Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 368

Search results for: verbal nouns

368 Translation of the Verbal Nouns (Masadars) Originating from Three-Letter Verbs in the Holy Quran: Verbal Noun with More than One Pattern (Wazn) As a Model

Authors: Montasser Mohamed Abdelwahab Mahmoud, Abdelwahab Saber Esawi

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The language of the Qur’an has a wide range of understanding, reflection, and meanings. Therefore, translation of the Qur’an is inevitably nothing but a translation of the interpretation of the meanings of the Qur’an. It requires special competencies and skills for translators so that they can get close to the intended meaning of the verse of the Qur’an and convey it with precision. In the Arabic language, the verbal noun “AlMasdar” is a very important derivative that properly expresses the verbal idea in the form of a noun. It sounds the same as the base form of the verb with minor changes in the vowel pattern. It is one of the important topics in morphology. The morphologists divided verbal nouns into auditory and analogical, and they stated that that the verbal nouns (Masadars) originating from three-letter verbs are auditory, although they set controls for some of them in order to preserve them. As for the lexicographers, they mentioned the verbal nouns while talking about the lexical materials, and in some cases, their explanation of them exceeded that made by the morphologists, especially in their discussion of structures that the morphologists did not refer to in their books. The verb kafara (disbelief), for example, has three patterns, namely: al-kufْr, al-kufrān, and al-kufūr, and it was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an with different connotations. The verb ṣāma (fasted) with his two patterns (al-ṣaūm and al-ṣīām) was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an while their semantic meaning is different. The problem discussed in this research paper lied in the "linguistic loss" committed by translators when dealing with Islamic religious texts, especially the Qur'an. The study tried to identify the strategy adopted by translators of the Holy Qur'an in translating words that were classified as verbal nouns through analyzing the translation rendered by five translations of the Qur’an into English: Yusuf Ali, Pickthall, Mohsin Khan, Muhammad Sarwar, and Shakir. This study was limited to the verbal nouns in the Quraan that originate from three-letter verbs and have different semantic meanings.

Keywords: pattern, three-letter verbs, translation of the Quran, verbal nouns

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367 Verbal Working Memory in Sequential and Simultaneous Bilinguals: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Archana Rao R., Deepak P., Chayashree P. D., Darshan H. S.

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Cognitive abilities in bilinguals have been widely studied over the last few decades. Bilingualism has been found to extensively facilitate the ability to store and manipulate information in Working Memory (WM). The mechanism of WM includes primary memory, attentional control, and secondary memory, each of which makes a contribution to WM. Many researches have been done in an attempt to measure WM capabilities through both verbal (phonological) and nonverbal tasks (visuospatial). Since there is a lot of speculations regarding the relationship between WM and bilingualism, further investigation is required to understand the nature of WM in bilinguals, i.e., with respect to sequential and simultaneous bilinguals. Hence the present study aimed to highlight the verbal working memory abilities in sequential and simultaneous bilinguals with respect to the processing and recall abilities of nouns and verbs. Two groups of bilinguals aged between 18-30 years were considered for the study. Group 1 consisted of 20 (10 males and 10 females) sequential bilinguals who had acquired L1 (Kannada) before the age of 3 and had exposure to L2 (English) for a period of 8-10 years. Group 2 consisted of 20 (10 males and 10 females) simultaneous bilinguals who have acquired both L1 and L2 before the age of 3. Working memory abilities were assessed using two tasks, and a set of stimuli which was presented in gradation of complexity and the stimuli was inclusive of frequent and infrequent nouns and verbs. The tasks involved the participants to judge the correctness of the sentence and simultaneously remember the last word of each sentence and the participants are instructed to recall the words at the end of each set. The results indicated no significant difference between sequential and simultaneous bilinguals in processing the nouns and verbs, and this could be attributed to the proficiency level of the participants in L1 and the alike cognitive abilities between the groups. And recall of nouns was better compared to verbs, maybe because of the complex argument structure involved in verbs. Similarly, authors found a frequency of occurrence of nouns and verbs also had an effect on WM abilities. The difference was also found across gradation due to the load imposed on the central executive function and phonological loop.

Keywords: bilinguals, nouns, verbs, working memory

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366 Use and Relationship of Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in the Quality of Second Language Writing

Authors: Kristine D. de Leon, Junifer A. Abatayo, Jose Cristina M. Pariña

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The current study is a comparative analysis of the use of shell nouns as a cohesive device (CD) in an English for Second Language (ESL) setting in order to identify their use and relationship in the quality of second language (L2) writing. As these nouns were established to anticipate the meaning within, across or outside the text, their use has fascinated writing researchers. The corpus of the study included published articles from reputable journals and graduate students’ papers in order to analyze the frequency of shell nouns using “highly prevalent” nouns in the academic community, to identify the different lexicogrammatical patterns where these nouns occur and to the functions connected with these patterns. The result of the study implies that published authors used more shell nouns in their paper than graduate students. However, the functions of the different lexicogrammatical patterns for the frequently occurring shell nouns are somewhat similar. These results could help students in enhancing the cohesion of their text and in comprehending it.

Keywords: anaphoric, cataphoric, lexico-grammatical, shell nouns

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365 Use of Ing-Formed and Derived Verbal Nominalization in American English: A Survey Applied to Native American English Speakers

Authors: Yujia Sun

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Research on nominalizations in English can be traced back to at least the 1960s and even centered in the field nowadays. At the very beginning, the discussion was about the relationship between verbs and nouns, but then it moved to the distinct senses embodied in different forms of nominals, namely, various types of nominalizations. This paper tries to address the issue that how speakers perceive different forms of verbal nouns, and what might influence their perceptions. The data are collected through a self-designed questionnaire targeted at native speakers of American English, and the employment of the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). The results show that semantic differences between different forms of nominals do play a role in people’s preference to certain form than another. But it still awaits more explorations to see how the frequency of usage is interrelates to this issue.

Keywords: corpus of contemporary American English, derived nominalization, frequency of usage, ing-formed nominalization

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364 A Network of Nouns and Their Features :A Neurocomputational Study

Authors: Skiker Kaoutar, Mounir Maouene

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Neuroimaging studies indicate that a large fronto-parieto-temporal network support nouns and their features, with some areas store semantic knowledge (visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory,…), other areas store lexical representation and other areas are implicated in general semantic processing. However, it is not well understood how this fronto-parieto-temporal network can be modulated by different semantic tasks and different semantic relations between nouns. In this study, we combine a behavioral semantic network, functional MRI studies involving object’s related nouns and brain network studies to explain how different semantic tasks and different semantic relations between nouns can modulate the activity within the brain network of nouns and their features. We first describe how nouns and their features form a large scale brain network. For this end, we examine the connectivities between areas recruited during the processing of nouns to know which configurations of interaction areas are possible. We can thus identify if, for example, brain areas that store semantic knowledge communicate via functional/structural links with areas that store lexical representations. Second, we examine how this network is modulated by different semantic tasks involving nouns and finally, we examine how category specific activation may result from the semantic relations among nouns. The results indicate that brain network of nouns and their features is highly modulated and flexible by different semantic tasks and semantic relations. At the end, this study can be used as a guide to help neurosientifics to interpret the pattern of fMRI activations detected in the semantic processing of nouns. Specifically; this study can help to interpret the category specific activations observed extensively in a large number of neuroimaging studies and clinical studies.

Keywords: nouns, features, network, category specificity

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363 Corpus-Based Description of Core English Nouns of Pakistani English, an EFL Learner Perspective at Secondary Level

Authors: Abrar Hussain Qureshi

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Vocabulary has been highlighted as a key indicator in any foreign language learning program, especially English as a foreign language (EFL). It is often considered a potential tool in foreign language curriculum, and its deficiency impedes successful communication in the target language. The knowledge of the lexicon is very significant in getting communicative competence and performance. Nouns constitute a considerable bulk of English vocabulary. Rather, they are the bones of the English language and are the main semantic carrier in spoken and written discourse. As nouns dominate the bulk of the English lexicon, their role becomes all the more potential. The undertaken research is a systematic effort in this regard to work out a list of highly frequent list of Pakistani English nouns for the EFL learners at the secondary level. It will encourage autonomy for the EFL learners as well as will save their time. The corpus used for the research has been developed locally from leading English newspapers of Pakistan. Wordsmith Tools has been used to process the research data and to retrieve word list of frequent Pakistani English nouns. The retrieved list of core Pakistani English nouns is supposed to be useful for English language learners at the secondary level as it covers a wide range of speech events.

Keywords: corpus, EFL, frequency list, nouns

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362 Comparison of Parent’s Treatment and Education Priorities between Verbal and Non-Verbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Iranian Families

Authors: Elanz Alimi, Mehdi Ghanadzade

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This current study compared the parents reported treatment and education priorities between verbal and nonverbal children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 196 parents of 2 to 21-year-old (83 non-verbal and 113 verbal) children and adolescents with an ASD who completed questionnaires measuring parent’s treatment and education priorities, child’s educational and intervention programs and current child’s level of performance according to each skill. Results of this study indicated that parents of verbal children with autism spectrum disorder considered communication skills, community living skills and academic skills correspondingly as their highest intervention and education priorities and parents of non-verbal children with ASD reported communication skills, social relationship skills and self-care skills as the most significant priorities for their children. Findings show that for Iranian parents of both verbal and non-verbal children with ASD, communication skills are the most crucial treatment priority.

Keywords: autism, communication skills, Iran, parent’s priorities

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361 The Incidental Linguistic Information Processing and Its Relation to General Intellectual Abilities

Authors: Evgeniya V. Gavrilova, Sofya S. Belova

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The present study was aimed at clarifying the relationship between general intellectual abilities and efficiency in free recall and rhymed words generation task after incidental exposure to linguistic stimuli. The theoretical frameworks stress that general intellectual abilities are based on intentional mental strategies. In this context, it seems to be crucial to examine the efficiency of incidentally presented information processing in cognitive task and its relation to general intellectual abilities. The sample consisted of 32 Russian students. Participants were exposed to pairs of words. Each pair consisted of two common nouns or two city names. Participants had to decide whether a city name was presented in each pair. Thus words’ semantics was processed intentionally. The city names were considered to be focal stimuli, whereas common nouns were considered to be peripheral stimuli. Along with that each pair of words could be rhymed or not be rhymed, but this phonemic aspect of stimuli’s characteristic (rhymed and non-rhymed words) was processed incidentally. Then participants were asked to produce as many rhymes as they could to new words. The stimuli presented earlier could be used as well. After that, participants had to retrieve all words presented earlier. In the end, verbal and non-verbal abilities were measured with number of special psychometric tests. As for free recall task intentionally processed focal stimuli had an advantage in recall compared to peripheral stimuli. In addition all the rhymed stimuli were recalled more effectively than non-rhymed ones. The inverse effect was found in words generation task where participants tended to use mainly peripheral stimuli compared to focal ones. Furthermore peripheral rhymed stimuli were most popular target category of stimuli that was used in this task. Thus the information that was processed incidentally had a supplemental influence on efficiency of stimuli processing as well in free recall as in word generation task. Different patterns of correlations between intellectual abilities and efficiency in different stimuli processing in both tasks were revealed. Non-verbal reasoning ability correlated positively with free recall of peripheral rhymed stimuli, but it was not related to performance on rhymed words’ generation task. Verbal reasoning ability correlated positively with free recall of focal stimuli. As for rhymed words generation task, verbal intelligence correlated negatively with generation of focal stimuli and correlated positively with generation of all peripheral stimuli. The present findings lead to two key conclusions. First, incidentally processed stimuli had an advantage in free recall and word generation task. Thus incidental information processing appeared to be crucial for subsequent cognitive performance. Secondly, it was demonstrated that incidentally processed stimuli were recalled more frequently by participants with high nonverbal reasoning ability and were more effectively used by participants with high verbal reasoning ability in subsequent cognitive tasks. That implies that general intellectual abilities could benefit from operating by different levels of information processing while cognitive problem solving. This research was supported by the “Grant of President of RF for young PhD scientists” (contract № is 14.Z56.17.2980- MK) and the Grant № 15-36-01348a2 of Russian Foundation for Humanities.

Keywords: focal and peripheral stimuli, general intellectual abilities, incidental information processing

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360 Spatial Conceptualization in French and Italian Speakers: A Contrastive Approach in the Context of the Linguistic Relativity Theory

Authors: Camilla Simoncelli

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The connection between language and cognition has been one of the main interests of linguistics from several years. According to the Sapir-Whorf Linguistic Relativity Theory, the way we perceive reality depends on the language we speak which in turn has a central role in the human cognition. This paper is in line with this research work with the aim of analyzing how language structures reflect on our cognitive abilities even in the description of space, which is generally considered as a human natural and universal domain. The main objective is to identify the differences in the encoding of spatial inclusion relationships in French and Italian speakers to make evidence that a significant variation exists at various levels even in two similar systems. Starting from the constitution a corpora, the first step of the study has been to establish the relevant complex prepositions marking an inclusion relation in French and Italian: au centre de, au cœur de, au milieu de, au sein de, à l'intérieur de and the opposition entre/parmi in French; al centro di, al cuore di, nel mezzo di, in seno a, all'interno di and the fra/tra contrast in Italian. These prepositions had been classified on the base of the type of Noun following them (e.g. mass nouns, concrete nouns, abstract nouns, body-parts noun, etc.) following the Collostructional Analysis of lexemes with the purpose of analyzing the preferred construction of each preposition comparing the relations construed. Comparing the Italian and the French results it has been possible to define the degree of representativeness of each target Noun for the chosen preposition studied. Lexicostatistics and Statistical Association Measures showed the values of attraction or repulsion between lexemes and a given preposition, highlighting which words are over-represented or under-represented in a specific context compared to the expected results. For instance, a Noun as Dibattiti has a negative value for the Italian Al cuore di (-1,91), but it has a strong positive representativeness for the corresponding French Au cœur de (+677,76). The value, positive or negative, is the result of a hypergeometric distribution law which displays the current use of some relevant nouns in relations of spatial inclusion by French and Italian speakers. Differences on the kind of location conceptualization denote syntactic and semantic constraints based on spatial features as well as on linguistic peculiarity, too. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the domain of spatial relations is basic to human experience and is linked to universally shared perceptual mechanisms which create mental representations depending on the language use. Therefore, linguistic coding strongly correlates with the way spatial distinctions are conceptualized for non-verbal tasks even in close language systems, like Italian and French.

Keywords: cognitive semantics, cross-linguistic variations, locational terms, non-verbal spatial representations

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359 Vector-Based Analysis in Cognitive Linguistics

Authors: Chuluundorj Begz

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This paper presents the dynamic, psycho-cognitive approach to study of human verbal thinking on the basis of typologically different languages /as a Mongolian, English and Russian/. Topological equivalence in verbal communication serves as a basis of Universality of mental structures and therefore deep structures. Mechanism of verbal thinking consisted at the deep level of basic concepts, rules for integration and classification, neural networks of vocabulary. In neuro cognitive study of language, neural architecture and neuro psychological mechanism of verbal cognition are basis of a vector-based modeling. Verbal perception and interpretation of the infinite set of meanings and propositions in mental continuum can be modeled by applying tensor methods. Euclidean and non-Euclidean spaces are applied for a description of human semantic vocabulary and high order structures.

Keywords: Euclidean spaces, isomorphism and homomorphism, mental lexicon, mental mapping, semantic memory, verbal cognition, vector space

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358 A Comparative Research on the Development Level of Left-Behind and Non-Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas of Henan Province

Authors: Yuying Zhu

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Left-behind children in rural areas are vulnerable groups with the course of our country’s urbanization. Left-behind young children in rural area separate from their parents in their early childhood, vicegerent guardian’s care are less sensitive and careful than children’s parents; they give less concern to children’s verbal development, this makes the verbal problem of the left-behind children to be ubiquitous problem. This study chooses four kindergartens from the east the middle and the west of the Henan Province, explore the verbal development differences between the left-behind young children and the non-left-behind young rural children through the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) and self-made questionnaires. The study shows that there is no significant difference between the left-behind young children and the non-left-behind young rural children in the verbal development, though the marks in primary class and middle class the non-left-behind young rural children is higher, but, the top class in the kindergarten is not. What’s more, the emergent reading and the economy have significant influence on young children’s verbal ability.

Keywords: left-behind children, non-left-behind children, regional difference, verbal development

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357 Discovering Word-Class Deficits in Persons with Aphasia

Authors: Yashaswini Channabasavegowda, Hema Nagaraj

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Aim: The current study aims at discovering word-class deficits concerning the noun-verb ratio in confrontation naming, picture description, and picture-word matching tasks. A total of ten persons with aphasia (PWA) and ten age-matched neurotypical individuals (NTI) were recruited for the study. The research includes both behavioural and objective measures to assess the word class deficits in PWA. Objective: The main objective of the research is to identify word class deficits seen in persons with aphasia, using various speech eliciting tasks. Method: The study was conducted in the L1 of the participants, considered to be Kannada. Action naming test and Boston naming test adapted to the Kannada version are administered to the participants; also, a picture description task is carried out. Picture-word matching task was carried out using e-prime software (version 2) to measure the accuracy and reaction time with respect to identification verbs and nouns. The stimulus was presented through auditory and visual modes. Data were analysed to identify errors noticed in the naming of nouns versus verbs, with respect to the Boston naming test and action naming test and also usage of nouns and verbs in the picture description task. Reaction time and accuracy for picture-word matching were extracted from the software. Results: PWA showed a significant difference in sentence structure compared to age-matched NTI. Also, PWA showed impairment in syntactic measures in the picture description task, with fewer correct grammatical sentences and fewer correct usage of verbs and nouns, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs. PWA had poorer accuracy and lesser reaction time in the picture-word matching task compared to NTI, and accuracy was higher for nouns compared to verbs in PWA. The deficits were noticed irrespective of the cause leading to aphasia.

Keywords: nouns, verbs, aphasia, naming, description

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356 Negativization: A Focus Strategy in Basà Language

Authors: Imoh Philip

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Basà language is classified as belonging to Kainji family, under the sub-phylum Western-Kainji known as Rubasa (Basa Benue) (Croizier & Blench, 1992:32). Basà is an under-described language spoken in the North-Central Nigeria. The language is characterized by subject-verb-object (henceforth SVO) as its canonical word order. Data for this work is sourced from the researcher’s native intuition of the language corroborated with a careful observation of native speakers. This paper investigates the syntactic derivational strategy of information-structure encoding in Basà language. It emphasizes on a negative operator, as a strategy for focusing a constituent or clause that follows it and negativizes a whole proposition. For items that are not nouns, they have to undergo an obligatory nominalization process, either by affixation, modification or conversion before they are moved to the pre verbal position for these operations. The study discovers and provides evidence of the fact showing that deferent constituents in the sentence such as the subject, direct, indirect object, genitive, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, clause and idiophone, etc. can be focused with the same negativizing operator. The process is characterized by focusing the pre verbal NP constituent alone, whereas the whole proposition is negated. The study can stimulate similar study or be replicated in other languages.

Keywords: negation, focus, Basà, nominalization

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355 Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Achievement of Technical Students and Perspective Teachers: A Study of Haryana State

Authors: Anu Malhotra, Rahul Malhotra

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This review paper is focused on achievement ability analysis of perspective teachers and students of technical education of Haryana. It is well known that women have higher verbal achievement, while men have higher achievement in non-verbal and scientific achievement. Chi-square analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of information and communication technology tools on the scientific, verbal and non-verbal achievement of the controlled and uncontrolled group of 204 students of Haryana. The computed value of expected count, which is more than 5, shows that there is a significant improvement in achievement ability of students of the controlled group when compared to the uncontrolled group. The research analyzes that the Information and communication technology tools play an important role in enhancing student’s achievement.

Keywords: achievement, ICT, perspective teacher, verbal achievement

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354 Effective Verbal Disciplining Strategies to Deal with Classroom Misconduct in Primary Schools

Authors: Charity Okeke, Elizabeth Venter

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Verbal discipline is one of the most regularly used disciplinary strategies to deal with classroom misconduct in schools globally. This study provides effective verbal discipline strategies to deal with classroom misconduct in primary schools. The study was qualitative research often teachers that took place in two South African primary schools. Data were collected through recorded semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interview recordings were transcribed and analysed using content analysis. Findings from the study show that talking to learners in a calm and polite manner, raising one’s voice occasionally to show seriousness and disapproval of misconduct, engaging misbehaved learners in private talk to understand the reasons behind their unruly actions, verbal praise and rewards are effective in dealing with classroom misconduct. The study recommends that teachers should avoid shouting at learners and talk to them politely to get them to behave well in class. Teachers should avoid embarrassing misbehaving learners in the classroom but engage them privately to understand the reasons behind their unruly activities. Teachers should also use verbal praise and rewards such as well-done stickers to motivate learners to keep behaving well, as reinforcement is very important in the classroom. The study concludes that the verbal disciplining strategies mentioned above are effective in achieving a conducive teaching and learning atmosphere in the classroom.

Keywords: classroom discipline, classroom misconduct, verbal discipline, verbal discipline strategies

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353 The Influence of Teacher’s Non-Verbal Communication on Ondo State Secondary School Students’ Learning Outcomes in English Language

Authors: Bola M. Tunde-Awe

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The study investigated the influence of teacher’s non-verbal communication on secondary school students’ learning outcomes in English language. The study was a survey research. Participants were three hundred Senior Secondary School II students randomly selected from ten schools in Akoko South West Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire containing twenty items on a four-point Likert scale which measured teacher’s use of three types of non-verbal communication modes: body movement, eye contact and spatial distance. The data collected was analysed using simple percentage. Findings revealed that teacher’s use of these non-verbal communication modes enhanced learners’ learning outcomes in English language: a total of 271 (90.33%) participants affirmed that teacher’s body language influenced their learning of English; 224 (74.66%) maintained the same stand for eye contact; while 202 (67.33%) affirmed that teacher’s spatial distance had positive influence. Consequent upon these findings, it was recommended that teachers of English language should constantly utilize non-verbal communication in their instructional delivery. Also, non-verbal communication modes should be included in teacher education programme to equip prospective pre-service teachers with the art of non-verbal communication.

Keywords: non-verbal communication, body language, eye contact, spatial distance, learning outcomes

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352 Exploring Teacher Verbal Feedback on Postgraduate Students' Performances in Presentations in English

Authors: Nattawadee Sinpattanawong, Yaowaret Tharawoot

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This is an analytic and descriptive classroom-centered research, the purpose of which is to explore teacher verbal feedback on postgraduate students’ performances in presentations in English in an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) postgraduate classroom. The participants are a Thai female teacher, two Thai female postgraduate students, and two foreign male postgraduate students. The current study draws on both classroom observation and interview data. The class focused on the students’ presentations and the teacher’s providing verbal feedback on them was observed nine times with audio recording and taking notes. For the interviews, the teacher was interviewed about linkages between her verbal feedback and each student’s presentation skills in English. For the data analysis, the audio files from the observations were transcribed and analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative approach addressed the frequencies and percentages of content of the teacher’s verbal feedback for each student’s performances based on eight presentation factors (content, structure, grammar, coherence, vocabulary, speaking skills, involving the audience, and self-presentation). Based on the quantitative data including the interview data, a qualitative analysis of the transcripts was made to describe the occurrences of several content of verbal feedback for each student’s presentation performances. The study’s findings may help teachers to reflect on their providing verbal feedback based on various students’ performances in presentation in English. They also help students who have similar characteristics to the students in the present study when giving a presentation in English improve their presentation performances by applying the teacher’s verbal feedback content.

Keywords: teacher verbal feedback, presentation factors, presentation in English, presentation performances

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351 Analogical Reasoning on Preschoolers’ Linguistic Performance

Authors: Yenie Norambuena

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Analogical reasoning is a cognitive process that consists of structured comparisons of mental representations and scheme construction. Because of its heuristic function, it is ubiquitous in cognition and could play an important role in language development. The use of analogies is expressed early in children and this behavior is also reflected in language, suggesting a possible way to understand the complex links between thought and language. The current research examines factors of verbal and non-verbal reasoning that should be taken into consideration in the study of language development for their relations and predictive value. The study was conducted with 48 Chilean preschoolers (Spanish speakers) from 4 to 6-year-old. We assessed children’s verbal analogical reasoning, non-verbal analogical reasoning and linguistics skills (Listening Comprehension, Phonemic awareness, Alphabetic principle, Syllabification, Lexical repetition and Lexical decision). The results evidenced significant correlations between analogical reasoning factors and linguistic skills and they can predict linguistic performance mainly on oral comprehension, lexical decision and phonological skills. These findings suggest a fundamental interrelationship between analogical reasoning and linguistic performance on children’s and points to the need to consider this cognitive process in comprehensive theories of children's language development.

Keywords: verbal analogical reasoning, non-verbal analogical reasoning, linguistic skills, language development

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350 Investigation of Verbal Feedback and Learning Process for Oral Presentation

Authors: Nattawadee Sinpattanawong

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Oral presentation has been used mostly in business communication. The business presentation is carrying out through an audio and visual presentation material such as statistical documents, projectors, etc. Common examples of business presentation are intra-organization and sales presentations. The study aims at investigating functions, strategies and contents of assessors’ verbal feedback on presenters’ oral presentations and exploring presenters’ learning process and specific views and expectations concerning assessors’ verbal feedback related to the delivery of the oral presentation. This study is designed as a descriptive qualitative research; four master students and one teacher in English for Business and Industry Presentation Techniques class of public university will be selected. The researcher hopes that any understanding how assessors’ verbal feedback on oral presentations and learning process may illuminate issues for other people. The data from this research may help to expand and facilitate the readers’ understanding of assessors’ verbal feedback on oral presentations and learning process in their own situations. The research instruments include an audio recorder, video recorder and an interview. The students will be interviewing in order to ask for their views and expectations concerning assessors’ verbal feedback related to the delivery of the oral presentation. After finishing data collection, the data will be analyzed and transcribed. The findings of this study are significant because it can provide presenters knowledge to enhance their learning process and provide teachers knowledge about providing verbal feedback on student’s oral presentations on a business context.

Keywords: business context, learning process, oral presentation, verbal feedback

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349 The Involvement of Visual and Verbal Representations Within a Quantitative and Qualitative Visual Change Detection Paradigm

Authors: Laura Jenkins, Tim Eschle, Joanne Ciafone, Colin Hamilton

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An original working memory model suggested the separation of visual and verbal systems in working memory architecture, in which only visual working memory components were used during visual working memory tasks. It was later suggested that the visuo spatial sketch pad was the only memory component at use during visual working memory tasks, and components such as the phonological loop were not considered. In more recent years, a contrasting approach has been developed with the use of an executive resource to incorporate both visual and verbal representations in visual working memory paradigms. This was supported using research demonstrating the use of verbal representations and an executive resource in a visual matrix patterns task. The aim of the current research is to investigate the working memory architecture during both a quantitative and a qualitative visual working memory task. A dual task method will be used. Three secondary tasks will be used which are designed to hit specific components within the working memory architecture – Dynamic Visual Noise (visual components), Visual Attention (spatial components) and Verbal Attention (verbal components). A comparison of the visual working memory tasks will be made to discover if verbal representations are at use, as the previous literature suggested. This direct comparison has not been made so far in the literature. Considerations will be made as to whether a domain specific approach should be employed when discussing visual working memory tasks, or whether a more domain general approach could be used instead.

Keywords: semantic organisation, visual memory, change detection

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348 Verbal Prefix Selection in Old Japanese: A Corpus-Based Study

Authors: Zixi You

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There are a number of verbal prefixes in Old Japanese. However, the selection or the compatibility of verbs and verbal prefixes is among the least investigated topics on Old Japanese language. Unlike other types of prefixes, verbal prefixes in dictionaries are more often than not listed with very brief information such as ‘unknown meaning’ or ‘rhythmic function only’. To fill in a part of this knowledge gap, this paper presents an exhaustive investigation based on the newly developed ‘Oxford Corpus of Old Japanese’ (OCOJ), which included nearly all existing resource of Old Japanese language, with detailed linguistics information in TEI-XML tags. In this paper, we propose the possibility that the following three prefixes, i-, sa-, ta- (with ta- being considered as a variation of sa-), are relevant to split intransitivity in Old Japanese, with evidence that unergative verbs favor i- and that unergative verbs favor sa-(ta-). This might be undermined by the fact that transitives are also found to follow i-. However, with several manifestations of split intransitivity in Old Japanese discussed, the behavior of transitives in verbal prefix selection is no longer as surprising as it may seem to be when one look at the selection of verbal prefix in isolation. It is possible that there are one or more features that played essential roles in determining the selection of i-, and the attested transitive verbs happen to have these features. The data suggest that this feature is a sense of ‘change’ of location or state involved in the event donated by the verb, which is a feature of typical unaccusatives. This is further discussed in the ‘affectedness’ hierarchy. The presentation of this paper, which includes a brief demonstration of the OCOJ, is expected to be of the interest of both specialists and general audiences.

Keywords: old Japanese, split intransitivity, unaccusatives, unergatives, verbal prefix selection

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347 Variability of the Speaker's Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviour in the Process of Changing Social Roles in the English Marketing Discourse

Authors: Yuliia Skrynnik

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This research focuses on the interaction of verbal, non-verbal, and super-verbal communicative components used by the speaker changing social roles in the marketing discourse. The changing/performing of social roles is implemented through communicative strategies and tactics, the structural, semantic, and linguo-pragmatic means of which are characterized by specific features and differ for the performance of either a role of a supplier or a customer. Communication within the marketing discourse is characterized by symmetrical roles’ relation between communicative opponents. The strategy of a supplier’s social role realization and the strategy of a customer’s role realization influence the discursive personality's linguistic repertoire in the marketing discourse. This study takes into account that one person can be both a supplier and a customer under different circumstances, thus, exploring the one individual who can be both a supplier and a customer. Cooperative and non-cooperative tactics are the instruments for the implementation of these strategies. In the marketing discourse, verbal and non-verbal behaviour of the speaker performing a customer’s social role is highly informative for speakers who perform the role of a supplier. The research methods include discourse, context-situational, pragmalinguistic, pragmasemantic analyses, the method of non-verbal components analysis. The methodology of the study includes 5 steps: 1) defining the configurations of speakers’ social roles on the selected material; 2) establishing the type of the discourse (marketing discourse); 3) describing the specific features of a discursive personality as a subject of the communication in the process of social roles realization; 4) selecting the strategies and tactics which direct the interaction in different roles configurations; 5) characterizing the structural, semantic and pragmatic features of the strategies and tactics realization, including the analysis of interaction between verbal and non-verbal components of communication. In the marketing discourse, non-verbal behaviour is usually spontaneous but not purposeful. Thus, the adequate decoding of a partner’s non-verbal behavior provides more opportunities both for the supplier and the customer. Super-verbal characteristics in the marketing discourse are crucial in defining the opponent's social status and social role at the initial stage of interaction. The research provides the scenario of stereotypical situations of the play of a supplier and a customer. The performed analysis has perspectives for further research connected with the study of discursive variativity of speakers' verbal and non-verbal behaviour considering the intercultural factor influencing the process of performing the social roles in the marketing discourse; and the formation of the methods for the scenario construction of non-stereotypical situations of social roles realization/change in the marketing discourse.

Keywords: discursive personality, marketing discourse, non-verbal component of communication, social role, strategy, super-verbal component of communication, tactic, verbal component of communication

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346 Language Shapes Thought: An Experimental Study on English and Mandarin Native Speakers' Sequencing of Size

Authors: Hsi Wei

Abstract:

Does the language we speak affect the way we think? This question has been discussed for a long time from different aspects. In this article, the issue is examined with an experiment on how speakers of different languages tend to do different sequencing when it comes to the size of general objects. An essential difference between the usage of English and Mandarin is the way we sequence the size of places or objects. In English, when describing the location of something we may say, for example, ‘The pen is inside the trashcan next to the tree at the park.’ In Mandarin, however, we would say, ‘The pen is at the park next to the tree inside the trashcan.’ It’s clear that generally English use the sequence of small to big while Mandarin the opposite. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to test if the difference of the languages affects the speakers’ ability to do the different sequencing. There were two groups of subjects; one consisted of English native speakers, another of Mandarin native speakers. Within the experiment, three nouns were showed as a group to the subjects as their native languages. Before they saw the nouns, they would first get an instruction of ‘big to small’, ‘small to big’, or ‘repeat’. Therefore, the subjects had to sequence the following group of nouns as the instruction they get or simply repeat the nouns. After completing every sequencing and repetition in their minds, they pushed a button as reaction. The repetition design was to gather the mere reading time of the person. As the result of the experiment showed, English native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequencing of ‘small to big’; on the other hand, Mandarin native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequence ‘big to small’. To conclude, this study may be of importance as a support for linguistic relativism that the language we speak do shape the way we think.

Keywords: language, linguistic relativism, size, sequencing

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345 The 5S Responses of Obese Teenagers in Verbal Bullying

Authors: Alpha Bolinao, Francine Rose De Castro, Jessie Kate Lumba, Raztine Mae Paeste, Hannah Grace Tosio

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The present study aimed to know the role of verbal bullying in the lives of obese teenagers exposed to it. The study employed a qualitative design specifically the phenomenological approach that focuses on the obese teenagers’ verbal bullying experiences. The study also used the social constructivism approach wherein it described the obese teenagers’ verbal bullying experiences as they interact with the social world. Through purposive and referral sampling technique, the researchers were able to choose twelve (12) respondents from different schools around the City of Manila, enrolled in the School Year 2015-2016, ages 16-21 years old, has experienced verbal bullying for the last ten (10) years and with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of equal to or greater than 30. Upon the consent of the respondents, ethical considerations were ensured. In-depth one (1) hour interviews were guided by the researchers’ aide memoir. The recorded interviews were transcribed into a field text and the responses were thoroughly analyzed through Thematic Analysis and Kelly’s Repertory Grid. It was found that the role of verbal bullying in the lives of obese teenagers exposed to it is a process and is best described through a syringe, or the 5S Responses of Obese Teenagers in Bullying, with five conceptual themes which also signify the experiences and the process that obese teenagers have gone through after experiencing verbal bullying. The themes conceptualized were: Suffering, self-doubt, suppression, self-acceptance and sanguineness. This paper may serve as a basis for a counseling program to help the obese teenagers cope with their bullying experiences.

Keywords: obesity, obese teenagers, bullying, experiences

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344 A Study on Learning Styles and Academic Performance in Relation with Kinesthetic, Verbal and Visual Intelligences

Authors: Salina Budin, Nor Liawati Abu Othman, Shaira Ismail

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This study attempts to determine kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences among mechanical engineering undergraduate students and explores any probable relation with students’ learning styles and academic performance. The questionnaire used in this study is based on Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory comprising of five elements of learning style; environmental, sociological, emotional, physiological and psychological. Questionnaires are distributed amongst undergraduates in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Additional questions on students’ perception of learning styles and their academic performance are included in the questionnaire. The results show that one third of the students are strongly dominant in the kinesthetic intelligent (33%), followed by a combination of kinesthetic and visual intelligences (29%) and 21% are strongly dominant in all three types of intelligences. There is a statistically significant correlation between kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences and students learning styles and academic performances. The ANOVA analysis supports that there is a significant relationship between academic performances and level of kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences. In addition, it has also proven a remarkable relationship between academic performances and kinesthetic, verbal and visual learning styles amongst the male and female students. Thus, it can be concluded that, academic achievements can be enhanced by understanding as well as capitalizing the students’ types of intelligences and learning styles.

Keywords: kinesthetic intelligent, verbal intelligent, visual intelligent, learning style, academic performances

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343 A Retrospective Study to Evaluate Verbal Scores of Autistic Children Who Received Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Authors: Tami Peterson

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Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been hypothesized as an effective treatment for increasing verbal language skills in individuals on the autism spectrum. A child’s ability to effectively communicate with peers, parents, and caregivers impacts their level of independence and quality of personal relationships. This retrospective study will compare the speech development of participants aged 2-17 years that received 40 sessions of HBOT at 2.0 ATA to those who had not. Both groups will have a verbal assessment every six months. There were 31 subjects in the HBO group and 32 subjects in the non-HBO group. The statistical analysis will focus on whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy made a significant difference in Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) or Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) results. The evidence demonstrates a strong correlation between HBOT and an increased change from baseline verbal scores compared to the control group, even in difficult to grasp areas such as spontaneous vocalization. We suggest this is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Neuroinflammation causes hypoperfusion of critical central nervous system areas responsible for the symptoms described within the autism spectrum, such as problems with thought processing, memory, and speech. Decreasing the inflammation allows the brain to function properly, which results in improved verbal scores for the participants that underwent HBOT.

Keywords: assessment of basic language and learning skills, autism spectrum disorder, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program

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342 The Role of Communicative Grammar in Cross-Cultural Learning Environment

Authors: Tonoyan Lusine

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The Communicative Grammar (CG) of a language deals with semantics and pragmatics in the first place as communication is a process of generating speech. As it is well known people can communicate with the help of limited word expressions and grammatical means. As to non-verbal communication, both vocabulary and grammar are not essential at all. However, the development of the communicative competence lies in verbal, non-verbal, grammatical, socio-cultural and intercultural awareness. There are several important issues and environment management strategies related to effective communication that one might need to consider for a positive learning experience. International students bring a broad range of cultural perspectives to the learning environment, and this diversity has the capacity to improve interaction and to enrich the teaching/learning process. Intercultural setting implies creative and thought-provoking work with different cultural worldviews and international perspectives. It is worth mentioning that the use of Communicative Grammar models creates a profound background for the effective intercultural communication.

Keywords: CG, cross-cultural communication, intercultural awareness, non-verbal behavior

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341 The Diminished Online Persona: A Semantic Change of Chinese Classifier Mei on Weibo

Authors: Hui Shi

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This study investigates a newly emerged usage of Chinese numeral classifier mei (枚) in the cyberspace. In modern Chinese grammar, mei as a classifier should occupy the pre-nominal position, and its valid accompanying nouns are restricted to small, flat, fragile inanimate objects rather than humans. To examine the semantic change of mei, two types of data from Weibo.com were collected. First, 500 mei-included Weibo posts constructed a corpus for analyzing this classifier's word order distribution (post-nominal or pre-nominal) as well as its accompanying nouns' semantics (inanimate or human). Second, considering that mei accompanies a remarkable number of human nouns in the first corpus, the second corpus is composed of mei-involved Weibo IDs from users located in first and third-tier cities (n=8 respectively). The findings show that in the cyber community, mei frequently classifies human-related neologisms at the archaic post-normal position. Besides, the 23 to 29-year-old females as well as Weibo users from third-tier cities are the major populations who adopt mei in their user IDs for self-description and identity expression. This paper argues that the creative usage of mei gains popularity in the Chinese internet due to a humor effect. The marked word order switch and semantic misapplication combined to trigger incongruity and jocularity. This study has significance for research on Chinese cyber neologism. It may also lay a foundation for further studies on Chinese classifier change and Chinese internet communication.

Keywords: Chinese classifier, humor, neologism, semantic change

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340 Filmic and Verbal Metafphors

Authors: Manana Rusieshvili, Rusudan Dolidze

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This paper aims at 1) investigating the ways in which a traditional, monomodal written verbal metaphor can be transposed as a monomodal non-verbal (visual) or multimodal (aural and -visual) filmic metaphor ; 2) exploring similarities and differences in the process of encoding and decoding of monomodal and multimodal metaphors. The empiric data, on which the research is based, embrace three sources: the novel by Harry Gray ‘The Hoods’, the script of the film ‘Once Upon a Time in America’ (English version by David Mills) and the resultant film by Sergio Leone. In order to achieve the above mentioned goals, the research focuses on the following issues: 1) identification of verbal and non-verbal monomodal and multimodal metaphors in the above-mentioned sources and 2) investigation of the ways and modes the specific written monomodal metaphors appearing in the novel and the script are enacted in the film and become visual, aural or visual-aural filmic metaphors ; 3) study of the factors which play an important role in contributing to the encoding and decoding of the filmic metaphor. The collection and analysis of the data were carried out in two stages: firstly, the relevant data, i.e. the monomodal metaphors from the novel, the script and the film were identified and collected. In the second, final stage the metaphors taken from all of the three sources were analysed, compared and two types of phenomena were selected for discussion: (1) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become monomodal visual/aural metaphors in the film; (2) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become multimodal, filmic (visual-aural) metaphors in the film.

Keywords: encoding, decoding, filmic metaphor, multimodality

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339 Neuropsychological Testing in a Multi-Lingual Society: Normative Data for South African Adults in More Than Eight Languages

Authors: Sharon Truter, Ann B. Shuttleworth-Edwards

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South Africa is a developing country with significant diversity in languages spoken and quality of education available, creating challenges for fair and accurate neuropsychological assessments when most available neuropsychological tests are obtained from English-speaking developed countries. The aim of this research was to compare normative data on a spectrum of commonly used neuropsychological tests for English- and Afrikaans-speaking South Africans with relatively high quality of education and South Africans with relatively low quality of education who speak Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana, Sepedi, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa or Zulu. The participants were all healthy adults aged 18-60 years, with 8-12 years of education. All the participants were tested in their first language on the following tests: two non-verbal tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and Bell Cancellation Test), four verbal fluency tests (category, phonemic, verb and 'any words'), one verbal learning test (Rey Auditory Verbal Leaning Test) and three tests that have a verbal component (Trail Making Test A & B; Symbol Digit Modalities Test and Digit Span). Descriptive comparisons of mean scores and standard deviations across the language groups and between the groups with relatively high versus low quality of education highlight the importance of using normative data that takes into account language and quality of education.

Keywords: cross-cultural, language, multi-lingual, neuropsychological testing, quality of education

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