’s strength.

Keywords: brick, non-destructive tests, rebound number, Schmidt hammer, weathering grade

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948 Public Participation in Science: The Case of Genetic Modified Organisms in Brazil

Authors: Maria Luisa Nozawa Ribeiro, Maria Teresa Miceli Kerbauy

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the theories of public participation in order to understand the context of the public GMO (Genetic Modified Organisms) policies in Brazil, highlighting the characteristics of its configuration and the dialog with the experts. As a controversy subject, the commercialization of GMO provoked manifestation of some popular and environmental representative groups questioning the decisions of policy makers and experts on the matter. Many aspects and consequences of the plantation and consumption of this crops emerged and the safety of this technology was questioned. Environmentalists, Civil Right's movement, representatives of rural workers, farmers and organics producers, etc. demonstrated their point of view, also sustained by some experts of medical, genetical, environmental, agronomical sciences, etc. fields. Despite this movement, the precautionary principle (risk management), implemented in 1987, suggested precaution facing new technologies and innovations in the sustainable development society. This principle influenced many legislation and regulation on GMO around the world, including Brazil, which became a reference among the world regulatory GMO systems. The Brazilian legislation ensures the citizens participation on GMO discussion, characteristic that was important to establish the connection between the subject and the participation theory. These deliberation spaces materialized in Brazil through the "Public Audiences", which are managed by the National Biosafety Technical Commission (CTNBio), the department responsible for controlling the research, production and commercialization of GMOs in Brazil.

Keywords: public engagement, public participation, science and technology studies, transgenic politics

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947 Coping Resource Triad, Experiences of Filipina Wives in Japan

Authors: Maria Luisa T. Uayan

Abstract:

This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina migrants married to Japanese and to discuss coping strategies that facilitates positive migration events. It utilizes a qualitative study design with focus group discussion which allows clear details on insights and perspectives based on migration process. The grounding of the coping resource triad is the unique finding of this study. It defines coping resource triad as a set of complex factors that relieves Filipina migrants of the stresses associated in migration and cross-cultural marriage. The results of the stress-coping experiences of Filipina migrants in Japan serves as basis for future studies on cross-cultural marriages and other deeper concerns associated with migration as well as in the formulation of relevant programs on acculturation.

Keywords: coping resource triad, migration, Filipina, cross-cultural marriage

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946 Financial Inclusion from the Perspective of Social Innovation: The Case of Colombia

Authors: Maria Luisa Jaramillo, Alvaro Turriago Hoyos, Ulf Thoene

Abstract:

Financial inclusion has become a crucially important factor in debates on economic inequality posing challenges to the financial systems of countries around the world. Nowadays, governments and banks are concerned about creating products that allow access to wide sectors of the population. The creation of banking products by the financial sector for people with low incomes tends to lead to improvements in the quality of life of vulnerable parts of the population. In countries with notable social and economic inequalities financial inclusion is a key aspect for equitable economic growth. This study is based on the case of Colombia, which is a country with a strong record of economic growth over the past decade. Nevertheless, corruption, unemployment, and poverty contribute to uncertainty regarding the country’s future growth prospects. This study wants to explain the situation of financial exclusion and financial inclusion with respect to the Colombian case. Financial inclusion is going to be studied from the perspective of social innovation.

Keywords: Colombia, financial exclusion, financial inclusion, social innovation

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945 Impact of Nurses' Migration to Nursing Management in Selected Health Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Maria Luisa T. Uayan

Abstract:

The global need for qualified nurses to take care of the clients with various health needs is an incessant occurrence that persistently cause migration of nurses from developing to developed countries. The pull-push theory of migration greatly affects health care delivery systems of sending countries which is the same way affects nursing management. The exodus of nurses prepared to provide the much needed leadership at the bedside leaves the country in clusters giving health care institutions limited time to develop the next front-line managers that will assure quality patient care. This paper focuses on the extent and consequences of the massive recurring migration phenomena that is felt ONLY IN THE PHILIPPINE health care arena. It deals with the causes, problems, and effects of the cyclical loss of competent Filipina nurses in terms of emigration. Also, it will highlights the difficulties confronted by nursing service departments and health care teams when more experienced nurses set out for the “greener pastures” and patients are placed under the care of novice nurses. Fundamentally, it will emphasize the impact of suffering the loss of competent nurse managers in the Philippine health care institutions and provide contemporary recommendations on how to responsd accordingly to this very timely issue.

Keywords: Migration, Nurse Manager, Philippines

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944 The Conception of the Students about the Presence of Mental Illness at School

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina, Maria Catarina Zanini

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the conceptions of high school students about mental health issues, and discuss the creation of mental basic health programs in schools. We base our findings in a quantitative survey carried out by us with 156 high school students of CTISM (Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria) school, located in Santa Maria city, Brazil. We have found that: (a) 28 students relate the subject ‘mental health’ with psychiatric hospitals and lunatic asylums; (b) 28 students have relatives affected by mental diseases; (c) 76 students believe that mental patients, if treated, can live a healthy life; (d) depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the most cited diseases; (e) 84 students have contact with mental patients, but know nothing about the disease; (f) 123 students have never been instructed about mental diseases while in the school; and (g) 135 students think that a mental health program would be important in the school. We argue that these numbers reflect a vision of mental health that can be related to the reductionist education still present in schools and to the lack of integration between health professionals, sciences teachers, and students. Furthermore, this vision can also be related to a stigmatization process, which interferes with the interactions and with the representations regarding mental disorders and mental patients in society.

Keywords: mental health, schools, mental illness, conception

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943 Representations of Germanophobia during the German Unification and the Euro Crisis: A Comparative Study in the Portuguese Press

Authors: Ana Luisa Mouro, Ana Maria Ramalheira

Abstract:

The Reunification of Germany, in 1990, was not received with great enthusiasm by other European countries. On the contrary, the union of the two German states was accompanied by great concern towards its possible political and economic consequences. The Europeans had not forgotten Germany’s responsibility in the outbreak of the Second World War, and many feared that this new nation would again long for a hegemonic role. During the following years, however, the notion of a threatening Germany faded away, giving place to a description of Germany as an economic giant but a political dwarf. Twenty years after the Reunification, with the outbreak of the financial crisis, Germany conquered a key and powerful position at the heart of Europe and Germanophobia started to gain ground again. The present study has been based on the survey, selection and critical analysis of news reporting, opinion articles, interviews and editorials, published in the weekly Expresso and the daily Público, during two historical moments: the Reunification of Germany in 1990 and the European Crisis, between 2008 and 2015. The findings of this study will show that Germany’s growing influence over the current European economic and political scene woke up old 'demons' that had been 'sleeping' since 1990.

Keywords: media and cultural studies, Euro crisis, German Unification, Germanophobia, Portuguese quality press

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942 High-Accuracy Satellite Image Analysis and Rapid DSM Extraction for Urban Environment Evaluations (Tripoli-Libya)

Authors: Abdunaser Abduelmula, Maria Luisa M. Bastos, José A. Gonçalves

Abstract:

The modeling of the earth's surface and evaluation of urban environment, with 3D models, is an important research topic. New stereo capabilities of high-resolution optical satellites images, such as the tri-stereo mode of Pleiades, combined with new image matching algorithms, are now available and can be applied in urban area analysis. In addition, photogrammetry software packages gained new, more efficient matching algorithms, such as SGM, as well as improved filters to deal with shadow areas, can achieve denser and more precise results. This paper describes a comparison between 3D data extracted from tri-stereo and dual stereo satellite images, combined with pixel based matching and Wallis filter. The aim was to improve the accuracy of 3D models especially in urban areas, in order to assess if satellite images are appropriate for a rapid evaluation of urban environments. The results showed that 3D models achieved by Pleiades tri-stereo outperformed, both in terms of accuracy and detail, the result obtained from a Geo-eye pair. The assessment was made with reference digital surface models derived from high-resolution aerial photography. This could mean that tri-stereo images can be successfully used for the proposed urban change analyses.

Keywords: 3D models, environment, matching, pleiades

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941 The Use of the Mediated Learning Experience in Response of Special Needs Education

Authors: Maria Luisa Boninelli

Abstract:

This study wants to explore the effects of a mediated intervention program in a primary school. The participants where 120 students aged 8-9, half of them Italian and half immigrants of first or second generation. The activities consisted on the cognitive enhancement of the participants through Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment, (IE) and on an activity centred on body awareness and mediated learning experience. Given that there are limited studied on learners in remedial schools, the current study intented to hypothesized that participants exposed to mediation would yiel a significant improvement in cognitive functioning. Hypothesis One proposed that, following the intervention, improved Q1vata scores of the participants would occur in each of the groups. Hypothesis two postulated that participants within the Mediated Learning Experience would perform significantly better than those group of control. For the intervention a group of 60 participants constituted a group of Mediation sample and were exposed to Mediated Learning Experience through Enrichment Programm. Similiary the other 60 were control group. Both the groups have students with special needs and were exposed to the same learning goals. A pre-experimental research design, in particular a one-group pretest-posttest approach was adopted. All the participants in this study underwent pretest and post test phases whereby they completed measures according to the standard instructions. During the pretest phase, all the participants were simultaneously exposed to Q1vata test for logical and linguistic evaluation skill. During the mediation intervention, significant improvement was demonstrated with the group of mediation. This supports Feuerstein's Theory that initial poor performance was a result of a lack of mediated learning experience rather than inherent difference or deficiencies. Furthermore the use of an appropriate mediated learning enabled the participants to function adequately.

Keywords: cognitive structural modifiability, learning to learn, mediated learning experience, Reuven Feuerstein, special needs

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940 Non-Local Behavior of a Mixed-Mode Crack in a Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Medium

Authors: Nidhal Jamia, Sami El-Borgi

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of a mixed-Mode crack embedded in an infinite medium made of a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) with crack surfaces subjected to electro-mechanical loadings is investigated. Eringen’s non-local theory of elasticity is adopted to formulate the governing electro-elastic equations. The properties of the piezoelectric material are assumed to vary exponentially along a perpendicular plane to the crack. Using Fourier transform, three integral equations are obtained in which the unknown variables are the jumps of mechanical displacements and electric potentials across the crack surfaces. To solve the integral equations, the unknowns are directly expanded as a series of Jacobi polynomials, and the resulting equations solved using the Schmidt method. In contrast to the classical solutions based on the local theory, it is found that no mechanical stress and electric displacement singularities are present at the crack tips when nonlocal theory is employed to investigate the problem. A direct benefit is the ability to use the calculated maximum stress as a fracture criterion. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crack length, material gradient parameter describing FGPMs, and lattice parameter on the mechanical stress and electric displacement field near crack tips.

Keywords: functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM), mixed-mode crack, non-local theory, Schmidt method

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939 The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Levels of Delinquency among Senior High School Students with Secured Attachment to Their Mothers

Authors: Aldrin Avergas, Quennie Mariel Peñaranda, Niña Karen San Miguel, Alexis Katrina Agustin, Peralta Xusha Mae, Maria Luisa Sison

Abstract:

The research is entitled “The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Levels of Delinquency among Senior High School Students with Secured Attachment to their Mothers”. The researchers had explored the relationship between socioeconomic status and delinquent tendencies among grade 11 students. The objective of the research is to discover if delinquent behavior will have a relationship with the current socio-economic status of an adolescent student having a warm relationship with their mothers. The researchers utilized three questionnaires that would measure the three variables of the study, namely: (1) 1SEC 2012: The New Philippines Socioeconomic Classification System was used to show the current socioeconomic status of the respondents, (2) Self-Reported Delinquency – Problem Behavior Frequency Scale was utilized to determine the individual's frequency in engaging to delinquent behavior, and (3) Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment Revised (IPPA-R) was used to determine the attachment style of the respondents. The researchers utilized a quantitative research design, specifically correlation research. The study concluded that there is no significant relationship between socioeconomic status and academic delinquency despite the fact that these participants had secured attachment to their mother hence this research implies that delinquency is not just a problem for students belonging in the lower socio-economic status and that even having a warm and close relationship with their mothers is not sufficient enough for these students to completely be free from engaging in delinquent acts. There must be other factors (such as peer pressure, emotional quotient, self-esteem or etc.) that are might be contributing to delinquent behaviors.

Keywords: adolescents, delinquency, high school students, secured attachment style, socioeconomic status

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938 A Strategy to Reduce Salt Intake: The Use of a Seasoning Obtained from Wine Pomace

Authors: María Luisa Gonzalez-SanJose, Javier Garcia-Lomillo, Raquel Del Pino, Miriam Ortega-Heras, Maria Dolores Rivero-Perez, Pilar Muñiz-Rodriguez

Abstract:

One of the most preoccupant problems related to the diet of the occidental societies is the high salt intake. In Spain, salt intake is almost twice as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). A lot of negative health effects of high sodium intake have been described being the hypertension, cardiovascular and coronary diseases ones of the most important. Due to this fact, government and other institutions are working on the gradual reduction of this consumption. Intake of meat products have been described as the main processed products that bring salt to the diet, followed by snacks and savory crackers. However, fortunately, the food industry has also raised awareness of this problem and is working intensely, and in recent years attempts to reduce the salt content in processed products, and is developing special lines with low sodium content. It is important to consider that processed food are the main source of sodium in occidental countries. One of the possible strategies to reduce the salt content in food is to find substitutes that can emulate their taste properties without adding much sodium or products that mask or substitute salty sensations with other flavors and aromas. In this sense, multiple products have been proposed and used until now. Potassium salts produce similar salty sensations without bring sodium, however their intake should be also limited, by healthy reasons. Furthermore, some potassium salts shows some better notes. Other alternatives are the use of flavor enhancers, spices, aromatic herbs, sea-plant derivate products, etc. The wine pomace is rich in potassium salts, content organic acid and other flavored substances, therefore it could be an interesting raw material to obtain derived products that could be useful as alternative ‘seasonings’. Considering previous comments, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a natural seasoning, made from red wine pomace, in two different foods, crackers and burgers. The seasoning was made in the pilot plant of food technology of the University of Burgos, where the studied crackers and patties were also made. Different members of the University, students, docent and administrative personal, taste the products, and a trained panel evaluated salty intensity. The seasoning in addition to potassium contain significant levels of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, which also makes it interesting as a functional ingredient. Both burgers and crackers made with the seasoning showed better taste that those without salt. Obviously, they showed lower sodium content than normal formulation, and were richer in potassium, antioxidant and fiber. Then, they showed lower values of the relation Na/K. All these facts are correlated with more ‘healthy’ products especially to that people with hypertension and other coronary dysfunctions.

Keywords: healthy foods, low salt, seasoning, wine pomace

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937 The Relationship between Lithological and Geomechanical Properties of Carbonate Rocks. Case study: Arab-D Reservoir Outcrop Carbonate, Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ammar Juma Abdlmutalib, Osman Abdullatif

Abstract:

Upper Jurrasic Arab-D Reservoir is considered as the largest oil reservoir in Saudi Arabia. The equivalent outcrop is exposed near Riyadh. The study investigates the relationships between lithofacies properties changes and geomechanical properties of Arab-D Reservoir in the outcrop scale. The methods used included integrated field observations and laboratory measurements. Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness, Point Load Index tests were carried out to estimate the strength of the samples, ultrasonic wave velocity test also was applied to measure P-wave, S-wave, and dynamic Poisson's ratio. Thin sections have been analyzed and described. The results show that there is a variation in geomechanical properties between the Arab-D member and Upper Jubaila Formation at outcrop scale, the change in texture or grain size has no or little effect on these properties. This is because of the clear effect of diagenesis which changes the strength of the samples. The result also shows the negative or inverse correlation between porosity and geomechanical properties. As for the strength, dolomitic mudstone and wackestone within Upper Jubaila Formation has higher Schmidt hammer values, wavy rippled sandy grainstone which is rich in quarts has the greater point load index values. While laminated mudstone and breccias, facies has lower strength. This emphasizes the role of mineral content in the geomechanical properties of Arab-D reservoir lithofacies.

Keywords: geomechanical properties, Arab-D reservoir, lithofacies changes, Poisson's ratio, diageneis

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936 Cultivation of Halophytes: Effect of Salinity on Nutritional and Functional Properties

Authors: Luisa Barreira, Viana Castaneda, Maria J. Rodrigues, Florinda Gama, Tamara Santos, Marta Oliveira, Catarina Pereira, Maribela Pestana, Pedro Correia, Miguel Salazar, Carla Nunes, Luisa Custodio, Joao Varela

Abstract:

In the last century, the world witnessed an exponential demographic increase that has put an enormous pressure on agriculture and food production. Associated also with climate changes, there has been a decrease in the amount of available freshwater and an increased salinization of soils which can affect the production of most food crops. Halophytes, however, are plants able to withstand high salinities while maintaining a good growth productivity. To cope with the excess salt, they produce secondary metabolites (e.g. vitamins and phenolic compounds) which, along with the natural presence of some minerals, makes them not only nutritionally rich but also functional foods. Some halophytes, as quinoa or salicornia, are already used in some countries, mostly as gourmet food. Hydroponic cultivation of halophytes using seawater or diluted seawater for watering can decrease the pressure on freshwater resources while producing a nutritional and functional food. The XtremeGourmet project funded by the EU aims to develop and optimize the production of different halophytes by hydroponics. One of the more specific objectives of this project is the study of halophytes’ productivity and chemical composition under different abiotic conditions, e.g. salt and nutrient concentration and light intensity. Three species of halophytes commonly occurring in saltmarshes of the South of Portugal (Inula chrithmoides, Salicornia ramosissima and Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum) were cultivated using hydroponics under different salinities, ranging from 5 to 45 dS/m. For each condition, several parameters were assessed namely: total and commercial productivity, electrical conductivity, total soluble solids, proximal composition, mineral profile, total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins content and antioxidant activity. Results show that productivity was significantly reduced for all plants with increasing salinity up to salinity 29 dS/m and remained low onwards. Oppositely, the electrical conductivity and the total soluble solids content of the produced plants increased with salinity, reaching a plateau at 29 dS/m. It seems that plants reflect the salt concentration of the water up to some point, being able to regulate their salt content for higher salinities. The same tendency was observed for the ash content of these plants, which is related to the mineral uptake from the cultivating media and the plants’ capacity to both accumulate and regulate ions’ concentration in their tissues. Nonetheless, this comes with a metabolic cost which is observed by a decrease in productivity. The mineral profile of these plants shows high concentrations of sodium but also high amounts of potassium. In what concerns the microelements, these plants appear to be a good source of manganese and iron and the low amounts of toxic metals account for their safe consumption in moderate amounts. Concerning the phenolics composition, plants presented moderate concentrations of phenolics but high amounts of condensed tannins, particularly I. crithmoides which accounts for its characteristic sour and spicy taste. Contrary to some studies in which higher amounts of phenolics were found in plants cultivated under higher salinities, in this study, the highest amount of phenolic compounds were found in plants grown at the lowest or intermediate salinities. Nonetheless, there was a positive correlation between the concentration of these compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plants’ extracts.

Keywords: functional properties, halophytes, hydroponics, nutritional composition, salinity effect

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935 Cultural Studies in the Immigration Movements: Memories and Social Collectives

Authors: María Eugenia Peltzer, María Estela Rodríguez

Abstract:

This work presents an approach to the cultural aspects of the Immigrants as part of the Cultural Intangible Heritage of Argentina. The intangible cultural heritage consists of the manifestations, practices, uses, representations, expressions, knowledge, techniques and cultural spaces that communities and groups recognize as an integral part of their cultural heritage. This heritage generates feelings of identity and establishes links with the collective memory, as well as being transmitted and recreated over time according to its environment, its interaction with nature and its history contributing to promote respect for cultural diversity and Human creativity. The Immigrants brings together those who came from other lands and their descendants, thus maintaining their traditions through time and linking the members of each cultural group with a strong sense of belonging through a communicative and effective process.

Keywords: cultural, immigration, memories, social

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934 An Ergonomic Handle Design for Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Ramon Sancibrian, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, Maria C. Gutierrez-Diez, Esther G. Sarabia, Maria A. Benito-Gonzalez, Jose C. Manuel-Palazuelos

Abstract:

In this paper, the design and evaluation of a handle for laparoscopic surgery is presented. The design of the handle is based on ergonomic principles and tries to avoid awkward postures for surgeons. The handle combines the so-called power-grip and accurate-grip in order to provide strength and accuracy in the performance of surgery. The handle is tested using both objective and subjective approaches. The objective approach uses motion capture techniques to obtain the angles of forearm, arm, wrist and hand. The muscular effort is obtained with electromyography electrodes. On the other hand, a subjective survey has been carried out using questionnaires. Results confirm that the handle is preferred by the majority of the surgeons.

Keywords: laparoscopic surgery, ergonomics, mechanical design, biomechanics

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933 Identifying Coloring in Graphs with Twins

Authors: Souad Slimani, Sylvain Gravier, Simon Schmidt

Abstract:

Recently, several vertex identifying notions were introduced (identifying coloring, lid-coloring,...); these notions were inspired by identifying codes. All of them, as well as original identifying code, is based on separating two vertices according to some conditions on their closed neighborhood. Therefore, twins can not be identified. So most of known results focus on twin-free graph. Here, we show how twins can modify optimal value of vertex-identifying parameters for identifying coloring and locally identifying coloring.

Keywords: identifying coloring, locally identifying coloring, twins, separating

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932 Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediments of Sta. Maria River, Laguna

Authors: Francis Angelo A. Sta. Ana

Abstract:

Heavy metal pollutants are a major environmental concern in built-up areas in the Philippines. It causes negative effects on aquatic organisms and human health. Heavy metals concentrations of chromium, mercury, lead, copper, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were investigated in Sta. Maria river, in Laguna. A total of 16 sediment samples were collected from the river at four stations. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used for element detection. It is found that copper is associated with chromium based on statistical analysis using principal component analysis (PCA). Conduct of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) revealed that chromium has high toxicity due to values higher than Sediment Quality Guidelines Probable Effect Level (SQG’s PEL). Copper, Nickel, and Pb fall on average toxicity while others are below PEL and effect range low (ERL).

Keywords: heavy metals, pollutants, sediment quality guidelines, atomic absorption spectroscopy

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931 Fishing Waste: A Source of Valuable Products through Anaerobic Treatments

Authors: Luisa Maria Arrechea Fajardo, Luz Stella Cadavid Rodriguez

Abstract:

Fish is one of the most commercialized foods worldwide. However, this industry only takes advantage of about 55% of the product's weight, the rest is converted into waste, which is mainly composed of viscera, gills, scales and spines. Consequently, if these wastes are not used or disposed of properly, they cause serious environmental impacts. This is the case of Tumaco (Colombia), the second largest producer of marine fisheries on the Colombian Pacific coast, where artisanal fishermen process more than 50% of the commercialized volume. There, fishing waste is disposed primarily in the ocean, causing negative impacts on the environment and society. Therefore, in the present research, a proposal was made to take advantage of fishing waste through anaerobic treatments, through which it is possible to obtain products with high added value from organic waste. The research was carried out in four stages. First, the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in semi-continuous 4L reactors was studied, evaluating three hydraulic retention times (HRT) (10, 7 and 5 days) with four organic loading rates (OLR) (16, 14, 12 and 10 gVS/L/day), the experiment was carried out for 150 days. Subsequently, biogas production was evaluated from the solid digestate generated in the VFA production reactors, initially evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of 4 total solid concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6% TS), for 40 days and then, with the optimum TS concentration (2 gVS/L/day), 2 HRT (15 and 20 days) in semi-continuous reactors, were evaluated for 100 days. Finally, the integration of the processes was carried out with the best conditions found, a first phase of VFA production from fishing waste and a second phase of biogas production from unrecovered VFAs and unprocessed material Additionally, an VFA membrane extraction system was included. In the first phase, a liquid digestate with a concentration and VFA production yield of 59.04 gVFA/L and 0.527 gVFA/gVS, respectively, was obtained, with the best condition found (HRT:7 days and OLR: 16 gVS/L/día), where acetic acid and isobutyric acid were the predominant acids. In the second phase of biogas production, a BMP of 0.349 Nm3CH4/KgVS was reached, and it was found as best HRT 20 days. In the integration, the isovaleric, butyric and isobutyric acid were the VFA with the highest percentage of extraction, additionally a 106.67% increase in biogas production was achieved. This research shows that anaerobic treatments are a promising technology for an environmentally safe management of fishing waste and presents the basis of a possible biorefinery.

Keywords: biogas production, fishing waste, VFA membrane extraction, VFA production

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930 Auditory Brainstem Response in Wave VI for the Detection of Learning Disabilities

Authors: Maria Isabel Garcia-Planas, Maria Victoria Garcia-Camba

Abstract:

The use of brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) is a common way to study the auditory function of people, a way to learn the functionality of a part of the brain neuronal groups that intervene in the learning process by studying the behaviour of wave VI. The latest advances in neuroscience have revealed the existence of different brain activity in the learning process that can be highlighted through the use of innocuous, low-cost, and easy-access techniques such as, among others, the BAEP that can help us to detect early possible neurodevelopmental difficulties for their subsequent assessment and cure. To date and to the authors' best knowledge, only the latency data obtained, observing the first to V waves and mainly in the left ear, were taken into account. This work shows that it is essential to take into account both ears; with these latest data, it has been possible had diagnosed more precise some cases than with the previous data had been diagnosed as 'normal' despite showing signs of some alteration that motivated the new consultation to the specialist.

Keywords: ear, neurodevelopment, auditory evoked potentials, intervals of normality, learning disabilities

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929 Numerical Study of the Breakdown of Surface Divergence Based Models for Interfacial Gas Transfer Velocity at Large Contamination Levels

Authors: Yasemin Akar, Jan G. Wissink, Herlina Herlina

Abstract:

The effect of various levels of contamination on the interfacial air–water gas transfer velocity is studied by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The interfacial gas transfer is driven by isotropic turbulence, introduced at the bottom of the computational domain, diffusing upwards. The isotropic turbulence is generated in a separate, concurrently running the large-eddy simulation (LES). The flow fields in the main DNS and the LES are solved using fourth-order discretisations of convection and diffusion. To solve the transport of dissolved gases in water, a fifth-order-accurate WENO scheme is used for scalar convection combined with a fourth-order central discretisation for scalar diffusion. The damping effect of the surfactant contamination on the near surface (horizontal) velocities in the DNS is modelled using horizontal gradients of the surfactant concentration. An important parameter in this model, which corresponds to the level of contamination, is ReMa⁄We, where Re is the Reynolds number, Ma is the Marangoni number, and We is the Weber number. It was previously found that even small levels of contamination (ReMa⁄We small) lead to a significant drop in the interfacial gas transfer velocity KL. It is known that KL depends on both the Schmidt number Sc (ratio of the kinematic viscosity and the gas diffusivity in water) and the surface divergence β, i.e. K_L∝√(β⁄Sc). Previously it has been shown that this relation works well for surfaces with low to moderate contamination. However, it will break down for β close to zero. To study the validity of this dependence in the presence of surface contamination, simulations were carried out for ReMa⁄We=0,0.12,0.6,1.2,6,30 and Sc = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. First, it will be shown that the scaling of KL with Sc remains valid also for larger ReMa⁄We. This is an important result that indicates that - for various levels of contamination - the numerical results obtained at low Schmidt numbers are also valid for significantly higher and more realistic Sc. Subsequently, it will be shown that - with increasing levels of ReMa⁄We - the dependency of KL on β begins to break down as the increased damping of near surface fluctuations results in an increased damping of β. Especially for large levels of contamination, this damping is so severe that KL is found to be underestimated significantly.

Keywords: contamination, gas transfer, surfactants, turbulence

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928 Development of Bicomponent Fibre to Combat Insects

Authors: M. Bischoff, F. Schmidt, J. Herrmann, J. Mattheß, G. Seide, T. Gries

Abstract:

Crop yields have not increased as dramatically as the demand for food. One method to counteract this is to use pesticides to keep away predators, e.g. several forms of insecticide are available to fight insects. These insecticides and pesticides are both controversial as their application and their residue in the food product can also harm humans. In this study an alternative method to combat insects is studied. A physical insect-killing effect of SiO2 particles is used. The particles are applied on fibres to avoid erosion in the fields, which would occur when applied separately. The development of such SiO2 functionalized PP fibres is shown.

Keywords: agriculture, environment, insects, protection, silica, textile

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927 Objective and Subjective Preconditions for Entrepreneurship: From the Point of View of Enterprise Risk Management

Authors: Maria Luskova, Maria Hudakova, Katarina Buganova

Abstract:

Established objective and subjective preconditions for entrepreneurship, forming the business organically related whole, are the necessary condition of successful entrepreneurial activities. Objective preconditions for entrepreneurship are developed by the market economy that should stimulate entrepreneurship by allowing the use of economic opportunities for all those who want to do business in respective field while providing guarantees to all owners and creating a stable business environment for entrepreneurs. Subjective preconditions of entrepreneurship are formed primarily by personal characteristics of the entrepreneur. These are his properties, abilities, skills, physiological, and psychological preconditions which may be inherited, inborn or sequentially developed and obtained during his life on the basis of education and influences of surrounding environment. The paper is dealing with issues of objective and subjective preconditions for entrepreneurship and provides their analysis in view of the current situation in Slovakia. It presents risks of the business environment in Slovakia that the Slovak managers considered the most significant in 2014 and defines the dominant attributes of the entrepreneur in the current business environment in Slovakia.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, innovations, opportunity, risk, uncertainty

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926 Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes by Ultraviolet Radiation

Authors: Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Lina María Martínez Sanchez, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Ángela Maria Londoño García, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo

Abstract:

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios States and skin cancers. Objective: Identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for a groups 1 to 3 seconds (p<0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: ultraviolet rays, lymphocytes, chromosome breakpoints, photodamage

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925 Ultraviolet Radiation and Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes

Authors: Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Lina María Martínez Sanchez, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Ángela Maria Londoño García, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo

Abstract:

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios states and skin cancers. Objective: To identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from the heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin, and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for groups 1 to 3 seconds (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: chromosome breakpoints, lymphocytes, photodamage, ultraviolet rays

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924 Heinz-Type Inequalities in Hilbert Spaces

Authors: Jin Liang, Guanghua Shi

Abstract:

In this paper, we are concerned with the further refinements of the Heinz operator inequalities in Hilbert spaces. Our purpose is to derive several new Heinz-type operator inequalities. First, with the help of the Taylor series of some hyperbolic functions, we obtain some refinements of the ordering relations among Heinz means defined by Bhatia with different parameters, which would be more suitable in obtaining the corresponding operator inequalities. Second, we present some generalizations of Heinz operator inequalities. Finally, we give a matrix version of the Heinz inequality for the Hilbert-Schmidt norm.

Keywords: Hilbert space, means inequality, norm inequality, positive linear operator

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
923 The Culex Pipiens Niche: Assessment with Climatic and Physiographic Variables via a Geographic Information System

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Maria T. Rebelo, Marília Antunes, Maria J. Alves, Hugo Osório, Sofia Cunha, João Casaca

Abstract:

Using a geographic information system (GIS), the relations between a georeferenced data set of Culex pipiens sl. mosquitoes collected in Portugal mainland during seven years (2006-2012) and meteorological and physiographic parameters such as: air relative humidity, air temperature (minima, maxima and mean daily temperatures), daily total rainfall, altitude, land use/land cover and proximity to water bodies are evaluated. Focus is on the mosquito females; the characterization of its habitat is the key for the planning of chirurgical non-aggressive prophylactic countermeasures to avoid ambient degradation. The GIS allow for the spatial determination of the zones were the mosquito mean captures has been above average; using the meteorological values at these coordinates, the limits of each parameter are identified/computed. The meteorological parameters measured at the net of weather stations all over the country are averaged by month and interpolated to produce raster maps that can be segmented according to the thresholds obtained for each parameter. The intersection of the maps obtained for each month show the evolution of the area favorable to the species through the mosquito season, which is from May to October at these latitudes. In parallel, mean and above average captures were related to the physiographic parameters. Three levels of risk could be identified for each parameter, using above average captures as an index. The results were applied to the suitability meteorological maps of each month. The Culex pipiens critical niche is delimited, reflecting the critical areas and the level of risk for transmission of the pathogens to which they are competent vectors (West Nile virus, iridoviruses, rheoviruses and parvoviruses).

Keywords: Culex pipiens, ecological niche, risk assessment, risk management

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922 Cross-Country Differences in Homeownership: A Cultural Phenomenon?

Authors: Stefanie J. Huber, Tobias Schmidt

Abstract:

Cross-country differences in homeownership rates are large and very persistent over time, ranging between 35% in Switzerland to 80% in Spain. In this project, we test the hypothesis that these cross-country differences are driven by cultural tastes. To isolate the effect of culture from the effects of institutions and economic factors, we investigate the homeownership attitudes of second-generation immigrants in the United States. We find robust evidence that cross-country differences in cultural preferences are an important explanatory factor for the observed persistent differences in homeownership rates across countries.

Keywords: housing markets, homeownership rates, country heterogeneity, preferences, cultural transmission, migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
921 Characterization of Chest Pain in Patients Consulting to the Emergency Department of a Health Institution High Level of Complexity during 2014-2015, Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Jorge Iván Bañol-Betancur, Lina María Martínez-Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez-Gázquez, Estefanía Bahamonde-Olaya, Ana María Gutiérrez-Tamayo, Laura Isabel Jaramillo-Jaramillo, Camilo Ruiz-Mejía, Natalia Morales-Quintero

Abstract:

Acute chest pain is a distressing sensation between the diaphragm and the base of the neck and it represents a diagnostic challenge for any physician in the emergency department. Objective: To establish the main clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients who present with chest pain to the emergency department in a private clinic from the city of Medellin, during 2014-2015. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective observational study. Population and sample were patients who consulted for chest pain in the emergency department who met the eligibility criteria. The information was analyzed in SPSS program vr.21; qualitative variables were described through relative frequencies, and the quantitative through mean and standard deviation ‬or medians according to their distribution in the study population. Results: A total of 231 patients were evaluated, the mean age was 49.5 ± 19.9 years, 56.7% were females. The most frequent pathological antecedents were hypertension 35.5%, diabetes 10,8%, dyslipidemia 10.4% and coronary disease 5.2%. Regarding pain features, in 40.3% of the patients the pain began abruptly, in 38.2% it had a precordial location, for 20% of the cases physical activity acted as a trigger, and 60.6% was oppressive. Costochondritis was the most common cause of chest pain among patients with an established etiologic diagnosis, representing the 18.2%. Conclusions: Although the clinical features of pain reported coincide with the clinical presentation of an acute coronary syndrome, the most common cause of chest pain in study population was costochondritis instead, indicating that it is a differential diagnostic in the approach of patients with pain acute chest.

Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, chest pain, epidemiology, osteochondritis

Procedia PDF Downloads 249