Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 456

Search results for: carbonate factory

456 The Potential of Kepulauan Seribu as Marine-Based Eco-Geotourism Site: The Study of Carbonate Platform as Geotourism Object in Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta

Authors: Barry Majeed, Eka Febriana, Seto Julianto

Abstract:

Kepulauan Seribu National Parks is a marine preservation region in Indonesia. It is located in 5°23' - 5°40' LS, 106°25' - 106°37' BT North of Jakarta City. Covered with area 107,489 ha, Kepulauan Seribu has a lot of tourism spots such as cluster islands, fringing reef and many more. Kepulauan Seribu is also nominated as Strategic Tourism Region In Indonesia (KSPN). So, these islands have a lot of potential sides more than preservation function as a national park, hence the development of sustainable geotourism. The aim of this study is for enhancing the development of eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu. This study concern for three main aspect of eco-geotourism such as tourism, form and process. Study for the tourism aspect includes attractions, accommodations, tours, activities, interpretation, and planning & management in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the form aspect focused on the carbonate platform situated between two islands. Primarily in carbonate reef such as head coral, branchy coral, platy coral that created the carbonate sequence in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the process aspect primarily discussed the process of forming of carbonate from carbonate factory later becomes Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the regional geology of Kepulauan Seribu has been conducted and suggested that Kepulauan Seribu lithologies are mainly quarternary limestone. In this study, primary data was taken from an observation of quarternary carbonate platform between two islands from Hati Island, Macan Island, Bulat Island, Ubi Island and Kelapa Island. From this observation, the best routes for tourist have been made from Island to Island. Qualitative methods such as depth interview to the local people in purposive sampling also have been made. Finally, this study also giving education about geological site – carbonate sequence - in Kepulauan Seribu for the local wisdom so that this study can support the development of sustainable eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu.

Keywords: carbonate factory, carbonate platform, geotourism, Kepulauan Seribu

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
455 Deficits and Solutions in the Development of Modular Factory Systems

Authors: Achim Kampker, Peter Burggräf, Moritz Krunke, Hanno Voet

Abstract:

As a reaction to current challenges in factory planning, many companies think about introducing factory standards to lower planning times and decrease planning costs. If these factory standards are set-up with a high level of modularity, they are defined as modular factory systems. This paper deals with the main current problems in the application of modular factory systems in practice and presents a solution approach with its basic models. The methodology is based on methods from factory planning but also uses the tools of other disciplines like product development or technology management to deal with the high complexity, which the development of modular factory systems implies. The four basic models that such a methodology has to contain are introduced and pointed out.

Keywords: factory planning, modular factory systems, factory standards, cost-benefit analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
454 Approach for Updating a Digital Factory Model by Photogrammetry

Authors: R. Hellmuth, F. Wehner

Abstract:

Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas, and the construction of a factory. The requirements for factory planning and the building of a factory have changed in recent years. Regular restructuring is becoming more important in order to maintain the competitiveness of a factory. Restrictions in new areas, shorter life cycles of product and production technology as well as a VUCA world (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity & Ambiguity) lead to more frequent restructuring measures within a factory. A digital factory model is the planning basis for rebuilding measures and becomes an indispensable tool. Short-term rescheduling can no longer be handled by on-site inspections and manual measurements. The tight time schedules require up-to-date planning models. Due to the high adaptation rate of factories described above, a methodology for rescheduling factories on the basis of a modern digital factory twin is conceived and designed for practical application in factory restructuring projects. The focus is on rebuild processes. The aim is to keep the planning basis (digital factory model) for conversions within a factory up to date. This requires the application of a methodology that reduces the deficits of existing approaches. The aim is to show how a digital factory model can be kept up to date during ongoing factory operation. A method based on photogrammetry technology is presented. The focus is on developing a simple and cost-effective solution to track the many changes that occur in a factory building during operation. The method is preceded by a hardware and software comparison to identify the most economical and fastest variant. 

Keywords: digital factory model, photogrammetry, factory planning, restructuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
453 A Structuring and Classification Method for Assigning Application Areas to Suitable Digital Factory Models

Authors: R. Hellmuth

Abstract:

The method of factory planning has changed a lot, especially when it is about planning the factory building itself. Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas, and the building of a factory. Regular restructuring is becoming more important in order to maintain the competitiveness of a factory. Restrictions in new areas, shorter life cycles of product and production technology as well as a VUCA world (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity) lead to more frequent restructuring measures within a factory. A digital factory model is the planning basis for rebuilding measures and becomes an indispensable tool. Furthermore, digital building models are increasingly being used in factories to support facility management and manufacturing processes. The main research question of this paper is, therefore: What kind of digital factory model is suitable for the different areas of application during the operation of a factory? First, different types of digital factory models are investigated, and their properties and usabilities for use cases are analysed. Within the scope of investigation are point cloud models, building information models, photogrammetry models, and these enriched with sensor data are examined. It is investigated which digital models allow a simple integration of sensor data and where the differences are. Subsequently, possible application areas of digital factory models are determined by means of a survey and the respective digital factory models are assigned to the application areas. Finally, an application case from maintenance is selected and implemented with the help of the appropriate digital factory model. It is shown how a completely digitalized maintenance process can be supported by a digital factory model by providing information. Among other purposes, the digital factory model is used for indoor navigation, information provision, and display of sensor data. In summary, the paper shows a structuring of digital factory models that concentrates on the geometric representation of a factory building and its technical facilities. A practical application case is shown and implemented. Thus, the systematic selection of digital factory models with the corresponding application cases is evaluated.

Keywords: building information modeling, digital factory model, factory planning, maintenance

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452 Diversification of Productivity of the Oxfordian Subtidal Carbonate Factory in the Holy Cross Mountains

Authors: Radoslaw Lukasz Staniszewski

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The aim of the research was to verify lateral extent and thickness variability of individual limestone layers within early-Jurassic medium- and thick-bedded limestone interbedded with marlstones. Location: The main research area is located in the south-central part of Poland in the south-western part of Permo-Mesozoic margin of the Holy Cross Mountains. It includes outcroppings located on the line between Mieczyn and Wola Morawicka. The analyses were carried out on six profiles (Mieczyn, Gniezdziska, Tokarnia, Wola Morawicka, Morawica and Wolica) representing three early-Jurassic links: Jasna Gora layers, grey limestone, Morawica limestone. Additionally, an attempt was made to correlate the thickness sequence from the Holy Cross Mountains to the profile from the quarry in Zawodzie located 3 km east of Czestochowa. The distance between the outermost profiles is 122 km in a straight line. Methodology of research: The Callovian-Oxfordian border was taken as the reference point during the correlation. At the same time, ammonite-based stratigraphic studies were carried out, which allowed to identify individual packages in the remote outcroppings. The analysis of data collected during fieldwork was mainly devoted to the correlation of thickness sequences of limestone layers in subsequent profiles. In order to check the objectivity of the subsequent outcroppings, the profiles have been presented in the form of the thickness functions of the subsequent layers. The generated functions were auto-correlated, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. The next step in the research was to statistically determine the percentage increment of the individual layers thickness in the subsequent profiles, and on this basis to plot the function of relative carbonate productivity. Results: The result of the above-mentioned procedures consists in illustrating the extent of 34 rock layers across the examined area in demonstrating the repeatability of their success in subsequent outcroppings. It can also be observed that the thickness of individual layers in the Holy Cross Mountains is increasing from north-west towards south-east. Despite changes in the thickness of the layers in the profiles, their relations within the sequence remain constant. The lowest matching ratio of thickness sequence calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient formula is 0.67, while the highest is 0.84. The thickness of individual layers changes between 4% and 230% over the examined area. Interpretation: Layers in the outcroppings covered by the research show continuity throughout the examined area and it is possible to precisely correlate them, which means that the process determining the formation of the layers was regional and probably included both the fringe of the Holy Cross Mountains and the north-eastern part of the Krakow-Czestochowa Jura Upland. Local changes in the sedimentation environment affecting the productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory only cause the thickness of the layers to change without altering the thickness proportions of the profiles. Based on the percentage of changes in the thickness of individual layers in the subsequent profiles, it can be concluded that the local productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory is increasing logarithmically.

Keywords: Oxfordian, Holy Cross Mountains, carbonate factory, Limestone

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451 Efficacy of Combined CHAp and Lanthanum Carbonate in Therapy for Hyperphosphatemia

Authors: Andreea Cârâc, Elena Morosan, Ana Corina Ionita, Rica Bosencu, Geta Carac

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Lanthanum carbonate exhibits a considerable ability to bind phosphate and the substitution of Ca2+ ions by divalent or trivalent lanthanide metal ions attracted attention during the past few years. Although Lanthanum carbonate has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of the combination of Calcium hydroxyapatite and Lanthanum carbonate for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia on mice. Calcium hydroxyapatite commonly referred as CHAp is a bioceramic material and is one of the most important implantable materials due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. We prepared calcium hydroxyapatite and lanthanum carbonate. CHAp was prepared by co-precipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4, NH4OH with calcination at 1200ºC. Lanthanum carbonate was prepared by chemical method using NaHCO3 and LaCl3 at low pH environment , ph below 4.0 The confirmation of both substances structures was made using XRD characterization, FTIR spectra and SEM /EDX analysis. The study group included 20 subjects-mice divided into four groups according to the administered substance: lanthanum carbonate (group A), lanthanum carbonate + CHAp (group B), CHAp (group C) and salt water (group D). The results indicate a phosphate decrease when subjects (mice) were treated with CHAp and lanthanum carbonate (0.5 % CMC), in a single dose of 1500 mg/kg. Serum phosphate concentration decreased [from 4.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL) to 4.05 ± 0.2 mg/dL), P < 0.01] in group A and to 3.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL] only after the 24 hours of combination therapy. The combination of CHAp and lanthanum carbonate is a suitable regimen for hyperphosphatemia treatment subjects because it avoids both the hypercalcemia of CaCO3 and the adverse effects of CHAp. The ability of CHAp to decrease the serum phosphate concentration is 1/3 that of lanthanum carbonate.

Keywords: calcium hydroxyapatite, hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum carbonate, phosphate, structures

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450 Literature Review and Approach for the Use of Digital Factory Models in an Augmented Reality Application for Decision Making in Restructuring Processes

Authors: Rene Hellmuth, Jorg Frohnmayer

Abstract:

The requirements of the factory planning and the building concerned have changed in the last years. Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas, and the building of a factory. Regular restructuring gains more importance in order to maintain the competitiveness of a factory. Even today, the methods and process models used in factory planning are predominantly based on the classical planning principles of Schmigalla, Aggteleky and Kettner, which, however, are not specifically designed for reorganization. In addition, they are designed for a largely static environmental situation and a manageable planning complexity as well as for medium to long-term planning cycles with a low variability of the factory. Existing approaches already regard factory planning as a continuous process that makes it possible to react quickly to adaptation requirements. However, digital factory models are not yet used as a source of information for building data. Approaches which consider building information modeling (BIM) or digital factory models in general either do not refer to factory conversions or do not yet go beyond a concept. This deficit can be further substantiated. A method for factory conversion planning using a current digital building model is lacking. A corresponding approach must take into account both the existing approaches to factory planning and the use of digital factory models in practice. A literature review will be conducted first. In it, approaches to classic factory planning and approaches to conversion planning are examined. In addition, it will be investigated which approaches already contain digital factory models. In the second step, an approach is presented how digital factory models based on building information modeling can be used as a basis for augmented reality tablet applications. This application is suitable for construction sites and provides information on the costs and time required for conversion variants. Thus a fast decision making is supported. In summary, the paper provides an overview of existing factory planning approaches and critically examines the use of digital tools. Based on this preliminary work, an approach is presented, which suggests the sensible use of digital factory models for decision support in the case of conversion variants of the factory building. The augmented reality application is designed to summarize the most important information for decision-makers during a reconstruction process.

Keywords: augmented reality, digital factory model, factory planning, restructuring

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449 Sulfate Attack on Pastes Made with Different C3A and C4AF Contents and Stored at 5°C

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Radosław Mróz

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In the present work the internal sulfate attack on pastes made from pure clinker phases was studied. Two binders were produced: (a) a binder with 2% C3A and 18% C4AF content; (b) a binder with 10% C3A and C4AF content each. Gypsum was used as the sulfate bearing compound, while calcium carbonate added to differentiate the binders produced. The phases formed were identified by XRD analysis. The results showed that ettringite was the deterioration phase detected in the case of the low C3A content binder. Carbonation occurred in the specimen without calcium carbonate addition, while portlandite was observed in the one containing calcium carbonate. In the case of the high C3A content binder, traces of thaumasite were detected when calcium carbonate was not incorporated in the binder. A solid solution of thaumasite and ettringite was found when calcium carbonate was added. The amount of C3A had not fully reacted with sulfates, since its corresponding peaks were detected.

Keywords: tricalcium aluminate, calcium aluminate ferrite, sulfate attack, calcium carbonate, low temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
448 Investigation of Performance of Organic Acids on Carbonate Rocks (Experimental Study in Ahwaz Oilfield)

Authors: Azad Jarrahian, Ehsan Heidaryan

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Matrix acidizing treatments can yield impressive production increase if properly applied. In this study, carbonate samples taken from Ahwaz Oilfield have undergone static solubility, sludge, emulsion, and core flooding tests. In each test interaction of acid and rock is reported and at the end it has been shown that how initial permeability and type of acid affects the overall treatment efficiency.

Keywords: carbonate acidizing, organic acids, spending rate, acid penetration, incomplete spending.

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
447 The Investigation of Cadmium Pollution in the Metal Production Factory in Relation to Environmental Health

Authors: Seyed Armin Hashemi, Somayeh Rahimzadeh

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Toxic metals such as lead and cadmium are among the pollutants that are created by the metal production factories and disseminated in the nature. In order to study the quantity of cadmium pollution in the environment of the metal production factories, 50 saplings of the spruce species at the peripheries of the metal production factories were examined and the samples of the leaves, roots and stems of saplings planted around the factory and the soil of the environment of the factory were studied to investigate pollution with cadmium. They were compared to the soil and saplings of the spruce trees planted outside the factory as observer region. The results showed that the quantity of pollution in the leaves, stem, and roots of the trees planted inside the factory environment were estimated at 1.1 milligram/kilogram, 1.5 milligram/kilogram and 2.5 milligram/kilogram respectively and this indicated a significant difference with the observer region (P < 0.05). The quantity of cadmium in the soil of the peripheries of the metal production factory was estimated at 6.8 milligram/kilogram in the depth of 0-10 centimeters beneath the level of the soil. The length of roots in the saplings planted around the factory of metal production stood at 11 centimeters and 14.5 centimeters in the observer region which had a significant difference with the observer region (P < 0.05). The quantity of soil resources and spruce species’ pollution with cadmium in the region has been influenced by the production processes in the factory.

Keywords: cadmium pollution, spruce, soil pollution, the factory of producing alloy metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
446 Some Characteristics and Identification of Fungi Contaminated by Alkomos Cement Factory

Authors: Abdulmajeed Bashir Mlitan, Ethan Hack

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Soil samples were collected from and around Alkomos cement factory, Alkomos town, Libya. Soil physiochemical properties were determined. In addition, olive leaves were scanned for their fungal content. This work can conclude that the results obtained for the examined physiochemical characteristics of soil in the area studied prove that cement dust from the Alkomos cement factory in Libya has had a significant impact on the soil. The affected soil properties are pH and total calcium content. These characteristics were found to be higher than those in similar soils from the same area. The increment of soil pH in the same area may be a result of precipitation of cement dust over the years. Different responses were found in each season and each site. For instance, the dominance of fungi of soil and leaves was lowest at 100 m from the factory and the evenness and diversity increased at this site compared to the control area and 250 m from the factory.

Keywords: pollution, soil microbial, alkomos, Libya

Procedia PDF Downloads 533
445 Methodical Approach for the Integration of a Digital Factory Twin into the Industry 4.0 Processes

Authors: R. Hellmuth

Abstract:

The orientation of flexibility and adaptability with regard to factory planning is at machine and process level. Factory buildings are not the focus of current research. Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas and the construction of a factory. The adaptability of a factory can be divided into three types: spatial, organizational and technical adaptability. Spatial adaptability indicates the ability to expand and reduce the size of a factory. Here, the area-related breathing capacity plays the essential role. It mainly concerns the factory site, the plant layout and the production layout. The organizational ability to change enables the change and adaptation of organizational structures and processes. This includes structural and process organization as well as logistical processes and principles. New and reconfigurable operating resources, processes and factory buildings are referred to as technical adaptability. These three types of adaptability can be regarded independently of each other as undirected potentials of different characteristics. If there is a need for change, the types of changeability in the change process are combined to form a directed, complementary variable that makes change possible. When planning adaptability, importance must be attached to a balance between the types of adaptability. The vision of the intelligent factory building and the 'Internet of Things' presupposes the comprehensive digitalization of the spatial and technical environment. Through connectivity, the factory building must be empowered to support a company's value creation process by providing media such as light, electricity, heat, refrigeration, etc. In the future, communication with the surrounding factory building will take place on a digital or automated basis. In the area of industry 4.0, the function of the building envelope belongs to secondary or even tertiary processes, but these processes must also be included in the communication cycle. An integrative view of a continuous communication of primary, secondary and tertiary processes is currently not yet available and is being developed with the aid of methods in this research work. A comparison of the digital twin from the point of view of production and the factory building will be developed. Subsequently, a tool will be elaborated to classify digital twins from the perspective of data, degree of visualization, and the trades. Thus a contribution is made to better integrate the secondary and tertiary processes in a factory into the added value.

Keywords: adaptability, digital factory twin, factory planning, industry 4.0

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
444 Analysis of Steel Beam-Column Joints Under Seismic Loads

Authors: Mizam Doğan

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Adapazarı railway car factory, the only railway car factory of Turkey, was constructed in 1950. It was a steel design and it had filled beam sections and truss beam systems. Columns were steel profiles and box sections. The factory was damaged heavily on Izmit Earthquake and closed. In this earthquake 90% of damaged structures are reinforced concrete, the others are %7 prefabricated and 3% steel construction. As can be seen in statistical data, damaged industrial buildings in this earthquake were generally reinforced concrete and prefabricated structures. Adapazari railway car factory is the greatest steel structure damaged in the earthquake. This factory has 95% of the total damaged steel structure area. In this paper; earthquake damages on beams and columns of the factory are studied by considering TS648 'Turkish Standard Building Code for Steel Structures' and also damaged connection elements as welds, rivets and bolts are examined. A model similar to the damaged system is made and high-stress zones are searched. These examinations, conclusions, suggestions are explained by damage photos and details.

Keywords: column-beam connection, seismic analysis, seismic load, steel structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
443 Development of Industry Sector Specific Factory Standards

Authors: Peter Burggräf, Moritz Krunke, Hanno Voet

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Due to shortening product and technology lifecycles, many companies use standardization approaches in product development and factory planning to reduce costs and time to market. Unlike large companies, where modular systems are already widely used, small and medium-sized companies often show a much lower degree of standardization due to lower scale effects and missing capacities for the development of these standards. To overcome these challenges, the development of industry sector specific standards in cooperations or by third parties is an interesting approach. This paper analyzes which branches that are mainly dominated by small or medium-sized companies might be especially interesting for the development of factory standards using the example of the German industry. For this, a key performance indicator based approach was developed that will be presented in detail with its specific results for the German industry structure.

Keywords: factory planning, factory standards, industry sector specific standardization, production planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
442 Application of the Building Information Modeling Planning Approach to the Factory Planning

Authors: Peggy Näser

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Factory planning is a systematic, objective-oriented process for planning a factory, structured into a sequence of phases, each of which is dependent on the preceding phase and makes use of particular methods and tools, and extending from the setting of objectives to the start of production. The digital factory, on the other hand, is the generic term for a comprehensive network of digital models, methods, and tools – including simulation and 3D visualisation – integrated by a continuous data management system. Its aim is the holistic planning, evaluation and ongoing improvement of all the main structures, processes and resources of the real factory in conjunction with the product. Digital factory planning has already become established in factory planning. The application of Building Information Modeling has not yet been established in factory planning but has been used predominantly in the planning of public buildings. Furthermore, this concept is limited to the planning of the buildings and does not include the planning of equipment of the factory (machines, technical equipment) and their interfaces to the building. BIM is a cooperative method of working, in which the information and data relevant to its lifecycle are consistently recorded, managed and exchanged in a transparent communication between the involved parties on the basis of digital models of a building. Both approaches, the planning approach of Building Information Modeling and the methodical approach of the Digital Factory, are based on the use of a comprehensive data model. Therefore it is necessary to examine how the approach of Building Information Modeling can be extended in the context of factory planning in such a way that an integration of the equipment planning, as well as the building planning, can take place in a common digital model. For this, a number of different perspectives have to be investigated: the equipment perspective including the tools used to implement a comprehensive digital planning process, the communication perspective between the planners of different fields, the legal perspective, that the legal certainty in each country and the quality perspective, on which the quality criteria are defined and the planning will be evaluated. The individual perspectives are examined and illustrated in the article. An approach model for the integration of factory planning into the BIM approach, in particular for the integrated planning of equipment and buildings and the continuous digital planning is developed. For this purpose, the individual factory planning phases are detailed in the sense of the integration of the BIM approach. A comprehensive software concept is shown on the tool. In addition, the prerequisites required for this integrated planning are presented. With the help of the newly developed approach, a better coordination between equipment and buildings is to be achieved, the continuity of the digital factory planning is improved, the data quality is improved and expensive implementation errors are avoided in the implementation.

Keywords: building information modeling, digital factory, digital planning, factory planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
441 Microfacies and Diagenetic Study of Rembang Limestone, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Evalita Amrita, Abdurrokhim, Ildrem Syafri

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Research area is located in Pasedan District, Rembang Regency, Central Java Province. This research is being held for the purpose of microfacies and diagenetic study of carbonate rocks. The study area is dominated by deformed carbonate rocks, folded and faulted. The research method is petrographic analysis with red alizarin staining to differentiate mineral types. Microfacies types and diagenetic processes can be known from petrographic analysis of rock texture, rock structure, type of grain, and fossils. Carbonate rocks in the study area can be divided into 4 types of microfacies: Reef Microfacies (SMF 7), Shallow Water Microfacies (SMF 9), and Textural Inversion Microfacies (SMF 10). Diagenetic processes that take place in carbonate rocks are microbial micritization, compaction, neomorphism, cementation, and dissolution.

Keywords: diagenetic, limestone, microfacies, Rembang

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440 Microwave Assisted Solvent-free Catalytic Transesterification of Glycerol to Glycerol Carbonate

Authors: Wai Keng Teng, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Rozita Yusoff, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua

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As a by-product of the biodiesel industries, glycerol has been vastly generated which surpasses the market demand. It is imperative to develop an efficient glycerol valorization processes in minimizing the net energy requirement and intensifying the biodiesel production. In this study, base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate using microwave irradiation as heating method to produce glycerol carbonate was conducted by varing grades of glycerol i.e. 70%, 86% and 99% purity that obtained from biodiesel plant. Metal oxide catalysts were used with varying operating parameters including reaction time, DMC/glycerol molar ratio, catalyst weight %, temperature and stirring speed. From the study on the effect of different operating parameters; it was found that the type of catalyst used has the most significant effect on the transesterification reaction. Admist the metal oxide catalysts examined, CaO gave the best performance. This study indicates the feasibility of producing glycerol carbonate using different grade of glycerol in both conventional thermal activation and microwave irradiation with CaO as catalyst. Microwave assisted transesterification (MAT) of glycerol into glycerol carbonate has demostrated itself as an energy efficient route by achieving 94.3% yield of GC at 65°C, 5 minutes reaction time, 1 wt% CaO and DMC/glycerol molar ratio of 2. The advantages of MAT transesterification route has made the direct utilization of bioglycerol from biodiesel production without the need of purification. This has marked a more economical and less-energy intensive glycerol carbonate synthesis route.

Keywords: base-catalyzed transesterification, glycerol, glycerol carbonate, microwave irradiation

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439 Application of Semantic Technologies in Rapid Reconfiguration of Factory Systems

Authors: J. Zhang, K. Agyapong-Kodua

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Digital factory based on visual design and simulation has emerged as a mainstream to reduce digital development life cycle. Some basic industrial systems are being integrated via semantic modelling, and products (P) matching process (P)-resource (R) requirements are designed to fulfill current customer demands. Nevertheless, product design is still limited to fixed product models and known knowledge of product engineers. Therefore, this paper presents a rapid reconfiguration method based on semantic technologies with PPR ontologies to reuse known and unknown knowledge. In order to avoid the influence of big data, our system uses a cloud manufactory and distributed database to improve the efficiency of querying meeting PPR requirements.

Keywords: semantic technologies, factory system, digital factory, cloud manufactory

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438 Petrologic and Geochemical Characteristics of Marine Sand Strip in the Proterozoic Chuanlinggou Formation of the North China

Authors: Yue Feng, Chun-jiang Wang, Zhi-long Huang

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The study of the sedimentary environment of Mesoproterozoic marine deposits in North China has attracted special attention in recent years. It is not clear that the sedimentary environment and the cause of formation of the sandstone strip and its internal carbonate cements and pyrite in the Mesoproterozoic Chuanlinggou Formation in North China. In this study, drilling core samples in North China were identified by microscopy, and their petrological characteristics such as mineral composition and structure were identified. The geochemical data of carbon and oxygen isotopes, total organic carbon (TOC) contents and total sulfur (TS) contents were obtained by processing and analyzing the samples. The samples are mainly quartz particles with low compositional maturity, combined with low value of TOC, it shows that the sedimentary environment of the sandy clastic is a sandy littoral sedimentary environment with relative strong hydrodynamic force, and then the sandstone strip in black shale are formed by the deposition of gravity flow. Analysis of TS values reflect sandstone bands formed in hypoxic environments. The carbonate cements and the pyrite in the sandstone belt are authigenic. The carbon isotope values of authigenic carbonate cements are negatively biased in comparison with the carbonate isotope of carbonate rocks in the same period, but it is more biased than the carbon isotopic values of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) genetic carbonate rocks. Authigenic pyrite may be mainly due to the formation of HS- by the action of bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and Fe²⁺, their causes are in contact. This indicates that authigenic carbonate cements are mainly carbonate precipitates formed but are significantly affected by the effects of AOM. Summary, the sedimentary environment of the sandstone zone in the Chuanlinggou Formation in the North China is a shallow sea facies with iron rich and anoxic.

Keywords: sandstone strip, sedimentary environment, authigenic carbonate cements, authigenic pyrite, The Chuanlinggou group, North China

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
437 LaPEA: Language for Preprocessing of Edge Applications in Smart Factory

Authors: Masaki Sakai, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Kazuya Takahashi

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In order to improve the productivity of a factory, it is often the case to create an inference model by collecting and analyzing operational data off-line and then to develop an edge application (EAP) that evaluates the quality of the products or diagnoses machine faults in real-time. To accelerate this development cycle, an edge application framework for the smart factory is proposed, which enables to create and modify EAPs based on prepared inference models. In the framework, the preprocessing component is the key part to make it work. This paper proposes a language for preprocessing of edge applications, called LaPEA, which can flexibly process several sensor data from machines into explanatory variables for an inference model, and proves that it meets the requirements for the preprocessing.

Keywords: edge application framework, edgecross, preprocessing language, smart factory

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
436 Development of a Model for the Redesign of Plant Structures

Authors: L. Richter, J. Lübkemann, P. Nyhuis

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In order to remain competitive in what is a turbulent environment; businesses must be able to react rapidly to change. The past response to volatile market conditions was to introduce an element of flexibility to production. Nowadays, what is often required is a redesign of factory structures in order to cope with the state of constant flux. The Institute of Production Systems and Logistics is currently developing a descriptive and causal model for the redesign of plant structures as part of an ongoing research project. This article presents the first research findings attained in devising this model.

Keywords: change driven factory redesign, factory planning, plant structure, flexibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
435 Concept for Planning Sustainable Factories

Authors: T. Mersmann, P. Nyhuis

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In the current economic climate, for many businesses it is generally no longer sufficient to pursue exclusively economic interests. Instead, integrating ecological and social goals into the corporate targets is becoming ever more important. However, the holistic integration of these new goals is missing from current factory planning approaches. This article describes the conceptual framework for a planning methodology for sustainable factories. To this end, the description of the key areas for action is followed by a description of the principal components for the systematization of sustainability for factories and their stakeholders. Finally, a conceptual framework is presented which integrates the components formulated into an established factory planning procedure.

Keywords: factory planning, stakeholder, systematization, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
434 An Application of Self-Health Risk Assessment among Populations Living in The Vicinity of a Fiber-Cement Roofing Factory

Authors: Phayong Thepaksorn

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to assess whether living in proximity to a roofing fiber cement factory in southern Thailand was associated with physical, mental, social, and spiritual health domains measured in a self-reported health risk assessment (HRA) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted among community members divided into two groups: near population (living within 0-2 km of factory) and far population (living within 2-5 km of factory)(N=198). A greater proportion of those living far from the factory (65.34%) reported physical health problems than the near group (51.04 %)(p=0.032). This study has demonstrated that the near population group had higher proportion of participants with positive ratings on mental assessment (30.34%) and social health impacts (28.42%) than far population group (10.59% and 16.67 %, respectively) (p<0.001). The near population group (29.79%) had similar proportion of participants with positive ratings in spiritual health impacts compared with far population group (27.08%). Among females, but not males, this study demonstrated that a higher proportion of the near population had a positive summative score for the self-HRA, which included all four health domain, compared to the far population (p <0.001 for females; p=0.154 for males). In conclusion, this self-HRA of physical, mental, social, and spiritual health domains reflected the risk perceptions of populations living in the vicinity of the roofing fiber cement factory. This type of tool can bring attention to population concerns and complaints in the factory’s surrounding community. Our findings may contribute to future development of self-HRA for HIA development procedure in Thailand.

Keywords: cement dust, health impact assessment, risk assessment, walk-though survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
433 Method for Requirements Analysis and Decision Making for Restructuring Projects in Factories

Authors: Rene Hellmuth

Abstract:

The requirements for the factory planning and the building concerned have changed in the last years. Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas, and the building of a factory. Regular restructuring gains more importance in order to maintain the competitiveness of a factory. Restrictions regarding new areas, shorter life cycles of product and production technology as well as a VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) world cause more frequently occurring rebuilding measures within a factory. Restructuring of factories is the most common planning case today. Restructuring is more common than new construction, revitalization and dismantling of factories. The increasing importance of restructuring processes shows that the ability to change was and is a promising concept for the reaction of companies to permanently changing conditions. The factory building is the basis for most changes within a factory. If an adaptation of a construction project (factory) is necessary, the inventory documents must be checked and often time-consuming planning of the adaptation must take place to define the relevant components to be adapted, in order to be able to finally evaluate them. The different requirements of the planning participants from the disciplines of factory planning (production planner, logistics planner, automation planner) and industrial construction planning (architect, civil engineer) come together during reconstruction and must be structured. This raises the research question: Which requirements do the disciplines involved in the reconstruction planning place on a digital factory model? A subordinate research question is: How can model-based decision support be provided for a more efficient design of the conversion within a factory? Because of the high adaptation rate of factories and its building described above, a methodology for rescheduling factories based on the requirements engineering method from software development is conceived and designed for practical application in factory restructuring projects. The explorative research procedure according to Kubicek is applied. Explorative research is suitable if the practical usability of the research results has priority. Furthermore, it will be shown how to best use a digital factory model in practice. The focus will be on mobile applications to meet the needs of factory planners on site. An augmented reality (AR) application will be designed and created to provide decision support for planning variants. The aim is to contribute to a shortening of the planning process and model-based decision support for more efficient change management. This requires the application of a methodology that reduces the deficits of the existing approaches. The time and cost expenditure are represented in the AR tablet solution based on a building information model (BIM). Overall, the requirements of those involved in the planning process for a digital factory model in the case of restructuring within a factory are thus first determined in a structured manner. The results are then applied and transferred to a construction site solution based on augmented reality.

Keywords: augmented reality, digital factory model, factory planning, restructuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
432 Application of Production Planning to Improve Operation in Local Factory

Authors: Bashayer Al-Enezi, Budoor Al-Sabti, Eman Al-Durai, Fatmah Kalban, Meshael Ahmed

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Production planning and control principles are concerned with planning, controlling and balancing all aspects of manufacturing including raw materials, finished goods, production schedules, and equipment requirements. Hence, an effective production planning and control system is very critical to the success of any factory. This project will focus on the application of production planning and control principles on “The National Canned Food Production and Trading Company (NCFP)” factory to find problems or areas for improvement.

Keywords: production planning, operations improvement, inventory management, National Canned Food Production and Trading Company (NCFP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
431 An Experimental Study of the Influence of Particle Breakage on the Interface Friction Angle and Shear Strength of Carbonate Sands

Authors: Ruben Dario Tovar-Valencia, Eshan Ganju, Fei Han, Monica Prezzi, Rodrigo Salgado

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Particle breakage occurs even in strong silica sand particles. There is compelling evidence that suggests that particle breakage causes changes in several properties such as permeability, peak strength, dilatancy and critical state friction angle. Current pile design methods that are based on soil properties do not account for particle breakage that occurs during driving or jacking of displacement piles. This may lead to significant overestimation of pile capacity in sands dominated by particles susceptible to breakage, such as carbonate sands. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of shear displacement on particle breakage and friction angle of carbonate sands, and to furthermore quantify the change in friction angle observed with different levels of particle breakage. To study the phenomenon of particle breakage, multiple ring shear tests have been performed at different levels of vertical confinement on a thoroughly characterized carbonate sand to find i) the shear displacement necessary to reach stable friction angles and ii) the effect of particle breakage on the mobilized friction angle of the tested sand. The findings of this study can potentially be used to update the current pile design methods by developing a friction angle which is a function of shear displacement and breakage characteristics of the sand instead of being a constant value.

Keywords: breakage, carbonate sand, friction angle, pile design, ring shear test

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430 Preparation and CO2 Permeation Properties of Carbonate-Ceramic Dual-Phase Membranes

Authors: H. Ishii, S. Araki, H. Yamamoto

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In recent years, the carbon dioxide (CO2) separation technology is required in terms of the reduction of emission of global warming gases and the efficient use of fossil fuels. Since the emission amount of CO2 gas occupies the large part of greenhouse effect gases, it is considered that CO2 have the most influence on global warming. Therefore, we need to establish the CO2 separation technologies with high efficiency at low cost. In this study, we focused on the membrane separation compared with conventional separation technique such as distillation or cryogenic separation. In this study, we prepared carbonate-ceramic dual-phase membranes to separate CO2 at high temperature. As porous ceramic substrate, the (Pr0.9La0.1)2(Ni0.74Cu0.21Ga0.05)O4+σ, La0.6Sr0.4Ti0.3 Fe0.7O3 and Ca0.8Sr0.2Ti0.7Fe0.3O3-α (PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF) were examined. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF have the perovskite structure. The perovskite structure has high stability and shows ion-conducting doped by another metal ion. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF have perovskite structure and has high stability and high oxygen ion diffusivity. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF powders were prepared by a solid-phase process using the appropriate carbonates or oxides. To prepare porous substrates, these powders mixed with carbon black (20 wt%) and a few drops of polyvinyl alcohol (5 wt%) aqueous solution. The powder mixture were packed into stainless steel mold (13 mm) and uniaxially pressed into disk shape under a pressure of 20 MPa for 1 minute. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF disks were calcined in air for 6 h at 1473, 1573 and 1473 K, respectively. The carbonate mixture (Li2CO3/Na2CO3/K2CO3: 42.5/32.5/25 in mole percent ratio) was placed inside a crucible and heated to 793 K. Porous substrates were infiltrated with the molten carbonate mixture at 793 K. Crystalline structures of the fresh membranes and after the infiltration with the molten carbonate mixtures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. We confirmed the crystal structure of PLNCG and CSTF slightly changed after infiltration with the molten carbonate mixture. CO2 permeation experiments with PLNCG-carbonate, LSTF-carbonate and CSTF-carbonate membranes were carried out at 773-1173 K. The gas mixture of CO2 (20 mol%) and He was introduced at the flow rate of 50 ml/min to one side of membrane. The permeated CO2 was swept by N2 (50 ml/min). We confirmed the effect of ceramic materials and temperature on the CO2 permeation at high temperature.

Keywords: membrane, perovskite structure, dual-phase, carbonate

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
429 The Exploration on the Mode of Renovation and Reconstruction of Old Factory Buildings for Cultural and Creative Industrial Parks

Authors: Yu Pan, Jing Wu, Lingwan Shen

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Since the reform and opening, China's cities have developed rapidly, and the industrial structure has been constantly adjusted and optimized. A large number of industrial plants have lost their production functions and become idle buildings. The renovation projects for the old factory buildings are important parts of the urban renewal, and most of them are the cultural and creative industrial park projects. In this paper, a statistical analysis of renovation projects of the representative cultural and creative industrial parks in recent years was conducted. According to the user's spatial experience satisfaction survey, the physical and spatial factors affecting the space regeneration of the old factory were concluded. Thus the relationship between space regeneration and material, structure, internal and external space design has been derived. Finally, we summarized the general spatial processing model in which the contradiction between ‘new’ and ‘old’ can be grafted and transformed.

Keywords: renovation of factory buildings, urban renewal, the cultural and creative industrial park, space regeneration, reconstruction mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
428 Anti-Scale Magnetic Method as a Prevention Method for Calcium Carbonate Scaling

Authors: Maha Salman, Gada Al-Nuwaibit

Abstract:

The effect of anti-scale magnetic method (AMM) in retarding scaling deposition is confirmed by many researchers, to result in new crystal morphology, the crystal which has the tendency to remain suspended more than precipitated. AMM is considered as an economic method when compared to other common methods used for scale prevention in desalination plant as acid treatment and addition of antiscalant. The current project was initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of AMM in preventing calcium carbonate scaling. The AMM was tested at different flow velocities (1.0, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, and 0.003 m/s), different operating temperatures (50, 70, and 90°C), different feed pH and different magnetic field strength. The results showed that AMM was effective in retarding calcium carbonate scaling deposition, and the performance of AMM depends strongly on the flow velocity. The scaling retention time was found to be affected by the operating temperatures, flow velocity, and magnetic strength (MS), and in general, it was found that as the operating temperatures increased the effectiveness of the AMM in retarding calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) scaling increased.

Keywords: magnetic treatment, field strength, flow velocity, magnetic scale retention time

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
427 Environmental Pollution and Health Risks of Residents Living near Ewekoro Cement Factory, Ewekoro, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ajide Oyinloye

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The natural environment is made up of air, water and soil. The release of emission of industrial waste into anyone of the components of the environment causes pollution. Industrial pollution significantly threatens the inherent right of people, to the enjoyment of a safe and secure environment. The aim of this paper is to assess the effect of environmental pollution and health risks of residents living near Ewekoro Cement factory. The research made use of IKONOS imagery for Geographical Information System (GIS) to buffer and extract buildings that are less than 1 km to the plant, within 1 km to 5 km and above 5 km to the factory. Also, a questionnaire was used to elicit information on the socio-economic factors, the effect of environmental pollution on residents and measures adopted to control industrial pollution on the residents. Findings show that most buildings that between less than 1 km and 1 km to 5 km to the factory have high health risk in the study area. The study recommended total relocation for the residents of the study area to reduce risk health problems.

Keywords: environmental pollution, health risk, GIS, satellite imagery, ewekoro

Procedia PDF Downloads 421