Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Shahriar M. Saadullah

22 Accounting as Addressed in the Qur’aan

Authors: Shahriar M. Saadullah, Abdul-Quddoos Abdul-Basith, Zaki K. Abushawish

Abstract:

As a part of academic research in Islamic Accounting it is important to know how the word Accounting is discussed in the Qur’aan. This paper identifies and analyzes the word Accounting in the Qur’aan, which is significant to know and understand. The paper uses a methodology of identifying the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) in the Qur’aan with the help of Islam 360 software and analyzes the use of the relevant words derived from the root word. Then the paper attempts to connect the findings to the contemporary Accounting issues. The paper finds that the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) appears in the Qur’aan 109 times but it is only used in the sense Account, Accountable, or Accounting 45 times. These words appear in 44 different verses in the Qur’aan, appearing twice in one of the verses. The paper divides these verses into 8 different themes namely, Day of Accounting, without any Accounting, Accounting of Time, Self-Accounting, Swift in Accounting, Accounting is only with God, Awareness and the Good Accounting, and Heedlessness and the Bad Accounting. The way the words Account, Accounting, and Accountable is discussed in the Qur’aan links to the contemporary accounting issues including Ethics, Agency Theory, and Internal Control. The links discovered in the paper clearly shows the timeless nature of the message of the Qur’aan.

Keywords: accounting, contemporary accounting issues, Qur'aan, root word of accounting hasaba

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21 Structural Properties, Natural Bond Orbital, Theory Functional Calculations (DFT), and Energies for Fluorous Compounds: C13H12F7ClN2O

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Masomeh Shahsavary

Abstract:

In this paper, the optimized geometries and frequencies of the stationary point and the minimum energy paths of C13H12F7ClN2O are calculated by using the DFT (B3LYP) methods with LANL2DZ basis sets. B3LYP/ LANL2DZ calculation results indicated that some selected bond length and bond angles values for the C13H12F7ClN2O.

Keywords: C13H12F7ClN2O, vatural bond orbital, fluorous compounds, functional calculations

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20 Isolation and Identification of Candida Species from Poultry Feed in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Authors: Lina F. Hussein, Asia A. M. Saadullah

Abstract:

This study aimed to isolate and identify Candida species that contaminate poultry feeds in Duhok province. Using differential media and CHROMO agar as selective media, a total of sixty samples of poultry feeds were collected and analyzed to isolate and classify Candida species. In this analysis, a total of 189 Candida isolates were found from sixty samples. Germ tube tests, inoculation on commercially available CHROMagar, and chlamydospore formation were performed on these isolates. The most common Candida identified was Candida krusei (44.95%), followed by Candida tropicalis (21.72%), Candida glabrata. (17.68%), and Candida albicans (15.66%). Particularly useful for quickly identifying common yeast species is CHROM agar. Its ability, together with the capacity to track mixed Candida spp. cultures lead to enhanced and in the mycology and clinical microbiology laboratories, streamline the workflow, also in low-resource conditions.

Keywords: CHROMO agar, poultry feed, Duhok, Candida species, identification

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19 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor

Abstract:

Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: metronidazole, ball-milling, nanoparticles, characterization, XRD diffraction

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18 Effect of Varying Levels of Concentrate Ration on the Performance of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Heifer Calves

Authors: Z. M. Iqbal, M. Abdullah, K. Javed, M. A. Jabbar, A. Haque, M. Saadullah, F. Shahzad

Abstract:

The current study was conducted to set the appropriate concentrate level for Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers. Twenty seven buffalo heifers were randomly divided into three different groups A, B and C having nine animals in each group. All the heifers were given free access to chopped green fodder and fresh water. In addition, heifers of group A, B and C were given concentrate at the rate of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of their body weight. The average daily dry matter intake was 2.69, 3.06 and 3.83 kg with average daily gain of 456.09, 398.56 and 515.87 gm in group A, B and C, respectively. The feed conversion ratio of heifers of these groups was 5.89, 7.74 and 7.52, respectively. There was non-significant (P>0.05) difference in the body measurements (height at wither, body length and heart girth), final body condition and scoring and blood serum (glucose, total protein and cholesterol) of heifers of all the three groups. The results of current study shows that there is non-significant (P>0.05) difference in the growth rate of Nili-Ravi heifers at varying levels of concentrate so, it is cost effective to raise 6-8 month calves by offering concentrate at the rate of 0.5% body weight along with free access of green fodder.

Keywords: concentrate level, buffalo heifer, body measurement, green fodder

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17 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony

Abstract:

Purpose: to evaluate the spectral specification(IR-XRD and SEM) of nano ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and it,s characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation: to enhance the antibacterial property of nano ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin.IR spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin was sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano ciprofloxacin showes the diameter of particles equal to 90.9 nm (on the basis of scherrer equation). SEM image showes the global shape for nano ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

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16 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano-Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform X-Ray Diffraction, Infra-Red Spectroscopy, and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony

Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate the spectral specification (IR-XRD and SEM) of nano-ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and its characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation enhances the antibacterial property of nano-ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin. IR spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin were sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano-ciprofloxacin shows the diameter of particles equal to 90.9nm. (on the basis of Scherer Equation). SEM image shows the global shape for nano-ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

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15 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia, Optical Emission

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14 Prediction of the Tunnel Fire Flame Length by Hybrid Model of Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Behzad Niknam, Kourosh Shahriar, Hassan Madani

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the applicability of Hybrid Neural Networks that combine with back propagation networks (BPN) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for predicting the flame length of tunnel fire A hybrid neural network model has been developed to predict the flame length of tunnel fire based parameters such as Fire Heat Release rate, air velocity, tunnel width, height and cross section area. The network has been trained with experimental data obtained from experimental work. The hybrid neural network model learned the relationship for predicting the flame length in just 3000 training epochs. After successful learning, the model predicted the flame length.

Keywords: tunnel fire, flame length, ANN, genetic algorithm

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13 Importance of Hardware Systems and Circuits in Secure Software Development Life Cycle

Authors: Mir Shahriar Emami

Abstract:

Although it is fully impossible to ensure that a software system is quite secure, developing an acceptable secure software system in a convenient platform is not unreachable. In this paper, we attempt to analyze software development life cycle (SDLC) models from the hardware systems and circuits point of view. To date, the SDLC models pay merely attention to the software security from the software perspectives. In this paper, we present new features for SDLC stages to emphasize the role of systems and circuits in developing secure software system through the software development stages, the point that has not been considered previously in the SDLC models.

Keywords: SDLC, SSDLC, software security, software process engineering, hardware systems and circuits security

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12 Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Alaleh Kamgar

Abstract:

So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.

Keywords: crack, FRP, shear, strengthening

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11 Discrete Crack Modeling of Side Face FRP-Strengthened Concrete Beam

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Mohammad Hemen Jannaty, Alaleh Kamgar

Abstract:

Shear strengthening can be carried out in concrete structures by external fibre reinforced polymer (FRP). In the present investigation, a new fracture mechanics model is developed to model side face of strengthened concrete beam by external FRP. Discrete crack is simulated by a spring element with softening behavior ahead of the crack tip to model the cohesive zone in concrete. A truss element is used, parallel to the spring element, to simulate the energy dissipation rate by the FRP. The strain energy release rate is calculated directly by using a virtual crack closure technique and then, the crack propagation criterion is presented. The results are found acceptable when compared to previous experimental results and ABAQUS software data. It is observed that the length of the fracture process zone (FPZ) increases with the application of FRP in side face at the same load in comparison with that of the control beam.

Keywords: FPZ, fracture, FRP, shear

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10 Simulation-Based Optimization of a Non-Uniform Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Stack Boundary

Authors: Alireza Keshmiri, Shahriar Bagheri, Nan Wu

Abstract:

This research presents an analytical model for the development of an energy harvester with piezoelectric rings stacked at the boundary of the structure based on the Adomian decomposition method. The model is applied to geometrically non-uniform beams to derive the steady-state dynamic response of the structure subjected to base motion excitation and efficiently harvest the subsequent vibrational energy. The in-plane polarization of the piezoelectric rings is employed to enhance the electrical power output. A parametric study for the proposed energy harvester with various design parameters is done to prepare the dataset required for optimization. Finally, simulation-based optimization technique helps to find the optimum structural design with maximum efficiency. To solve the optimization problem, an artificial neural network is first trained to replace the simulation model, and then, a genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimized design variables. Higher geometrical non-uniformity and length of the beam lowers the structure natural frequency and generates a larger power output.

Keywords: piezoelectricity, energy harvesting, simulation-based optimization, artificial neural network, genetic algorithm

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9 An Image Enhancement Method Based on Curvelet Transform for CBCT-Images

Authors: Shahriar Farzam, Maryam Rastgarpour

Abstract:

Image denoising plays extremely important role in digital image processing. Enhancement of clinical image research based on Curvelet has been developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, we present a method for image contrast enhancement for cone beam CT (CBCT) images based on fast discrete curvelet transforms (FDCT) that work through Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT). These transforms return a table of Curvelet transform coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation and a spatial location. Accordingly, the coefficients obtained from FDCT-USFFT can be modified in order to enhance contrast in an image. Our proposed method first uses a two-dimensional mathematical transform, namely the FDCT through unequal-space fast Fourier transform on input image and then applies thresholding on coefficients of Curvelet to enhance the CBCT images. Consequently, applying unequal-space fast Fourier Transform leads to an accurate reconstruction of the image with high resolution. The experimental results indicate the performance of the proposed method is superior to the existing ones in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Effective Measure of Enhancement (EME).

Keywords: curvelet transform, CBCT, image enhancement, image denoising

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8 Language Development and Growing Spanning Trees in Children Semantic Network

Authors: Somayeh Sadat Hashemi Kamangar, Fatemeh Bakouie, Shahriar Gharibzadeh

Abstract:

In this study, we target to exploit Maximum Spanning Trees (MST) of children's semantic networks to investigate their language development. To do so, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of word-embedding networks. The networks are made of words children learn prior to the age of 30 months as the nodes and the links which are built from the cosine vector similarity of words normatively acquired by children prior to two and a half years of age. These networks are weighted graphs and the strength of each link is determined by the numerical similarities of the two words (nodes) on the sides of the link. To avoid changing the weighted networks to the binaries by setting a threshold, constructing MSTs might present a solution. MST is a unique sub-graph that connects all the nodes in such a way that the sum of all the link weights is maximized without forming cycles. MSTs as the backbone of the semantic networks are suitable to examine developmental changes in semantic network topology in children. From these trees, several parameters were calculated to characterize the developmental change in network organization. We showed that MSTs provides an elegant method sensitive to capture subtle developmental changes in semantic network organization.

Keywords: maximum spanning trees, word-embedding, semantic networks, language development

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7 An Improved Data Aided Channel Estimation Technique Using Genetic Algorithm for Massive Multi-Input Multiple-Output

Authors: M. Kislu Noman, Syed Mohammed Shamsul Islam, Shahriar Hassan, Raihana Pervin

Abstract:

With the increasing rate of wireless devices and high bandwidth operations, wireless networking and communications are becoming over crowded. To cope with such crowdy and messy situation, massive MIMO is designed to work with hundreds of low costs serving antennas at a time as well as improve the spectral efficiency at the same time. TDD has been used for gaining beamforming which is a major part of massive MIMO, to gain its best improvement to transmit and receive pilot sequences. All the benefits are only possible if the channel state information or channel estimation is gained properly. The common methods to estimate channel matrix used so far is LS, MMSE and a linear version of MMSE also proposed in many research works. We have optimized these methods using genetic algorithm to minimize the mean squared error and finding the best channel matrix from existing algorithms with less computational complexity. Our simulation result has shown that the use of GA worked beautifully on existing algorithms in a Rayleigh slow fading channel and existence of Additive White Gaussian Noise. We found that the GA optimized LS is better than existing algorithms as GA provides optimal result in some few iterations in terms of MSE with respect to SNR and computational complexity.

Keywords: channel estimation, LMMSE, LS, MIMO, MMSE

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6 Fabrication of Textile-Based Radio Frequency Metasurfaces

Authors: Adria Kajenski, Guinevere Strack, Edward Kingsley, Shahriar Khushrushahi, Alkim Akyurtlu

Abstract:

Radio Frequency (RF) metasurfaces are arrangements of subwavelength elements interacting with electromagnetic radiation. These arrangements affect polarization state, amplitude, and phase of impinged radio waves; for example, metasurface designs are used to produce functional passband and stopband filters. Recent advances in additive manufacturing techniques have enabled the low-cost, rapid fabrication of ultra-thin metasurface elements on flexible substrates such as plastic films, paper, and textiles. Furthermore, scalable manufacturing processes promote the integration of fabric-based RF metasurfaces into the market of sensors and devices within the Internet of Things (IoT). The design and fabrication of metasurfaces on textiles require a multidisciplinary team with expertise in i) textile and materials science, ii) metasurface design and simulation, and iii) metasurface fabrication and testing. In this presentation, we will discuss RF metasurfaces on fabric with an emphasis on how the materials, including fabric and inks, along with fabrication techniques, affect the RF performance. We printed metasurfaces using a direct-write approach onto various woven and non-woven fabrics, as well as on fabrics coated with either thermoplastic or thermoset coatings. Our team also performed a range of tests on the printed structures, including different inks and their curing parameters, wash durability, abrasion resistance, and RF performance over time.

Keywords: electronic textiles, metasurface, printed electronics, flexible

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5 Evaluating Probable Bending of Frames for Near-Field and Far-Field Records

Authors: Majid Saaly, Shahriar Tavousi Tafreshi, Mehdi Nazari Afshar

Abstract:

Most reinforced concrete structures are designed only under heavy loads with large transverse reinforcement spacing and therefore suffer severe failure after intense ground movements. The main goal of this article is to compare the shear and axial failure of concrete bending frames available in Tehran using incremental dynamic analysis under near- and far-field records. For this purpose, IDA analyses were carried out on seven far-fault records and five records of near-faults on 5, 10, and 15-story concrete frames and IDA analyses. The results show that in two-dimensional models of short-rise, mid-rise and high-rise reinforced concrete frames located on Type-3 soil, increasing the distance of the transverse reinforcement can increase the maximum gap between floors up to 37%. According to the existing results on 5, 10, and 15-storey reinforced concrete models on Type-3 soil, records with characteristics such as permanent displacement create maximum drift values between floors more than far-fault earthquakes. In all short-rise, mid-rise, and high-rise models, in far-fault seismic excitation records, changes of probable failure or increase of failure are much higher than in the near-fault record. However, in near-fault frame records, the probable failures at very low seismic intensities are obtained compared to far-fault records.

Keywords: IDA, failure curve, directivity, maximum floor drift, fling step, evaluating probable bending of frames, near-field and far-field earthquake records

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4 Identifying and Prioritizing Critical Success Factors (Csfs) in Retaining and Developing Knowledge Workers in Oil and Gas Project–Based Companies

Authors: Ehsan Samimi, Mohammaa Ali Shahosseeni, Ali Abasltian, Shahriar Shafaghi

Abstract:

Background/Objectives: Voluntary turnover and early retirement request by specialists and experienced people in project-based organizations (PBO) has caused many problems in finding suitable experts to execute the projects. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study is a descriptive and applied research. Research population consists of KWs in oil and gas PBO. The engineers in these organizations were considered as research sample. Interviews and questionnaire were used to gather information. Interviews with experts were used to identify factors and questionnaires were utilized to identify the importance and prioritization. 72 factors were identified and categorized into 9 groups within organizational and HR initiative levels. Results: Results of the research indicate the priority of each group of factors according to the proposed model in the view of KWs in oil, gas and petrochemical industries. On this basis, the following factors have the highest effect ratio based on the respondents’ point of view: 1. knowledge management 2. Performance appraisal system 3. Communication 4.Training and development 5.Job design and analysis 6. Employment policies 7. Career planning 8. Project/organizational factors 9. Salary and rewards. Additionally, in each group the priority of effective sub-factors has been identified as the result of the research .The results support the definitions of KWs and influence of factors examined and specified by similar studies in retention and development of KWs. The high importance of knowledge management and low rank for salary and rewards can be mentioned as example in this regard. Despite the priority of each group of factors the uniqueness of the result is due to identification of effective factors in the specific industry (oil and gas) and type of organization (PBO). Conclusion/Application: The findings of present study can be used to devise plans for retaining and developing KWs in PBO especially in oil and gas industry.

Keywords: project–based organizations, knowledge workers, HR management, turnover, retaining and developing employees

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3 Discursive (Re/De)Construction of Objectivity-Subjectivity: Critiquing Rape/Flesh Trade-Documentaries

Authors: Muhammed Shahriar Haque

Abstract:

As an offshoot of journalistic discourse, the documentary should be objective in nature without harbouring any preconceived notion to foster ulterior motifs. When it comes to a social issue like rape in South Asian countries, as media in recent times is inundated with this violent act in India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, how does one document it in terms of objectivity and subjectivity? The objective of this study is twofold: to document the history of documentaries, and to critically analyze South Asian rape/flesh trade-documentaries. The overall goal is to trace the (re/de)construction of objectivity-subjectivity in documentaries. This paper adopts a qualitative approach to documentarist discourse through the lens of critical discourse analysis (CDA). Data was gathered for 10 documentaries on the theme of rape and/or flesh trade from eight South Asian countries, predominantly the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region. The documentaries were primarily categorised by using three frameworks based on six modes, six subgenres, and four basic approaches of documentary. Subsequently, the findings were critiqued from CDA perspective. The outcome suggests that there a two schools of thoughts regarding documentaries. According to journalistic ethics, news and/or documentaries should be objective in orientation and focus on informing the audience and/common people. The empirical findings tend to challenge ethical parameters of objectivity. At times, it seems that journalistic discourse is discursively (re)constructed to give an augmented simulation of objectivity. Based on the findings it may be recommended that if documentaries steer away from empirical facts and indulge in poetic naivety, their credibility could be questioned. A research of this nature is significant as it raises questions with regard to ethical and moral conscience of documentary filmmakers. Furthermore, it looks at whether they uphold journalistic integrity or succumb to their bias, and thereby depict subjective views, which could be tainted with political and/or propagandist ulterior motifs.

Keywords: discursive (re/de)construction, documentaries, journalistic integrity, rape/flesh trade

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2 Operating Characteristics of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Identifying Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses in the Emergency Department

Authors: Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, Jacqueline Bober, Jennifer Chao, Shahriar Zehtabchi

Abstract:

Background: Emergency physicians frequently evaluate skin and soft tissue infections in order to differentiate abscess from cellulitis. This helps determine which patients will benefit from incision and drainage. Our objective was to determine the operating characteristics of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) compared to clinical examination in identifying abscesses in emergency department (ED) patients with features of skin and soft tissue infections. Methods: We performed a comprehensive search in the following databases: Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. Trials were included if they compared the operating characteristics of POCUS with clinical examination in identifying skin and soft tissue abscesses. Trials that included patients with oropharyngeal abscesses or that requiring abscess drainage in the operating room were excluded. The presence of an abscess was determined by pus drainage. No pus seen on incision or resolution of symptoms without pus drainage at follow up, determined the absence of an abscess. Quality of included trials was assessed using GRADE criteria. Operating characteristics of POCUS are reported as sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood (LR+) and negative likelihood (LR-) ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). Summary measures were calculated by generating a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model (HSROC). Results: Out of 3203 references identified, 5 observational studies with 615 patients in aggregate were included (2 adults and 3 pediatrics). We rated the quality of 3 trials as low and 2 as very low. The operating characteristics of POCUS and clinical examination in identifying soft tissue abscesses are presented in the table. The HSROC for POCUS revealed a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI = 89-98%), specificity of 79% (95% CI = 71-86), LR+ of 4.6 (95% CI = 3.2-6.8), and LR- of 0.06 (95% CI = 0.02-0.2). Conclusion: Existing evidence indicates that POCUS is useful in identifying abscesses in ED patients with skin or soft tissue infections.

Keywords: abscess, point-of-care ultrasound, pocus, skin and soft tissue infection

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1 A Paradigm Shift into the Primary Teacher Education Program in Bangladesh

Authors: Happy Kumar Das, Md. Shahriar Shafiq

Abstract:

This paper portrays an assumed change in the primary teacher education program in Bangladesh. An initiative has been taken with a vision to ensure an integrated approach to developing trainee teachers’ knowledge and understanding about learning at a deeper level, and with that aim, the Diploma in Primary Education (DPEd) program replaces the Certificate-in-Education (C-in-Ed) program in Bangladeshi context for primary teachers. The stated professional values of the existing program such as ‘learner-centered’, ‘reflective’ approach to pedagogy tend to contradict the practice exemplified through the delivery mechanism. To address the challenges, through the main two components (i) Training Institute-based learning and (ii) School-based learning, the new program tends to cover knowledge and value that underpin the actual practice of teaching. These two components are given approximately equal weighting within the program in terms of both time, content and assessment as the integration seeks to combine theoretical knowledge with practical knowledge and vice versa. The curriculum emphasizes a balance between the taught modules and the components of the practicum. For example, the theories of formative and summative assessment techniques are elaborated through focused reflection on case studies as well as observation and teaching practice in the classroom. The key ideology that is reflected through this newly developed program is teacher’s belief in ‘holistic education’ that can lead to creating opportunities for skills development in all three (Cognitive, Social and Affective) domains simultaneously. The proposed teacher education program aims to address these areas of generic skill development alongside subject-specific learning outcomes. An exploratory study has been designed in this regard where 7 Primary Teachers’ Training Institutes (PTIs) in 7 divisions of Bangladesh was used for experimenting DPEd program. The analysis was done based on document analysis, periodical monitoring report and empirical data gathered from the experimental PTIs. The findings of the study revealed that the intervention brought positive change in teachers’ professional beliefs, attitude and skills along with improvement of school environment. Teachers in training schools work together for collective professional development where they support each other through lesson study, action research, reflective journals, group sharing and so on. Although the DPEd program addresses the above mentioned factors, one of the challenges of the proposed program is the issue of existing capacity and capabilities of the PTIs towards its effective implementation.

Keywords: Bangladesh, effective implementation, primary teacher education, reflective approach

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