Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 106

Search results for: Holy Verses

106 The English Translation of Arabic Metaphors in the Holy Qura’n

Authors: Mohammad Hamzah Alshehab

Abstract:

Metaphor is a substitute expression in everyday life in languages, thoughts and actions. It has an original value in language use with different conceptual, grammatical and properties. In addition, it is a central concept in literary studies. The present paper aims at investigating metaphor’s types imbedded in some Holy Verses (HV). For achieving the objectives of this paper, two English versions were chosen , the first is the Translation of the Meanings of the Noble Qura’n in the English Language by Mohammad AlHilali and Mohammad Khan, and the second version is the English Translation of the Holy Qura’n by Mohammad Ali were used. The researcher selected (20) Holy Verses include metaphors to be analyzed and investigated. Metaphor types were categorized by an assessment of the two translations followed by a discussion between the two versions of translation.

Keywords: metaphor, metaphor’s types, Holy Qura’n, Holy Verses

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105 Mathematical and Fuzzy Logic in the Interpretation of the Quran

Authors: Morteza Khorrami

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The logic as an intellectual infrastructure plays an essential role in the Islamic sciences. Hence, there are a few of the verses of the Holy Quran that their interpretation is not possible due to lack of proper logic. In many verses in the Quran, argument and the respondent has requested from the audience that shows the logic rule is in the Quran. The paper which use a descriptive and analytic method, tries to show the role of logic in understanding of the Quran reasoning methods and display some of Quranic statements with mathematical symbols and point that we can help these symbols for interesting and interpretation and answering to some questions and doubts. In this paper, this problem has been mentioned that the Quran did not use two-valued logic (Aristotelian) in all cases, but the fuzzy logic can also be searched in the Quran.

Keywords: aristotelian logic, fuzzy logic, interpretation, Holy Quran

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104 Holy Quran’s Hermeneutics from Self-Referentiality to the Quran by Quran’s Interpretation

Authors: Mohammad Ba’azm

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The self-referentiality method as the missing ring of the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation has a precise application at the level of the Quranic vocabulary, but after entering the domain of the verses, chapters and the whole Qur’an, it reveals its defect. Self-referentiality cannot show the clear concept of the Quranic scriptures, unlike the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation method that guides us to the comprehension and exact hermeneutics. The Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation is a solid way of comprehension of the verses of the Qur'an and does not use external resources to provide implications and meanings with different theoretical and practical supports. In this method, theoretical supports are based on the basics and modalities that support and validate the legitimacy and validity of the interpretive method discussed, and the practical supports also relate to the practitioners of the religious elite. The combination of these two methods illustrates the exact understanding of the Qur'an at the level of Quranic verses, chapters, and the whole Qur’an. This study by examining the word 'book' in the Qur'an shows the difference between the two methods, and the necessity of attachment of these, in order to attain a desirable level for comprehensions meaning of the Qur'an. In this article, we have proven that by aspects of the meaning of the Quranic words, we cannot say any word has an exact meaning.

Keywords: Qur’an’s hermeneutic, self-referentiality, The Qur’an by Qur’an’s Interpretation, polysemy

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103 Meaningfulness of Right to Life in Holy Quran

Authors: Masoud Raei, Mohammadmahdi Sadeghi

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The right to life as the most essential right in human rights issues and in the first group has devoted a special place to itself. Attention to this right and its domain and its reflection in civil rights is one of the most important axis of the rights to life issues. Issues discussed concerning this matter in public law with regard to its status in human rights are the determination of government’s duty toward identification; application and guarantee of this right. The constitutions of countries have chosen different approaches towards the identification of this right and also its limits and boundaries, determining the territory of governments for citizens. The reason for such a difference is the question arising in this regard. It is claimed that without the determination of meaningfulness of the right to life, it is not possible to provide a clear response to this question. The goal of this paper is to justify its theoretical framework from the view of meaningfulness of right to life relying on Quranic verses with a conceptual approach towards the right to life so that the relationship between government and citizens with regard to right to life is determined. Through a comparative study, it is possible to attain significant differences between the teachings of the Holy Quran and human rights documents. The method of this paper is a descriptive-analytic approach relying on interpretation books on Holy Quran.

Keywords: meaningfulness, objectivism, separatism, right to life

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102 An Analytical and Inductive Study of the Aspect and Impact of the Prophetic Traditions in Understating Quran and Its Interpretation

Authors: Zabihur Rahman

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In present day we see in our surroundings and in different societies of the world an uprising approach of understanding Quran without the help of Hadith and Sunnah. As they believe that ‘Quran is sufficient for our guidance’. They do not give any preference to Prophetic traditions (Hadith and Sunnah), to understand or realize the actual meaning and purpose of the reveling of Quranic verses. Based on the afore mentioned idea we are going to pin point an analytical and inductive study of tafsir Ahkâm-ul Qu’ran by: Ibn-ul Arabi al-Mâliki. In this study we are trying to show the importance of Hadith and Sunnah in interpretation and understanding of Quran by presenting various examples from tafsir Ahkâm-ul Quran. This book is for being an important source in the relative filed of Ahkam-ul Quran we are going to highlight the method of Ibn-ul Arabi in dealing with Quranic verses in the light of Hadith. Furthermore, the impact of quoting different types of hadith in Tefsir is also taken into account. Besides, while citing these Prophetic traditions it is also inevitable to kept in view the sciences of hadith and its application on the context in order to orientate the proper meaning. The study also includes the scrutiny of these narrations by their chain of narrators and text to ensure the perfection of these prophetic traditions. So that, a person can have accesses to the righteous understanding and interpretation of the Holy Quran.

Keywords: Hadith, interpretation, narrators, verses

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101 Assessment of the Occupancy’s Effect on Speech Intelligibility in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque

Authors: Wasim Orfali, Hesham Tolba

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This research investigates the acoustical characteristics of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque. Extensive field measurements were conducted in different locations of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque to characterize its acoustic characteristics. The acoustical characteristics are usually evaluated by the use of objective parameters in unoccupied rooms due to practical considerations. However, under normal conditions, the room occupancy can vary such characteristics due to the effect of the additional sound absorption present in the room or by the change in signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the acoustic measurements carried out in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque with and without occupancy, and the analysis of such measurements, the existence of acoustical deficiencies has been confirmed.

Keywords: Al-Madinah Holy Mosque, mosque acoustics, speech intelligibility, worship sound

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100 Interpreting the Conflicted Self: A Reading of Agha Shahid Ali's Verses

Authors: Javeria Khurshid

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The aim of this study is to bring forth the interpretation that Agha Shahid Ali in his verses exhibits. The study will focus on the conflict and chaos in his verses, reflecting the sense of identity attached to Kashmir. His verse advertently depicts the political turmoil and social dissent in the 'un-silent' valley, and ultimately, it expresses the chaos, anguish, and suffering, a sense of longing and belonging to this conflicted state of 'being' as well as 'mind.' Agha Shahid Ali, Kashmiri- American poet who writes of Kashmiri tragedies that continue to remain unarticulated and unheard to the major parts of world, articulates the narrative that showcases the conflicted self of Kashmiris in general and Ali’s in particular. The focus of the paper will be his poetry that debunks the claims of civility and how Kashmiri identity is kept either maligned or obscured in the major narratives that arise from the mainstream writers. However, Ali’s verses are substantially broad and clear, and very brilliantly, he rewrites Kashmir in his avid and novel voice, his verses embracing the Kashmiri self, effectively anew in English language. The paper will clearly indicate how Ali remains true to his name, 'shaheed' and 'shahid,' both a martyr and witness. Ali’s fate has been intricately entangled with Kashmir, even after his untimely death. He has fully and beautifully immersed himself in the surreal world of the conflict prevalent in the Valley, and this paper will examine the grotesque and gory history that has been spanning over the years in Kashmir with never ending cycle of conflict. The originality and innovation of his poetry surfaces from the anarchy of Kashmir, spanning between its culture, historical context, the art of memory and imagery.

Keywords: identity, self, turmoil, Kashmir

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99 Preserving Digital Arabic Text Integrity Using Blockchain Technology

Authors: Zineb Touati Hamad, Mohamed Ridda Laouar, Issam Bendib

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With the massive development of technology today, the Arabic language has gained a prominent position among the languages most used for writing articles, expressing opinions, and also for citing in many websites, defying its growing sensitivity in terms of structure, language skills, diacritics, writing methods, etc. In the context of the spread of the Arabic language, the Holy Quran represents the most prevalent Arabic text today in many applications and websites for citation purposes or for the reading and learning rituals. The Quranic verses / surahs are published quickly and without cost, which may cause great concern to ensure the safety of the content from tampering and alteration. To protect the content of texts from distortion, it is necessary to refer to the original database and conduct a comparison process to extract the percentage of distortion. The disadvantage of this method is that it takes time, in addition to the lack of any guarantee on the integrity of the database itself as it belongs to one central party. Blockchain technology today represents the best way to maintain immutable content. Blockchain is a distributed database that stores information in blocks linked to each other through encryption, where the modification of each block can be easily known. To exploit these advantages, we seek in this paper to justify the use of this technique in preserving the integrity of Arabic texts sensitive to change by building a decentralized framework to authenticate and verify the integrity of the digital Quranic verses/surahs spread on websites.

Keywords: arabic text, authentication, blockchain, integrity, quran, verification

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98 The Station and Value of Beauty in Islam Based on the Holy Quran

Authors: Hamidreza Qaderi

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Beauty is a part of our life and we as Muslims cannot ignore it. Furthermore, Islam did not ignore. God in Quran has used words that mean beauty many times. Zain «زین» and its synonyms are some of that words that are used 46 times in a different meaning of beauty. Some of them are mentioned to worldly beauty and not acceptable beauty and other of them are mentioned to the Moral beauty. In this article, the meaning of Zain 'beauty' in Surah Al Aaraf (The Heights) is explained and described. In fact, there are specific signs about beauty in the 31 and 32 verses of this Surah in which the station of beauty can determine. For clarification of this issue, the analytic philosophy method is used to express the relation between this word and aesthetics and beauty in this article. The results of this research show that the beauty is an important issue in Islam as much as God order to Muslims to be beautiful when they want to pray.

Keywords: beauty, Quran, al zinah, Zain

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97 The Islamic Administrative Morals among Criminal Investigators in the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Practical Study on the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Majed Aldusaimani

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Introduction: The researcher aims to verify the extent of the criminal investigator's commitment to the Islamic morals set out in the Holy Quran, their application in his work, and to understand the point of view of police officers, clerks and suspects regarding the investigator's commitment to moral and ethics in practice. Research question: Are the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia committed to the application of the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran in the view of the police officers, clerks and suspects with whom they work? Objectives of the study: 1. Identifying the standing of morality in Islam. 2. Identifying the practical morals outlined in the Holy Quran. 3. Identifying the most important practical morals in the Holy Quran that must be met by the criminal investigator from the viewpoint of the investigator himself. 4. Identifying the criminal investigator's commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran as perceived from the perspectives of police officers, clerks and suspects. Methodology: This study will use a descriptive methodology through quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data from respondents, who will be asked to answer questions about the extent of the commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran of the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution that they have encountered.

Keywords: Islamic, investigator, Morals, Quran

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96 Quranic Recitation Listening Relate to Memory Processing, Language Selectivity and Attentional Process

Authors: Samhani Ismail, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza, Zamzuri Idris, Hafizan Juahir, Jafri Malin Abdullah

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Holy Quran, a rhymed prosed scripture has a complete literary structure that exemplifies the peak of literary beauty. Memorizing of its verses could enhance one’s memory capacity and cognition while those who are listening to its recitation it is also believed that the Holy Quran alter brainwave producing neuronal excitation engaging with cognitive processes. 28 normal healthy subjects (male =14 & female = 14) were recruited and EEG recording was done using 128-electrode sensor net (Electrical Geosics, Inc.) with the impedance of ≤ 50kΩ. They listened to Sura Fatiha recited by Sheikh Qari Abdul Basit bin Abdus Samad. Arabic news and no sound were chosen as positive and negative control, respectively. The waveform was analysed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to get the power in frequency bands. Bilateral frontal (F7, F8) and temporal region (T7, T8) showed decreased power significantly in alpha wave band in respondent stimulated by Sura Fatihah recitation reflects acoustic attention processing. However, decreased in alpha power in selective attention to memorized, and in familial but not memorized language, reveals the memorial processing in long-term memory. As a conclusion, Quranic recitation relates both cognitive element of memory and language in its listeners and memorizers.

Keywords: auditory stimulation, cognition, EEG, linguistic, memory, Quranic recitation

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95 Accounting as Addressed in the Qur’aan

Authors: Shahriar M. Saadullah, Abdul-Quddoos Abdul-Basith, Zaki K. Abushawish

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As a part of academic research in Islamic Accounting it is important to know how the word Accounting is discussed in the Qur’aan. This paper identifies and analyzes the word Accounting in the Qur’aan, which is significant to know and understand. The paper uses a methodology of identifying the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) in the Qur’aan with the help of Islam 360 software and analyzes the use of the relevant words derived from the root word. Then the paper attempts to connect the findings to the contemporary Accounting issues. The paper finds that the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) appears in the Qur’aan 109 times but it is only used in the sense Account, Accountable, or Accounting 45 times. These words appear in 44 different verses in the Qur’aan, appearing twice in one of the verses. The paper divides these verses into 8 different themes namely, Day of Accounting, without any Accounting, Accounting of Time, Self-Accounting, Swift in Accounting, Accounting is only with God, Awareness and the Good Accounting, and Heedlessness and the Bad Accounting. The way the words Account, Accounting, and Accountable is discussed in the Qur’aan links to the contemporary accounting issues including Ethics, Agency Theory, and Internal Control. The links discovered in the paper clearly shows the timeless nature of the message of the Qur’aan.

Keywords: accounting, contemporary accounting issues, Qur'aan, root word of accounting hasaba

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94 Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

Authors: Mohamed Ali Al Shaari, Khalid M. El Fitori

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In the field of Quran Studies known as Ghareeb A Quran (the study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters). Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designed to look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms. There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works. For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM). DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters. In Differences Matrix, we used the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Keywords: Quran, synonyms, differences matrix, ontology

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93 The Scientific Phenomenon Revealed in the Holy Quran - an Update

Authors: Arjumand Warsy

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The Holy Quran was revealed to Prophet Mohammad (May Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon Him) over fourteen hundred years ago, at a time when majority of the people in Arabia were illiterate and very few could read or write. Any knowledge about medicine, anatomy, biology, astronomy, physics, geology, geophysics or other sciences were almost non-existent. Many superstitious and groundless believes were prevalent and these believes were passed down through past generations. At that time, the Holy Quran was revealed and it presented several phenomenon that have been only currently unveiled, as scientists have worked endlessly to provide explanation for these physical and biological phenomenon applying scientific technologies. Many important discoveries were made during the 20th century and it is interesting to note that many of these discoveries were already present in the Holy Quran fourteen hundred years ago. The Scientific phenomenon, mentioned in the Holy Quran, cover many different fields in biological and physical sciences and have been the source of guidance for a number of scientists. A perfect description of the creation of the universe, the orbits in space, the development process, development of hearing process prior to sight, importance of the skin in sensing pain, uniqueness of fingerprints, role of males in selection of the sex of the baby, are just a few of the many facts present in the Quran that have astonished many scientists. The Quran in Chapter 20, verse 50 states: قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِيۤ اَعْطٰى كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهٗ ثُمَّ هَدٰى ۰۰ (He said "Our Lord is He, Who has given a distinctive form to everything and then guided it aright”). Explaining this brief statement in the light of the modern day Molecular Genetics unveils the entire genetic basis of life and how guidance is stored in the genetic material (DNA) present in the nucleus. This thread like structure, made of only six molecules (sugar, phosphate, adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine), is so brilliantly structured by the Creator that it holds all the information about each and every living thing, whether it is viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, animals or humans or any other living being. This paper will present an update on some of the physical and biological phenomena’ presented in the Holy Quran, unveiled using advanced technologies during the last century and will discuss how the need to incorporate this information in the curricula.

Keywords: The Holy Quran, scientific facts, curriculum, Muslims

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92 Arabic Quran Search Tool Based on Ontology

Authors: Mohammad Alqahtani, Eric Atwell

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This paper reviews and classifies most of the important types of search techniques that have been applied on the holy Quran. Then, it addresses the limitations in these techniques. Additionally, this paper surveys most existing Quranic ontologies and what are their deficiencies. Finally, it explains a new search tool called: A semantic search tool for Al Quran based on Qur’anic ontologies. This tool will overcome all limitations in the existing Quranic search applications.

Keywords: holy Quran, natural language processing (NLP), semantic search, information retrieval (IR), ontology

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91 A Comprehensive Model of Professional Ethics Based on the Teachings of the Holy Quran

Authors: Zahra Mohagheghian, Fatema Agharebparast

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Professional ethic is a subject that has been an issue today, so most of the businesses, including the teaching profession, understand the need and importance of it. So they need to develop a code of professional ethics for their own. In this regard, this study seeks to answer the question, with respect to the integrity of the Qur'an (Nahl / 89), is it possible to contemplate the divine teachers conduct to extract the divine pattern for teaching and training? In the code of conduct for divine teachers what are the most important moral obligations and duties of the teaching professionals? The results of this study show that the teaching of Khidr, according to the Quran’s verses, Abundant and subtle hints emphasized that it can be as comprehensive and divine pattern used in teaching and in the drafting of the charter of professional ethics of teachers used it. Also, the results show that in there have been many ethical principles in prophet Khidr’s teaching pattern.The most important ethical principles include: Student assessment, using objective and not subjective examples, assessment during teaching, flexibility, and others. According to each of these principles can help teachers achieve their educational goals and lead human being in their path toward spiritual evaluation.

Keywords: professional ethics, teaching-learning process, teacher, student, Quran

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90 Teaching the Meaning of the Holy Quran Using Modern Technology

Authors: Arjumand Warsy

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Among the Muslims, the Holy Quran is taught from early childhood and generally by the age of 7-8 years the reading of the entire Quran is completed by most of the children in Muslim families. During this period excellent reciter’s are selected to teach and emphasis is laid on correct reading, pronunciation and memorization. Following these years, the parents lay emphasis on the recitation of the Quran on daily basis. During the month of Ramadan the entire Quran is read one or more times and there are considerable number of Muslims who complete the entire Quran once or more each calendar month. Many Muslims do not know Arabic and for them message in the Quran is what others tell them and often they have no idea about this Guidance sent to them. This deficiency is reflected in many ways, both among people living in Muslim or non-Muslim countries. Due to the deficiency in knowledge about Islamic teachings, the foundations of Islam are being eroded by a variety of forces. In an attempt to guard against the non-Islamic influences, every Muslim must have a clear understanding of the Islamic teachings and requirements. The best guidance can be provided by the understanding of the Holy Quran. However, we are faced with the problem that often the Quran is taught in a way that fails to develop an interest and understanding of the message from Allah. Looking at the teaching of other subjects both scientific and non-scientific, at school, college or University levels, it is obvious that the advances in teaching methodologies using electronic technology have had a major impact, where both the understanding and the interest of the students are significantly elevated. We attempted to teach the meaning of the Holy Quran to children and adults using a scientific and modern approach using slide presentation and animations. The results showed almost 100% increase in the understanding of the Quran message; all attendees claimed they developed an increased interest in the study of the Holy Quran and did not lose track or develop boredom throughout the lectures. They learnt the information and remembered it more effectively. The love for Allah and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) increased significantly. The fear of Allah and love of Heaven developed significantly. Historical facts and the stories of the past nations became clearer and the Greatness of the Creator was strongly felt. Several of attendees wanted to become better Muslims and to spread the knowledge of Islam. In this presentation, the adopted teaching method will be first presented and demonstrated to the audience using a short Surah from the Quran, followed by discussion on the results achieved during our study. We will endeavor to convey to the audience that there is a need to adopt a more scientific approach to teach the Quran so that a greater benefit is achieved by all.

Keywords: The Holy Quran, Muslims, presentations, technology

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89 Translation of the Verbal Nouns (Masadars) Originating from Three-Letter Verbs in the Holy Quran: Verbal Noun with More than One Pattern (Wazn) As a Model

Authors: Montasser Mohamed Abdelwahab Mahmoud, Abdelwahab Saber Esawi

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The language of the Qur’an has a wide range of understanding, reflection, and meanings. Therefore, translation of the Qur’an is inevitably nothing but a translation of the interpretation of the meanings of the Qur’an. It requires special competencies and skills for translators so that they can get close to the intended meaning of the verse of the Qur’an and convey it with precision. In the Arabic language, the verbal noun “AlMasdar” is a very important derivative that properly expresses the verbal idea in the form of a noun. It sounds the same as the base form of the verb with minor changes in the vowel pattern. It is one of the important topics in morphology. The morphologists divided verbal nouns into auditory and analogical, and they stated that that the verbal nouns (Masadars) originating from three-letter verbs are auditory, although they set controls for some of them in order to preserve them. As for the lexicographers, they mentioned the verbal nouns while talking about the lexical materials, and in some cases, their explanation of them exceeded that made by the morphologists, especially in their discussion of structures that the morphologists did not refer to in their books. The verb kafara (disbelief), for example, has three patterns, namely: al-kufْr, al-kufrān, and al-kufūr, and it was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an with different connotations. The verb ṣāma (fasted) with his two patterns (al-ṣaūm and al-ṣīām) was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an while their semantic meaning is different. The problem discussed in this research paper lied in the "linguistic loss" committed by translators when dealing with Islamic religious texts, especially the Qur'an. The study tried to identify the strategy adopted by translators of the Holy Qur'an in translating words that were classified as verbal nouns through analyzing the translation rendered by five translations of the Qur’an into English: Yusuf Ali, Pickthall, Mohsin Khan, Muhammad Sarwar, and Shakir. This study was limited to the verbal nouns in the Quraan that originate from three-letter verbs and have different semantic meanings.

Keywords: pattern, three-letter verbs, translation of the Quran, verbal nouns

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88 God in Jesus, a Daimonion in Socrates and Their Respective Divine Communication

Authors: Yip-Mei Loh

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Jesus and Socrates shared a remarkable gift; a channel of inner spiritual communication, to afford them truthful guidance in their respective religious discourse. Jesus is part of the Trinity; he is the Son, the Son of God. In mortal life he is the son of a carpenter. He called on all peoples to repent of their sins but fell foul of the authorities and was crucified. Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher and the son of an artisan. His mission is to drive the Athenians to investigate truth, but he too incurs the displeasure of fellow citizens, to the extent of execution. The accusations made against them centre around, in Jesus’ case, proclaiming himself the Son of God, with the means to pardon, and in Socrates’, that a daimonion, an inner voice, speaks to him in his heart. Jesus talks with God directly through prayer, as the pneuma of God, i.e. to pneuma to hagion, or Holy Spirit, is with him. Socrates seems to enter what we would now think of as a trance-like condition, wherein he communicates with his inner daimonion, who directs him to take courage on the righteous path.

Keywords: daimonion, God, Holy Spirit, pneuma, truth

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87 Abraham Ibn Ezra on the Torah’s Authorship

Authors: Eran Viezel

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Critical biblical scholarship emerged in the early modern period, yet scholars frequently search for precursors to it among medieval commentators who adopted critical positions—and many mention Abraham Ibn Ezra (Spain–England, 1089–1164/7) in this context. Indeed, in several places, Ibn Ezra claims that there are verses in the Torah that were added to it after the time of Moses; and some major thinkers and scholars in the early modern period (for example, Baruch Spinoza) were aware of these remarks and influenced by them. However, Ibn Ezra’s belief that the Torah includes verses added at a later time is not based on the considerations that led the founders of critical biblical scholarship to their conclusion that Moses did not write the Torah. Ibn Ezra’s positions on the question of the Torah’s authorship are an example of the fact that similarity in conclusions and even in interpretive methodology should not obscure the different interpretive and attitudinal points of departure that distinguish traditional biblical interpretation from a critical biblical scholarship. Ultimately, a chasm exists between the views of Ibn Ezra and those of critical thinkers such as Spinoza.

Keywords: hebrew bible, Abraham Ibn Ezra, exegesis, biblical scholarship

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86 Sound Exposure Effects towards Ross Broilers Growth Rate

Authors: Rashidah Ghazali, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Mashitah Shikh Maidin, Shafishuhaza Sahlan, Noramli Abdul Razak

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Sound exposure effects have been investigated by broadcasting a group of broilers with sound of Quran verses (Group B) whereas the other group is the control broilers (Group C). The growth rate comparisons in terms of weight and raw meat texture measured by shear force have been investigated. Twenty-seven broilers were randomly selected from each group on Day 24 and weight measurement was carried out every week till the harvest day (Day 39). Group B showed a higher mean weight on Day 24 (1.441±0.013 kg) than Group C. Significant difference in the weight on Day 39 existed for Group B compared to Group C (p< 0.05). However, there was no significant (p> 0.05) difference of shear force in the same muscles (breast and drumstick raw meat) of both groups but the shear force of the breast meat for Group B and C broilers was lower (p < 0.05) than that of their drumstick meat. Thus, broadcasting the sound of Quran verses in the coop can be applied to improve the growth rate of broilers for producing better quality poultry.

Keywords: broilers, sound, shear force, weight

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85 Holy Kabah and Holy Mosque: The Journey of Spiritual, Mystical and Social Ascension of Two Slaves of Ethiopia to Represent the Two Holiest Symbols of Islam

Authors: Zawahir Siddique

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The paper explores the philosophical, spiritual, and mystical dimensions of the glorified journey of Hajira and Bilal. The black Ethiopian slave Hajira’s skirt was chosen to cover the first house of God on earth. Hajira was chosen by God as the embodiment of love and submission. The philosophy behind her migration with her child Ismail and wandering between Safa and Marwa in search of water that eventually gushed forth from the feet of Ismail and how God gifted Hajira, Ismail, and the entire humanity with Zamzam needs to be explored. Every year over two million pilgrims assemble and circumambulate around the Holy Kabah during Hajj, and every day, millions of Muslims pray, riveting their faith around Kabah. The significance and mysticism of the central figure of Hajira deserve due attention. Several eras later, the most blessed personality of humanity, Prophet Muhammad, elevated another Ethiopian Slave to the highest honor in the first Mosque of the Prophet of Islam in Medina. The purity of his heart and spiritually captivating voice of Bilal was preferred over his pre-Islamic social status. When the companions of the Prophet questioned the diction and pronunciation of 'SHEEN' by Bilal owing to his African origin, the Prophet immediately corrected them, justifying the purity of Bilal’s heart mattered more and hence Bilal’s 'SEEN' was heard as 'SHEEN' by God Almighty. The journey of Bilal to Islam and his pious and devoted contributions to Islam in the light of spirituality, mysticism, and social reforms are also explored further in this paper.

Keywords: philosophy, spirituality, mysticism, Hajira, Bilal

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84 Poetics of the Connecting ha’: A Textual Study in the Poetry of Al-Husari Al-Qayrawani

Authors: Mahmoud al-Ashiriy

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This paper begins from the idea that the real history of literature is the history of its style. And since the rhyme –as known- is not merely the last letter, that have received a lot of analysis and investigation, but it is a collection of other values in addition to its different markings. This paper will explore the work of the connecting ha’ and its effectiveness in shaping the text of poetry, since it establishes vocal rhythms in addition to its role in indicating references through the pronoun, vertically through the poem through the sequence of its verses, also horizontally through what environs the one verse of sentences. If the scientific formation of prosody stopped at the possibilities and prohibitions; literary criticism and poetry studies should explore what is above the rule of aesthetic horizon of poetic effectiveness that varies from a text to another, a poet to another, a literary period to another, or from a poetic taste to another. Then the paper will explore this poetic essence in the texts of the famous Andalusian Poet Al-Husari Al-Qayrawani through his well-known Daliyya (a poem that its verses end with the letter D), and the role of the connecting ha’ in fulfilling its text and the accomplishment of its poetics, departing from this to the diwan (the big collection of poems) also as a higher text that surpasses the text/poem, and through what it represents of effectiveness the work of the phenomenon in accomplishing the poetics of the poem of Al-Husari Al-Qayrawani who is one of the pillars of Arabic poetics in Andalusia.

Keywords: Al-Husari Al-Qayrawni, poetics, rhyme, stylistics, science of the text

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83 Diversification of Productivity of the Oxfordian Subtidal Carbonate Factory in the Holy Cross Mountains

Authors: Radoslaw Lukasz Staniszewski

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to verify lateral extent and thickness variability of individual limestone layers within early-Jurassic medium- and thick-bedded limestone interbedded with marlstones. Location: The main research area is located in the south-central part of Poland in the south-western part of Permo-Mesozoic margin of the Holy Cross Mountains. It includes outcroppings located on the line between Mieczyn and Wola Morawicka. The analyses were carried out on six profiles (Mieczyn, Gniezdziska, Tokarnia, Wola Morawicka, Morawica and Wolica) representing three early-Jurassic links: Jasna Gora layers, grey limestone, Morawica limestone. Additionally, an attempt was made to correlate the thickness sequence from the Holy Cross Mountains to the profile from the quarry in Zawodzie located 3 km east of Czestochowa. The distance between the outermost profiles is 122 km in a straight line. Methodology of research: The Callovian-Oxfordian border was taken as the reference point during the correlation. At the same time, ammonite-based stratigraphic studies were carried out, which allowed to identify individual packages in the remote outcroppings. The analysis of data collected during fieldwork was mainly devoted to the correlation of thickness sequences of limestone layers in subsequent profiles. In order to check the objectivity of the subsequent outcroppings, the profiles have been presented in the form of the thickness functions of the subsequent layers. The generated functions were auto-correlated, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. The next step in the research was to statistically determine the percentage increment of the individual layers thickness in the subsequent profiles, and on this basis to plot the function of relative carbonate productivity. Results: The result of the above-mentioned procedures consists in illustrating the extent of 34 rock layers across the examined area in demonstrating the repeatability of their success in subsequent outcroppings. It can also be observed that the thickness of individual layers in the Holy Cross Mountains is increasing from north-west towards south-east. Despite changes in the thickness of the layers in the profiles, their relations within the sequence remain constant. The lowest matching ratio of thickness sequence calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient formula is 0.67, while the highest is 0.84. The thickness of individual layers changes between 4% and 230% over the examined area. Interpretation: Layers in the outcroppings covered by the research show continuity throughout the examined area and it is possible to precisely correlate them, which means that the process determining the formation of the layers was regional and probably included both the fringe of the Holy Cross Mountains and the north-eastern part of the Krakow-Czestochowa Jura Upland. Local changes in the sedimentation environment affecting the productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory only cause the thickness of the layers to change without altering the thickness proportions of the profiles. Based on the percentage of changes in the thickness of individual layers in the subsequent profiles, it can be concluded that the local productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory is increasing logarithmically.

Keywords: Oxfordian, Holy Cross Mountains, carbonate factory, Limestone

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82 The Loss of Oral Performative Semantic Influence of the Qur'an in Its Translations

Authors: Alalddin Al-Tarawneh

Abstract:

In its literal translation, the Qur’an is frequently subject to misinterpretation as a result of failures to deliver its meaning into any language. This paper relies on the genuine aspect that the Qur’an is an oral performance in its nature; and the objective of any Qur’an translation is to deliver its meaning in English. Therefore, it approaches the translation of the Qur’an beyond the usual formal linguistic approach in order to include an extra-textual factor. This factor is the recitation or oral performance of the Qur’an, that is, tajweed as it is termed in Arabic. The translations used in this paper to apply the suggested approach were carefully chosen to be representative of the problems that exist in many Qur’an translations. These translations are The Meaning of the Holy Quran: Translation and Commentary by Ali (1989), The Meaning of the Glorious Koran by Pickthall (1997/1930), and The Quran: Arabic Text with Corresponding English Meanings by Sahih (2010). Through the examples cited in this paper, it is suggested that the agents involved in producing a ‘translation’ of the Holy Qur’an have to take into account its oral aspect which yields additional senses and meanings that are not being captured by adhering to the words of the ‘written’ discourse. This paper attempts in its translation into English.

Keywords: oral performance, tajweed, Qur'an translation, recitation

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81 Hermeneutics: Comparative Study of Shri Guru Granth Sahib's Schools of Interpretation

Authors: Amandeep Kaur

Abstract:

All religions enlighten truth which provides spiritual tranquility. But, the language of these holy books is not easy to understand because these have divine language. That's why hermeneutical Study is necessary to understand these Scriptures. There is a separate theoretical framework to study all the disciplines of language, literature, religion etc. Similarly the discipline of interpretation has its own theoretical framework known as hermeneutics. It is a science of interpretation that put forward the best ways and methods of interpretation. But in this modern world, hermeneutics is considered as a theoretical-cum-philosophical discipline. It is vast study of understanding texts. Hermeneutics is especially related to the study of religious scriptures like the Bible, the Qur'an, the Vedas and the Shri Guru Granth Sahib and many more. It is mainly the Western concept which has a great old tradition because it used the Bible as the foremost holy scripture for definition and interpretation. The Discipline of the Indian hermeneutics was led by Mimamsa School. The reference of the word hermeneutics in works of Ancient Greek philosophers indicates towards the antiquity of this word. Shri Guru Granth Sahib's schools of interpretation like Udasi, Nirmala, Sevapanthi and Gyani came into existence to interpret the discourse of Shri Guru Granth Sahib. These are sects of Sikhism and have great contribution to interpret and preach Guru Granth Sahib's revelation. This research paper will represent the comparative study of these sects methods, tools and styles of interpreting the meaning of this holy book. Interpretation is basically textual based process. So, all these schools have chosen Guru Granth Sahib for textual study. Some of the schools have done a whole interpretation of Guru Granth Sahib. But, some of them have done only interpretation of prominent banies i.e Japuji Sahib, Anand Sahib, Assa-di-war etc. This study will also throw lights on sect's historical background and contribution. At last conclusion of this paper is that all the schools have done gurbani interpretation according to their own philosophical and theological point of view. These schools have many similarities and differences among their way of interpretation. It will be discussed briefly.

Keywords: Gyani, hermeneutics, Mimamsa, Nirmala, Sevapanthi, Udasi

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80 Linguistic Analysis of Holy Scriptures: A Comparative Study of Islamic Jurisprudence and the Western Hermeneutical Tradition

Authors: Sana Ammad

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The tradition of linguistic analysis in Islam and Christianity has developed independently of each other in lieu of the social developments specific to their historical context. However, recently increasing number of Muslim academics educated in the West have tried to apply the Western tradition of linguistic interpretation to the Qur’anic text while completely disregarding the Islamic linguistic tradition used and developed by the traditional scholars over the centuries. The aim of the paper is to outline the linguistic tools and methods used by the traditional Islamic scholars for the purpose of interpretating the Holy Qur’an and shed light on how they contribute towards a better understanding of the text compared to their Western counterparts. This paper carries out a descriptive-comparative study of the linguistic tools developed and perfected by the traditional scholars in Islam for the purpose of textual analysis of the Qur’an as they have been described in the authentic works of Usul Al Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and the principles of textual analysis employed by the Western hermeneutical tradition for the study of the Bible. First, it briefly outlines the independent historical development of the two traditions emphasizing the final normative shape that they have taken. Then it draws a comparison of the two traditions highlighting the similarities and the differences existing between them. In the end, the paper demonstrates the level of academic excellence achieved by the traditional linguistic scholars in their efforts to develop appropriate tools of textual interpretation and how these tools are more suitable for interpreting the Qur’an compared to the Western principles. Since the aim of interpreters of both the traditions is to try and attain an objective understanding of the Scriptures, the emphasis of the paper shall be to highlight how well the Islamic method of linguistic interpretation contributes to an objective understanding of the Qur’anic text. The paper concludes with the following findings: The Western hermeneutical tradition of linguistic analysis developed within the Western historical context. However, the Islamic method of linguistic analysis is much more highly developed and complex and serves better the purpose of objective understanding of the Holy text.

Keywords: Islamic jurisprudence, linguistic analysis, textual interpretation, western hermeneutics

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79 Passion Songs in Sri Lanka with Special Reference to Village Wahakotte

Authors: Niroshi Senevirathne

Abstract:

The history of Pasan Gee (Passion Songs) relates back to the Portuguese Colonial period (1505-1658) in Sri Lanka. It is about chants on the passion of Christ during the Lent period which is repentance for Christians lasting for 40 days. Among the other villages in Sri Lanka, Wahakotte, which is situated in Matale district, Central Province is famous for their traditional Pasan melodies. It is a village where both Christians and Buddhists live. King Rajasinghe II of Kandy, who fought against the Portuguese, allowed the captives to settle down in Wahakotte. These people fairer in complexion have assimilated themselves with locals. Pasan singing in Wahakotte is a significant event and it is influenced by traditional folk music melodies such as “Nelum Gee” (harvesting songs) sung by farmers of Matale, Welapum Gee (Lamantation songs) sung at funerals in Sri Lanka and Buddhist Pirith chanting melodies. Prose of Pasan verses are included in the book named “Deshana namaye Pasan potha” (Nine Sermon Passion Book), written by Fr. Jacome Gonsalvez. The verses are composed with Sinhala and with some Tamil words. These songs are transmitted from generation to generation in an oral tradition. Today, chanting of Pasan is not heard in many Catholic areas during the lent season. Some of them have been recorded in cassette form. This research should aim to protect these traditional Passion songs unique to village Wahakotte of Sri Lanka without changing its character and original melodies.

Keywords: influence of folk melodies, passion songs, preserving traditional passion songs, traditional passion melodies

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78 Research Study on the Concept of Unity of Ummah and Its Sources in the Light of Islamic Teachings

Authors: Ghazi Abdul Rehman Qasmi

Abstract:

Islam is the preacher and torch-bearer of unity and solidarity. All the followers of Islam are advised to be united. Islam strongly condemns those elements which disunite the unity of Muslim Ummah. Like pearls in a rosary, Islam has united the Muslims from all over the world in the wreath of unity and forbade the Muslims to avoid separation and to be disintegrated. The aspect of unity is prominent in all divine injunctions and about worship. By offering five times obligatory congregational prayers, passion of mutual love and affection is increased and on the auspicious days like Friday, Eid-ul-fiter and Eid-ul-azha, majority of the Muslims come together at central places to offer these congregational prayers. Thus unity and harmony among the Muslims can be seen. Similarly the Muslim pilgrims from all over the world eliminate all kind of worldly discrimination to perform many rituals of pilgrimage while wearing white color cloth as a dress. Pilgrimage is a demonstration of Islamic strength. When the Muslims from all over the world perform the same activities together and they offer their prayers under the leadership of one leader (IMAM). Muslims come together on the occasion of pilgrimage to perform Tawaf (seven circuits,first three circuits at a hurried pace(Rammal) and followed by four times, more closely, at a leisurely pace, round the Holy Kaabah to perform circumambulation known as Tawaf in religious terminology,Saee(running or walking briskly seven times between two small hills Safa&Marwa), Ramy-al-jamarat (throwing pebbles at the stone pillars, symbolizing the devil). In this way dignity and sublimity of Islam is increased and unity and integrity of Muslim Ummah is promoted also. By studying the life history of Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) we come to know that our Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) has put emphasis on unity and integrity. We have to follow the Islamic teachings to create awareness among the members of Muslim Ummah. In the light of the Holy Quran and Sunnah, we have to utilize all the sources and potential for this noble cause.

Keywords: unity, Ummah, sources, Islamic teaching

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77 Glimpses into the History of Makkah in the Light of Archaeological Finds

Authors: Heba Aboul-Enein

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The blessed Mecca (Makkah) has been attacked as a city without a pre-Islamic history. Many claims have been posited denying the historicity of this holy city, and mythicizing Arabic historical records. Hence, the current paper attempted to shed light on this controversial history of Makkah. To achieve the intended objective, the study recoursed to archaeological, historical, and linguistic evidence, to prove that the holy city existed since the dawn of human history. The data under study include the results of recent excavations; archaeological surveys in Saudi Arabia, academic works of archaeologists, newspaper reports of the latest archaeological discoveries, and the findings of Saudi explorers. In addition, the study examined ancient and contemporary references; western accounts of Makkah, the bible, Jewish, Christian, Islamic, and Arabic references, in an effort to reconcile these texts with the archeological findings. The paper also reviewed the latest results of aerial archeology of the region. The study proved based on archaeological finds, and contrary to fallacious claims, that Makkah is an ancient city that existed and was inhabited by humans in varied historical eras.

Keywords: aerial archaeology, archaeological finds in the Makkan region, archaeological surveys, Western, Jewish and Islamic accounts of Makkah

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