Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5215

Search results for: contemporary accounting issues

5215 Accounting as Addressed in the Qur’aan

Authors: Shahriar M. Saadullah, Abdul-Quddoos Abdul-Basith, Zaki K. Abushawish

Abstract:

As a part of academic research in Islamic Accounting it is important to know how the word Accounting is discussed in the Qur’aan. This paper identifies and analyzes the word Accounting in the Qur’aan, which is significant to know and understand. The paper uses a methodology of identifying the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) in the Qur’aan with the help of Islam 360 software and analyzes the use of the relevant words derived from the root word. Then the paper attempts to connect the findings to the contemporary Accounting issues. The paper finds that the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) appears in the Qur’aan 109 times but it is only used in the sense Account, Accountable, or Accounting 45 times. These words appear in 44 different verses in the Qur’aan, appearing twice in one of the verses. The paper divides these verses into 8 different themes namely, Day of Accounting, without any Accounting, Accounting of Time, Self-Accounting, Swift in Accounting, Accounting is only with God, Awareness and the Good Accounting, and Heedlessness and the Bad Accounting. The way the words Account, Accounting, and Accountable is discussed in the Qur’aan links to the contemporary accounting issues including Ethics, Agency Theory, and Internal Control. The links discovered in the paper clearly shows the timeless nature of the message of the Qur’aan.

Keywords: accounting, contemporary accounting issues, Qur'aan, root word of accounting hasaba

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5214 The Effect of Accounting Quality on Contribution-In-Kind Valuation

Authors: Catherine Heyjung Sonu

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of accounting quality on the process in which stock price is determined by focusing on contribution-in-kind valuations using Korean setting. In Korea, a number of chaebol firms have transformed into holding company system starting in 2003. With an attempt to gain as much voting right, management sold shares of subsidiaries to purchase shares of the holding company. In so doing, management of these firms received share issues for the contribution in kind that has been made to obtain additional shares of the holding company. The price of these share issues against contribution in kind is allowed to be discounted up to 30%. Using this interesting setting in Korea, this paper examines whether accounting quality affects the extent of the discount applied to the share issues. If the accounting quality of the firm for which the management is receiving share issues is poor, the extent of discount is likely to be high. The extent of discount is likely lower for firms with superior accounting quality. Using 24 cases, we find that, on average, the extent of discount is larger for share issues in which the accounting quality, proxied by the absolute value of discretionary accruals, is poor. This paper provides insight by examining the effect of accounting quality on the stock market. It sheds light on the intersection between finance and accounting research and should be of interest to researchers and practitioners.

Keywords: Accounting quality, Contribution-in-kind, discount, holding company

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5213 Contemporary Issues in Teacher Education in Nigeria

Authors: Salisu Abdu Bagga

Abstract:

This paper attempts to discuss contemporary issues in teacher education and address challenges therein within the context of the Nigeria society. Teacher education is an educational programme aimed at producing the right crop of people (teachers) who will teach at various levels of schooling i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary. The programme targets to inculcate desirable knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and competencies in teachers with the prime motive of keeping them fully abreast with contemporary challenges such as overcrowded classrooms, inadequate instructional materials, ineffective teaching methodology in the teaching industry in Nigeria. Nigeria needs competent, skilful, knowledgeable and innovative classroom teachers for better teaching and learning.

Keywords: teacher education, contemporary issues, competencies, higher education

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5212 Analysis of Resource Consumption Accounting as a New Approach to Management Accounting

Authors: Yousef Rostami Gharainy

Abstract:

This paper presents resource consumption accounting as an imaginative way to deal with management accounting which concentrates on administrators as the essential clients of the data and gives the best information of conventional management accounting. This system underscores that association's asset reasons costs, accordingly in costing frameworks the emphasis ought to be on assets and utilization of them. Resource consumption accounting consolidates two costing methodologies, action based and German cost accounting method known as GPK. This methodology notwithstanding giving a chance to managers to decide, makes task management accounting as operational. The reason for this article is to clarify the idea of resource consumption accounting, its parts and highlights and use of this strategy in associations. In the first place we deliver to presentation of resource consumption accounting, foundation, reasons for its development and the issues that past costing frameworks confronted it. At that point we give standards and presumptions of this technique; at last we depict the execution of this strategy in associations and its preferences over other costing strategies.

Keywords: resource consumption accounting, management accounting, action based method, German cost accounting method

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5211 Projection of Health Issues in Contemporary Indian Cinema: A Study on Selected Bollywood Movies

Authors: Sananda Mukherjee, Nandini Lakshmikantha

Abstract:

Films are considered as the most influential form of mass media. To attract audience films are made on various themes and issues which are assumed to have an impact on the behavioural pattern of the society. Among the various issues that have been bothering Indian society, health is primary. Thus it is important and interesting to study how health is being projected in Bollywood which is largely considered by the world as Indian cinema. This study tries to focus its attention on some select popular movies made in the recent decade and will try to analyse its content and significance of the same with the contemporary Indian society. It is evident that some of the movies made projecting health issues have earned good box office revenues, but have they been successful in making the public understand the significance of health issues they have been trying to project, is an interesting area to understand.

Keywords: box office, health issues, Indian cinema, social awareness

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5210 Introducing the Accounting Reform of Public Finance in the Czech Republic

Authors: M. Otrusinova, E. Pastuszkova

Abstract:

The article is addressing the currently ongoing reform processes of transforming the public finance accounting based on cash flow principle to accrual principle. The presented analysis concerns the issues associated with the introduction of the state accounting from the perspective of municipal employees in compiling the opinions of financial experts in conditions of the Czech Republic. The aim of this paper is to present outcomes of analysis focused on currently discussed topics which are related to introducing the accrual principle into accounting of selected entities, especially municipalities and municipality-funded institutions. The output of the paper consists of comparing the application of the accrual principle in the financial reporting of municipalities in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In conclusion and based on the survey, respondents from Slovak municipalities that have already adopted the accrual accounting principle show better opinion than Czech municipalities.

Keywords: accrual principle, accounting, accounting reform, Czech Republic, municipalities, public finance

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5209 The Adoption of Process Management for Accounting Information Systems in Thailand

Authors: Manirath Wongsim

Abstract:

Information Quality (IQ) has become a critical, strategic issue in Accounting Information Systems (AIS) adoption. In order to implement AIS adoption successfully, it is important to consider the quality of information use throughout the adoption process, which seriously impacts the effectiveness of AIS adoption practice and the optimization of AIS adoption decisions. There is a growing need for research to provide insights into issues and solutions related to IQ in AIS adoption. The need for an integrated approach to improve IQ in AIS adoption, as well as the unique characteristics of accounting data, demands an AIS adoption specific IQ framework. This research aims to explore ways of managing information quality and AIS adoption to investigate the relationship between the IQ issues and AIS adoption process. This study has led to the development of a framework for understanding IQ management in AIS adoption. This research was done on 44 respondents as ten organisations from manufacturing firms in Thailand. The findings of the research’s empirical evidence suggest that IQ dimensions in AIS adoption to provide assistance in all process of decision making. This research provides empirical evidence that information quality of AIS adoption affect decision making and suggests that these variables should be considered in adopting AIS in order to improve the effectiveness of AIS.

Keywords: information quality, information quality dimensions, accounting information systems, accounting information system adoption

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5208 Accountability Issues in Nigeria

Authors: Victoria Adikpe

Abstract:

The ills of the Nigerian public sector have been identified at various fora to include lack of financial accountability and poor reporting of government performance. With the enthronement of democracy, citizens’ expectations from the government are drifting from the mere provision of public services to efficiency and accountability. One of the major challenges to achieving accountability in Nigeria is the capability of the cash basis of accounting to meet the reporting requirements of policies and programmes of the government. This paper discussed the growing trend in the debate about the adoption of private sector financial management processes in the public sector as part of the public sector reform programmes. The paper does not claim the ultimate superiority of accrual over cash accounting but shows how it will help to further strengthen the quality of government accounting and reporting.

Keywords: cash accounting, accrual accounting, accountability, reporting

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5207 Students' Ability to Solve Complex Accounting Problems Using a Framework-Based Approach

Authors: Karen Odendaal

Abstract:

Accounting transactions are becoming more complex, and more extensive accounting guidance is provided on a continuous basis. It is widely perceived that conceptual teaching of accounting contributes to lifelong learning. Such a conceptual teaching approach also contributes to effective accounting problem-solving. This framework-based approach is rooted in educational psychologies such as constructivism and Ausubel’s subsumption theory. This study aimed at investigating the ability of students to solve complex accounting problems by using only concepts underlying the Conceptual Framework. An assignment was administered to pre-graduate students at a South African university and this study made use of an interpretative research design which implemented multiple research instruments to investigate the ability of students to solve complex accounting problems using only concepts underlying the Conceptual Framework. Student perceptions were analysed and were aided by a related reflective questionnaire. The importance of the study indicates the necessity of Accounting educators to enhance a conceptual understanding among students as a mechanism for problem-solving of accounting issues. The results indicate that the ability of students to solve accounting problems effectively using only the Conceptual Framework depends on the complexity of the scenario and the students’ familiarity with the problem. The study promotes a balanced and more conceptual (rather than only technical) preference to the problem-solving of complex accounting problems. The study indubitably promotes considerable emphasis on the importance of the Conceptual Framework in accounting education and the promotion of life-long learning in the subject field.

Keywords: accounting education, conceptual teaching, constructivism, framework-based, problem-solving

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5206 A Review of Psychiatric Practices in Issues of Anomalous Experiences

Authors: Prosper Kudzanai Mushauri

Abstract:

In issues of anomalous experiences commonly referred to as madness or mental illness, attempts have been made to deal with it so that people manage to live their lives in a more functional way. It is in this stance that psychiatry has sort of portraying itself as seeking to ameliorate perturbations which individuals live with via nosological systems and use of medicine to anomalous experiences. It is from this hegemony that has led to the untold harm which people living with madness have endured from antique to contemporary life. The paper reflects via a literature review on the history of psychiatry and argues that it is akin to contemporary psychiatry to be involved in iatrogenic acts. As antique psychiatry meddled with gory issues of inhumanity, deceit and mass murders which some of those the contemporary psychiatry has not weaned itself from such diabolical acts. The objective of the paper is to suggest to psychiatry that it has not comported to the mores of psychological ethics. In doing this, the paper hopes that psychiatry will reflect and reform its curricular and praxis so that it comports to ethical standards in psychological science in ameliorating anomalous experiences.

Keywords: nosology, psychiatry, madness, diagnosis, eugenics

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5205 Information Technology and Professional Behavior: An Empirical Examination of Auditing and Accounting Tasks

Authors: Michael C. Nwaohia

Abstract:

Whereas anecdotal evidence supports the notion that increase in information technology (IT) know-how may enhance output of professionals in the accounting sector, this has not been systematically explored in the Nigerian context. Against this background, this paper examines the correlation between knowledgeability of IT and level of performance at everyday auditing and accounting tasks. It utilizes primary and secondary data from selected business organizations in Lagos, Nigeria. Accounting staff were administered structured questionnaires which, amongst other things, sought to examine knowledge and exposure to information technology prior to joining the firms and current level of performance based on self-reporting and supervisor comments. In addition, exposure to on-the-job IT training and current level of performance was examined. The statistical analysis of the data was done using the SPSS package. The results strongly suggest that prior exposure to IT skills enabled accounting professionals to better flexibly fit into the dynamic environment in which contemporary business takes place. Ultimately, the paper attempts to explicate some of the implications of these findings for individuals and business firms.

Keywords: accounting, firms, information technology, professional behavior

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5204 Financial Statement Fraud: The Need for a Paradigm Shift to Forensic Accounting

Authors: Ifedapo Francis Awolowo

Abstract:

The unrelenting series of embarrassing audit failures should stimulate a paradigm shift in accounting. And in this age of information revolution, there is need for a constant improvement on the products or services one offers to the market in order to be relevant. This study explores the perceptions of external auditors, forensic accountants and accounting academics on whether a paradigm shift to forensic accounting can reduce financial statement frauds. Through Neo-empiricism/inductive analytical approach, findings reveal that a paradigm shift to forensic accounting might be the right step in the right direction in order to increase the chances of fraud prevention and detection in the financial statement. This research has implication on accounting education on the need to incorporate forensic accounting into present day accounting curriculum. Accounting professional bodies, accounting standard setters and accounting firms all have roles to play in incorporating forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum. Particularly, there is need to alter the ISA 240 to make the prevention and detection of frauds the responsibilities of bot those charged with the management and governance of companies and statutory auditors.

Keywords: financial statement fraud, forensic accounting, fraud prevention and detection, auditing, audit expectation gap, corporate governance

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5203 Iqbal's Philosophy of Action in the Light of Contemporary Philosophy of Action

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyze the twentieth-century Muslim philosopher Muhammad Iqbal’s philosophy of action in the light of the main issues of contemporary philosophy of action. Iqbal is one of the most celebrated and eminent figures of modern Islamic thought. However, a review of the works on Iqbal shows that most of the central concepts of his philosophy have not received enough attention. His notion of ‘action’ in its philosophical context is one of these concepts. One of the main characteristics of Iqbal’s approach is that he develops his discussion around the main themes of contemporary philosophy of action, which includes ontological and conceptual questions regarding the nature of human actions. He also discusses that action is the only way to develop human personality, and that the human being can only achieve immortality promised by Islam through his actions. Therefore, while presenting an approach that can be read in the light of contemporary philosophy of action, which has become one of the significant parts of modern philosophical discussions in the west particularly since the nineteenth century, he, at the same time, develops his own philosophy of action in the light of Islamic resources. Consequently, these two main characteristics of his discussion of the notion of action make his philosophy of action an important contribution to contemporary philosophy of action, a field that ignores the discussions of Muslim philosophers on action. Therefore, this paper aims at highlighting Iqbal’s contribution to the modern debate of action by analysing Iqbal’s notion of action in the light of the contemporary issues of philosophy of action. This will, first of all, include an examination of contemporary action theory. Although the main discussions of contemporary philosophy of action will provide the methodology of this study, the main paradigms of Iqbal’s approach to the notion of action will also be considered during the examination of the discussions of philosophy of action. Then, Iqbal’s own philosophy of action will be established in the light of the contemporary philosophy of action. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between Iqbal scholars and those working in the field of philosophy of action, and that it will be a contribution to the fields of Iqbal studies, philosophy of action, and intercultural philosophy.

Keywords: action, development of personality, Muhammad Iqbal, philosophy of action

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5202 Application of Fair Value Accounting in an Emerging Market Algerian Case

Authors: Haouam Djemaa

Abstract:

This study aimed to identify the possibility for applying fair value accounting by Algerian enterprises coted in capital maket (Algiers stock exchange). To achieve the objectives of this study, we made an interview with preparers of accounting information. The results document that enterprises are aware of fair value accounting in financial reporting because of its ability to provide useful accounting, but it depends on the availability of favorable circumstances for its application and this is what is missing in the Algerian environment.

Keywords: fair value, financial reporting, accounting information, valuation method

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5201 Qualitative Case Study Research in Accounting: Challenges and Prospects the Libyan Case Study

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

Abstract:

Much of the literature on research design has focussed on research conducted in developed, uni-cultural or primarily English speaking countries. Studies of qualitative case study research, the challenges and prospects have been embedded in Western/Euro-centric society and social theories. Although there have been some theoretical studies, few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the nature of the challenges of qualitative case study in developing countries. These challenges include accessibility to organizations, conducting interviews in developing countries, accessing documents and observing official meetings, language and cultural challenges, the use of consent forms, issues affecting access to companies, respondent issues and data analysis. The author, while conducting qualitative case study research in Libya, faced all these issues. The discussion in this paper examines these issues in order to make a contribution toward the literature in this area.

Keywords: accounting, challenges, prospects, developing countries, Libya, qualitative case study

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5200 Factors influencing Career Choice in Accounting: Perceptions of Undergraduate Accounting Students in Selected Nigerian Universities

Authors: Nwobu Obiamaka, Samuel O. Faboyede

Abstract:

This study examines the factors influencing career choice of undergraduate accounting students in selected Nigerian universities. The manner in which students of accounting perceive the factors that drive them into pursuing a career in accounting is important to the profession. The study made use of primary data collected from undergraduate accounting students in their final year in selected Nigerian universities. The data was collected using a survey instrument (questionnaire), copies of which were made and administered to the respondents (undergraduate accounting students in selected Nigerian universities). The finding suggests that the major factors influencing undergraduate accounting students to opt for a career in accounting include pressure from peers and monetary reward. The findings from the study have crucial policy implications for admission officers in tertiary institutions as well as the accounting profession in Nigeria.

Keywords: accounting, career, choice, undergraduate

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5199 Need, Relevancy and Impact of Ethics Education in Accounting Profession

Authors: Mrigakshi Das

Abstract:

The ethics of a business is currently a high profile issue owing to sensational corporate scandals that had taken place in many countries causing extensive damages to the economy and society. These corporate scandals question the morality of businessmen in general and accountants in particular. It is argued that the accountants have been the main contributors to the decline in ethical standards of a business. This researcher has reviewed the need and impact of ethics education in accounting profession. Despite of ethical interventions, the rate of accounting scandals are increasing and have left the public questioning that has the profession become really less ethical?

Keywords: accounting, ethics education and intervention in accounting, accounting education, accounting profession, moral reasoning and development, ethics education

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5198 Management Accounting Techniques of Companies Listed on the Stock Exchange in Thailand

Authors: Prateep Wajeetongratana

Abstract:

The objectives of the research were to examine that how management accounting techniques were perceived and used by companies listed on the stock exchange and to investigate similarities or differences of management accounting practices between companies listed on the stock exchange and Thai SMEs. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. The finding found that almost all of the companies used traditional management accounting techniques more than advanced management accounting techniques. Four management accounting techniques having no significant association with business characteristic were standard costing, job order costing, process costing. The barriers that Thai SMEs encountered were a lack of proper accounting system and the insufficient knowledge in management accounting of the accountants. The comparison results revealed that both companies listed on the stock exchange and Thai SMEs used traditional management accounting techniques more than advanced techniques.

Keywords: companies listed on the stock exchange, financial budget, management accounting, operating budget

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5197 Tectonics Theory and an Example of Its Application in Sustainable Contemporary Architecture

Authors: Mafalda Fabiene Ferreira Pantoja, Luciana Lins Do Amaral Sobreira

Abstract:

The present work seeks to exemplify the precepts of the sustainable tectonics, through a built work. This is the architectural group ‘Chácara dos Professores’ in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. Such an architectural ensemble allows elucidating vernacular constructive techniques that can still be used in contemporary times, on the way to more sustainable constructions. It seeks to show the principles of sustainable tectonics as a design tool, seeking an architecture that can give answers to contemporary issues and that concern caring for the planet. Firstly, a brief investigation will be made about sustainable tectonics, its application in architecture, and later, to correlate such precepts as a tool for reflections and sustainable projects in the contemporary world. For this, will be exemplified, by means of a visit in loco, the construction methods used in the ‘Chácara dos Professores’ project and its results in the constructed work. The goal is to draw a theoretical reflection on the precepts of tectonics, and to show if such precepts are able to enhance contemporary architecture and help it move towards sustainability, seeking projects increasingly consistent with the reality of today.

Keywords: contemporary architecture, constructive techniques, sustainability, tectonics

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5196 The Quality of Accounting Information of Private Companies in the Czech Republic

Authors: Kateřina Struhařová

Abstract:

The paper gives the evidence of quality of accounting information of Czech private companies. In general the private companies in the Czech Republic do not see the benefits of providing accounting information of high quality. Based on the research of financial statements of entrepreneurs and companies in Zlin region it was confirmed that the quality of accounting information differs among the private entities and that the major impact on the accounting information quality has the fact if the financial statements are audited as well as the size of the entity. Also the foreign shareholders and lenders have some impact on the accounting information quality.

Keywords: accounting information quality, financial statements, Czech Republic, private companies

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5195 Managing Cognitive Load in Accounting: An Analysis of Three Instructional Designs in Financial Accounting

Authors: Seedwell Sithole

Abstract:

One of the persistent problems in accounting education is how to effectively support students’ learning. A promising technique to this issue is to investigate the extent that learning is determined by the design of instructional material. This study examines the academic performance of students using three instructional designs in financial accounting. Student’s performance scores and reported mental effort ratings were used to determine the instructional effectiveness. The findings of this study show that accounting students prefer graph and text designs that are integrated. The results suggest that spatially separated graph and text presentations in accounting should be reorganized to align with the requirements of human cognitive architecture.

Keywords: accounting, cognitive load, education, instructional preferences, students

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5194 A Framework for Information Quality in Accounting Information Systems Adoption

Authors: Wongsim Manirath

Abstract:

In order to implement AIS adoption successfully, it is important to consider the quality of information management and understand Information Quality (IQ) factors influencing AIS adoption. This research aims to explore ways of managing AIS adoption to investigate the adoption of accounting information systems within organisations. The study has led to the development of a framework for understanding the AIS adoption process in an organisation. This research used qualitative, interpretive evidence. This framework was developed from case studies and by collecting qualitative data (interviews). This research has conducted 10 case studies to study how IQ is managed through the accounting information system adoption process. A special focus is placed on determining how organisation size influences the information quality practices. The finding is especially useful to SMEs as many SMEs have the desire to grow bigger. By better dealing with IQ issues, there could be a successful future.

Keywords: data quality, information quality, accounting information system, information management

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5193 Impact on Cost of Equity of Accounting and Disclosures

Authors: Abhishek Ranga

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of accounting choice and level of disclosure on the firm’s implied cost of equity in Indian environment. For the study accounting choice was classified as aggressive or conservative depending upon the firm’s choice of accounting methods, accounting policies and accounting estimates. Level of disclosure is the quantum of financial and non-financial information disclosed in firm’s annual report, essentially in note to accounts section, schedules forming part of financial statements and Management Discussion and Analysis report. Regression models were developed with cost of equity as a dependent variable and accounting choice, level of disclosure as an independent variable along with selected control variables. Cost of equity was measured using Edward-Bell-Ohlson (EBO) valuation model, to measure accounting choice Modified-Jones-Model (MJM) was used and level of disclosure was measured using a disclosure index essentially drawn from Botosan study. Results indicated a negative association between the implied cost of equity and conservative accounting choice and also between level of disclosure and cost of equity.

Keywords: aggressive accounting choice, conservative accounting choice, disclosure, implied cost of equity

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5192 Co-Creating Value between Public Financial Management Institutions: An Integrated Approach towards Financial Sustainability

Authors: Pascal Horni, Sandro Fuchs

Abstract:

In presence of increasing deficits and public debt among OECD countries, the debate on fiscal disciple and mechanisms to constrain public spending policy heated up and gave rise to the institutionalization of fiscal rules. Considering the notions from political economy literature and the therein advocated axiom of maximization of votes, introduction of institutional mechanisms and rules to govern public spending is likely to be coined by electoral motives. While there exists a series of research concerned with the rise of creative accounting in the presence fiscal rules, implementation of accrual government accounting and its impact on the biting of fiscal rules has to authors’ best knowledge never been explored. This paper serves the illumination of the connection between debt break mechanisms and the adoption of accrual public sector accounting standards such as the IPSAS in the interface of political economy in the Swiss context. By explicitly considering the technical accounting dimension, this paper develops an integrated conceptual view on well-established Public Financial Management (PFM) institutions and elaborates how their interdependencies can co-create value with regard to the contemporary challenge of fiscal sustainability. Derivation of this integrated view follows an explorative approach, taking into account expert interviews with director level staff from cantonal finance administrations and policy documents, as well as literature from both research areas – public sector accounting and political economy.

Keywords: accounting, fiscal rules, International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), public financial management

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5191 The Successful Implementation of Management Accounting Innovations (MAIs) within Jordanian Industrial Sector Using Cross-Case Analysis

Authors: Mahmoud Nassar

Abstract:

This paper was designed for interviews with companies that had implemented Management Accounting Innovations (MAIs) within Jordanian Industrial Sector in full. Each company in this paper was examined as an entity to obtain an understanding of the process of MAIs adoption and implementation as well as the respondents’ opinions and perspectives of each individual company as to what are considered to be the important factors in the company. By firstly using within-case analysis has the potential to aid in-depth views of the issues and their impact on each particular company. Then, cross-case analysis was used to analyse the similarities and differences of the six companies. The study concludes that, the six companies interviewed gradually moved to using MAIs over the last ten years. The length of time required to implement the MAIs varied across the companies. Interviewees revealed several factors from both the demand and supply side that influence implementation of MAIs within the Jordanian industrial companies. Respondents mentioned and emphasised the important effect of the following factors: top management support, education about ABC concept and benefits, training programmes, shortcoming of existing cost system, competition, size of company, professional accounting bodies, management accounting journals, management accounting research and PhD degrees, and cooperation between universities and companies.

Keywords: industrial sector, innovations, Jordan, management accounting

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5190 Disputed Heritage: Modernism as Resistance

Authors: Marcos Fabris

Abstract:

The flaccidity of the contemporary art production, its banality and incapacity of raising social and political relevant issues, and its ubiquitous connection to an ever prospering art market have become a trite, prosaic mantra, a thought-terminating cliché repeated by many, at least in the academic circles, who constantly lament the absence of pressing issues, artistically articulated from a Marxist perspective. This ‘resignation’ or crystalized insistence to consider Contemporary Art as a monolithic block – insufficiently critical – seems to be part of a pattern in Art History, not excluding its leftist wings: the idea that Modernism was, too, a homogeneous movement, one that despite its attempts to establish meaningful connections between art and society are now part of a museological past. This post-mortem attributed to a ‘flat’ modernism disregards it’s highly contradictory character and diverging tendencies, in permanent conflict between themselves and part of a larger movement that questioned Capitalism – as a system. The aim of this presentation is to shed light on some of the most radical modern tendencies, how they articulated ways to figure the uneven and combined development, and how this ‘Alternative Modernism’ may inform, inspire, and make us advance critically in our struggles against the returns of Capitalism.

Keywords: art criticism, art history, contemporary art, modernism

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5189 Accounting and Prudential Standards of Banks and Insurance Companies in EU: What Stakes for Long Term Investment?

Authors: Sandra Rigot, Samira Demaria, Frederic Lemaire

Abstract:

The starting point of this research is the contemporary capitalist paradox: there is a real scarcity of long term investment despite the boom of potential long term investors. This gap represents a major challenge: there are important needs for long term financing in developed and emerging countries in strategic sectors such as energy, transport infrastructure, information and communication networks. Moreover, the recent financial and sovereign debt crises, which have respectively reduced the ability of financial banking intermediaries and governments to provide long term financing, questions the identity of the actors able to provide long term financing, their methods of financing and the most appropriate forms of intermediation. The issue of long term financing is deemed to be very important by the EU Commission, as it issued a 2013 Green Paper (GP) on long-term financing of the EU economy. Among other topics, the paper discusses the impact of the recent regulatory reforms on long-term investment, both in terms of accounting (in particular fair value) and prudential standards for banks. For banks, prudential and accounting standards are also crucial. Fair value is indeed well adapted to the trading book in a short term view, but this method hardly suits for a medium and long term portfolio. Banks’ ability to finance the economy and long term projects depends on their ability to distribute credit and the way credit is valued (fair value or amortised cost) leads to different banking strategies. Furthermore, in the banking industry, accounting standards are directly connected to the prudential standards, as the regulatory requirements of Basel III use accounting figures with prudential filter to define the needs for capital and to compute regulatory ratios. The objective of these regulatory requirements is to prevent insolvency and financial instability. In the same time, they can represent regulatory constraints to long term investing. The balance between financial stability and the need to stimulate long term financing is a key question raised by the EU GP. Does fair value accounting contributes to short-termism in the investment behaviour? Should prudential rules be “appropriately calibrated” and “progressively implemented” not to prevent banks from providing long-term financing? These issues raised by the EU GP lead us to question to what extent the main regulatory requirements incite or constrain banks to finance long term projects. To that purpose, we study the 292 responses received by the EU Commission during the public consultation. We analyze these contributions focusing on particular questions related to fair value accounting and prudential norms. We conduct a two stage content analysis of the responses. First, we proceed to a qualitative coding to identify arguments of respondents and subsequently we run a quantitative coding in order to conduct statistical analyses. This paper provides a better understanding of the position that a large panel of European stakeholders have on these issues. Moreover, it adds to the debate on fair value accounting and its effects on prudential requirements for banks. This analysis allows us to identify some short term bias in banking regulation.

Keywords: basel 3, fair value, securitization, long term investment, banks, insurers

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5188 Managing Risks of Civil War: Accounting Practices in Egyptian Households

Authors: Sumohon Matilal, Neveen Abdelrehim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the way households manage the risks of civil war, using the calculative practices of accounting as a lens. As is the case with other social phenomena, accounting serves as a conduit for attributing values and rationales to crisis and in the process makes it visible and calculable. Our focus, in particular, is on the dialogue facilitated by the numerical logic of accounting between the householder and a crisis scenario, such as civil war. In other words, we seek to study how the risk of war is rationalized through household budgets, income and expenditure statements etc. and how such accounting constructs in turn shape attitudes toward earnings and spending in a wartime economy. The existing literature on war and accounting demonstrates how an accounting logic can have potentially destabilising consequences and how it is used to legitimise war. However, very few scholars have looked at the way accounting constructs are used to internalise the effects of war in an average household and the behavioural consequences that arise from such accounting. Relatedly, scholars studying household accounting have mostly focussed on the links between gender and hierarchy in relation to managing the financial affairs. Few have focused on the role of household accounts in a crisis scenario. This study intends to fill this gap. We draw upon Egypt, a country in the middle of civil war since 2011 for our purpose. We intend to carry out 15-20 semi-structured interviews with middle income households in Cairo that maintain some form of accounts to study the following issues: 1. How do people internalise the risks of civil war? What kind of accounting constructs do they use (this may take the form of simple budgets, income-expenditure notes/statements on a periodic basis, spreadsheets etc.) 2. How has civil war affected household expenditure? Are people spending more/less than before? 3. How has civil war affected household income? Are people finding it difficult/easy to survive on the pre-war income? 4. How is such accounting affecting household behaviour towards earnings and expenditure? Are families prioritising expenditure on necessities alone? Are they refraining from indulging in luxuries? Are family members doing two or three jobs to cope with difficult times? Are families increasingly turning toward borrowing? Is credit available? From whom?

Keywords: risk, accounting, war, crisis

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5187 Accounting Knowledge Management and Value Creation of SME in Chatuchak Market: Case Study Ceramics Product

Authors: Runglaksamee Rodkam

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the influence of accountants’ potential performance on their working process, a case study of Government Savings Banks in the northeast of Thailand. The independent variables included accounting knowledge, accounting skill, accounting value, accounting ethics, and accounting attitude, while the dependent variable included the success of the working process. A total of 155 accountants working for Government Savings Banks were selected by random sampling. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data. Descriptive statistics in this research included percentage, mean, and multiple regression analyses. The findings revealed that the majority of accountants were female with an age between 35-40 years old. Most of the respondents had an undergraduate degree with ten years of experience. Moreover, the factors of accounting knowledge, accounting skill, accounting a value and accounting ethics and accounting attitude were rated at a high level. The findings from regression analysis of observation data revealed a causal relationship in that the observation data could explain at least 51 percent of the success in the accountants’ working process.

Keywords: influence, potential performance, success, working process

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5186 Antecedence of Accounting Value: the Role of Board Capital and Control

Authors: Suresh Ramachandra

Abstract:

Accounting values of firms are determined by strategies that firms pursue which are influenced by board characteristics specific to firms. Using two broad constructs of board characteristics, namely, board capital and board control, in the Malaysian context, this research attempts to infer their conjoint relevance to accounting values. The results of this research indicate that firms are able to increase their accounting values by deliberately selecting board characteristics which include director reputation and political affiliations.

Keywords: accounting values, board characteristics, board capital, board control

Procedia PDF Downloads 253