Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5348

Search results for: differences matrix

5348 Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

Authors: Mohamed Ali Al Shaari, Khalid M. El Fitori

Abstract:

In the field of Quran Studies known as Ghareeb A Quran (the study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters). Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designed to look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms. There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works. For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM). DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters. In Differences Matrix, we used the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Keywords: Quran, synonyms, differences matrix, ontology

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
5347 The Second Smallest Eigenvalue of Complete Tripartite Hypergraph

Authors: Alfi Y. Zakiyyah, Hanni Garminia, M. Salman, A. N. Irawati

Abstract:

In the terminology of the hypergraph, there is a relation with the terminology graph. In the theory of graph, the edges connected two vertices. In otherwise, in hypergraph, the edges can connect more than two vertices. There is representation matrix of a graph such as adjacency matrix, Laplacian matrix, and incidence matrix. The adjacency matrix is symmetry matrix so that all eigenvalues is real. This matrix is a nonnegative matrix. The all diagonal entry from adjacency matrix is zero so that the trace is zero. Another representation matrix of the graph is the Laplacian matrix. Laplacian matrix is symmetry matrix and semidefinite positive so that all eigenvalues are real and non-negative. According to the spectral study in the graph, some that result is generalized to hypergraph. A hypergraph can be represented by a matrix such as adjacency, incidence, and Laplacian matrix. Throughout for this term, we use Laplacian matrix to represent a complete tripartite hypergraph. The aim from this research is to determine second smallest eigenvalues from this matrix and find a relation this eigenvalue with the connectivity of that hypergraph.

Keywords: connectivity, graph, hypergraph, Laplacian matrix

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5346 Conditions on Expressing a Matrix as a Sum of α-Involutions

Authors: Ric Joseph R. Murillo, Edna N. Gueco, Dennis I. Merino

Abstract:

Let F be C or R, where C and R are the set of complex numbers and real numbers, respectively, and n be a natural number. An n-by-n matrix A over the field F is called an α-involutory matrix or an α-involution if there exists an α in the field such that the square of the matrix is equal to αI, where I is the n-by-n identity matrix. If α is a complex number or a nonnegative real number, then an n-by-n matrix A over the field F can be written as a sum of n-by-n α-involutory matrices over the field F if and only if the trace of that matrix is an integral multiple of the square root of α. Meanwhile, if α is a negative real number, then a 2n-by-2n matrix A over R can be written as a sum of 2n-by-2n α-involutory matrices over R if and only the trace of the matrix is zero. Some other properties of α-involutory matrices are also determined

Keywords: α-involutory Matrices, sum of α-involutory Matrices, Trace, Matrix Theory

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5345 Manufacturing and Characterization of Ni-Matrix Composite Reinforced with Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC; and Al-Matrix with Ti2SiC

Authors: M. Hadji, N. Chiker, Y. Hadji, A. Haddad

Abstract:

In this paper, we report for the first time on the synthesis and characterization of novel MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti2AlC) reinforced Ni-matrix and Ti2AlC reinforced Al-matrix. The stability of MAX phases in Al-matrix and Ni-matrix at a temperature of 985°C has been investigated. All the composites were cold pressed and sintered at a temperature of 985°C for 20min in H2 environment, except (Ni/Ti3SiC2) who was sintered at 1100°C for 1h.Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between MAX particles and Ni, thus Al/MAX samples shown that MAX phases was totally decomposed at 985°C.The Addition of MAX enhanced the Al-matrix and Ni-matrix.

Keywords: MAX phase, microstructures, composites, hardness, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
5344 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Renata Masarova, Bohuslava Juhasova, Martin Juhas, Zuzana Sutova

Abstract:

In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab.

Keywords: dynamic system, transfer matrix, inverse matrix, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
5343 On Block Vandermonde Matrix Constructed from Matrix Polynomial Solvents

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche

Abstract:

In control engineering, systems described by matrix fractions are studied through properties of block roots, also called solvents. These solvents are usually dealt with in a block Vandermonde matrix form. Inverses and determinants of Vandermonde matrices and block Vandermonde matrices are used in solving problems of numerical analysis in many domains but require costly computations. Even though Vandermonde matrices are well known and method to compute inverse and determinants are many and, generally, based on interpolation techniques, methods to compute the inverse and determinant of a block Vandermonde matrix have not been well studied. In this paper, some properties of these matrices and iterative algorithms to compute the determinant and the inverse of a block Vandermonde matrix are given. These methods are deducted from the partitioned matrix inversion and determinant computing methods. Due to their great size, parallelization may be a solution to reduce the computations cost, so a parallelization of these algorithms is proposed and validated by a comparison using algorithmic complexity.

Keywords: block vandermonde matrix, solvents, matrix polynomial, matrix inverse, matrix determinant, parallelization

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5342 On Direct Matrix Factored Inversion via Broyden's Updates

Authors: Adel Mohsen

Abstract:

A direct method based on the good Broyden's updates for evaluating the inverse of a nonsingular square matrix of full rank and solving related system of linear algebraic equations is studied. For a matrix A of order n whose LU-decomposition is A = LU, the multiplication count is O (n3). This includes the evaluation of the LU-decompositions of the inverse, the lower triangular decomposition of A as well as a “reduced matrix inverse”. If an explicit value of the inverse is not needed the order reduces to O (n3/2) to compute to compute inv(U) and the reduced inverse. For a symmetric matrix only O (n3/3) operations are required to compute inv(L) and the reduced inverse. An example is presented to demonstrate the capability of using the reduced matrix inverse in treating ill-conditioned systems. Besides the simplicity of Broyden's update, the method provides a mean to exploit the possible sparsity in the matrix and to derive a suitable preconditioner.

Keywords: Broyden's updates, matrix inverse, inverse factorization, solution of linear algebraic equations, ill-conditioned matrices, preconditioning

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5341 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

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5340 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine

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5339 Parallel Computation of the Covariance-Matrix

Authors: Claude Tadonki

Abstract:

We address the issues related to the computation of the covariance matrix. This matrix is likely to be ill conditioned following its canonical expression, thus consequently raises serious numerical issues. The underlying linear system, which therefore should be solved by means of iterative approaches, becomes computationally challenging. A huge number of iterations is expected in order to reach an acceptable level of convergence, necessary to meet the required accuracy of the computation. In addition, this linear system needs to be solved at each iteration following the general form of the covariance matrix. Putting all together, its comes that we need to compute as fast as possible the associated matrix-vector product. This is our purpose in the work, where we consider and discuss skillful formulations of the problem, then propose a parallel implementation of the matrix-vector product involved. Numerical and performance oriented discussions are provided based on experimental evaluations.

Keywords: covariance-matrix, multicore, numerical computing, parallel computing

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5338 Texture Analysis of Grayscale Co-Occurrence Matrix on Mammographic Indexed Image

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha

Abstract:

The mammographic image of breast cancer compressed and synthesized to get co-efficient values which will be converted (5x5) matrix to get ROI image where we get the highest value of effected region and with the same ideology the technique has been extended to differentiate between Calcification and normal cell image using mean value derived from 5x5 matrix values

Keywords: texture analysis, mammographic image, partitioned gray scale co-oocurance matrix, co-efficient

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5337 Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

Authors: Xinjian Kou, Linlin Li, Yongju Zhou, Jimian Song

Abstract:

We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

Keywords: Structural Robustness, Structural Reliability, Redundancy Component, Redundancy Matrix

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5336 Multiple Images Stitching Based on Gradually Changing Matrix

Authors: Shangdong Zhu, Yunzhou Zhang, Jie Zhang, Hang Hu, Yazhou Zhang

Abstract:

Image stitching is a very important branch in the field of computer vision, especially for panoramic map. In order to eliminate shape distortion, a novel stitching method is proposed based on gradually changing matrix when images are horizontal. For images captured horizontally, this paper assumes that there is only translational operation in image stitching. By analyzing each parameter of the homography matrix, the global homography matrix is gradually transferred to translation matrix so as to eliminate the effects of scaling, rotation, etc. in the image transformation. This paper adopts matrix approximation to get the minimum value of the energy function so that the shape distortion at those regions corresponding to the homography can be minimized. The proposed method can avoid multiple horizontal images stitching failure caused by accumulated shape distortion. At the same time, it can be combined with As-Projective-As-Possible algorithm to ensure precise alignment of overlapping area.

Keywords: image stitching, gradually changing matrix, horizontal direction, matrix approximation, homography matrix

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5335 Matrix Method Posting

Authors: Varong Pongsai

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is introducing a new method of accounting posting which is called Matrix Method Posting. This method is based on the Matrix operation of pure Mathematics. Although, accounting field is classified as one of the social-science knowledge, many of accounting operations are placed by Mathematics sign and operation. Through the operation applying, it seems to be that the operations of Mathematics should be applied to accounting possibly. So, this paper tries to over-lap Mathematics logic to accounting logic smoothly. According to the context of discovery, deductive approach is employed to prove a simultaneously logical concept of both Mathematics and Accounting. The result proves that the Matrix can be placed to operate accounting perfectly, because Matrix and accounting logic also have a similarity concept which is balancing 2 sides during operations. Moreover, the Matrix posting also has a lot of benefit. It can help financial analyst calculating financial ratios comfortably. Furthermore, the matrix determinant which is a signature operation itself also helps auditors checking out the correction of clients’ recording. If the determinant is not equaled to 0, it will point out that the recording process of clients getting into the problem. Finally, the Matrix should be easily determining a concept of merger and consolidation far beyond the present day concept.

Keywords: matrix method posting, deductive approach, determinant, accounting application

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5334 Effects of the Mass and Damping Matrix Model in the Non-Linear Seismic Response of Steel Frames

Authors: Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Mario D. Llanes-Tizoc, Eden Bojorquez, Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Juan Bojorquez, Jose R. Gaxiola-Camacho, Achintya Haldar

Abstract:

Seismic analysis of steel buildings is usually based on the use of the concentrated mass (ML) matrix and the Rayleigh damping matrix (C). Similarly, the initial stiffness matrix (KO) and the first two modes associated with lateral vibrations are commonly used to develop matrix C. The evaluation of the accuracy of these practices for the particular case of steel buildings with moment-resisting steel frames constitutes the main objective of this research. For this, the non-linear seismic responses of three models of steel frames, representing low-, medium- and high-rise steel buildings, are considered. Results indicate that if the ML matrix is used, shears and bending moments in columns are underestimated by up to 30% and 65%, respectively when compared to the corresponding results obtained with the consistent mass matrix (MC). It is also shown that if KO is used in C instead of the tangent stiffness matrix (Kt), axial loads in columns are underestimated by up to 80%. It is concluded that the consistent mass matrix should be used in the structural modelling of moment-resisting steel frames and that the tangent stiffness matrix should be used to develop the Rayleigh damping matrix.

Keywords: moment-resisting steel frames, consistent and concentrated mass matrices, non-linear seismic response, Rayleigh damping

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5333 Corrosion Characterization of Al6061, Quartz Metal Matrix Composites in Alkali Medium

Authors: Radha H. R., Krupakara P. V.

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites are attracting today's manufacturers of many automobile parts so that they lost longer and their properties can be tailored according to the requirement. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the corrosion characteristics of Aluminium 6061 / quartz metal matrix composites in alkali medium like sodium hydroxide solutions. Metal matrix composites are heterogeneous mixtures of a matrix and reinforcement. In this work the matrix selected is Aluminium 6061 alloy which is commercially available and the reinforcement selected is quartz particulates of 50-80 micron size which is available in plenty in and around Bangalore district, India. Composites containing Aluminium 6061 with 2, 4 and 6 weight percent of quartz are manufactured by liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Corrosion tests like static weight loss and open circuit potential tests are conducted in different concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide. To compare the results the matrix Aluminium 6061 is also casted in the same way. Specimens for the test are prepared according to ASTM standards. In all the tests the metal matrix composites showed better corrosion resistance than matrix alloy.

Keywords: aluminium 6061, corrosion, quartz, vortex

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5332 Membership Surface and Arithmetic Operations of Imprecise Matrix

Authors: Dhruba Das

Abstract:

In this paper, a method has been developed to construct the membership surfaces of row and column vectors and arithmetic operations of imprecise matrix. A matrix with imprecise elements would be called an imprecise matrix. The membership surface of imprecise vector has been already shown based on Randomness-Impreciseness Consistency Principle. The Randomness- Impreciseness Consistency Principle leads to defining a normal law of impreciseness using two different laws of randomness. In this paper, the author has shown row and column membership surfaces and arithmetic operations of imprecise matrix and demonstrated with the help of numerical example.

Keywords: imprecise number, imprecise vector, membership surface, imprecise matrix

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5331 Corrosion Characterization of Al6061 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites in Acid Medium

Authors: P. V. Krupakara

Abstract:

This paper deals with the high corrosion resistance developed by the hybrid metal matrix composites when compared with that of matrix alloy. Matrix selected is Al6061. Reinforcements selected are graphite and red mud particulates. The composites are prepared using liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Metal matrix composites containing 2 percent graphite and 2 percent red mud, 2 percent graphite and 4 percent red mud, 2 percent graphite and 6 percent of red mud are prepared. Bar castings are cut into cylindrical discs of 20mm diameter and 20mm thickness. Corrosion tests were conducted at room temperature (230 °C) using conventional weight loss method according to ASTM G69-80. The corrodents used for the test were hydrochloric acid solution of different concentrations. Specimens were tested for every 24 hours interval up to 96 hours. Four specimens for each condition and time were immersed in corrodent. In each case the corrosion rate decreases with increase in exposure time for matrix and metal matrix composites whatever may be the concentration of hydrochloric acid. This may be due to aluminium, which may induce passivation due to development of non-porous layer. As red mud content increases the composites become corrosion resistant due to insulating nature of ceramic material red mud and less exposure of matrix alloy in those metal matrix composites.

Keywords: Al6061, graphite, passivation, red mud, vortex

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5330 Effects of Hydraulic Loading Rates and Porous Matrix in Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Li-Jun Ren, Wei Pan, Li-Li Xu, Shu-Qing An

Abstract:

This study evaluated whether different matrix composition volume ratio can improve water quality in the experiment. The mechanism and adsorption capability of wetland matrixes (oyster shell, coarse slag, and volcanic rock) and their different volume ratio in group configuration during pollutants removal processes were tested. When conditions unchanged, the residence time affects the reaction effect. The average removal efficiencies of four kinds of matrix volume ratio on the TN were 62.76%, 61.54%, 64.13%, and 55.89%, respectively.

Keywords: hydraulic residence time, matrix composition, removal efficiency, volume ratio

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5329 Studying the Influence of Stir Cast Parameters on Properties of Al6061/Al2O3 Composite

Authors: Anuj Suhag, Rahul Dayal

Abstract:

Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of metal matrix composites that are lightweight but high performance aluminum centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibers, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions. Properties of AMCs can be altered to the requirements of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. This work focuses on the fabrication of aluminum alloy (Al6061) matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with 5 and 3 wt% Al2O3 particulates of 45µm using stir casting route. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of process parameters, determined by design of experiments, on microhardness, microstructure, Charpy impact strength, surface roughness and tensile properties of the AMC.

Keywords: aluminium matrix composite, Charpy impact strength test, composite materials, matrix, metal matrix composite, surface roughness, reinforcement

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5328 Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZIF-7 Crystals and Their Composite ZIF-7/CS Membranes for Water/Ethanol Separation

Authors: Kai-Sheng Ji, Yi-Feng Lin

Abstract:

The pervaporation process for solvent and water separation has attracted research attention due to its lower energy consumption compared with conventional distillation processes. The membranes used for the pervaporation approach should exhibit high flux and separation factors. In this study, the ZIF-7 crystal particles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes. The as-prepared ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes were used to separate mixtures of water/ethanol at 25℃ in the pervaporation process. The mixed-matrix membranes with different ZIF-7 wt% incorporation showed better separation efficiency than the pristine CS membranes because of the smaller pore size of the mixed-matrix membranes. The separation factor and the flux of the ZIF-7/CS membranes clearly exceed the upper limit of the previously reported CS-based and mixed-matrix membranes.

Keywords: pervaporation, chitosan, ZIF-7, memberane separation

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5327 Corrosion Characterization of ZA-27 Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: H. V. Jayaprakash, P. V. Krupakara

Abstract:

This paper deals with the high corrosion resistance developed by the metal matrix composites when compared with that of matrix alloy by open circuit potential test. Matrix selected is ZA-27 and reinforcement selected is red mud particulates, which is a ceramic material. The composites are prepared using liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Preheated but uncoated red mud particulates are added to the melt. Metal matrix composites containing 2, 4 and 6 weight percentage of red mud are casted. Matrix was also casted in the same way for comparison. Specimen are fabricated according to ASTM standards. The corrodents used for the tests were 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 molar sodium hydroxide solutions. They are subjected to Open Circuit Potential studies and weight loss corrosion tests. Corrosion rate was found to be decreased with increase in exposure time in both experiments. Effect of exposure time and presence of increased percentage of reinforcement red mud is discussed in detail.

Keywords: composites, vortex, particulates, red mud

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5326 BIASS in the Estimation of Covariance Matrices and Optimality Criteria

Authors: Juan M. Rodriguez-Diaz

Abstract:

The precision of parameter estimators in the Gaussian linear model is traditionally accounted by the variance-covariance matrix of the asymptotic distribution. However, this measure can underestimate the true variance, specially for small samples. Traditionally, optimal design theory pays attention to this variance through its relationship with the model's information matrix. For this reason it seems convenient, at least in some cases, adapt the optimality criteria in order to get the best designs for the actual variance structure, otherwise the loss in efficiency of the designs obtained with the traditional approach may be very important.

Keywords: correlated observations, information matrix, optimality criteria, variance-covariance matrix

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5325 AC Voltage Regulators Using Single Phase Matrix Converter

Authors: Nagaraju Jarugu, B. R. Narendra

Abstract:

This paper focused on boost rectification by Single Phase Matrix Converter with fewer numbers of switches. The conventional matrix converter consists of 4 bidirectional switches, i.e. 8 set of IGBT/MOSFET with anti-parallel diodes. In this proposed matrix converter, only six switches are used. The switch commutation arrangements are also carried out in this work. The SPMC topology has many advantages as a minimal passive device use. It is very flexible and it can be used as a lot of converters. The gate pulses to the switches are provided by the PWM techniques. The duty ratio of the switches based on Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique was used to produce the output waveform of the circuit, simply by turning ON and OFF the switches. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink were provided to validate the feasibility of this proposed method.

Keywords: single phase matrix converter, reduced switches, AC voltage regulators, boost rectifier operation

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5324 Carotenoid Bioaccessibility: Effects of Food Matrix and Excipient Foods

Authors: Birgul Hizlar, Sibel Karakaya

Abstract:

Recently, increasing attention has been given to carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability in the field of nutrition research. As a consequence of their lipophilic nature and their specific localization in plant-based tissues, carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability is generally quite low in raw fruits and vegetables, since carotenoids need to be released from the cellular matrix and incorporated in the lipid fraction during digestion before being absorbed. Today’s approach related to improving the bioaccessibility is to design food matrix. Recently, the newest approach, excipient food, has been introduced to improve the bioavailability of orally administered bioactive compounds. The main idea is combining food and another food (the excipient food) whose composition and/or structure is specifically designed for improving health benefits. In this study, effects of food processing, food matrix and the addition of excipient foods on the carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrots were determined. Different excipient foods (olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd) and different food matrices (grating, boiling and mashing) were used. Total carotenoid contents of the grated, boiled and mashed carrots were 57.23, 51.11 and 62.10 μg/g respectively. No significant differences among these values indicated that these treatments had no effect on the release of carotenoids from the food matrix. Contrary to, changes in the food matrix, especially mashing caused significant increase in the carotenoid bioaccessibility. Although the carotenoid bioaccessibility was 10.76% in grated carrots, this value was 18.19% in mashed carrots (p<0.05). Addition of olive oil and lemon juice as excipients into the grated carrots caused 1.23 times and 1.67 times increase in the carotenoid content and the carotenoid bioaccessibility respectively. However, addition of the excipient foods in the boiled carrot samples did not influence the release of carotenoid from the food matrix. Whereas, up to 1.9 fold increase in the carotenoid bioaccessibility was determined by the addition of the excipient foods into the boiled carrots. The bioaccessibility increased from 14.20% to 27.12% by the addition of olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd. The highest carotenoid content among mashed carrots was found in the mashed carrots incorporated with olive oil and lemon juice. This combination also caused a significant increase in the carotenoid bioaccessibility from 18.19% to 29.94% (p<0.05). When compared the results related with the effect of the treatments on the carotenoid bioaccessibility, mashed carrots containing olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd had the highest carotenoid bioaccessibility. The increase in the bioaccessibility was approximately 81% when compared to grated and mashed samples containing olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the food matrix and addition of the excipient foods had a significant effect on the carotenoid content and the carotenoid bioaccessibility.

Keywords: carrot, carotenoids, excipient foods, food matrix

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5323 Random Matrix Theory Analysis of Cross-Correlation in the Nigerian Stock Exchange

Authors: Chimezie P. Nnanwa, Thomas C. Urama, Patrick O. Ezepue

Abstract:

In this paper we use Random Matrix Theory to analyze the eigen-structure of the empirical correlations of 82 stocks which are consistently traded in the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) over a 4-year study period 3 August 2009 to 26 August 2013. We apply the Marchenko-Pastur distribution of eigenvalues of a purely random matrix to investigate the presence of investment-pertinent information contained in the empirical correlation matrix of the selected stocks. We use hypothesised standard normal distribution of eigenvector components from RMT to assess deviations of the empirical eigenvectors to this distribution for different eigenvalues. We also use the Inverse Participation Ratio to measure the deviation of eigenvectors of the empirical correlation matrix from RMT results. These preliminary results on the dynamics of asset price correlations in the NSE are important for improving risk-return trade-offs associated with Markowitz’s portfolio optimization in the stock exchange, which is pursued in future work.

Keywords: correlation matrix, eigenvalue and eigenvector, inverse participation ratio, portfolio optimization, random matrix theory

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5322 The Norm, Singular Value and Condition Number Analysis for the Hadamard Matrices

Authors: Emine Tuğba Akyüz

Abstract:

In this study, the analysis of Hadamard matrices, which is a special type of matrix, was made under three headings: norms, singular values, condition number. Six norm types was applied to Hadamard matrices and the relationship between the results and the size of the matrix has been studied. As a result of the investigation when 2-norm was used on the problem Hx =f, the equation ‖x‖_2= ‖f‖_2/√n was shown (H is n-dimensional Hadamard matrix). Related with this, the relationship between the the singular value of H and 2-norm and eigenvalues was shown. Then, the evaluation of condition number for Hx =f was made.

Keywords: condition number, Hadamard matrix, norm, singular value

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5321 Computer Simulations of Stress Corrosion Studies of Quartz Particulate Reinforced ZA-27 Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: K. Vinutha

Abstract:

The stress corrosion resistance of ZA-27 / TiO2 metal matrix composites (MMC’s) in high temperature acidic media has been evaluated using an autoclave. The liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method was used to fabricate MMC’s. TiO2 particulates of 50-80 µm in size are added to the matrix. ZA-27 containing 2,4,6 weight percentage of TiO2 are prepared. Stress corrosion tests were conducted by weight loss method for different exposure time, normality and temperature of the acidic medium. The corrosion rates of composites were lower to that of matrix ZA-27 alloy under all conditions.

Keywords: autoclave, MMC’s, stress corrosion, vortex method

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5320 A Constitutive Model of Ligaments and Tendons Accounting for Fiber-Matrix Interaction

Authors: Ratchada Sopakayang, Gerhard A. Holzapfel

Abstract:

In this study, a new constitutive model is developed to describe the hyperelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with a parallel arrangement of collagen fibers such as ligaments and tendons. The model is formulated using a continuum approach incorporating the structural changes of the main tissue components: collagen fibers, proteoglycan-rich matrix and fiber-matrix interaction. The mechanical contribution of the interaction between the fibers and the matrix is simply expressed by a coupling term. The structural change of the collagen fibers is incorporated in the constitutive model to describe the activation of the fibers under tissue straining. Finally, the constitutive model can easily describe the stress-stretch nonlinearity which occurs when a ligament/tendon is axially stretched. This study shows that the interaction between the fibers and the matrix contributes to the mechanical tissue response. Therefore, the model may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms of ligaments and tendons under axial loading.

Keywords: constitutive model, fiber-matrix, hyperelasticity, interaction, ligament, tendon

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5319 Cross-Country Differences in Homeownership: A Cultural Phenomenon?

Authors: Stefanie J. Huber, Tobias Schmidt

Abstract:

Cross-country differences in homeownership rates are large and very persistent over time, ranging between 35% in Switzerland to 80% in Spain. In this project, we test the hypothesis that these cross-country differences are driven by cultural tastes. To isolate the effect of culture from the effects of institutions and economic factors, we investigate the homeownership attitudes of second-generation immigrants in the United States. We find robust evidence that cross-country differences in cultural preferences are an important explanatory factor for the observed persistent differences in homeownership rates across countries.

Keywords: housing markets, homeownership rates, country heterogeneity, preferences, cultural transmission, migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 200