Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: synonyms

28 Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

Authors: Mohamed Ali Al Shaari, Khalid M. El Fitori


In the field of Quran Studies known as Ghareeb A Quran (the study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters). Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designed to look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms. There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works. For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM). DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters. In Differences Matrix, we used the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Keywords: Quran, synonyms, differences matrix, ontology

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27 Measuring Text-Based Semantics Relatedness Using WordNet

Authors: Madiha Khan, Sidrah Ramzan, Seemab Khan, Shahzad Hassan, Kamran Saeed


Measuring semantic similarity between texts is calculating semantic relatedness between texts using various techniques. Our web application (Measuring Relatedness of Concepts-MRC) allows user to input two text corpuses and get semantic similarity percentage between both using WordNet. Our application goes through five stages for the computation of semantic relatedness. Those stages are: Preprocessing (extracts keywords from content), Feature Extraction (classification of words into Parts-of-Speech), Synonyms Extraction (retrieves synonyms against each keyword), Measuring Similarity (using keywords and synonyms, similarity is measured) and Visualization (graphical representation of similarity measure). Hence the user can measure similarity on basis of features as well. The end result is a percentage score and the word(s) which form the basis of similarity between both texts with use of different tools on same platform. In future work we look forward for a Web as a live corpus application that provides a simpler and user friendly tool to compare documents and extract useful information.

Keywords: Graphviz representation, semantic relatedness, similarity measurement, WordNet similarity

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26 Discovering Semantic Links Between Synonyms, Hyponyms and Hypernyms

Authors: Ricardo Avila, Gabriel Lopes, Vania Vidal, Jose Macedo


This proposal aims for semantic enrichment between glossaries using the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) vocabulary to discover synonyms, hyponyms and hyperonyms semiautomatically, in Brazilian Portuguese, generating new semantic relationships based on WordNet. To evaluate the quality of this proposed model, experiments were performed by the use of two sets containing new relations, being one generated automatically and the other manually mapped by the domain expert. The applied evaluation metrics were precision, recall, f-score, and confidence interval. The results obtained demonstrate that the applied method in the field of Oil Production and Extraction (E&P) is effective, which suggests that it can be used to improve the quality of terminological mappings. The procedure, although adding complexity in its elaboration, can be reproduced in others domains.

Keywords: ontology matching, mapping enrichment, semantic web, linked data, SKOS

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25 The Phenomena of False Cognates and Deceptive Cognates: Issues to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching Methodology Based on Set Theory

Authors: Marilei Amadeu Sabino


The aim of this study is to establish differences between the terms ‘false cognates’, ‘false friends’ and ‘deceptive cognates’, usually considered to be synonyms. It will be shown they are not synonyms, since they do not designate the same linguistic process or phenomenon. Despite their differences in meaning, many pairs of formally similar words in two (or more) different languages are true cognates, although they are usually known as ‘false’ cognates – such as, for instance, the English and Italian lexical items ‘assist x assistere’; ‘attend x attendere’; ‘argument x argomento’; ‘apology x apologia’; ‘camera x camera’; ‘cucumber x cocomero’; ‘fabric x fabbrica’; ‘factory x fattoria’; ‘firm x firma’; ‘journal x giornale’; ‘library x libreria’; ‘magazine x magazzino’; ‘parent x parente’; ‘preservative x preservativo’; ‘pretend x pretendere’; ‘vacancy x vacanza’, to name but a few examples. Thus, one of the theoretical objectives of this paper is firstly to elaborate definitions establishing a distinction between the words that are definitely ‘false cognates’ (derived from different etyma) and those that are just ‘deceptive cognates’ (derived from the same etymon). Secondly, based on Set Theory and on the concepts of equal sets, subsets, intersection of sets and disjoint sets, this study is intended to elaborate some theoretical and practical questions that will be useful in identifying more precisely similarities and differences between cognate words of different languages, and according to graphic interpretation of sets it will be possible to classify them and provide discernment about the processes of semantic changes. Therefore, these issues might be helpful not only to the Learning of Second and Foreign Languages, but they could also give insights into Foreign and Second Language Teaching Methodology. Acknowledgements: FAPESP – São Paulo State Research Support Foundation – the financial support offered (proc. n° 2017/02064-7).

Keywords: deceptive cognates, false cognates, foreign language learning, teaching methodology

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24 Semantic Search Engine Based on Query Expansion with Google Ranking and Similarity Measures

Authors: Ahmad Shahin, Fadi Chakik, Walid Moudani


Our study is about elaborating a potential solution for a search engine that involves semantic technology to retrieve information and display it significantly. Semantic search engines are not used widely over the web as the majorities are still in Beta stage or under construction. Many problems face the current applications in semantic search, the major problem is to analyze and calculate the meaning of query in order to retrieve relevant information. Another problem is the ontology based index and its updates. Ranking results according to concept meaning and its relation with query is another challenge. In this paper, we are offering a light meta-engine (QESM) which uses Google search, and therefore Google’s index, with some adaptations to its returned results by adding multi-query expansion. The mission was to find a reliable ranking algorithm that involves semantics and uses concepts and meanings to rank results. At the beginning, the engine finds synonyms of each query term entered by the user based on a lexical database. Then, query expansion is applied to generate different semantically analogous sentences. These are generated randomly by combining the found synonyms and the original query terms. Our model suggests the use of semantic similarity measures between two sentences. Practically, we used this method to calculate semantic similarity between each query and the description of each page’s content generated by Google. The generated sentences are sent to Google engine one by one, and ranked again all together with the adapted ranking method (QESM). Finally, our system will place Google pages with higher similarities on the top of the results. We have conducted experimentations with 6 different queries. We have observed that most ranked results with QESM were altered with Google’s original generated pages. With our experimented queries, QESM generates frequently better accuracy than Google. In some worst cases, it behaves like Google.

Keywords: semantic search engine, Google indexing, query expansion, similarity measures

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23 Biomedical Definition Extraction Using Machine Learning with Synonymous Feature

Authors: Jian Qu, Akira Shimazu


OOV (Out Of Vocabulary) terms are terms that cannot be found in many dictionaries. Although it is possible to translate such OOV terms, the translations do not provide any real information for a user. We present an OOV term definition extraction method by using information available from the Internet. We use features such as occurrence of the synonyms and location distances. We apply machine learning method to find the correct definitions for OOV terms. We tested our method on both biomedical type and name type OOV terms, our work outperforms existing work with an accuracy of 86.5%.

Keywords: information retrieval, definition retrieval, OOV (out of vocabulary), biomedical information retrieval

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22 Variation in Italian Specialized Economic Texts

Authors: Abdelmagid Basyouny Sakr


Terminological variation is a reality and it is now recognized by terminologists. This paper investigates the terminological variation in the context of specialized economic texts in Italian. It aims to find whether certain patterns or tendencies can be derived from the analysis of these texts. Term variants pose two different kinds of difficulties. The first one is being able to recognize linguistic expressions that denote the same concept in running text. Another one lies in knowing which variant should be considered and for what purpose. This would help to differentiate between variants that could be candidates for inclusion in terminological resources and the ones which are synonyms or contextual variants. New insights about terminological variation in specialized texts could contribute to improve specialized dictionaries which will better account for the different ways in which a given thought is expressed.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, specialized communication, terms and concepts, terminological variation

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21 The Station and Value of Beauty in Islam Based on the Holy Quran

Authors: Hamidreza Qaderi


Beauty is a part of our life and we as Muslims cannot ignore it. Furthermore, Islam did not ignore. God in Quran has used words that mean beauty many times. Zain «زین» and its synonyms are some of that words that are used 46 times in a different meaning of beauty. Some of them are mentioned to worldly beauty and not acceptable beauty and other of them are mentioned to the Moral beauty. In this article, the meaning of Zain 'beauty' in Surah Al Aaraf (The Heights) is explained and described. In fact, there are specific signs about beauty in the 31 and 32 verses of this Surah in which the station of beauty can determine. For clarification of this issue, the analytic philosophy method is used to express the relation between this word and aesthetics and beauty in this article. The results of this research show that the beauty is an important issue in Islam as much as God order to Muslims to be beautiful when they want to pray.

Keywords: beauty, Quran, al zinah, Zain

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20 Nineteenth Century Colonial Discourse and Marxist Theory

Authors: Nikolaos Mavropoulos


Imperialism and colonialism had and still have a predominantly negative nuisance. In many ways the two terms are synonyms of racist behavior, exploitation, and oppression, imposed by the supposedly civilized West at Africa’s and Asia’s expense. Paradoxically enough, imperialism was not thoroughly negative for some Marxist scholars. For them, in reality, it served a historical necessity as the only mean to liberate the backward societies from their millennial stagnation and to introduce them to industrialization and progress. To Marx as immoral and cruel the imposition of imperial rule and the eradication of traditional structures may have been, the process is still a progressive step towards the formation of class consciousness, global revolution and socialism in a world scale. Overlooking the fact that imperialism could actually delay and put an end to capitalist development, some Marxists proponents considered it as a positive development for the colonized peoples.

Keywords: Colonialism, , Marxist theory, Modern history, , 19th century Imperialism,

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19 Cochliobolus sativus: An Important Pathogen of Cereal Crops

Authors: Awet Araya


Cochliobolus sativus ((anamorphic stage: Bipolaris sorokiniana (synonyms: Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Drechslera sorokiniana, and Helminthosporium sativum)) is an important pathogen of cereal crops. Many other grass species are also hosts for this fungus. Yield losses have been reported from many regions, especially where barley and wheat are commercially cultivated. The fungus has a worldwide distribution. The pathogen causes root rot, seedling blight, spot blotch, head blight, and black point. Environmental conditions affect disease development. Most of the time, fungus survives as mycelia and conidia. Pseudothecium of the fungus is not commonly encountered and probably not important in the epidemiology of the disease. The fungus can be in seed, soil, or in plant parts. Crop rotation, proper fertilization, reducing other stress factors, fungicide treatments, and resistant cultivars may be used for the control of the disease.

Keywords: Cochliobolus sativus, barley, cultivars, root rot

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18 Searching Linguistic Synonyms through Parts of Speech Tagging

Authors: Faiza Hussain, Usman Qamar


Synonym-based searching is recognized to be a complicated problem as text mining from unstructured data of web is challenging. Finding useful information which matches user need from bulk of web pages is a cumbersome task. In this paper, a novel and practical synonym retrieval technique is proposed for addressing this problem. For replacement of semantics, user intent is taken into consideration to realize the technique. Parts-of-Speech tagging is applied for pattern generation of the query and a thesaurus for this experiment was formed and used. Comparison with Non-Context Based Searching, Context Based searching proved to be a more efficient approach while dealing with linguistic semantics. This approach is very beneficial in doing intent based searching. Finally, results and future dimensions are presented.

Keywords: natural language processing, text mining, information retrieval, parts-of-speech tagging, grammar, semantics

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17 Assessment of the Validity of Sentiment Analysis as a Tool to Analyze the Emotional Content of Text

Authors: Trisha Malhotra


Sentiment analysis is a recent field of study that computationally assesses the emotional nature of a body of text. To assess its test-validity, sentiment analysis was carried out on the emotional corpus of text from a personal 15-day mood diary. Self-reported mood scores varied more or less accurately with daily mood evaluation score given by the software. On further assessment, it was found that while sentiment analysis was good at assessing ‘global’ mood, it was not able to ‘locally’ identify and differentially score synonyms of various emotional words. It is further critiqued for treating the intensity of an emotion as universal across cultures. Finally, the software is shown not to account for emotional complexity in sentences by treating emotions as strictly positive or negative. Hence, it is posited that a better output could be two (positive and negative) affect scores for the same body of text.

Keywords: analysis, data, diary, emotions, mood, sentiment

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16 Using Synonymy in Translation of Hemingway’s 'A Farewell to Arms' from English into Albanian

Authors: Miranda Enesi, Helena Grillo Mukli


The English word-stock is extremely rich in synonyms which can be largely accounted for by the abundant borrowing. Translation problems encountered by translators in general are usually ‘transfer problems’. They face more difficulties in the interpretation of meaning from the source language text than lexical differences between languages. The aim of the study is to inspect the various strategies used in translating from English into Albanian specific words in the ‘A Farwell to arms’ novel. For this purpose, examples translated from English into Albanian were examined. The Albanian equivalents have shown that various strategies were used in order to overcome the problem of rendering words and expressions into the target language. Employed strategies were synonymy, modulation, transposition, calque and word for word translation. In addition, this paper shows that the strategy of translating using synonymy is mostly used. In this paper, an attempt is made to examine the nature of contextual synonymy in order to investigate its problematic nature regarding translation. Types of synonymy are analyzed and then examples from English and Albanian versions are provided to examine the overlap between them.

Keywords: equivalence, literal translation, paraphrasing, transfer problems, synonymy

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15 Conditions Required for New Sector Emergence: Results from a Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Laurie Prange-Martin, Romeo Turcan, Norman Fraser


The aim of this study is to identify the conditions required and describe the process of emergence for a new economic sector created from new or established businesses. A systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1983 to 2016 was conducted using the following databases: ABI/INFORM Complete; Business Source Premiere; Google Scholar; Scopus; and Web of Science. The two main terms of business sector and emergence were used in the systematic literature search, along with another seventeen synonyms for each these main terms. From the search results, 65 publications met the requirements of an empirical study discussing and reporting the conditions of new sector emergence. A meta-analysis of the literature examined suggest that there are six favourable conditions and five key individuals or groups required for new sector emergence. In addition, the results from the meta-analysis showed that there are eighteen theories used in the literature to explain the phenomenon of new sector emergence, which can be grouped in three study disciplines. With such diversity in theoretical frameworks used in the 65 empirical studies, the authors of this paper propose the development of a new theory of sector emergence.

Keywords: economic geography, new sector emergence, economic diversification, regional economies

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14 Types of Taboo Expressions in Igbo Society

Authors: Christian Nwaoha


This study investigates taboo expressions and classifications in Igbo discourse, their socio-cultural factors affecting their usage. The study classifies Linguistic taboo expressions by their discourse into five categories: morality-related taboo, veneration-related, decorum-related, religion-related and fear-related taboo expressions. This study argues that while religion-related and decorum-related taboos are unmentioned and have no euphemistic synonyms is because they are closely tied to various Igbo deities and objects, while morality, veneration, and fear-related have permissible alternatives. A descriptive research design was adopted and the data collection was by questionnaire and oral interview. The result of the research proves that aside of the categories of taboos in Igbo, socially, the styles of discourse have some levels of gender, age and class-connected taboos, which for instance, in gender-connected taboos, women in Igbo are forbidden to use style of discourse that are connected with genital organs in social gathering comprising men and women. The same has to do with class-connected where much younger men can use some certain expressions that are taboo, but in much older men gathering such expressions would be tagged forbidden in the context. The study further reveals that there are occasions in which these taboos can be used with reasons. The research concludes that using these taboos in literary text can enhance clear understanding of Igbo taboos to the users and learners of Igbo language.

Keywords: taboo expressions, classifications, Igbo, socio-cultural factors, discourse

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13 Collocation Errors Made by Saudi Learners of English

Authors: Pakenam Shiha, Nadine Lacsina


Systematic and in-depth analysis of ESL learners’ lexical errors, in general, and of collocation errors, in particular, are relatively rare. Analysis as such proves crucial in understanding how ESL learners construct and use these fixed expressions. Collocational competence of ESL learners is necessary for achieving a native-like proficiency level, which is one of the objectives of foundation programs. This study aims to examine the collocational competence of 50 Saudi foundation program students and identify the collocation errors that they often make. Furthermore, using a questionnaire, the challenges that students encounter in learning collocations and the ways in which their L1 affects their ability to recognize these expressions are identified. To identify the lexical errors and the collocational competence of the students a collocation test was administered. The 150-item lexical collocation test consists of verb-noun and adjective-noun structures. Results of the study reveal that there is a significant difference between the scores of students in the verb-noun and adjective-noun structures. The majority of errors were recorded in the adjective-noun structures due to the students’ L1 influence on the English collocations and the inability to distinguish between synonyms. Moreover, some challenges that students encountered were problems in translation, non-exposure to certain collocations, and degree of L1-L2 difference. All in all, the findings of this study can be interpreted in relation to the student's proficiency level and L2 instruction. Other findings of the study provide insights into language pedagogy—specifically strategies to help students learn collocations more effectively.

Keywords: collocations, ESL, applied linguistics, lexical collocations

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12 Smart Online Library Catalog System with Query Expansion for the University of the Cordilleras

Authors: Vincent Ballola, Raymund Dilan, Thelma Palaoag


The Smart Online Library Catalog System with Query Expansion seeks to address the low usage of the library because of the emergence of the Internet. Library users are not accustomed to catalog systems that need a query to have the exact words without any mistakes for decent results to appear. The graphical user interface of the current system has a rather skewed learning curve for users to adapt with. With a simple graphical user interface inspired by Google, users can search quickly just by inputting their query and hitting the search button. Because of the query expansion techniques incorporated into the new system such as stemming, thesaurus search, and weighted search, users can have more efficient results from their query. The system will be adding the root words of the user's query to the query itself which will then be cross-referenced to a thesaurus database to search for any synonyms that will be added to the query. The results will then be arranged by the number of times the word has been searched. Online queries will also be added to the results for additional references. Users showed notable increases in efficiency and usability due to the familiar interface and query expansion techniques incorporated in the system. The simple yet familiar design led to a better user experience. Users also said that they would be more inclined in using the library because of the new system. The incorporation of query expansion techniques gives a notable increase of results to users that in turn gives them a wider range of resources found in the library. Used books mean more knowledge imparted to the users.

Keywords: query expansion, catalog system, stemming, weighted search, usability, thesaurus search

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11 Multi-Objective Multi-Period Allocation of Temporary Earthquake Disaster Response Facilities with Multi-Commodities

Authors: Abolghasem Yousefi-Babadi, Ali Bozorgi-Amiri, Aida Kazempour, Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Maryam Irani


All over the world, natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, floods, volcanoes and hurricanes) causes a lot of deaths. Earthquakes are introduced as catastrophic events, which is accident by unusual phenomena leading to much loss around the world. Such could be replaced by disasters or any other synonyms strongly demand great long-term help and relief, which can be hard to be managed. Supplies and facilities are very important challenges after any earthquake which should be prepared for the disaster regions to satisfy the people's demands who are suffering from earthquake. This paper proposed disaster response facility allocation problem for disaster relief operations as a mathematical programming model. Not only damaged people in the earthquake victims, need the consumable commodities (e.g., food and water), but also they need non-consumable commodities (e.g., clothes) to protect themselves. Therefore, it is concluded that paying attention to disaster points and people's demands are very necessary. To deal with this objective, both commodities including consumable and need non-consumable commodities are considered in the presented model. This paper presented the multi-objective multi-period mathematical programming model regarding the minimizing the average of the weighted response times and minimizing the total operational cost and penalty costs of unmet demand and unused commodities simultaneously. Furthermore, a Chebycheff multi-objective solution procedure as a powerful solution algorithm is applied to solve the proposed model. Finally, to illustrate the model applicability, a case study of the Tehran earthquake is studied, also to show model validation a sensitivity analysis is carried out.

Keywords: facility location, multi-objective model, disaster response, commodity

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10 Views of Middle-Aged Women in Malaysia towards Menopause: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat, Hamizah Sulaiman


Introduction: Old age is commonly link with menopause among women. The main purpose of this study is to explore the views of middle-aged women and its association with menopause. Methods: Qualitative interviews in the form of focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among women aged between 35 and 59 years old living in urban localities in two different states in Malaysia. Selection of respondents were conducted using the maximum variation sampling, focussing on five age categories which are between 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, 50 to 54 and 55 to 59 years old. Each FGD involved 5 to 7 respondents and lasted for 1 to 2 hours each. The content of the interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim after each interview before the next focus group discussion is conducted. Field notes of reflexive observations were recorded by the rapporteur. Individual transcripts were analysed using standard methods of qualitative thematic analysis. The material was read through twice and later coded. The codes were further collapsed into several key themes related to perceptions towards menopause among the respondents. Results: A total number of 36 middle-aged women were consented for the interviews. The contents of the interviews revealed that younger women tend to associate menopause with being old, which were dominated by the younger aged categories of less than 50 years old. Majority of the respondents linked menopause with end of woman’s reproductive capacity or inability to give birth, lethargic or endless feeling of tiredness and insomnia, emotional instability or having more sensitive feelings and also the beginning of many health problems such as osteoarthritis which they perceived very synonyms with being old. Conclusion: The findings of this study indirectly reflect the negative views towards menopause among the middle-aged women in Malaysia. Being residents in the urban areas equipped with advanced technology and health information, do not exclude them from having negative views about menopause. However, this is a qualitative study which only focussing on age ranges, regardless of their socioeconomic and demographic background, which make further studies on related issues are necessaries. The fact that it was a qualitative interview, the findings could not be generalised and only specific to the targeted population.

Keywords: Menopause, Middle-aged women, old, Malaysia

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9 Cataloguing Beetle Fauna (Insecta: Coleoptera) of India: Estimating Diversity, Distribution, and Taxonomic Challenges

Authors: Devanshu Gupta, Kailash Chandra, Priyanka Das, Joyjit Ghosh


Beetles, in the insect order Coleoptera are the most species-rich group on this planet today. They represent about 40% of the total insect diversity of the world. With a considerable range of landform types including significant mountain ranges, deserts, fertile irrigational plains, and hilly forested areas, India is one of the mega-diverse countries and includes more than 0.1 million faunal species. Despite having rich biodiversity, the efforts to catalogue the beetle diversity of the extant species/taxa reported from India have been less. Therefore, in this paper, the information on the beetle fauna of India is provided based on the data available with the museum collections of Zoological Survey of India and taxa extracted from zoological records and published literature. The species were listed with their valid names, synonyms, type localities, type depositories, and their distribution in states and biogeographic zones of India. The catalogue also incorporates the bibliography on Indian Coleoptera. The exhaustive species inventory, prepared by us include distributional records from Himalaya, Trans Himalaya, Desert, Semi-Arid, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plains, Northeast, Islands, and Coastal areas of the country. Our study concludes that many of the species are still known from their type localities only, so there is need to revisit and resurvey those collection localities for the taxonomic evaluation of those species. There are species which exhibit single locality records, and taxa-specific biodiversity assessments are required to be undertaken to understand the distributional range of such species. The primary challenge is taxonomic identifications of the species which were described before independence, and the type materials are present in overseas museums. For such species, taxonomic revisions of the different group of beetles are required to solve the problems of identification and classification.

Keywords: checklist, taxonomy, museum collections, biogeographic zones

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8 Literary Words of Foreign Origin as Social Markers in Jeffrey Archer's Novels Speech Portrayals

Authors: Tatiana Ivushkina


The paper is aimed at studying the use of literary words of foreign origin in modern fiction from a sociolinguistic point of view, which presupposes establishing correlation between this category of words in a speech portrayal or narrative and a social status of the speaker, verifying that it bears social implications and serves as a social marker or index of socially privileged identity in the British literature of the 21-st century. To this end, there were selected literary words of foreign origin in context (60 contexts) and subjected to careful examination. The study is carried out on two novels by Jeffrey Archer – Not a Penny More, Not a Penny Less and A Prisoner of Birth – who, being a graduate from Oxford, represents socially privileged classes himself and gives a wide depiction of characters with different social backgrounds and statuses. The analysis of the novels enabled us to categorize the selected words into four relevant groups. The first represented by terms (commodity, debenture, recuperation, syringe, luminescence, umpire, etc.) serves to unambiguously indicate education, occupation, a field of knowledge in which a character is involved or a situation of communication. The second group is formed of words used in conjunction with their Germanic counterparts (perspiration – sweat, padre – priest, convivial – friendly) to contrast social position of the characters: literary words serving as social indices of upper class speakers whereas their synonyms of Germanic origin characterize middle or lower class speech portrayals. The third class of words comprises socially marked words (verbs, nouns, and adjectives), or U-words (the term first coined by Allan Ross and Nancy Mitford), the status acquired in the course of social history development (elegant, excellent, sophistication, authoritative, preposterous, etc.). The fourth includes words used in a humorous or ironic meaning to convey the narrator’s attitude to the characters or situation itself (ministrations, histrionic, etc.). Words of this group are perceived as 'alien', stylistically distant as they create incongruity between style and subject matter. Social implication of the selected words is enhanced by French words and phrases often accompanying them.

Keywords: British literature of the XXI century, literary words of foreign origin, social context, social meaning

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7 Using Corpora in Semantic Studies of English Adjectives

Authors: Oxana Lukoshus


The methods of corpus linguistics, a well-established field of research, are being increasingly applied in cognitive linguistics. Corpora data are especially useful for different quantitative studies of grammatical and other aspects of language. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how present-day corpora can be applied in semantic studies in general and in semantic studies of adjectives in particular. Polysemantic adjectives have been the subject of numerous studies. But most of them have been carried out on dictionaries. Undoubtedly, dictionaries are viewed as one of the basic data sources, but only at the initial steps of a research. The author usually starts with the analysis of the lexicographic data after which s/he comes up with a hypothesis. In the research conducted three polysemantic synonyms true, loyal, faithful have been analyzed in terms of differences and similarities in their semantic structure. A corpus-based approach in the study of the above-mentioned adjectives involves the following. After the analysis of the dictionary data there was the reference to the following corpora to study the distributional patterns of the words under study – the British National Corpus (BNC) and the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). These corpora are continually updated and contain thousands of examples of the words under research which make them a useful and convenient data source. For the purpose of this study there were no special needs regarding genre, mode or time of the texts included in the corpora. Out of the range of possibilities offered by corpus-analysis software (e.g. word lists, statistics of word frequencies, etc.), the most useful tool for the semantic analysis was the extracting a list of co-occurrence for the given search words. Searching by lemmas, e.g. true, true to, and grouping the results by lemmas have proved to be the most efficient corpora feature for the adjectives under the study. Following the search process, the corpora provided a list of co-occurrences, which were then to be analyzed and classified. Not every co-occurrence was relevant for the analysis. For example, the phrases like An enormous sense of responsibility to protect the minds and hearts of the faithful from incursions by the state was perceived to be the basic duty of the church leaders or ‘True,’ said Phoebe, ‘but I'd probably get to be a Union Official immediately were left out as in the first example the faithful is a substantivized adjective and in the second example true is used alone with no other parts of speech. The subsequent analysis of the corpora data gave the grounds for the distribution groups of the adjectives under the study which were then investigated with the help of a semantic experiment. To sum it up, the corpora-based approach has proved to be a powerful, reliable and convenient tool to get the data for the further semantic study.

Keywords: corpora, corpus-based approach, polysemantic adjectives, semantic studies

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6 A Review of Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Cardiovascular Disease in Zambia

Authors: Mwenya Mubanga, Sula Mazimba


Background: In Zambia, much of the focus on nutrition and health has been on reducing micronutrient deficiencies, wasting and underweight malnutrition and not on the rising global projections of trends in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review was to identify and collate studies on the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease conducted in Zambia, to summarize their findings and to identify areas that need further research. Methods: The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLINE) database was searched for peer-reviewed articles on the prevalence of, and factors associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease amongst Zambian residents using a combination of search terms. The period of search was from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016. We expanded the search terms to include all possible synonyms and spellings obtained in the search strategy. Additionally, we performed a manual search for other articles and references of peer-reviewed articles. Results: In Zambia, the current prevalence of Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is estimated at 13%-16% and 2.0 – 3.0% respectively. Risk factors such as the adoption of western dietary habits, the social stigmatization associated with rapid weight loss due to Tuberculosis and/ or the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and rapid urbanization have all been blamed for fueling the increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, unlike traditional Western populations, those with no formal education were less likely to be obese than those who attained secondary or tertiary level education. Approximately 30% of those surveyed were unaware of their diabetes diagnosis and more than 60% were not on treatment despite a known diabetic status. Socio-demographic factors such as older age, female sex, urban dwelling, lack of tobacco use and marital status were associated with an increased risk of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. We were unable to identify studies that specifically looked at diabetes-related cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of Obesity and Type 2 diabetes in Zambia appears low, more representative studies focusing on parts of the country outside of the main industrial zone need to be conducted. There also needs to be research on diabetes-related cardiovascular disease. National surveillance, monitoring and evaluation on all non-communicable diseases need to be prioritized and policies that address underweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes developed.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Zambia, obesity, cardiovascular disease

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5 The Concept of Dharma under Hindu, Buddhist and Sikh Religions: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Venkateswarlu Kappara


The term ‘Dharma’ is complex and ubiquitous. It has no equivalent word in English Initially applied to Aryans. In Rig Veda, it appears in a number of places with different meanings. The word Dharma comes from the roots word ‘dhr’ (Dhri-Dharayatetiiti Dharmaha). Principles of Dharma are all pervading. The closest synonyms for Dharma in English is ‘Righteousness.’ In a holy book Mahabharata, it is mentioned that Dharma destroys those who destroy it, Dharma Protects those who protect it. Also, Dharma might be shadowed, now and then by evil forces, but at the end, Dharma always triumphs. This line embodies the eternal victory of good over evil. In Mahabharata, Lord Krishna says Dharma upholds both, this worldly and other worldly affairs. Rig Veda says, ‘O Indra! Lead us on the path of Rta, on the right path over all evils.’ For Buddhists, Dharma most often means the body of teachings expounded by the Buddha. The Dharma is one of the three Jewels (Tri Ratnas) of Buddhism under which the followers take refuge. They are: the ‘Buddha’ meaning the minds perfection or enlightenment, the Dharma, meaning the teachings and the methods of the Buddha, and the Sangha meaning those awakened people who provide guidance and support followers. Buddha denies a separate permanent ‘I.’ Buddha Accepts Suffering (Dukka). Change / impermanence (Anicca) and not– self (Annatta) Dharma in the Buddhist scriptures has a variety of meanings including ‘phenomenon’ and ‘nature’ or ‘characteristic.’ For Sikhs, the word ‘Dharma’ means the ‘path’ of righteousness’ The Sikh scriptures attempt to answer the exposition of Dharma. The main Holy Scripture of the Sikh religion is called the Guru Granth Sahib. The faithful people are fully bound to do whatever the Dharma wants them to do. Such is the name of the Immaculate Lord. Only one who has faith comes to know such a state of mind. The righteous judge of Dharma, by the Hukam of God’s Command, sits and Administers true justice. From Dharma flow wealth and pleasure. The study indicates that in Sikh religion, the Dharma is the path of righteousness; In Buddhism, the mind’s perfection of enlightenment, and in Hinduism, it is non-violence, purity, truth, control of senses, not coveting the property of others. The comparative study implies that all religions dealt with Dharma for welfare of the mankind. The methodology adapted is theoretical, analytical and comparative. The present study indicates how far Indian philosophical systems influenced the present circumstances and how far the present system is not compatible with Ancient philosophical systems. A tentative generalization would be that the present system which is mostly influenced by the British Governance may not totally reflect the ancient norms. However, the mental make-up continues to be influenced by Ancient philosophical systems.

Keywords: Dharma, Dukka (suffering), Rakshati, righteous

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4 Probing Scientific Literature Metadata in Search for Climate Services in African Cities

Authors: Zohra Mhedhbi, Meheret Gaston, Sinda Haoues-Jouve, Julia Hidalgo, Pierre Mazzega


In the current context of climate change, supporting national and local stakeholders to make climate-smart decisions is necessary but still underdeveloped in many countries. To overcome this problem, the Global Frameworks for Climate Services (GFCS), implemented under the aegis of the United Nations in 2012, has initiated many programs in different countries. The GFCS contributes to the development of Climate Services, an instrument based on the production and transfer of scientific climate knowledge for specific users such as citizens, urban planning actors, or agricultural professionals. As cities concentrate on economic, social and environmental issues that make them more vulnerable to climate change, the New Urban Agenda (NUA), adopted at Habitat III in October 2016, highlights the importance of paying particular attention to disaster risk management, climate and environmental sustainability and urban resilience. In order to support the implementation of the NUA, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified the urban dimension as one of its priorities and has proposed a new tool, the Integrated Urban Services (IUS), for more sustainable and resilient cities. In the southern countries, there’s a lack of development of climate services, which can be partially explained by problems related to their economic financing. In addition, it is often difficult to make climate change a priority in urban planning, given the more traditional urban challenges these countries face, such as massive poverty, high population growth, etc. Climate services and Integrated Urban Services, particularly in African cities, are expected to contribute to the sustainable development of cities. These tools will help promoting the acquisition of meteorological and socio-ecological data on their transformations, encouraging coordination between national or local institutions providing various sectoral urban services, and should contribute to the achievement of the objectives defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or the Paris Agreement, and the Sustainable Development Goals. To assess the state of the art on these various points, the Web of Science metadatabase is queried. With a query combining the keywords "climate*" and "urban*", more than 24,000 articles are identified, source of more than 40,000 distinct keywords (but including synonyms and acronyms) which finely mesh the conceptual field of research. The occurrence of one or more names of the 514 African cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants or countries, reduces this base to a smaller corpus of about 1410 articles (2990 keywords). 41 countries and 136 African cities are cited. The lexicometric analysis of the metadata of the articles and the analysis of the structural indicators (various centralities) of the networks induced by the co-occurrence of expressions related more specifically to climate services show the development potential of these services, identify the gaps which remain to be filled for their implementation and allow to compare the diversity of national and regional situations with regard to these services.

Keywords: African cities, climate change, climate services, integrated urban services, lexicometry, networks, urban planning, web of science

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3 Student Experiences in Online Doctoral Programs: A Critical Review of the Literature

Authors: Nicole A. Alford


The study of online graduate education started just 30 years ago, with the first online graduate program in the 1990s. Institutions are looking for ways to increase retention and support the needs of students with the rapid expansion of online higher education due to the global pandemic. Online education provides access and opportunities to those who otherwise would be unable to pursue an advanced degree for logistical reasons. Thus, the objective of the critical literature review is to survey current research of student experiences given the expanding role of online doctoral programs. The guiding research questions are: What are the personal, professional, and student life practices of graduate students who enrolled in a fully online university doctoral program or course? and How do graduate students who enrolled in a fully online doctoral program or course describe the factors that contributed to their continued study? The systematic literature review was conducted employing a variety of databases to locate articles using key Boolean terms and synonyms within three categories of the e-learning, doctoral education, and student perspectives. Inclusion criteria for the literature review consisted of empirical peer-reviewed studies with original data sources that focused on doctoral programs and courses within a fully online environment and centered around student experiences. A total of 16 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria and systemically analyzed through coding using the Boote and Beile criteria. Major findings suggest that doctoral students face stressors related to social and emotional wellbeing in the online environment. A lack of social connection, isolation, and burnout were the main challenges experienced by students. Students found support from their colleagues, advisors, and faculty to persist. Communities and cohorts of online doctoral students were found to guard against these challenges. Moreover, in the methods section of the articles, there was a lack of specificity related to student demographics, general student information, and insufficient detail about the online doctoral program. Additionally, descriptions regarding the experiences of cohorts and communities in the online environment were vague and not easily replicable with the given details. This literature review reveals that doctoral students face social and emotional challenges related to isolation and the rigor of the academic process and lean on others for support to continue in their studies. Given the lack of current knowledge about online doctoral students, it proves to be a challenge to identify effective practices and create high-retention doctoral programs in online environments. The paucity of information combined with the dramatic transition to e-learning due to the global pandemic can provide a perfect storm for attrition in these programs. Several higher education institutions have transitioned graduate studies online, thus providing an opportunity for further exploration. Given the new necessity of online learning, this work provides insight into examining current practices in online doctoral programs that have moved to this modality during the pandemic. The significance of the literature review provides a springboard for research into online doctoral programs as the solution to continue advanced education amongst a global pandemic.

Keywords: e-learning, experiences, higher education, literature review

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2 Mondoc: Informal Lightweight Ontology for Faceted Semantic Classification of Hypernymy

Authors: M. Regina Carreira-Lopez


Lightweight ontologies seek to concrete union relationships between a parent node, and a secondary node, also called "child node". This logic relation (L) can be formally defined as a triple ontological relation (LO) equivalent to LO in ⟨LN, LE, LC⟩, and where LN represents a finite set of nodes (N); LE is a set of entities (E), each of which represents a relationship between nodes to form a rooted tree of ⟨LN, LE⟩; and LC is a finite set of concepts (C), encoded in a formal language (FL). Mondoc enables more refined searches on semantic and classified facets for retrieving specialized knowledge about Atlantic migrations, from the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America (1776) and to the end of the Spanish Civil War (1939). The model looks forward to increasing documentary relevance by applying an inverse frequency of co-ocurrent hypernymy phenomena for a concrete dataset of textual corpora, with RMySQL package. Mondoc profiles archival utilities implementing SQL programming code, and allows data export to XML schemas, for achieving semantic and faceted analysis of speech by analyzing keywords in context (KWIC). The methodology applies random and unrestricted sampling techniques with RMySQL to verify the resonance phenomena of inverse documentary relevance between the number of co-occurrences of the same term (t) in more than two documents of a set of texts (D). Secondly, the research also evidences co-associations between (t) and their corresponding synonyms and antonyms (synsets) are also inverse. The results from grouping facets or polysemic words with synsets in more than two textual corpora within their syntagmatic context (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) state how to proceed with semantic indexing of hypernymy phenomena for subject-heading lists and for authority lists for documentary and archival purposes. Mondoc contributes to the development of web directories and seems to achieve a proper and more selective search of e-documents (classification ontology). It can also foster on-line catalogs production for semantic authorities, or concepts, through XML schemas, because its applications could be used for implementing data models, by a prior adaptation of the based-ontology to structured meta-languages, such as OWL, RDF (descriptive ontology). Mondoc serves to the classification of concepts and applies a semantic indexing approach of facets. It enables information retrieval, as well as quantitative and qualitative data interpretation. The model reproduces a triple tuple ⟨LN, LE, LT, LCF L, BKF⟩ where LN is a set of entities that connect with other nodes to concrete a rooted tree in ⟨LN, LE⟩. LT specifies a set of terms, and LCF acts as a finite set of concepts, encoded in a formal language, L. Mondoc only resolves partial problems of linguistic ambiguity (in case of synonymy and antonymy), but neither the pragmatic dimension of natural language nor the cognitive perspective is addressed. To achieve this goal, forthcoming programming developments should target at oriented meta-languages with structured documents in XML.

Keywords: hypernymy, information retrieval, lightweight ontology, resonance

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1 The Contemporary Format of E-Learning in Teaching Foreign Languages

Authors: Nataliya G. Olkhovik


Nowadays in the system of Russian higher medical education there have been undertaken initiatives that resulted in focusing on the resources of e-learning in teaching foreign languages. Obviously, the face-to-face communication in foreign languages bears much more advantages in terms of effectiveness in comparison with the potential of e-learning. Thus, we’ve faced the necessity of strengthening the capacity of e-learning via integration of active methods into the process of teaching foreign languages, such as project activity of students. Successful project activity of students should involve the following components: monitoring, control, methods of organizing the student’s activity in foreign languages, stimulating their interest in the chosen project, approaches to self-assessment and methods of raising their self-esteem. The contemporary methodology assumes the project as a specific method, which activates potential of a student’s cognitive function, emotional reaction, ability to work in the team, commitment, skills of cooperation and, consequently, their readiness to verbalize ideas, thoughts and attitudes. Verbal activity in the foreign language is a complex conception that consolidates both cognitive (involving speech) capacity and individual traits and attitudes such as initiative, empathy, devotion, responsibility etc. Once we organize the project activity by the means of e-learning within the ‘Foreign language’ discipline we have to take into consideration all mentioned above characteristics and work out an effective way to implement it into the teaching practice to boost its educational potential. We have integrated into the e-platform Moodle the module of project activity consisting of the following blocks of tasks that lead students to research, cooperate, strive to leadership, chase the goal and finally verbalize their intentions. Firstly, we introduce the project through activating self-activity of students by the tasks of the phase ‘Preparation of the project’: choose the topic and justify it; find out the problematic situation and its components; set the goals; create your team, choose the leader, distribute the roles in your team; make a written report on grounding the validity of your choices. Secondly, in the ‘Planning the project’ phase we ask students to represent the analysis of the problem in terms of reasons, ways and methods of solution and define the structure of their project (here students may choose oral or written presentation by drawing up the claim in the e-platform about their wish, whereas the teacher decides what form of presentation to prefer). Thirdly, the students have to design the visual aids, speech samples (functional phrases, introductory words, keywords, synonyms, opposites, attributive constructions) and then after checking, discussing and correcting with a teacher via the means of Moodle present it in front of the audience. And finally, we introduce the phase of self-reflection that aims to awake the inner desire of students to improve their verbal activity in a foreign language. As a result, by implementing the project activity into the e-platform and project activity, we try to widen the frameworks of a traditional lesson of foreign languages through tapping the potential of personal traits and attitudes of students.

Keywords: active methods, e-learning, improving verbal activity in foreign languages, personal traits and attitudes

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