Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Rashidah Ghazali

30 Transformative Concept of Logic to Islamic Science: Reflections on Al-Ghazālī's Influence

Authors: Umar Sheikh Tahir

Abstract:

Before al-Ghazālī, Islamic scholars perceived logic as an intrusive knowledge. The knowledge therefore, did not receive ample attention among scholars on how it should be adapted into Islamic sciences. General scholarship in that period rejects logic as an instrumental knowledge. This attitude became unquestionable to the scholars from different perspectives with diversification of suggestions in the pre-al-Ghazālī’s period. However, al-Ghazālī proclaimed with new perspective that transform Logic from ‘intrusive knowledge’ to a useful tool for Islamic sciences. This study explores the contributions of al-Ghazālī to epistemology regarding the use and the relevance of Logic. The study applies qualitative research methodology dealing strictly with secondary data from medieval age and contemporary sources. The study concludes that al-Ghazālī’s contributions which supported the transformation of Logic to useful tool in the Muslim world were drawn from his experience within Islamic tradition. He succeeded in reconciling Islamic tradition with the wisdom of Greek sciences.

Keywords: Al-Ghazālī, classical logic, epistemology, Islamdom and Islamic sciences

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29 Free Fatty Acid Assessment of Crude Palm Oil Using a Non-Destructive Approach

Authors: Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of prediction models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this study, 110 crude palm oil (CPO) samples were used to build a free fatty acid (FFA) prediction model. 60% of the collected data were used for training purposes and the remaining 40% used for testing. The visible peaks on the NIR spectrum were at 1725 nm and 1760 nm, indicating the existence of the first overtone of C-H bands. Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to the data in order to build this mathematical prediction model. The optimal number of principal components was 10. The results showed R2=0.7147 for the training set and R2=0.6404 for the testing set.

Keywords: palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS, regression

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28 Sound Exposure Effects towards Ross Broilers Growth Rate

Authors: Rashidah Ghazali, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Mashitah Shikh Maidin, Shafishuhaza Sahlan, Noramli Abdul Razak

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Sound exposure effects have been investigated by broadcasting a group of broilers with sound of Quran verses (Group B) whereas the other group is the control broilers (Group C). The growth rate comparisons in terms of weight and raw meat texture measured by shear force have been investigated. Twenty-seven broilers were randomly selected from each group on Day 24 and weight measurement was carried out every week till the harvest day (Day 39). Group B showed a higher mean weight on Day 24 (1.441±0.013 kg) than Group C. Significant difference in the weight on Day 39 existed for Group B compared to Group C (p< 0.05). However, there was no significant (p> 0.05) difference of shear force in the same muscles (breast and drumstick raw meat) of both groups but the shear force of the breast meat for Group B and C broilers was lower (p < 0.05) than that of their drumstick meat. Thus, broadcasting the sound of Quran verses in the coop can be applied to improve the growth rate of broilers for producing better quality poultry.

Keywords: broilers, sound, shear force, weight

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27 Linear Prediction System in Measuring Glucose Level in Blood

Authors: Intan Maisarah Abd Rahim, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali

Abstract:

Diabetes is a medical condition that can lead to various diseases such as stroke, heart disease, blindness and obesity. In clinical practice, the concern of the diabetic patients towards the blood glucose examination is rather alarming as some of the individual describing it as something painful with pinprick and pinch. As for some patient with high level of glucose level, pricking the fingers multiple times a day with the conventional glucose meter for close monitoring can be tiresome, time consuming and painful. With these concerns, several non-invasive techniques were used by researchers in measuring the glucose level in blood, including ultrasonic sensor implementation, multisensory systems, absorbance of transmittance, bio-impedance, voltage intensity, and thermography. This paper is discussing the application of the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-invasive method in measuring the glucose level and the implementation of the linear system identification model in predicting the output data for the NIR measurement. In this study, the wavelengths considered are at the 1450 nm and 1950 nm. Both of these wavelengths showed the most reliable information on the glucose presence in blood. Then, the linear Autoregressive Moving Average Exogenous model (ARMAX) model with both un-regularized and regularized methods was implemented in predicting the output result for the NIR measurement in order to investigate the practicality of the linear system in this study. However, the result showed only 50.11% accuracy obtained from the system which is far from the satisfying results that should be obtained.

Keywords: diabetes, glucose level, linear, near-infrared, non-invasive, prediction system

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26 Managers’ Mobile Information Behavior in an Openness Paradigm Era

Authors: Abd Latif Abdul Rahman, Zuraidah Arif, Muhammad Faizal Iylia, Mohd Ghazali, Asmadi Mohammed Ghazali

Abstract:

Mobile information is a significant access point for human information activities. Theories and models of human information behavior have developed over several decades but have not yet considered the role of the user’s computing device in digital information interactions. This paper reviews the literature that leads to developing a conceptual framework of a study on the managers mobile information behavior. Based on the literature review, dimensions of mobile information behavior are identified, namely, dimension information needs, dimension information access, information retrieval and dimension of information use. The study is significant to understand the nature of librarians’ behavior in searching, retrieving and using information via the mobile device. Secondly, the study would provide suggestions about various kinds of mobile applications which organization can provide for their staff to improve their services.

Keywords: mobile information behavior, information behavior, mobile information, mobile devices

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25 The Incoherence of the Philosophers as a Defense of Philosophy against Theology

Authors: Edward R. Moad

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Al-Ghazali’s Tahāfat al Falāsifa is widely construed as an attack on philosophy in favor of theological fideism. Consequently, he has been blamed for ‘death of philosophy’ in the Muslim world. ‘Falsifa’ however is not philosophy itself, but rather a range of philosophical doctrines mainly influenced by or inherited form Greek thought. In these terms, this work represents a defense of philosophy against what we could call ‘falsifical’ fideism. In the introduction, Ghazali describes his target audience as, not the falasifa, but a group of pretenders engaged in taqlid to a misconceived understanding of falasifa, including the belief that they were capable of demonstrative certainty in the field of metaphysics. He promises to use falsifa standards of logic (with which he independently agrees), to show that that the falasifa failed to demonstratively prove many of their positions. Whether or not he succeeds in that, the exercise of subjecting alleged proofs to critical scrutiny is quintessentially philosophical, while uncritical adherence to a doctrine, in the name of its being ‘philosophical’, is decidedly unphilosophical. If we are to blame the intellectual decline of the Muslim world on someone’s ‘bad’ way of thinking, rather than more material historical circumstances (which is already a mistake), then blame more appropriately rests with modernist Muslim thinkers who, under the influence of orientalism (and like Ghazali’s philosophical pretenders) mistook taqlid to the falasifa as philosophy itself. The discussion of the Tahāfut takes place in the context of an epistemic (and related social) hierarchy envisioned by the falasifa, corresponding to the faculties of the sense, the ‘estimative imagination’ (wahm), and the pure intellect, along with the respective forms of discourse – rhetoric, dialectic, and demonstration – appropriate to each category of that order. Al-Farabi in his Book of Letters describes a relation between dialectic and demonstration on the one hand, and theology and philosophy on the other. The latter two are distinguished by method rather than subject matter. Theology is that which proceeds dialectically, while philosophy is (or aims to be?) demonstrative. Yet, Al-Farabi tells us, dialectic precedes philosophy like ‘nourishment for the tree precedes its fruit.’ That is, dialectic is part of the process, by which we interrogate common and imaginative notions in the pursuit of clearly understood first principles that we can then deploy in the demonstrative argument. Philosophy is, therefore, something we aspire to through, and from a discursive condition of, dialectic. This stands in apparent contrast to the understanding of Ibn Sina, for whom one arrives at the knowledge of first principles through contact with the Active Intellect. It also stands in contrast to that of Ibn Rushd, who seems to think our knowledge of first principles can only come through reading Aristotle. In conclusion, based on Al-Farabi’s framework, Ghazali’s Tahafut is a truly an exercise in philosophy, and an effort to keep the door open for true philosophy in the Muslim mind, against the threat of a kind of developing theology going by the name of falsifa.

Keywords: philosophy, incoherence, theology, Tahafut

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24 Effect of Span 60, Labrasol, and Cholesterol on Labisia pumila Loaded Niosomes Quality

Authors: H. Binti Ya’akob, C. Siew Chin, A. Abd Aziz, I. Ware, M. Fauzi Abd Jalil, N. Rashidah Ahmed, R. Sabtu

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Labisia pumila (LP) plant extract has the potential to be applied in cosmeceutical products due to its anti-photoaging properties. The main purpose of this study was to improve transdermal delivery of LP by encapsulating LP in niosomes. Niosomes loaded LPs were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using non-ionic surfactant (Span 60), labrasol, and cholesterol. The optimum formula obtained were Span 60, labrasol and cholesterol at the mole ratio of 6:1:4. At the optimum formulation, the niosome obtained significantly improved the quality of transdermal penetration of LP compared to free LP.

Keywords: Labisia pumila, niosomes, transdermal, quality

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23 Subclasses of Bi-Univalent Functions Associated with Hohlov Operator

Authors: Rashidah Omar, Suzeini Abdul Halim, Aini Janteng

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The coefficients estimate problem for Taylor-Maclaurin series is still an open problem especially for a function in the subclass of bi-univalent functions. A function f ϵ A is said to be bi-univalent in the open unit disk D if both f and f-1 are univalent in D. The symbol A denotes the class of all analytic functions f in D and it is normalized by the conditions f(0) = f’(0) – 1=0. The class of bi-univalent is denoted by  The subordination concept is used in determining second and third Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients. The upper bound for second and third coefficients is estimated for functions in the subclasses of bi-univalent functions which are subordinated to the function φ. An analytic function f is subordinate to an analytic function g if there is an analytic function w defined on D with w(0) = 0 and |w(z)| < 1 satisfying f(z) = g[w(z)]. In this paper, two subclasses of bi-univalent functions associated with Hohlov operator are introduced. The bound for second and third coefficients of functions in these subclasses is determined using subordination. The findings would generalize the previous related works of several earlier authors.

Keywords: analytic functions, bi-univalent functions, Hohlov operator, subordination

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22 Blood Glucose Measurement and Analysis: Methodology

Authors: I. M. Abd Rahim, H. Abdul Rahim, R. Ghazali

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There is numerous non-invasive blood glucose measurement technique developed by researchers, and near infrared (NIR) is the potential technique nowadays. However, there are some disagreements on the optimal wavelength range that is suitable to be used as the reference of the glucose substance in the blood. This paper focuses on the experimental data collection technique and also the analysis method used to analyze the data gained from the experiment. The selection of suitable linear and non-linear model structure is essential in prediction system, as the system developed need to be conceivably accurate.

Keywords: linear, near-infrared (NIR), non-invasive, non-linear, prediction system

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21 Plastic Pipe Defect Detection Using Nonlinear Acoustic Modulation

Authors: Gigih Priyandoko, Mohd Fairusham Ghazali, Tan Siew Fun

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This paper discusses about the defect detection of plastic pipe by using nonlinear acoustic wave modulation method. It is a sensitive method for damage detection and it is based on the propagation of high frequency acoustic waves in plastic pipe with low frequency excitation. The plastic pipe is excited simultaneously with a slow amplitude modulated vibration pumping wave and a constant amplitude probing wave. The frequency of both the excitation signals coincides with the resonances of the plastic pipe. A PVP pipe is used as the specimen as it is commonly used for the conveyance of liquid in many fields. The results obtained are being observed and the difference between uncracked specimen and cracked specimen can be distinguished clearly.

Keywords: plastic pipe, defect detection, nonlinear acoustic modulation, excitation

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20 Dividend Policy, Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

Authors: Richard Fairchild, Abdullah Al-Ghazali, Yilmaz Guney

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This study analyses the relationship between managerial overconfidence, dividends, and firm value by developing theoretical models that examine the condition under which managerial overconfident, dividends, and firm value may be positive or negative. Furthermore, the models incorporate moral hazard, in terms of managerial effort shirking, and the potential for the manager to choose negative NPV projects, due to private benefits. Our models demonstrate that overconfidence can lead to higher dividends (when the manager is overconfident about his current ability) or lower dividends (when the manager is overconfident about his future ability). The models also demonstrate that higher overconfidence may result in an increase or a decrease in firm value. Numerical examples are illustrated for both models which interestingly support the models’ propositions.

Keywords: behavioural corporate finance, dividend policy, overconfidence, moral hazard

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19 Isolation, Characterization and Biological Activities of Compounds Isolated from Callicarpa maingayi

Authors: Muhammad A. Ado, Intan S. Ismail, Hasanah M. Ghazali, Faridah Abas

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In this study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents of soluble fractions of dichloromethane (DCM) of methanolic leaves extract of the Callicarpa maingayi. The phytochemicals investigation has resulted in the isolation of three triterpenoids (euscaphic acid (1), arjunic acid (2), and ursolic acid (3)) together with two flavones apigenin (4) and acacetin (5)), two phytosterols (stigmasterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (6) and sitosterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (7)), and one fatty acid (n-hexacosanoic acid (8)). Six (6) compounds isolated from this species were isolated for the first time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8). Their structures were elucidated and identified by spectral methods of one and two-dimensional NMR techniques, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and comparison with the previously reported literature. The biological activity of three compounds (1-3) was carried out on acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity. Compound (3) was found to displayed good inhibition against AChE with an IC₅₀ value of 21.5 ± 0.022 μM.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, Callicarpa maingayi, euscaphic acid, ursolic acid

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18 The Roles of Aesthetics and Information Quality on Intention to Continued Used of Digital Library within the Context of UTAUT2

Authors: Shahruhaida Adayu Mohd Paili, Abd Latif Abdul Rahman, Asmadi Mohammed Ghazali

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Digital library was developed by many organizations, especially universities. The digital library can be considered as a new information system. Digital library brings many benefits to the users. There are many researches that have investigated the importance of the digital library, the acceptance, and continuance use of digital library. The investigation towards the digital library is important and it is crucial to understand the reason why users accept and continued use of digital library. Users can search the information and available resources through the digital library website. It is important to know the user’s perception towards the aesthetics of the digital library. Besides that, because of digital library provided information to the users, the researcher also needed to investigate the quality of information in digital library. This study used Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) in order to know the user’s intention to continued use of digital library.

Keywords: digital library, aesthetics, information quality, intention to continued use of digital library, UTAUT2

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17 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani

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Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, Respectively.

Keywords: empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal property

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16 Empowering Rural Women Entrepreneurs via Microcredit

Authors: Salwana Hassan, Rashidah Abdul Rahman

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Poverty in rural Malaysia remains unresolved and contribute 7.8% to the whole poverty figure in Malaysia. Among the rural folks, 50% is women. Thus, women, as the significant human capital to fight the long lost battle of poverty , is indispensable. This will also serve as an equal opportunity for women to play active and positive roles to develop the society that has been the tasks for men all this while. More importantly rural women folks have the potential to offer better quality of life for their family by providing extra income and monetary support whenever their husbands are not able to work. The reality in this, however, cannot be solved easily as there are many factors that stand in the way and prevent the resolutions to be observed.In this regard, this paper describes a model that has been used to resolve such issues in rural Malaysia. The model utilizes a synergetic effort between an academic institution, an NGO that govern the rural women folks and a private trading company that sell the finished product. The project was conducted in rural area of Selangor and has been in operations since the end of 2013. It shows positive outcome and could be used in other rural areas of Malaysia. The project captures the influence of the NGO programs upon rural women entrepreneurship and how a private trading company can facilitate to help develop a community. As a result the project reveals that self-income generating activities by entrepreneurship are the important contributing factor to empowering rural women folks in Malaysia.

Keywords: poverty, empowerment, rural, entrepreneurship, community

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15 Numerical Investigation the Effect of Adjustable Guide Vane for Improving the Airflow Rate in Axial Fans

Authors: Behzad Shahizare, N. Nik-Ghazali, Kannan M. Munisamy, Seyedsaeed Tabatabaeikia

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The main objective of this study is to clarify the effect of the adjustable outlet guide vane (OGV) on the axial fan. Three-dimensional Numerical study was performed to analyze the effect of adjustable guide vane for improving the airflow rate in axial fans. Grid independence test was done between five different meshes in order to choose the reliable mesh. In flow analyses, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations was solved using three types of turbulence models named k-ɛ, k-ω and k-ω SST. The aerodynamic performances of the fan and guide vane were evaluated. Numerical method was validated by comparing with experimental test according to AMECA 210 standard. Results showed that, by using the adjustable guide vane the airflow rate is increased around 3% to 6 %. The maximum enhancement of the airflow rate was achieved when pressure was 374pa.

Keywords: axial fan, adjustable guide vane, CFD, turbo machinery

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14 Impact Modified Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(Lactic) Acid Composite

Authors: Mohammad D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Abdullah A. Mamun

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In this study, composites were fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(lactic) acid by extrusion followed by injection moulding. Surface of the fiber was pre-treated by ultrasound in an alkali medium and treatment efficiency was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Effect of fiber treatment on composite was characterized by tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM) and impact strength (IS). Furthermore, biostrong impact modifier was incorporated into the treated fiber composite to improve its impact properties. Mechanical testing showed an improvement of up to 23.5% and 33.6% respectively for TS and TM of treated fiber composite above untreated fiber composite. On the other hand incorporation of impact modifier led to enhancement of about 20% above the initial IS of the treated fiber composite.

Keywords: fiber treatment, impact modifier, natural fibers, ultrasound

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13 The Influence of Leader’s Sources of Power on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohamed Yunus, Noorlaila Yunus, Kadulliah Ghazali

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In this an era of intense competition, Malaysia aspires to be a fully developed country by 2020 and desires its citizens to perform and execute excellent work behaviors. For that reason, organizations are focusing on employees’ positive and constructive behaviors such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). They expect employees to not only complete their required duties by providing excellent performance but also keenly go beyond their roles that are not specifying in their formal job descriptions to ensure organizational success. The role and duty to acquire employees to engage and connect in OCB is the responsibility of a leader. Thus, leaders can utilize their sources of power to enable subordinates to accomplish organizational objective including OCB. Therefore, this paper formulates a framework postulating leader’s sources of power as an antecedent of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The discussion on implications for future theory development is discussed.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), leader’s sources of power, call centre industry, conceptual paper

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12 Effects of Enzymatic Liquefaction on the Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Zn-Amaranth (Amaranthus viridis) Puree

Authors: M. A. Siti Faridah, K. Muhammad, H. M. Ghazali, Y. A. Yusof

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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of three variables namely types of cell wall degrading enzymes (Viscozyme L, Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Rapidase PAC, Rohament CL and Rohapect PTE) at varying concentrations (0.25-3% v/w) and times (30 min-24 h) on the zinc (Zn-) amaranth purees. Liquefaction treatment of the Zn-amaranth purees with Viscozyme (1% v/w at pH 5 and 45ºC for 3 h) was found to be the best procedure, which produced Zn-amaranth puree with low viscosity (8.60 mPas). Zn-amaranth purees were also found to have the highest metallo-chlorophyll derivative contents (0.16 mg/g), free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) values (12.49 mM (TE)/g fresh weight) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values (4.57 mM (TE)/g fresh weight) within 3 h of liquefaction. Other physicochemical properties of the enzyme-liquefied Zn-amaranth purees indicated that lightness (L*) (12.54), greenness a*/b* (-0.30), reducing sugar (103.88 mg/mL) and soluble dietary fibre (5.94%) of the purees were higher compared to that of nonenzyme-liquefied amaranth purees.

Keywords: amaranth, antioxidant, chlorophyll derivative, enzymatic liquefaction

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11 Discussing Concept Gratitude of Muslim Consumers Based on Islamic Law: A Confirmation on the Theory of Consumer Satisfaction through Imam Al-Ghazali's Thought

Authors: Suprihatin Soewarto

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The background of writing this paper is to assess the truth of rejection of some Muslim scholars who develop Islamic economics on the concept of consumer satisfaction and replace it with the concept of maslahah. In the perspective of Islamic law, this rejection attitude needs to be verified in order to know the accuracy of the replacement of this concept of satisfaction with maslahah as part of consumer behavior. This is done so that replacement of rejection of the term satisfaction with maslahah is objective. This objective replacement of the term will surely be more enlightening and more just than the subjective substitution. Therefore the writing of this paper aims to get an answer whether the concept of satisfaction needs to be replaced? is it possible for Islamic law to confirm the theory of consumer satisfaction? The method of writing this paper using the method of literature with a critical analysis approach. The results of this study is an explanation of the similarities and differences of consumer satisfaction theory and consumer theory maslahah according to Islamic law. disclosure of the concept of consumer gratitude according to Islamic law and its implementation in Muslim consumer demand theory.

Keywords: consumer's gratitude, islamic law, confirmation, satisfaction consumer's

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10 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Nishat, Ahmad Ghazali

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This study empirically inspects the corporate governance and firm performance, and attempts to analyze the corporate governance and control related variables which are hypothesized to have effect on firm’s performance. Current study attempts to assess the mechanism and efficiency of corporate governance to achieve high level performance for the listed firms on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) for the period 2005 to 2008. To evaluate the firm performance level this study investigate the firm performance using three measures; Return on assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q. To check the link between firm performances with the corporate governance three categories of corporate governance variables are tested which includes governance, ownership and control related variables. Fixed effect regression model is used to examine the relation among governance and corporate performance for 267 KSE listed Pakistani firms. The result shows that governance related variables like block shareholding by individuals have positive impact on firm performance. When chief executive officer is also the board chairperson then it is observed that performance of firm is adversely affected. Also negative relationship is found between share held by insiders and performance of firm. Leverage has negative influence on the firm performance and size of firm is positively related with performance of the firm.

Keywords: corporate governance, agency cost, KSE, ROA, Tobin’s Q

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9 Firm Performance and Evolving Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Nishat, Ahmad Ghazali

Abstract:

This study empirically examines the corporate governance and firm performance, and tries to evaluate the governance, ownership and control related variables which are hypothesized to affect on firms performance. This study tries to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanism to achieve high level performance among companies listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) over the period from 2005 to 2008. To measure the firm performance level this research uses three measures of performance; Return on assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q. To link the performance of firms with the corporate governance three categories of corporate governance variables are tested which includes governance, ownership and control related variables. Fixed effect regression model is used to test the link between corporate governance and firm performance for 267 KSE listed Pakistani firms. The result shows that corporate governance variables such as percentage block holding by individuals have positive impact on firm performance. When CEO is also the chairperson of board then it is found that firm performance is adversely affected. Also negative relationship is found between share held by insiders and performance of firm. Leverage has negative impact on the performance of the firm and firm size is positively related with the firms performance.

Keywords: corporate governance, performance, agency cost, Karachi stock market

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8 Hydroxyapatite from Biowaste for the Reinforcement of Polymer

Authors: John O. Akindoyo, M. D. H. Beg, Suriati Binti Ghazali, Nitthiyah Jeyaratnam

Abstract:

Regeneration of bone due to the many health challenges arising from traumatic effects of bone loss, bone tumours and other bone infections is fast becoming indispensable. Over the period of time, some approaches have been undertaken to mitigate this challenge. This includes but not limited to xenografts, allografts, autografts as well as artificial substitutions like bioceramics, synthetic cements and metals. However, most of these techniques often come along with peculiar limitation and problems such as morbidity, availability, disease transmission, collateral site damage or absolute rejection by the body as the case may be. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is very compatible and suitable for this application. However, most of the common methods for HA synthesis are expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Extraction of HA from bio-wastes have been perceived not only to be cost effective, but also environment-friendly. In this research, HA was produced from bio-waste: namely bovine bones through a combination of hydrothermal chemical processes and ordinary calcination techniques. Structure and property of the HA was carried out through different characterization techniques (such as TGA, FTIR, DSC, XRD and BET). The synthesized HA was found to possess similar properties to stoichiometric HA with highly desirable thermal, degradation, structural and porous properties. This material is unique for its potential minimal cost, environmental friendliness and property controllability. It is also perceived to be suitable for tissue and bone engineering applications.

Keywords: biomaterial, biopolymer, bone, hydroxyapatite

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7 Development of Risk-Based Decision-Making Framework for Batu Dam, Malaysia

Authors: Wan Noorul Hafilah Wan Ariffin, Lariyah Sidek, Marufuzzaman Mohammad , Hidayah Basri, Nor Hisham M. Ghazali, Md. Nasir Md. Noh, Mohd Azmi Ismai, Adrian M. Torres

Abstract:

The dam safety management is the crucial infrastructure as the dam failure has a catastrophic effect on the community. The dam safety management is the effective framework of key actions and activities to the dam owner to manage the safety of the dam for its entire life cycle. However, maintaining dam safety is a challenging task as there are changes in current dam states. These changes introduce new risks to the dam safety which have not been considered when the dam was designed. A new framework has to be developed to adapt to the changes in the dam risk and make the dams resilient. This study proposes a risk-based decision-making adaptation framework for dam safety management. The research focuses on climate change's impact on hydrological situations as it causes floods and damages the dam structure. The risk analysis framework is adopted to improve the dam management strategies. The proposed study encompasses four phases. To start with, measuring the effect by assessing the impact of climate change on embankment dams, the second phase is to analyze the potential embankment dam failures. The third is analyzing the different components of risks related to the dam, and finally, develop a robust decision-making framework.

Keywords: climate change, embankment dam, failure, risk-Informed decision-making

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6 Changes in the Body Weight and Wound Contraction Rate Following Treatment with Piper betel Extract in Diabetic Wounds

Authors: Nurul Z. Sani, Amalina N. Ghazali, Azree Elmy, Lee C. Yuen, Zar C. Thent

Abstract:

Piper betel (P. betel) leaves is widely used in Asian countries for treating diabetes mellitus and its complication. In our previous study, we observed the positive effect of P.betel extract on diabetic wounds following 3 and 7 days of treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of P.betel leaves extract in the diabetic rats was observed in terms of body weight and wound contraction rates following 5 days of the treatment. Total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the experimental rats received a single dose of 60mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ) injection, intraperitoneally. Four full thickness (6mm) cutaneous wounds were created on dorsum of each rat. The rats were divideid into (n=8): Non-treated Control (NC), Non-treated Diabetic (ND), diabetic treated with commercial cream (SN) and diabetic treated with 50mg/kg of P.betel extract (PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 0 and 5 post wounding. Significant increased in wound closure rate, body weight was observed in PB group compared to ND. Histological deterioration was restored in the P. betel extract treated wounds. It is concluded that topical application with P.betel extract for 5 days of post wounding offers positive scientific value in diabetic rats.

Keywords: diabetes, piper betel, wound healing, body weight, morphology

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5 Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite from Biowaste for Potential Medical Application

Authors: M. D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Nitthiyah Jeyaratnam

Abstract:

Over the period of time, several approaches have been undertaken to mitigate the challenges associated with bone regeneration. This includes but not limited to xenografts, allografts, autografts as well as artificial substitutions like bioceramics, synthetic cements and metals. The former three techniques often come along with peculiar limitation and problems such as morbidity, availability, disease transmission, collateral site damage or absolute rejection by the body as the case may be. Synthetic routes remain the only feasible alternative option for treatment of bone defects. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is very compatible and suitable for this application. However, most of the common methods for HA synthesis are either expensive, complicated or environmentally unfriendly. Interestingly, extraction of HA from bio-wastes have been perceived not only to be cost effective, but also environment friendly. In this research, HA was synthesized from bio-waste: namely bovine bones through three different methods which are hydrothermal chemical processes, ultrasound assisted synthesis and ordinary calcination techniques. Structure and property analysis of the HA was carried out through different characterization techniques such as TGA, FTIR, and XRD. All the methods applied were able to produce HA with similar compositional properties to biomaterials found in human calcified tissues. Calcination process was however observed to be more efficient as it eliminated all the organic components from the produced HA. The HA synthesized is unique for its minimal cost and environmental friendliness. It is also perceived to be suitable for tissue and bone engineering applications.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, bone, calcination, biowaste

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4 Good Corporate Governance and Accountability in Microfinance Institutions

Authors: A. R. Nor Azlina, H. Salwana, I. Zuraeda, A. R. Rashidah, O. Normah

Abstract:

Transitioning towards globalization in the business environment has necessitated more essential growing changes such as competition, business strategy, innovation in technology and effectiveness of societal trends on adopting corporate governance are seen to be drivers of the future. This transformations on business environment has a significant impact to organizations’ performances. Many organizations are demanding for more proactive entrepreneurs with dynamic team, who can run and steer their business to success. Changing on strategy, roles, tasks, entrepreneurial skills and implementing corporate governance in relationship development is important to enhance the organization’s performance towards being more cost-efficient and subsequently increase its efficiency. Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in most developing countries are contributors to the economic growth of a nation. However, the potential of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) is always overlooked in contributing towards SMEs development. The adoption of corporate governance and accountability in MFIs as driving forces for these SMEs is not incorporated in measurements of organization performance. This paper attempts to address some of the governance issues associated with dimensions of accountability in improving performances of microfinance institutions. Qualitative approach was adopted in this study to analyze the data collected. The qualitative approach emerges as contributing factor in understanding and critiquing accountability processes, as well as addressing the concerns of practitioners and policymakers. A close researcher engagement with the field which concerns process, embracing of situational complexity, as well as critical and reflective understandings of organizational phenomena remain as hallmarks of the tradition. It is concluded that in describing and scrutinizing an understanding of managerial behavior, organizational factors and macro-economic relationship in SMEs firm need to be improved. This is also the case in MFIs. A framework is developed to explore the linkage of corporate governance and accountability issues related to entrepreneurship as factors affecting MFIs performances in facing ongoing transformation of organization performance within Malaysian SMEs industries.

Keywords: accountability, corporate governance, microfinance, organization performance

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3 Effectiveness of a Malaysian Workplace Intervention Study on Physical Activity Levels

Authors: M. Z. Bin Mohd Ghazali, N. C. Wilson, A. F. Bin Ahmad Fuad, M. A. H. B. Musa, M. U. Mohamad Sani, F. Zulkifli, M. S. Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Physical activity levels are low in Malaysia and this study was undertaken to determine if a four week work-based intervention program would be effective in changing physical activity levels. The study was conducted in a Malaysian Government Department and had three stages: baseline data collection, four-week intervention and two-month post intervention data collection. During the intervention and two-month post intervention phases, physical activity levels (determined by a pedometer) and basic health profiles (BMI, abdominal obesity, blood pressure) were measured. Staff (58 males, 47 females) with an average age of 33 years completed baseline data collection. Pedometer steps averaged 7,102 steps/day at baseline, although male step counts were significantly higher than females (7,861 vs. 6114). Health profiles were poor: over 50% were overweight/obese (males 66%, females 40%); hypertension (males 23%, females 6%); excess waist circumference (males 52%, females 17%). While 86 staff participated in the intervention, only 49 regularly reported their steps. There was a significant increase (17%) in average daily steps from 8,965 (week 1) to 10,436 (week 4). Unfortunately, participation in the intervention program was avoided by the less healthy staff. Two months after the intervention there was no significant difference in average steps/day, despite the fact that 89% of staff reporting they planned to make long-term changes to their lifestyle. An unexpected average increase of 2kg in body weight occurred in participants, although this was less than the 5.6kg in non-participants. A number of recommendations are made for future interventions, including the conclusion that pedometers were a useful tool and popular with participants.

Keywords: pedometers, walking, health, intervention

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2 Current Status of Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Shahid Shah, Akram Maqbool, Samina Ashraf

Abstract:

Since start of this century, world has adopted inclusion as a trend in special education. To meet the challenges of inclusion response, the Punjab government has developed a progressive policy to implement inclusive education. The objectives of this research were to analyze the administration and implementation process by consideration on the management, student’s admission process, screening and assessment, adaptations in curriculum and instruction along with an evaluation, government and nonprofit organizations support. The sample consisted of 50 schools both public and private with a total of 3000 students, 9 percent of which (270) were students with disabilities. Among all the students with disabilities, 63 percent (170) were male and 37 percent (100) were female. The concluded remarks regarding management revealed that a large number of inclusive schools was lacking in terms of developing a certain model for inclusion, including the managerial breakup of staff, the involvement of stakeholders, and conducted frequent meetings. Many of schools are not able to restructure their school organizations due to lack of financial resources, consultations, and backup. As for as student’s admission/identification/assessment was concerned, only 12 percent schools applied a selection process regarding student admission, half of which used different procedures for disable candidates. Approximately 5 percent of inclusive schools had modified their curriculum, including a variety of standards. In terms of instruction, 25 percent of inclusive schools reported that they modified their instructional process. Only a few schools, however, provided special equipment for students with visual impairment, physical impairment, speech and hearing problems, students with mild intellectual disabilities, and autism. In a student evaluation, more than 45 percent reported that test items, administration, time allocations, and students’ reports were modified. For the primary board examination conducted by the Education Department of Government of Punjab, this number decreased dramatically. Finally, government and nonprofit organizations support in the forms of funding, coaching, and facilities were mostly provided by provincial governments and by Ghazali Education Trust.

Keywords: inclusion, identification, assessment, funding, facilities, evaluation

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1 Accelerating Malaysian Technology Startups: Case Study of Malaysian Technology Development Corporation as the Innovator

Authors: Norhalim Yunus, Mohamad Husaini Dahalan, Nor Halina Ghazali

Abstract:

Building technology start-ups from ground zero into world-class companies in form and substance present a rare opportunity for government-affiliated institutions in Malaysia. The challenge of building such start-ups becomes tougher when their core businesses involve commercialization of unproven technologies for the mass market. These simple truths, while difficult to execute, will go a long way in getting a business off the ground and flying high. Malaysian Technology Development Corporation (MTDC), a company founded to facilitate the commercial exploitation of R&D findings from research institutions and universities, and eventually help translate these findings of applications in the marketplace, is an excellent case in point. The purpose of this paper is to examine MTDC as an institution as it explores the concept of ‘it takes a village to raise a child’ in an effort to create and nurture start-ups into established world class Malaysian technology companies. With MTDC at the centre of Malaysia's innovative start-ups, the analysis seeks to specifically answer two questions: How has the concept been applied in MTDC? and what can we learn from this successful case? A key aim is to elucidate how MTDC's journey as a private limited company can help leverage reforms and achieve transformation, a process that might be suitable for other small, open, third world and developing countries. This paper employs a single case study, designed to acquire an in-depth understanding of how MTDC has developed and grown technology start-ups to world-class technology companies. The case study methodology is employed as the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within a real business context. It also explains the causal links in real-life situations where a single survey or experiment is unable to unearth. The findings show that MTDC maximises the concept of it needs a village to raise a child in totality, as MTDC itself assumes the role of the innovator to 'raise' start-up companies into world-class stature. As the innovator, MTDC creates shared value and leadership, introduces innovative programmes ahead of the curve, mobilises talents for optimum results and aggregates knowledge for personnel advancement. The success of the company's effort is attributed largely to leadership, visionary, adaptability, commitment to innovate, partnership and networking, and entrepreneurial drive. The findings of this paper are however limited by the single case study of MTDC. Future research is required to study more cases of success or/and failure where the concept of it takes a village to raise a child have been explored and applied.

Keywords: start-ups, technology transfer, commercialization, technology incubator

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