Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Abdelwahab Saber Esawi

43 Translation of the Verbal Nouns (Masadars) Originating from Three-Letter Verbs in the Holy Quran: Verbal Noun with More than One Pattern (Wazn) As a Model

Authors: Montasser Mohamed Abdelwahab Mahmoud, Abdelwahab Saber Esawi

Abstract:

The language of the Qur’an has a wide range of understanding, reflection, and meanings. Therefore, translation of the Qur’an is inevitably nothing but a translation of the interpretation of the meanings of the Qur’an. It requires special competencies and skills for translators so that they can get close to the intended meaning of the verse of the Qur’an and convey it with precision. In the Arabic language, the verbal noun “AlMasdar” is a very important derivative that properly expresses the verbal idea in the form of a noun. It sounds the same as the base form of the verb with minor changes in the vowel pattern. It is one of the important topics in morphology. The morphologists divided verbal nouns into auditory and analogical, and they stated that that the verbal nouns (Masadars) originating from three-letter verbs are auditory, although they set controls for some of them in order to preserve them. As for the lexicographers, they mentioned the verbal nouns while talking about the lexical materials, and in some cases, their explanation of them exceeded that made by the morphologists, especially in their discussion of structures that the morphologists did not refer to in their books. The verb kafara (disbelief), for example, has three patterns, namely: al-kufْr, al-kufrān, and al-kufūr, and it was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an with different connotations. The verb ṣāma (fasted) with his two patterns (al-ṣaūm and al-ṣīām) was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an while their semantic meaning is different. The problem discussed in this research paper lied in the "linguistic loss" committed by translators when dealing with Islamic religious texts, especially the Qur'an. The study tried to identify the strategy adopted by translators of the Holy Qur'an in translating words that were classified as verbal nouns through analyzing the translation rendered by five translations of the Qur’an into English: Yusuf Ali, Pickthall, Mohsin Khan, Muhammad Sarwar, and Shakir. This study was limited to the verbal nouns in the Quraan that originate from three-letter verbs and have different semantic meanings.

Keywords: pattern, three-letter verbs, translation of the Quran, verbal nouns

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42 Using Virtual Reality Exergaming to Improve Health of College Students

Authors: Juanita Wallace, Mark Jackson, Bethany Jurs

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Introduction: Exergames, VR games used as a form of exercise, are being used to reduce sedentary lifestyles in a vast number of populations. However, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the physiological response during VR exergaming to that of traditional exercises. The purpose of this study was to create a foundationary investigation establishing changes in physiological responses resulting from VR exergaming in a college aged population. Methods: In this IRB approved study, college aged students were recruited to play a virtual reality exergame (Beat Saber) on the Oculus Quest 2 (Facebook, 2021) in either a control group (CG) or training group (TG). Both groups consisted of subjects who were not habitual users of virtual reality. The CG played VR one time per week for three weeks and the TG played 150 min/week three weeks. Each group played the same nine Beat Saber songs, in a randomized order, during 30 minute sessions. Song difficulty was increased during play based on song performance. Subjects completed a pre- and posttests at which the following was collected: • Beat Saber Game Metrics: song level played, song score, number of beats completed per song and accuracy (beats completed/total beats) • Physiological Data: heart rate (max and avg.), active calories • Demographics Results: A total of 20 subjects completed the study; nine in the CG (3 males, 6 females) and 11 (5 males, 6 females) in the TG. • Beat Saber Song Metrics: The TG improved performance from a normal/hard difficulty to hard/expert. The CG stayed at the normal/hard difficulty. At the pretest there was no difference in game accuracy between groups. However, at the posttest the CG had a higher accuracy. • Physiological Data (Table 1): Average heart rates were similar between the TG and CG at both the pre- and posttest. However, the TG expended more total calories. Discussion: Due to the lack of peer reviewed literature on c exergaming using Beat Saber, the results of this study cannot be directly compared. However, the results of this study can be compared with the previously established trends for traditional exercise. In traditional exercise, an increase in training volume equates to increased efficiency at the activity. The TG should naturally increase in difficulty at a faster rate than the CG because they played 150 hours per week. Heart rate and caloric responses also increase during traditional exercise as load increases (i.e. speed or resistance). The TG reported an increase in total calories due to a higher difficulty of play. The song accuracy decreases in the TG can be explained by the increased difficulty of play. Conclusion: VR exergaming is comparable to traditional exercise for loads within the 50-70% of maximum heart rate. The ability to use VR for health could motivate individuals who do not engage in traditional exercise. In addition, individuals in health professions can and should promote VR exergaming as a viable way to increase physical activity and improve health in their clients/patients.

Keywords: virtual reality, exergaming, health, heart rate, wellness

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41 Evaluation Practices in Colombia: Between Beliefs and National Exams

Authors: Danilsa Lorduy, Liliana Valle

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Assessment and evaluation are inextricable parts of the teaching learning process. Evaluation practices concerns are gaining popularity among curriculum developers an educational researchers, particularly in Colombian regions where English language is taught as a foreign language EFL. This study addressed one of those issues, which are the unbalanced in –services’ evaluation practices perceived in school classes. They present predominance on the written test among the procedures they use to evaluate; therefore, the purpose of this case study was to explore in-service teachers’ evaluation practices, their beliefs about evaluation and to establish an eventual connection between practices and beliefs. To this end, classroom observations, questionnaires, and a semi structured interview were applied to three in-service English teachers from different schools in a city in Colombia. The findings suggested that teachers’ beliefs indicate a formative inclination and they actually are using a variety of procedures different from test but they seem to have some issues regarding their appropriateness for application Moreover, it was found that teachers’ practices are being influenced by external factors such as school requirements and national policies. It could be concluded that the predominance in using tests is not only elicited by teachers’ beliefs but also by national test results 'Pruebas Saber' and law 115 demanding. It was also suggested that further quantitative research is needed to demonstrate connections between overuse of testing procedures and 'Pruebas Saber' national test.

Keywords: beliefs, evaluation, external factors, national test

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40 Long-Term Variabilities and Tendencies in the Zonally Averaged TIMED-SABER Ozone and Temperature in the Middle Atmosphere over 10°N-15°N

Authors: Oindrila Nath, S. Sridharan

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Long-term (2002-2012) temperature and ozone measurements by Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite zonally averaged over 10°N-15°N are used to study their long-term changes and their responses to solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation. The region is selected to provide more accurate long-term trends and variabilities, which were not possible earlier with lidar measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), which are limited to cloud-free nights, whereas continuous data sets of SABER temperature and ozone are available. Regression analysis of temperature shows a cooling trend of 0.5K/decade in the stratosphere and that of 3K/decade in the mesosphere. Ozone shows a statistically significant decreasing trend of 1.3 ppmv per decade in the mesosphere although there is a small positive trend in stratosphere at 25 km. Other than this no significant ozone trend is observed in stratosphere. Negative ozone-QBO response (0.02ppmv/QBO), positive ozone-solar cycle (0.91ppmv/100SFU) and negative response to ENSO (0.51ppmv/SOI) have been found more in mesosphere whereas positive ozone response to ENSO (0.23ppmv/SOI) is pronounced in stratosphere (20-30 km). The temperature response to solar cycle is more positive (3.74K/100SFU) in the upper mesosphere and its response to ENSO is negative around 80 km and positive around 90-100 km and its response to QBO is insignificant at most of the heights. Composite monthly mean of ozone volume mixing ratio shows maximum values during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season in middle stratosphere (25-30 km) and in upper mesosphere (85-95 km) around 10 ppmv. Composite monthly mean of temperature shows semi-annual variation with large values (~250-260 K) in equinox months and less values in solstice months in upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere (40-55 km) whereas the SAO becomes weaker above 55 km. The semi-annual variation again appears at 80-90 km, with large values in spring equinox and winter months. In the upper mesosphere (90-100 km), less temperature (~170-190 K) prevails in all the months except during September, when the temperature is slightly more. The height profiles of amplitudes of semi-annual and annual oscillations in ozone show maximum values of 6 ppmv and 2.5 ppmv respectively in upper mesosphere (80-100 km), whereas SAO and AO in temperature show maximum values of 5.8 K and 4.6 K in lower and middle mesosphere around 60-85 km. The phase profiles of both SAO and AO show downward progressions. These results are being compared with long-term lidar temperature measurements over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and the results obtained will be presented during the meeting.

Keywords: trends, QBO, solar cycle, ENSO, ozone, temperature

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39 Using Mind Mapping and Morphological Analysis within a New Methodology for Teaching Students of Products’ Design

Authors: Kareem Saber

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Many products’ design instructors search for how to help students to develop their designs simply by reducing design stages and extrapolating simple design process forms to achieve design creativity. So, the researcher extrapolated a new design process form called “hierarchical design” which reduced design process into three stages and he had tried that methodology on about two hundred students. That trial had led to great results as students could develop their designs which characterized by creativity and innovation. That proved the success and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: mind mapping, morphological analysis, product design, design process

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38 Neural Network in Fixed Time for Collision Detection between Two Convex Polyhedra

Authors: M. Khouil, N. Saber, M. Mestari

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In this paper, a different architecture of a collision detection neural network (DCNN) is developed. This network, which has been particularly reviewed, has enabled us to solve with a new approach the problem of collision detection between two convex polyhedra in a fixed time (O (1) time). We used two types of neurons, linear and threshold logic, which simplified the actual implementation of all the networks proposed. The study of the collision detection is divided into two sections, the collision between a point and a polyhedron and then the collision between two convex polyhedra. The aim of this research is to determine through the AMAXNET network a mini maximum point in a fixed time, which allows us to detect the presence of a potential collision.

Keywords: collision identification, fixed time, convex polyhedra, neural network, AMAXNET

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37 Whey Protein: A Noval Protective Agent against Oto-Toxicity Induced by Cis-Platin in Male Rat

Authors: Eitedal Daoud, Reda M.Daoud, Khaled Abdel-Wahhab, Maha M.Saber, Lobna Saber

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Background: Cis-platin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug to treat many malignant disorders including head and neck malignancies. Oto-nephrotxicity is an important and dose - limiting side effect of cis - platin therapy. Nowadays, more attention had been paid to oto-toxicity caused with cis-platin. Aim of the Work: This study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of Whey protein (WP) against cis-platin induced ototoxicity compared to the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in rats. Methodology: Male albino rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: untreated rats (control), rats orally treated with whey protein (1g/kg b.w/day) for seven executive days, rats treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (500 mg/kgb.w /day) for seven executive days, rates intoxicated intraperitoneal (ip) with cis- platin (10 mg/kgb.w. once), rats treated with whey protein (1g/kgb.w./day) for seven executive days) followed by one injection (ip) of cis-platin(10 mg/kg b.w.) one hour after the last oral administration of whey protein, rats treated with N- acetylcysteine (for seven executive days followed by one injection (ip) of cis-platin (10 mg/kgb.w) one hour after the last oral administration of N-acetylcysteine. The organ of Corti, the stria vascularis and spiral ganglia were visualized by light microscopy at different magnifications. Results: Cis-platin intoxicated animals showed a significant decrease in serum level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC),with inhibition in the activity of serum glutathione-s transferase(GST) and paraoxonnase-1 (PON-1) in comparison with control. Group treated with either NAC or WP with cis-platin showed significant elevation in the activity of both GST & PON-1 with increased serum level of TAC when compared with cis-platin intoxicated rats. Animals treated with NAC or WP with cis-platin compared to those treated with cis-platin alone showed marked degree of improvement towards control rats as there was significant drop in the serum level of cortecosterone, nitric oxide (NO), and melandialdehyde (MDA).Histopathologic, in NAC pretreated group there was no changes in stria vascularis or spiral ganglia. In group pretreated with WP, there was no histopathologic alteration detected in the organ of Corti and Reissers membrane but oedema and haemorrhage were founded in the stria vascularis in small focal manner. Conclusion: Our finding showed that Whey protein is a natural dietary supplement product proved its ability of protection of anti-oxidant system and the cochlea against cis-platin induced ototoxicity.

Keywords: anti-oxidant, cis-platin, N-acetylcysteine, ototoxicity, whey protein

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36 Path Planning for Collision Detection between two Polyhedra

Authors: M. Khouil, N. Saber, M. Mestari

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This study aimed to propose, a different architecture of a Path Planning using the NECMOP. where several nonlinear objective functions must be optimized in a conflicting situation. The ability to detect and avoid collision is very important for mobile intelligent machines. However, many artificial vision systems are not yet able to quickly and cheaply extract the wealth information. This network, which has been particularly reviewed, has enabled us to solve with a new approach the problem of collision detection between two convex polyhedra in a fixed time (O (1) time). We used two types of neurons linear and threshold logic, which simplified the actual implementation of all the networks proposed. This article represents a comprehensive algorithm that determine through the AMAXNET network a measure (a mini-maximum point) in a fixed time, which allows us to detect the presence of a potential collision.

Keywords: path planning, collision detection, convex polyhedron, neural network

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35 An Investigation of the Mystic Term on 'The Conference of the Birds' of Attar on the Basis of Van Doorslaer's Map

Authors: Saber Noie

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This research follows some objectives to consider the mystic terms as one of the main issues in translation of poems. Firstly, it is an attempt to find out what strategies have been used to find equivalents for source text mystic. Second, it is hoped that this study of the translations of the mystic terms in Attar’s poems will further address and explore the problems in translating mystic texts, proposed by other Persian poets and suggest instructional points from Davis work for translation education. In order to deal with such a breadth of work, a new conceptual tool was developed, as explained by Van Doorslaer (2007). This study shows that according to Van Doorslaer’s map, the mystic terms can be transferred to the target language (TL) with their exact content of the source language (SL) if the translator has a good choice for any term.

Keywords: metaphor, mystic, mysticism, source language (SL), target language (TL)

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34 Comparison of Dubbing and Subtitling through Critical Discourse Analysis: Detecting Lexical Differences and Similarities in the Movie 'The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo'

Authors: Saber Noie, F. Jafarpour

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Translation of the movies was one of important issues of the translators. In this study, the notions of ‘foreignization’, ‘domestication’, and ‘critical discourse analysis’ (CDA) in translation studies were discussed. This study is a comparative study and attempts towards clarifying the lexical differences and similarities between dubbing and subtitling in audiovisual translation through CDA. The strategies proposed by Venuti (1995) and Newmark (1988) used first by researcher and then, the researcher went back to the Van Dijk’s CDA (1995), in the part dominance. This study shows that according to CDA, the dominant strategy in subtitling is foreignization and dominant strategy in dubbing is domestication.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, CDA, dub, subtitle, foreignization, domestication

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33 Energy Management System with Temperature Rise Prevention on Hybrid Ships

Authors: Asser S. Abdelwahab, Nabil H. Abbasy, Ragi A. Hamdy

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Marine shipping has now become one of the major worldwide contributors to pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hybrid ships technology based on multiple energy sources has taken a great scope of research to get rid of ship emissions and cut down fuel expenses. Insufficiency between power generated and the demand load to withstand the transient behavior on ships during severe climate conditions will lead to a blackout. Thus, an efficient energy management system (EMS) is a mandatory scope for achieving higher system efficiency while enhancing the lifetime of the onboard storage systems is another salient EMS scope. Considering energy storage system conditions, both the battery state of charge (SOC) and temperature represent important parameters to prevent any malfunction of the storage system that eventually degrades the whole system. In this paper, a two battery packs ratio fuzzy logic control model is proposed. The overall aim is to control the charging/discharging current while including both the battery SOC and temperature in the energy management system. The full designs of the proposed controllers are described and simulated using Matlab. The results prove the successfulness of the proposed controller in stabilizing the system voltage during both loading and unloading while keeping the energy storage system in a healthy condition.

Keywords: energy storage system, power shipboard, hybrid ship, thermal runaway

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32 Validating the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory for Assessing the Development of Language in Arabic-Speaking Children

Authors: Alshaimaa Abdelwahab, Allegra Cattani, Caroline Floccia

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Assessing children’s language is fundamental for changing their developmental outcome as it gives a chance for a quick and early intervention with the suitable planning and monitoring program. The importance of language assessment lies in helping to find the right test fit for purpose, in addition to achievement and proficiency. This study examines the validity of a new Arabic assessment tool, the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory ‘Arabic CDI’. It assesses the development of language in Arabic children in different Arabic countries, allowing to detect children with language delay. A concurrent validity is set to compare the Arabic CDI to the Arabic Language test. Twenty-three typically developing Egyptian healthy children and their mothers participated in this study. Their age is 24 months (+ or -) two weeks. The sample included 13 males and 10 females. Mothers completed the Arabic CDI either before or after the Arabic Language Test was conducted with the child. The score for comprehension in the Arabic CDI (M= 52.7, SD= 9.7) and words understood in the Arabic Language Test (M= 59.6, SD= 12.5) were strongly and positively correlated (r= .62, p= .002). At the same time, the scores for production in the Arabic CDI (M= 38.4, SD= 14.8) and words expressed in the Arabic Language Test (M= 52.1, SD= 16.3) were also strongly and positively correlated (r= .82, p= .000). The new Arabic CDI is an adequate tool for assessing the development of comprehension and production at Arabic children. In addition, it could be used for detecting children with language impairment. Standardization of the Arabic CDI across 18 different Arabic dialects in children aged 8 to 30 months is underway.

Keywords: Arabic CDI, assessing children, language development, language impairment

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31 Acute Hepatotoxicity of Nano and Micro-Sized Iron Particles in Adult Albino Rats

Authors: Ghada Hasabo, Mahmoud Saber Elbasiouny, Mervat Abdelsalam, Sherin Ghaleb, Niveen Eldessouky

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In the near future, nanotechnology is envisaged for large scale use. Hence health and safety issues of nanoparticles should be promptly addressed. In the present study the acute hepatoxicity assessment due to high single oral dose of nano iron and micro iron particles were studied. The normal daily activities, biochemical alterations, blood coagulation, histopathological changes in Wister rats were the aspect of the toxicological assessment.This work found that significant alterations in biochemical enzymes (serum iron level, liver enzymes, albumin, and bilirubin levels), blood coagulation (PT, PC, INR), and histopathological changes occurred more prominently in the nano iron particle treated group.

Keywords: nanobiotechnology, nanosystems, nanomaterials, nanotechnology

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30 Sustainable Micro Architecture: A Pattern for Urban Release Areas

Authors: Saber Fatourechian

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People within modern cities have faced macro urban values spreads rapidly through current style of living. Unexpected phenomena without any specific features of micro scale, humanity and urban social/cultural patterns. The gap between micro and macro scale is unidentified and people could not recognize where they are especially in the interaction between life and city. Urban life details were verified. Micro architecture is a pattern in which human activity derives from human needs in an unconscious position. Sustainable attitude via micro architecture causes flexibility in decision making through micro urbanism essentially impacts macro scale. In this paper the definition of micro architecture and its relation with city and human activity are argued, there after the interaction between micro and macro scale is presented as an effective way for urban sustainable development.

Keywords: micro architecture, sustainability, human activity, city

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29 Design of Bayesian MDS Sampling Plan Based on the Process Capability Index

Authors: Davood Shishebori, Mohammad Saber Fallah Nezhad, Sina Seifi

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In this paper, a variable multiple dependent state (MDS) sampling plan is developed based on the process capability index using Bayesian approach. The optimal parameters of the developed sampling plan with respect to constraints related to the risk of consumer and producer are presented. Two comparison studies have been done. First, the methods of double sampling model, sampling plan for resubmitted lots and repetitive group sampling (RGS) plan are elaborated and average sample numbers of the developed MDS plan and other classical methods are compared. A comparison study between the developed MDS plan based on Bayesian approach and the exact probability distribution is carried out.

Keywords: MDS sampling plan, RGS plan, sampling plan for resubmitted lots, process capability index (PCI), average sample number (ASN), Bayesian approach

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28 Up-Flow Sponge Submerged Biofilm Reactor for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Authors: Saber A. El-Shafai, Waleed M. Zahid

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An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with sponge was investigated for sewage treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles as single aerobic (1-1 at 3.5 L/L.d HLR and 1-2 at 3.8 L/L.day HLR) and four cycles as single anaerobic/aerobic reactor; 2-1 and 2-2 at low HLR (3.7 and 3.5 L/L.day) and 2-3 and 2-4 at high HLR (5.1 and 5.4 L/L.day). During the aerobic cycles, 50% effluent recycling significantly reduces the system performance except for phosphorous. In case of the anaerobic/aerobic reactor, the effluent recycling, significantly improves system performance at low HLR while at high HLR only phosphorous removal was improved. Excess sludge production was limited to 0.133 g TSS/g COD with better sludge volume index (SVI) in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles; (54.7 versus 58.5 ml/g).

Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, up-flow, submerged biofilm, sponge

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27 Multitasking Trends and Impact on Education: A Literature Review

Authors: Mohammed Alkahtani, Ali Ahmad, Saber Darmoul, Shatha Samman, Ayoub Al-zabidi, Khaled Ba Matraf

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Education systems are complex and involve interactions between humans (teachers and students); media based technologies, lectures, classrooms, etc. to provide educational services. The education system performance is characterized by how well students learn, which is measured using student grades on exams and quizzes, achievements on standardized tests, among others. Advances in portable communications technologies, such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops, created a different type of classroom, where students seem to engage in more than just the intended learning activities. The performance of more than one task in parallel or in rapid transition is commonly known as multitasking. Several operations in educational systems are performed simultaneously, resulting in a multitasking education environment. This paper surveys existing research on multitasking in educational settings, summarizes literature findings, provides a synthesis of the impact of multitasking on performance, and identifies directions of future research.

Keywords: multitasking, education, education environment, impact

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26 Fractal Nature of Granular Mixtures of Different Concretes Formulated with Different Methods of Formulation

Authors: Fatima Achouri, Kaddour Chouicha, Abdelwahab Khatir

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It is clear that concrete of quality must be made with selected materials chosen in optimum proportions that remain after implementation, a minimum of voids in the material produced. The different methods of formulations what we use, are based for the most part on a granular curve which describes an ‘optimal granularity’. Many authors have engaged in fundamental research on granular arrangements. A comparison of mathematical models reproducing these granular arrangements with experimental measurements of compactness have to verify that the minimum porosity P according to the following extent granular exactly a power law. So the best compactness in the finite medium are obtained with power laws, such as Furnas, Fuller or Talbot, each preferring a particular setting between 0.20 and 0.50. These considerations converge on the assumption that the optimal granularity Caquot approximates by a power law. By analogy, it can then be analyzed as a granular structure of fractal-type since the properties that characterize the internal similarity fractal objects are reflected also by a power law. Optimized mixtures may be described as a series of installments falling granular stuff to better the tank on a regular hierarchical distribution which would give at different scales, by cascading effects, the same structure to the mix. Likely this model may be appropriate for the entire extent of the size distribution of the components, since the cement particles (and silica fume) correctly deflocculated, micrometric dimensions, to chippings sometimes several tens of millimeters. As part of this research, the aim is to give an illustration of the application of fractal analysis to characterize the granular concrete mixtures optimized for a so-called fractal dimension where different concretes were studying that we proved a fractal structure of their granular mixtures regardless of the method of formulation or the type of concrete.

Keywords: concrete formulation, fractal character, granular packing, method of formulation

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25 Influence of Salbutamol (Beta Adrenergic Agonist) on Carcass Characteristics and Same Blood Parameters in Male Broiler Chicken

Authors: Seyyed Naeim Saber, Javad Usefi

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This study was conducted to determine the effect of salbutamol (beta-adrenergic agonist) on carcass characteristics and some blood parameters in male broiler chicks. Four hundred and twenty day-old (Coob-500) male broiler were used in this experiment for six weeks. All birds were randomly divided into 7 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 15 birds per pen. Treatment groups included: control, 5, 10, and 15 mg salbutamol per liter water and 10, 20 and 30 mg salbutamol per kg diet. The data obtained from this study indicated that supplementation of salbutamol in water and diets have significant effect on live body weight, abdominal fat, and gizzard weight (p<0.05). Also adding salbutamol in broiler water and feed did not have significant effect on thigh and breast dry matter, thigh and breast crude protein, and thigh and breast crude fat (p>0.05). The results from this study demonstrated that salbutamol has significant (p<0.05) effect on hemoglobin content and RV/TV but it does not have significant effect (p>0.05) on hematocrit amount.

Keywords: salbutamol, beta-adrenergic agonist, broiler chicks, carcass characteristic

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24 EnumTree: An Enumerative Biclustering Algorithm for DNA Microarray Data

Authors: Haifa Ben Saber, Mourad Elloumi

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In a number of domains, like in DNA microarray data analysis, we need to cluster simultaneously rows (genes) and columns (conditions) of a data matrix to identify groups of constant rows with a group of columns. This kind of clustering is called biclustering. Biclustering algorithms are extensively used in DNA microarray data analysis. More effective biclustering algorithms are highly desirable and needed. We introduce a new algorithm called, Enumerative tree (EnumTree) for biclustering of binary microarray data. is an algorithm adopting the approach of enumerating biclusters. This algorithm extracts all biclusters consistent good quality. The main idea of ​​EnumLat is the construction of a new tree structure to represent adequately different biclusters discovered during the process of enumeration. This algorithm adopts the strategy of all biclusters at a time. The performance of the proposed algorithm is assessed using both synthetic and real DNA micryarray data, our algorithm outperforms other biclustering algorithms for binary microarray data. Biclusters with different numbers of rows. Moreover, we test the biological significance using a gene annotation web tool to show that our proposed method is able to produce biologically relevent biclusters.

Keywords: DNA microarray, biclustering, gene expression data, tree, datamining.

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23 Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

Authors: P. Kumar, D. Eisenhauer, M. M. K. Yousef, Q. Shi, A. S. G. Khalil, M. R. Saber, C. Becker, T. Pullerits, K. J. Karki

Abstract:

In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.

Keywords: carrier lifetime, impedance, nano-textured, photocurrent

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22 Ability of Gastric Enzyme Extract of Adult Camel to Clot Bovine Milk

Authors: Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha, Isselnane Souad, Nouani Abdelwahab, Baaissa Babelhadj, Mati Abderrahmane

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Algeria is experiencing significant development of the dairy sector, where consumption of milk and milk products increased by 2.7 million tons in 2008 to 4,400,000 tons in 2013, and cheese production has reached 1640 tons in the year 2014 with average consumption of 0.7 kg/person/year. Although rennet is still the most used coagulating enzyme in cheese, its production has been growing worldwide shortage. This shortage is primarily due to a growing increase in the production and consumption of cheese, and the inability to increase in parallel the production of rennet. This shortage has caused very large fluctuations in its price). To overcome these obstacles, much research has been undertaken to find effective and competitive substitutes used industrially. For this, the selection of a local production of rennet substitute is desirable. It would allow a permanent supply with limited dependence on imports and price fluctuations. Investigations conducted by our research team showed that extracts coagulants from the stomachs of older camels are characterized by a coagulating power than those from younger camels. The objective of this work is to study the possibility of substituting commercial rennet coagulant by gastric enzymes from adult camels for coagulation bovine milk. Excerpts from the raw camel coagulants obtained are characterized through their teneures proteins and clotting and proteolytic activities. Milk clotting conditions by the action of these extracts were optimized. Milk clotting time all treated with enzyme preparations and under different conditions was calculated. Bovine rennet has been used for comparison. The results show that crude extracts from gastric adult camel can be good substituting bovine rennet.

Keywords: Algeria, camel, cheese, coagulation, gastric extracts, milk

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21 Confinement and Storage of Cyanate in the Nano Scale via Nanolayered Structures

Authors: Osama Saber

Abstract:

Cyanate is one such anion which is produced during protein poisoning in the body and has been studied extensively in the field of biochemistry because of its toxicity. The present work aims at confinement and storage of cyanate in the nano scale. It was achieved through the intercalation of cyanate anions into nanolayerd structures of Ni-Al LDH. In addition, the effect of aging time on the intercalation of cyanate was clarified using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of cations on the affinity towards the intercalation of cyanate anions inside LDH structure was studied by replacement of tetra-valent cations Ti4+ instead of the tri-vallent cations Al3+ during the preparation of LDH structure. X-ray diffraction patterns of the Ni-Ti LDH showed that the interlayer spacing was 0.73 nm. This spacing was smaller than that of Ni-Al LDH suggesting that the interlayered anions into Ni-Ti LDH are different from those into Ni-Al LDH. Thermal analyses (TG, DTG, and DTA) and Infra-red spectra revealed the presence of only cyanate anions into Ni-Ti LDH while, in the case of Ni-Al LDH, both cyanate and carbonate anions were observed. SEM images showed plate-like morphology for both Ni-Ti and Ni-Al LDHs although the shapes of their plates are not similar. Our results suggested that the LDH structures containing titanium cations have higher affinity for cyanate anions than those containing aluminum cations. Therefore, this choice for cyanate in the interlayered spacing widens the applicability to study the effect of the confinement on the toxicity of cyanate by bio researchers.

Keywords: nanolayered structures, Ni-Al LDH, Ni-Ti LDH, intercalation of cyanate anions, urea hydrolysis

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20 Hydrological Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Products Using IHACRES Rainfall-Runoff Model over a Basin in Iran

Authors: Mahmoud Zakeri Niri, Saber Moazami, Arman Abdollahipour, Hossein Ghalkhani

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to hydrological evaluation of four widely-used satellite precipitation products named PERSIANN, TMPA-3B42V7, TMPA-3B42RT, and CMORPH over Zarinehrood basin in Iran. For this aim, at first, daily streamflow of Sarough-cahy river of Zarinehrood basin was simulated using IHACRES rainfall-runoff model with daily rain gauge and temperature as input data from 1988 to 2008. Then, the model was calibrated in two different periods through comparison the simulated discharge with the observed one at hydrometric stations. Moreover, in order to evaluate the performance of satellite precipitation products in streamflow simulation, the calibrated model was validated using daily satellite rainfall estimates from the period of 2003 to 2008. The obtained results indicated that TMPA-3B42V7 with CC of 0.69, RMSE of 5.93 mm/day, MAE of 4.76 mm/day, and RBias of -5.39% performs better simulation of streamflow than those PERSIANN and CMORPH over the study area. It is noteworthy that in Iran, the availability of ground measuring station data is very limited because of the sparse density of hydro-meteorological networks. On the other hand, large spatial and temporal variability of precipitations and lack of a reliable and extensive observing system are the most important challenges to rainfall analysis, flood prediction, and other hydrological applications in this country.

Keywords: hydrological evaluation, IHACRES, satellite precipitation product, streamflow simulation

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19 Trehalose-Based Nanocarriers for Alleviation of Inflammation in Colitis

Authors: Wessam H. Abd-Elsalam, Mona M. Saber, Samar M. Abouelatta

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered a double edged sword in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Some studies reported their advantageous effect in decreasing inflammation, and other studies reported that their use is associated with colitis aggravation. This study aimed to use specifically formulated trehalose-based nano-carriers that targets the colon in an attempt to alleviate inflammation caused by NSAIDs. L-α-phosphatidylcholine (PL), trehalose, and transcutol were used to prepare the trehalosomes (THs), which were also loaded with Tenoxicam(TXM) as a model NSAID. To optimize the formulation variables, a full 23 factorial design, using Design-Expert® software, was performed. The optimized formulation composed of trehalose: PL at a weight ratio of 1:1, 377.72 mg transcutol, and sonicated for 4 min, possessed a spherical shape with a size of 268.61 nm and EE% of 97.83% and released 70.22% of its drug content over 24 h. The superior protective action of TXM loaded THs compared to TXM suspension and drug-free THs was shown by the inhibition of the inflammatory biomarkers, namely; IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels, as well as oxidative stress markers, measured as GSH and MDA. Improved histopathology of the colonic tissue in male New Zealand rabbits also confirmed the superiority of the TXM loaded THs compared to the unformulated drug or the drug free nano-carriers. Our findings highlight the prosperous role of THs in colon targeting and its anti-inflammatory characteristics in guarding against possible NSAIDs-driven exacerbation of colitis.

Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, trehalose, trehalosomes, colon targeting

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18 Landfill Failure Mobility Analysis: A Probabilistic Approach

Authors: Ali Jahanfar, Brajesh Dubey, Bahram Gharabaghi, Saber Bayat Movahed

Abstract:

Ever increasing population growth of major urban centers and environmental challenges in siting new landfills have resulted in a growing trend in design of mega-landfills some with extraordinary heights and dangerously steep slopes. Landfill failure mobility risk analysis is one of the most uncertain types of dynamic rheology models due to very large inherent variabilities in the heterogeneous solid waste material shear strength properties. The waste flow of three historic dumpsite and two landfill failures were back-analyzed using run-out modeling with DAN-W model. The travel distances of the waste flow during landfill failures were calculated approach by taking into account variability in material shear strength properties. The probability distribution function for shear strength properties of the waste material were grouped into four major classed based on waste material compaction (landfills versus dumpsites) and composition (high versus low quantity) of high shear strength waste materials such as wood, metal, plastic, paper and cardboard in the waste. This paper presents a probabilistic method for estimation of the spatial extent of waste avalanches, after a potential landfill failure, to create maps of vulnerability scores to inform property owners and residents of the level of the risk.

Keywords: landfill failure, waste flow, Voellmy rheology, friction coefficient, waste compaction and type

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17 Study of the Middle and Upper Atmosphere during Sudden Stratospheric Warming Episodes

Authors: Jinee Gogoi, Som K. Sharma, Kalyan Bhuyan

Abstract:

The atmospheric layers are coupled to each other with the different dynamical, electrical, radiative and chemical processes. A large scale thermodynamical phenomenon in winter polar regions which affects the middle atmosphere vigorously is Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW). Two major SSW events were occurred during 1998-1999; one in December 1998 which is associated with vortex displacement and another in February- March 1999 associated with vortex splitting. Lidar study of these two major events from Mt. Abu (24.36⁰N, 72.45⁰E, ~1670 m amsl) has shown that though SSWs are mostly observed over high and mid latitudes, their effects can also be seen over India. We have studied ionospheric variations (primarily fₒF₂, h’F and hpF₂) over Ahmedabad (23.1⁰N, 72.58⁰E) during these events. Ionospheric disturbances have been found after four-five days of peak temperature. An increase (decrease) in critical frequency (fₒF₂) during morning (afternoon) has been noticed which may be in response to the updrift (down drift). Effects are stronger during displacement event (1998) than during the splitting event (1999). We have also studied some recent events occurred during 2006 (January), 2009 (January) and 2013 (January) using temperature data from Sounding of Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite. Though some modeling work supports the hypothesis that planetary waves are responsible for atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, there is still more significant works to do to understand how exactly the coupling can take place.

Keywords: sudden stratospheric warming (SSW), polar vortex, ionosphere, critical frequency

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16 Study of Complex (CO) 3Ti (PHND) and CpV (PHND) (PHND = Phénanthridine)

Authors: Akila Tayeb-Benmachiche, Saber-Mustapha Zendaoui, Salah-Eddine Bouaoud, Bachir Zouchoune

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The variation of the metal coordination site in π-coordinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) corresponds to the haptotropic rearrangement or haptotropic migration in which the metal fragment MLn is considered as the moveable moiety that is shifted between two rings of polycyclic or heteropolycyclic ligands. These structural characteristics and dynamical properties give to this category of transition metal complexes a considerable interest. We have investigated the coordination and the haptotropic shifts of (CO)3Ti and CpV moieties over the phenanthridine aromatic system and according to the metal atom nature. The optimization of (CO)3Ti(PHND) and CpV(PHND), using the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) program, without a symmetrical restriction of geometry gives an η6 coordination mode of the C6 and C5N rings, which in turn give rise to a six low-lying deficient 16-MVE of each (CO)3Ti(PHND) and CpV(PHND) structure (three singlet and three triplet state structures for Ti complexes and three triplet and three quintet state structures for V complexes). Thus, the η6–η6 haptotropic migration of the metal fragment MLn from the terminal C6 ring to the central C5N ring has been achieved by a loss of energy. However, its η6–η6 haptotropic migration from central C5N ring to the terminal C6 rings has been accomplished by a gain of energy. These results show the capability of the phenanthridine ligand to adapt itself to the electronic demand of the metal in agreement with the nature of the metal–ligand bonding and demonstrate that this theoretical study can also be applied to large fused π-systems.

Keywords: electronic structure, bonding analysis, density functional theory, coordination chemistry haptotropic migration

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15 Effects of the Food Colour Erythrosine on Thyroid Gland Function in Experimental Rats

Authors: Maha M.Saber, Eitedal Daoud, Moetazza M. Alshafei, Lobna M. Abd El-Latif

Abstract:

Children in the third world consumes many food products colored red like sweets and soft drink without knowing its effect on health or the type of color used in these products Erythrosine (ER,FD & C Red No.3) is one of the most common coloring agent used in these products and in coloring cherry in compotes. The possible adverse effect of erythrosine ER on the thyroid gland function is investigated in albino rats. Forty-five adult male albino rats were divided to three groups two groups will receive ER orally in doses 68 and I36mg/kg respectively. Third group will receive distilled water for three months Sections of thyroid glands were examined for histopathological, morphometric analysis and MIB-I Ki67 (proliferative marker). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxin (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH) were determined, results showed histological changes in the two treatment groups versus control group in the group with 68mg/kg dose show vaculation of the cytoplasm of follicular cells and pleomorphism of their nuclei. While the other treated group {136mg /kg} showed congestion of blood vessels, hyperplasia of the interstitial cells and increased multilayer of the follicular cells. Highly significant increase in the mean area of the thyroid follicles in both treated groups compared to control group.Erythrosine treated groups showed a very highly significant decrease (P < 0.001) in serum concentration of T3 and T 4 while TSH showed a very highly significant increase versus control.

Keywords: erythrosine, thyroid, morphometrics, proliferative marker

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14 The Impact of Maternal Micronutrient Levels on Risk of Offspring Neural Tube Defects in Egypt

Authors: Eman M. El-Sayed, Sahar A. Abdelaziz, Maha M. Saber Abd El Latif

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Neural tube defects (NTD) are important causes of infant mortality. Poor nutrition was essential factor for central nervous system deformation. Mothers gave NTD offspring had abnormal serum levels of micronutrients. The present research was designed to study the effect of maternal micronutrient levels and oxidative stress on the incidence of NTD in offspring. The study included forty mothers; twenty of them of 30.9+7.28 years had conceived fetuses with NTD were considered as cases; and twenty mothers of 28.2 + 7.82 years with healthy neonates. We determined serum vitamin B12 and folic acid by using radioimmunoassays. Also, serum zinc was assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. While serum copper and iron were measured colorimetrically and serum ceruloplasmin was analyzed by radialimmunodiffusion. Cases showed significantly lower levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and zinc (P< 0.0005, 0.01, 0.01 respectively) than that of the control. Concentrations of copper, ceruloplasmin, and iron were markedly increased in cases as compared to controls (P < 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05 respectively). In conclusion, the current study clearly indicated the etiology of NTD cannot be explained with one strict etiologic mechanism, on the contrary, an interaction among maternal nutritional factors and oxidative stress would explain these anomalies. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and zinc supplementations should be considered for further decrease in the occurrence of NTD. Preventing excess iron during pregnancy favors better pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: ceruloplasmin, copper, folic acid, iron, neural tube defects, oxidative stress, vitamin b12, zinc

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