Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: G. Swati

45 Arterial Compliance Measurement Using Split Cylinder Sensor/Actuator

Authors: Swati Swati, Yuhang Chen, Robert Reuben

Abstract:

Coronary stents are devices resembling the shape of a tube which are placed in coronary arteries, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary arterial diseases. Coronary stents are routinely deployed to clear atheromatous plaque. The stent essentially applies an internal pressure to the artery because its structure is cylindrically symmetrical and this may introduce some abnormalities in final arterial shape. The goal of the project is to develop segmented circumferential arterial compliance measuring devices which can be deployed (eventually) in vivo. The segmentation of the device will allow the mechanical asymmetry of any stenosis to be assessed. The purpose will be to assess the quality of arterial tissue for applications in tailored stents and in the assessment of aortic aneurism. Arterial distensibility measurement is of utmost importance to diagnose cardiovascular diseases and for prediction of future cardiac events or coronary artery diseases. In order to arrive at some generic outcomes, a preliminary experimental set-up has been devised to establish the measurement principles for the device at macro-scale. The measurement methodology consists of a strain gauge system monitored by LABVIEW software in a real-time fashion. This virtual instrument employs a balloon within a gelatine model contained in a split cylinder with strain gauges fixed on it. The instrument allows automated measurement of the effect of air-pressure on gelatine and measurement of strain with respect to time and pressure during inflation. Compliance simple creep model has been applied to the results for the purpose of extracting some measures of arterial compliance. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to study the effect of air pressure on strain at varying time intervals. The results clearly demonstrate that with decrease in arterial volume and increase in arterial pressure, arterial strain increases thereby decreasing the arterial compliance. The measurement system could lead to development of portable, inexpensive and small equipment and could prove to be an efficient automated compliance measurement device.

Keywords: arterial compliance, atheromatous plaque, mechanical symmetry, strain measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
44 [Keynote Talk]: Implementation of 5 Level and 7 Level Multilevel Inverter in Local Trains of Mumbai

Authors: Sharvari Sane, Swati Sharma, Sanjay K. Prasad

Abstract:

Local trains are the lifelines of Mumbai city. Earlier 1500 Volt D.C. supply, is now completely and successfully converted into 25 KV A.C. in central, western and harbour routes. This task is the outcome of the advancement in the area of power electronics. Author has already done the comparative study between D.C. and A.C. supply of traction and predicted the serious problem regarding the harmonics. In this paper, the simulation for 5 level as well as 7 level multilevel inverter has been done which is the substitute for the present cascade type inverter. This paper also showed the reduced level of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the traction system.

Keywords: total harmonic distortion (THD), traction sub station (TSS), harmonics, multilevel inverter

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43 Development of a Mathematical Model to Characterize the Oil Production in the Federal Republic of Nigeria Environment

Authors: Paul C. Njoku, Archana Swati Njoku

Abstract:

The study deals with the development of a mathematical model to characterize the oil production in Nigeria. This is calculated by initiating the dynamics of oil production in million barrels revenue plan cost of oil production in million nairas and unit cost of production from 1974-1982 in the contest of the federal Republic of Nigeria. This country export oil to other countries as well as importing specialized crude. The transport network from origin/destination tij to pairs is taking into account simulation runs, optimization have been considered in this study.

Keywords: mathematical oil model development dynamics, Nigeria, characterization barrels, dynamics of oil production

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42 Disposable PANI-CeO2 Sensor for the Electrocatalytic Simultaneous Quantification of Amlodipine and Nebivolol

Authors: Nimisha Jadon, Rajeev Jain, Swati Sharma

Abstract:

A chemically modified carbon paste sensor has been developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine (AML) and nebivolol (NBV). Carbon paste electrode (CPE) was fabricated by the addition of Gr/PANI-CeO2. Gr/PANI-CeO2/CPE has achieved excellent electrocatalytic activity and sensitivity. AML and NBV exhibited oxidation peaks at 0.70 and 0.90 V respectively on Gr/ PANI-CeO2/CPE. The linearity range of AML and NBV was 0.1 to 1.6 μgmL-1 in BR buffer (pH 8.0). The Limit of detection (LOD) was 20.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 30.0 ngmL-1 for NBV and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 80.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 100 ngmL-1 for NBV respectively. These analyses were also determined in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum and good recovery was obtained for the developed method.

Keywords: amlodipine, nebivolol, square wave voltammetry, carbon paste electrode, simultaneous quantification

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41 A New Approach for Improving Accuracy of Multi Label Stream Data

Authors: Kunal Shah, Swati Patel

Abstract:

Many real world problems involve data which can be considered as multi-label data streams. Efficient methods exist for multi-label classification in non streaming scenarios. However, learning in evolving streaming scenarios is more challenging, as the learners must be able to adapt to change using limited time and memory. Classification is used to predict class of unseen instance as accurate as possible. Multi label classification is a variant of single label classification where set of labels associated with single instance. Multi label classification is used by modern applications, such as text classification, functional genomics, image classification, music categorization etc. This paper introduces the task of multi-label classification, methods for multi-label classification and evolution measure for multi-label classification. Also, comparative analysis of multi label classification methods on the basis of theoretical study, and then on the basis of simulation was done on various data sets.

Keywords: binary relevance, concept drift, data stream mining, MLSC, multiple window with buffer

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40 Health and Wellbeing: Measuring and Mapping Diversity in India

Authors: Swati Rajput

Abstract:

Wellbeing is a multifaceted concept. Its definition has evolved to become more holistic over the years. The paper attempts to build up the understanding of the concept of wellbeing and marks the trajectory of its conceptual evolution. The paper will also elaborate and analyse various indicators of socio-economic wellbeing in India at state level. Ranking method has been applied to assess the situation of each state in context to the variable selected and wellbeing as a whole. Maps have been used to depict and illustrate the same. The data shows that the socio-economic wellbeing level is higher in states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, and Lakshadweep. The level of wellbeing is very lower in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Telengana, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Tripura. Environment plays an important role in maintaining health. Environment and health are important indicators of wellbeing. The paper would further analyse some indicators of environment and health and find the change in the result of wellbeing levels of different states.

Keywords: socio economic factors, wellbeing index, health, mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
39 Mental Health Problems in College Students of India

Authors: Swati Naruka

Abstract:

"Looking after one’s mind is as important as looking after one’s body". As part of one’s overall health, mental and emotional health or well being is a necessary condition to enable one to manage one’s life successfully. Mental health is the capacity of an individual to form harmonious adjustments to one’s social and physical environments. Universities and colleges are dealing with substantial challenges posed by the changing mental health needs of today’s college students. It is important for administrators, faculty, and staff to understand the profound impact that mental health problems can have on all aspects of campus life, and to treat mental health issues as an institutional responsibility and priority. Counselling centres can respond effectively to the current challenges if they have the support and commitment of the administration; and if they take steps to balance the demand for services with existing resources by reviewing priorities, establishing appropriate limits, employing innovative strategies, and practicing good self-care to minimize stress and burnout. The need for counselling centres has never been greater. They will continue to play an important role in supporting the mission of higher education institutions by providing counselling for students who are experiencing problems and assisting them in achieving their educational and personal goals.

Keywords: mental health, well being, India, college students

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
38 Global Mittag-Leffler Stability of Fractional-Order Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Network with Discrete and Distributed Transmission Delays

Authors: Swati Tyagi, Syed Abbas

Abstract:

Fractional-order Hopfield neural networks are generally used to model the information processing among the interacting neurons. To show the constancy of the processed information, it is required to analyze the stability of these systems. In this work, we perform Mittag-Leffler stability for the corresponding Caputo fractional-order bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with various time-delays. We derive sufficient conditions to ensure the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium point by using the theory of topological degree theory. By applying the fractional Lyapunov method and Mittag-Leffler functions, we derive sufficient conditions for the global Mittag-Leffler stability, which further imply the global asymptotic stability of the network equilibrium. Finally, we present two suitable examples to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

Keywords: bidirectional associative memory neural network, existence and uniqueness, fractional-order, Lyapunov function, Mittag-Leffler stability

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37 Amelioration of Arsenic and Mercury Induced Vasoconstriction by Eugenol, Linalool and Carvone

Authors: Swati Kundu, Seemi Farhat Basir, Luqman A. Khan

Abstract:

Acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and mercury is known to produce vasoconstriction. Pathways involved in this hypercontraction and their relative contribution are not understood. In this study, we measure agonist-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta exposed to arsenic and mercury aorta and delineate pathways mediating this effect. PE-induced hypercontraction of 37% and 32% was obtained with 25 µM As(III) and 6 nM Hg(II), respectively. Isometric contraction measurements in the presence of apocynin, verapamil and sodium nitroprusside indicates that the major cause of increased contraction is reactive oxygen species and depletion of nitric oxide. Calcium influx plays a minor role in both arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction. In the unexposed aorta, eugenol causes relaxation by inhibiting ROS and elevating NO, linalool by blocking voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) and elevating NO, and carvone by blocking calcium influx through VDDC. Since arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction is mediated by increased ROS and depletion of nitric oxide, we hypothesize that molecules which neutralize ROS or elevate NO will be better ameliorators. In line with this argument, we find eugenol to be the best ameliorator of arsenic and mercury hypercontraction followed by linalool and carvone.

Keywords: carvone, eugenol, linalool, mercury

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36 Effect of the Birth Order and Arrival of Younger Siblings on the Development of a Child: Evidence from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

Abstract:

Using longitudinal data from three waves of Young Lives Study and Ordinary Least Square methods, study has investigated the effect of birth order and arrival of younger siblings on child development in India. Study used child’s height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for age z-score, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-Score)c, maths score, Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (ERGA) score, and memory score to measure the physical and cognitive development of child during wave-3. Findings suggest that having a high birth order is detrimental for child development and the gap between adjacent siblings is larger for children late in the birth sequences than early in the birth sequences. Study also reported that not only older siblings but arrival of younger siblings before assessment of test also reduces the development of a child. The effects become stronger in case of female children than male children.

Keywords: height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for z-score, PPVT score, math score, EGRA score, memory score, birth order, siblings, Young Lives Study, India

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35 Isolation Preserving Medical Conclusion Hold Structure via C5 Algorithm

Authors: Swati Kishor Zode, Rahul Ambekar

Abstract:

Data mining is the extraction of fascinating examples on the other hand information from enormous measure of information and choice is made as indicated by the applicable information extracted. As of late, with the dangerous advancement in internet, stockpiling of information and handling procedures, privacy preservation has been one of the major (higher) concerns in data mining. Various techniques and methods have been produced for protection saving data mining. In the situation of Clinical Decision Support System, the choice is to be made on the premise of the data separated from the remote servers by means of Internet to diagnose the patient. In this paper, the fundamental thought is to build the precision of Decision Support System for multiple diseases for different maladies and in addition protect persistent information while correspondence between Clinician side (Client side) also, the Server side. A privacy preserving protocol for clinical decision support network is proposed so that patients information dependably stay scrambled amid diagnose prepare by looking after the accuracy. To enhance the precision of Decision Support System for various malady C5.0 classifiers and to save security, a Homomorphism encryption algorithm Paillier cryptosystem is being utilized.

Keywords: classification, homomorphic encryption, clinical decision support, privacy

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34 Building a Dynamic News Category Network for News Sources Recommendations

Authors: Swati Gupta, Shagun Sodhani, Dhaval Patel, Biplab Banerjee

Abstract:

It is generic that news sources publish news in different broad categories. These categories can either be generic such as Business, Sports, etc. or time-specific such as World Cup 2015 and Nepal Earthquake or both. It is up to the news agencies to build the categories. Extracting news categories automatically from numerous online news sources is expected to be helpful in many applications including news source recommendations and time specific news category extraction. To address this issue, existing systems like DMOZ directory and Yahoo directory are mostly considered though they are mostly human annotated and do not consider the time dynamism of categories of news websites. As a remedy, we propose an approach to automatically extract news category URLs from news websites in this paper. News category URL is a link which points to a category in news websites. We use the news category URL as a prior knowledge to develop a news source recommendation system which contains news sources listed in various categories in order of ranking. In addition, we also propose an approach to rank numerous news sources in different categories using various parameters like Traffic Based Website Importance, Social media Analysis and Category Wise Article Freshness. Experimental results on category URLs captured from GDELT project during April 2016 to December 2016 show the adequacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: news category, category network, news sources, ranking

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33 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: Swati Sharma, R. P. Sharma

Abstract:

We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: solar wind, turbulence, dispersive alfven wave

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32 Novel Pyrimidine Based Semicarbazones: Confirmation of Four Binding Site Pharmacophoric Model Hypothesis for Antiepileptic Activity

Authors: Harish Rajak, Swati Singh

Abstract:

A series of novel pyrimidine based semicarbazone were designed and synthesized on the basis of semicarbazone based pharmacophoric model to satisfy the structural prerequisite crucial for antiepileptic activity. The semicarbazones based pharmacophoric model consists of following four essential binding sites: (i) An aryl hydrophobic binding site with halo substituent; (ii) A hydrogen bonding domain; (iii) An electron donor group and (iv) Another hydrophobic-hydrophilic site controlling the pharmacokinetic features of the anticonvulsant. The aryl semicarbazones has been recognized as a structurally novel class of compounds with remarkable anticonvulsant activity. In the present study, all the test semicarbazones were subjected to molecular docking using Glide v5.8. Some of the compounds were found to interact with ARG192, GLU270 and THR353 residues of 1OHV protein, present in GABA-AT receptor. The chemical structures of the synthesized molecules were characterized by elemental and spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) analysis. The anticonvulsant activities of the compounds were investigated using maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetrtrazole (scPTZ) models. The neurotoxicity was evaluated in mice by the rotorod test. The attempts were also made to establish structure-activity relationships among synthesized compounds. The results of the present study confirmed that the pharmacophore model with four binding sites is essential for antiepileptic activity.

Keywords: pyrimidine, semicarbazones, anticonvulsant activity, neurotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
31 Lipidomic Profiling of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus abundans towards Deciphering Phospholipids and Glycolipids under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: J. Singh, Swati Dubey, R. P. Singh

Abstract:

Microalgal strains can accumulate greatly enhanced levels of lipids under nitrogen-deficient condition, making these as one of the most promising sustainable sources for biofuel production. High-grade biofuel production from microalgal biomass could be facilitated by analysing the lipid content of the microalgae and enumerating its dynamics under varying nutrient conditions. In the present study, a detailed investigation of changes in lipid composition in Chlorella species and Scenedesmus abundans in response to nitrogen limited condition was performed to provide novel mechanistic insights into the lipidome during stress conditions. The mass spectroscopic approaches mainly LC-MS and GC-MS were employed for lipidomic profiling in both the microalgal strains. The analyses of lipid profiling using LC-MS revealed distinct forms of lipids mainly phospho- and glycolipids, including betaine lipids, and various other forms of lipids in both the microalgal strains. As detected, an overall decrease in polar lipids was observed. However, GC-MS analyses had revealed that the synthesis of the storage lipid i.e. triacylglycerol (TAG) was substantially stimulated in both the strains under nitrogen limited conditions. The changes observed in the overall fatty acid profile were primarily due to the decrease in proportion of polar lipids to TAGs. This study had enabled in analysing a detailed and orchestrated form of lipidomes in two different microalgal strains having potential for biodiesel production.

Keywords: biofuel, GC-MS, LC-MS, lipid, microalgae

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30 Time-Course Lipid Accumulation and Transcript Analyses of Lipid Biosynthesis Gene of Chlorella sp.3 under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Swati Dubey, Mukta Singh, R. P. Singh

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The freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. is alluring considerable interest as a source for biofuel production due to its fast growth rate and high lipid content. Under nitrogen limited conditions, they can accumulate significant amounts of lipids. Thus, it is important to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of their lipid metabolism. In this study under nitrogen limited conditions, regular pattern of growth characteristics lipid accumulation and gene expression analysis of key regulatory genes of lipid biosynthetic pathway were carried out in microalgae Chlorella sp 3. Our results indicated that under nitrogen limited conditions there is a significant increase in the lipid content and lipid productivity, achieving 44.21±2.64 % and 39.34±0.66 mg/l/d at the end of the cultivation, respectively. Time-course transcript patterns of lipid biosynthesis genes i.e. acetyl coA carboxylase (accD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (dgat) showed that during late log phase of microalgae Chlorella sp.3 both the genes were significantly up regulated as compared to early log phase. Moreover, the transcript level of the dgat gene is two-fold higher than the accD gene. The results suggested that both the genes responded sensitively to the nitrogen limited conditions during the late log stage, which proposed their close relevance to lipid biosynthesis. Further, this transcriptome data will be useful for engineering microalgae species by targeting these genes for genetic modification to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

Keywords: biofuel, gene, lipid, microalgae

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29 Effect of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB) Vaccination on Child Anthropometry in India: Evidence from Young Lives Study

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

Abstract:

Haemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib) cause infections of pneumonia, meningitis, epiglottises and other invasive disease exclusively among children under age five. Occurrence of these infections may impair child growth by causing micronutrient deficiency. Using longitudinal data from first and second waves of Young Lives Study conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 respectively and multivariable logistic regression models (using generalised estimation equation to take into account the cluster nature of sample), this study aims to examine the impact of Hib vaccination on child anthropometric outcomes (stunting, underweight and wasting) in India. Bivariate result shows that, a higher percent of children were stunted and underweight among those who were not vaccinated against Hib (39% & 48% respectively) as compare to those who were vaccinated (31% and 39% respectively).The risk of childhood stunting and underweight was significantly lower among children who were vaccinated against Hib (odds ratio: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96 and odds ratio: 0.79, 95% C.I: 0.64-0.98 respectively) as compare to the unvaccinated children. No significant association was found between vaccination status against Hib and childhood wasting. Moreover, in the statistical models, about 13% of stunting and 12% of underweight could be attributable to lack of vaccination against Hib in India. Study concludes that vaccination against Hib- in addition to being a major intervention for reducing childhood infectious disease and mortality- can be consider as a potential tool for reducing the burden of undernutrition in India. Therefore, the Government of India must include the vaccine against Hib into the Universal Immunization Programme in India.

Keywords: Haemophilus influenzae Type-B, Stunting, Underweight, Wasting, Young Lives Study (YLS), India

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28 Testing of Protective Coatings on Automotive Steel, a Correlation Between Salt Spray, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, and Linear Polarization Resistance Test

Authors: Dhanashree Aole, V. Hariharan, Swati Surushe

Abstract:

Corrosion can cause serious and expensive damage to the automobile components. Various proven techniques for controlling and preventing corrosion depend on the specific material to be protected. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests are commonly used to assess the corrosion degradation mechanism of coatings on metallic surfaces. While, the only test which monitors the corrosion rate in real time is known as Linear Polarisation Resistance (LPR). In this study, electrochemical tests (EIS & LPR) and spray test are reviewed to assess the corrosion resistance and durability of different coatings. The main objective of this study is to correlate the test results obtained using linear polarization resistance (LPR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with the results obtained using standard salt spray test. Another objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of various coating systems- CED, Epoxy, Powder coating, Autophoretic, and Zn-trivalent coating for vehicle underbody application. The corrosion resistance coating are assessed. From this study, a promising correlation between different corrosion testing techniques is noted. The most profound observation is that electrochemical tests gives quick estimation of corrosion resistance and can detect the degradation of coatings well before visible signs of damage appear. Furthermore, the corrosion resistances and salt spray life of the coatings investigated were found to be according to the order as follows- CED> powder coating > Autophoretic > epoxy coating > Zn- Trivalent plating.

Keywords: Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), salt spray test, sacrificial and barrier coatings

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27 Luminescent and Conductive Cathode Buffer Layer for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Swati Bishnoi, D. Haranath, Vinay Gupta

Abstract:

In this work, we demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) could be improved significantly by using ZnO doped with Aluminum (Al) and Europium (Eu) as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The ZnO:Al,Eu nanoparticle layer has broadband absorption in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm) region. The Al doping contributes to the enhancement in the conductivity whereas Eu doping significantly improves emission in the visible region. Moreover, this emission overlaps with the absorption range of polymer poly [N -9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′- benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) significantly and results in an enhanced absorption by the active layer and hence high photocurrent. An increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.8% has been obtained for ZnO: Al,Eu CBL as compared to 5.9% for pristine ZnO, in the inverted device configuration ITO/CBL/active layer/MoOx/Al. The active layer comprises of a blend of PCDTBT donor and [6-6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor. In the reference device pristine ZnO has been used as CBL, whereas in the other one ZnO:Al,Eu has been used as CBL. The role of the luminescent CBL layer is to down-shift the UV light into visible range which overlaps with the absorption of PCDTBT polymer, resulting in an energy transfer from ZnO:Al,Eu to PCDTBT polymer and the absorption by active layer is enhanced as revealed by transient spectroscopy. This enhancement resulted in an increase in the short circuit current which contributes in an increased PCE in the device employing ZnO: Al,Eu CBL. Thus, the luminescent ZnO: Al, Eu nanoparticle CBL has great potential in organic solar cells.

Keywords: cathode buffer layer, energy transfer, organic solar cell, power conversion efficiency

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26 Corrosion Analysis and Interfacial Characterization of Al – Steel Metal Inert Gas Weld - Braze Dissimilar Joints by Micro Area X-Ray Diffraction Technique

Authors: S. S. Sravanthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya

Abstract:

Automotive light weighting is of major prominence in the current times due to its contribution in improved fuel economy and reduced environmental pollution. Various arc welding technologies are being employed in the production of automobile components with reduced weight. The present study is of practical importance since it involves preferential substitution of Zinc coated mild steel with a light weight alloy such as 6061 Aluminium by means of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – Brazing technique at different processing parameters. However, the fabricated joints have shown the generation of Al – Fe layer at the interfacial regions which was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. These Al-Fe compounds not only affect the mechanical strength, but also predominantly deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the joints. Hence, it is essential to understand the phases formed in this layer and their crystal structure. Micro area X - ray diffraction technique has been exclusively used for this study. Moreover, the crevice corrosion analysis at the joint interfaces was done by exposing the joints to 5 wt.% FeCl3 solution at regular time intervals as per ASTM G 48-03. The joints have shown a decreased crevice corrosion resistance with increased heat intensity. Inner surfaces of welds have shown severe oxide cracking and a remarkable weight loss when exposed to concentrated FeCl3. The weight loss was enhanced with decreased filler wire feed rate and increased heat intensity. 

Keywords: automobiles, welding, corrosion, lap joints, Micro XRD

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25 Overweight and Neurocognitive Functioning: Unraveling the Antagonistic Relationship in Adolescents

Authors: Swati Bajpai, S. P. K Jena

Abstract:

Background: There is dramatic increase in the prevalence and severity of overweight in adolescents, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences, thereby indicating the immediate need to understand the effects of increased weight on scholastic performance. Although the body of research is currently limited, available results have identified an inverse relationship between obesity and cognition in adolescents. Aim: to examine the association between increased Body Mass Index in adolescents and their neurocognitive functioning. Methods: A case –control study of 28 subjects in the age group of 11-17 years (14 Males and 14 females) was taken on the basis of main inclusion criteria (Body Mass Index). All of them were randomized to (experimental group: overweight) and (control group: normal weighted). A complete neurocognitive assessment was carried out using validated psychological scales namely, Color Progressive Matrices (to assess intelligence); Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (Perceptual motor functioning); PGI-Memory Scale for Children (memory functioning) and Malin’s Intelligence Scale Indian Children (verbal and performance ability). Results: statistical analysis of the results depicted that 57% of the experimental group lack in cognitive abilities, especially in general knowledge (99.1±12.0 vs. 102.8±6.7), working memory (91.5±8.4 vs. 93.1±8.7), concrete ability (82.3±11.5 vs. 92.6±1.7) and perceptual motor functioning (1.5±1.0 vs. 0.3±0.9) as compared to control group. Conclusion: Our investigations suggest that weight gain results, at least in part, from a neurological predisposition characterized by reduced executive function, and in turn obesity itself has a compounding negative impact on the brain. Though, larger sample is needed to make more affirmative claims.

Keywords: adolescents, body mass index, neurocognition, obesity

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24 The Value of Routine Terminal Ileal Biopsies for the Investigation of Diarrhea

Authors: Swati Bhasin, Ali Ahmed, Valence Xavier, Ben Liu

Abstract:

Aims: Diarrhea is a problem that is a frequent clinic referral to the gastroenterology and surgical team from the General practitioner. To establish a diagnosis, these patients undergo colonoscopy. The current practice at our district general hospital is to perform random left and right colonic biopsies. National guidelines issued by the British Society of Gastroenterology advise all patients presenting with chronic diarrhea should have an Ileoscopy as an indicator for colonoscopy completion. Our primary aim was to check if Terminal ileum (TI) biopsy is required to establish a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Data was collected retrospectively from November 2018 to November 2019. The target population were patients who underwent colonoscopies for diarrhea. Demographic data, endoscopic and histology findings of TI were assessed and analyzed. Results: 140 patients with a mean age of 57 years (19-84) underwent a colonoscopy (M: F; 1:2.3). 92 patients had random colonic biopsies taken and based on the histological results of these, 15 patients (16%) were diagnosed with IBD. The TI was successfully intubated in 40 patients, of which 32 patients had colonic biopsies taken as well. 8 patients did not have a colonic biopsy taken. Macroscopic abnormality in the TI was detected in 5 patients, all of whom were biopsied. Based on histological results of the biopsy, 3 patients (12%) were diagnosed with IBD. These 3 patients (100%) also had colonic biopsies taken simultaneously and showed inflammation. None of the patients had a diagnosis of IBD confirmed on TI intubation alone (where colonic biopsies were not done). None of the patients has a diagnosis of IBD confirmed on TI intubation alone (where colonic biopsies were negative). Conclusion: TI intubation is a highly-skilled, time-consuming procedure with a higher risk of perforation, which as per our study, has little additional diagnostic value in finding IBD for symptoms of diarrhea if colonic biopsies are taken. We propose that diarrhea is a colonic symptom; therefore, colonic biopsies are positive for inflammation if the diarrhea is secondary to IBD. We conclude that all of the IBDs can be diagnosed simply with colonic biopsies.

Keywords: biopsy, colon, IBD, terminal ileum

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23 Phase Changing Dicationic Polymeric Ionic Liquid with CO2 Capture Abilities

Authors: Swati Sundararajan, Asit B. Samui, Prashant S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Polymeric ionic liquids combine the properties of ionic liquids and polymers into a single material which has gained massive interest in the recent years. These ionic liquids offer several advantages such as high phase change enthalpy, wide temperature range, chemical and thermal stability, non-volatility and the ability to make them task-specific. Separation of CO2 is an area of critical importance due to the concerns over greenhouse gasses leading to global warming. Thermal energy storage materials, also known as phase change materials absorb latent heat during fusion process and release the absorbed energy to the surrounding environment during crystallization. These materials retain this property over a number of cycles and therefore, are useful for bridging the gap between energy requirement and use. In an effort to develop materials, which will help in minimizing the growing energy demand and environmental concerns, a series of dicationic poly(ethylene glycol) based polymeric ionic liquids were synthesized. One part of an acrylate of poly(ethylene glycol) was reacted with imidazolium quarternizing agent and the second part was reacted with triazolium quarternizing agent. These two different monomers were then copolymerized to prepare dicationic polymeric ionic liquid. These materials were characterized for solid-liquid phase transition and the enthalpy by using differential scanning calorimetry. The CO2 capture studies were performed on a fabricated setup with varying pressure range from 1-20 atm. The findings regarding the prepared materials, having potential dual applications in the fields of thermal energy storage and CO2 capture, will be discussed in the presentation.

Keywords: CO2 capture, phase change materials, polyethylene glycol, polymeric ionic liquids, thermal energy storage

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22 Antibacterial Activity of Calendula officinalis Extract Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Swati Jaiswal, Prashant Mishra

Abstract:

Nanoparticle based formulations of drug delivery systems have shown their potential in improving the performance of existing drugs and have opened avenues for new therapies. Calendula extract is a low cost, wide spectrum bioactive material that has been used for a long term therapy of various infections. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop Calendula officinalis extract based nanoformulations and to study the antibacterial activity of either Calendula extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles or Calendula extract coated silver nanoparticles for increased bioavailability and their long term effect. Methods: Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the process of ionotropic gelation, based on interaction between the negative groups of tri polyphosphate (TPP) and positively charged amino groups of chitosan. The size of the Calendula extract-loaded chitosan particles was determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Antibacterial activities of these formulations were determined based on minimum inhibitory concentration and time kill studies. In addition, silver nanoparticles were also synthesized in the presence of Calendula extract and characterized by UV visible spectrum, DLS and XRD. Experiments were conducted on 96-plates against two Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis two Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Results demonstrated time dependent antibacterial activity against different microbes studied. Both Calendula extract and Calendula extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles have shown good antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Conclusion: Calendula extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles and calendula extract coated silver nanoparticles are potential antibacterial for their long term antibacterial effects.

Keywords: antibacterial, Calendula extract, chitosan nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles

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21 Effects of Seed Culture and Attached Growth System on the Performance of Anammox Hybrid Reactor (AHR) Treating Nitrogenous Wastewater

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The start-up of anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in hybrid reactor delineated four distinct phases i.e. cell lysis, lag phase, activity elevation and stationary phase. Cell lysis phase was marked by death and decay of heterotrophic denitrifiers resulting in breakdown of organic nitrogen into ammonium. Lag phase showed initiation of anammox activity with turnover of heterotrophic denitrifiers, which is evident from appearance of NO3-N in the effluent. In activity elevation phase, anammox became the dominant reaction, which can be attributed to consequent reduction of NH4-N into N2 with increased NO3-N in the effluent. Proper selection of mixed seed culture at influent NO2-/NH4+ ratio (1:1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day led to early startup of anammox within 70 days. Pseudo steady state removal efficiencies of NH4+ and NO2- were found as 94.3% and 96.4% respectively, at nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.35 kg N/m3d at an HRT of 1 day. Analysis of the data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 11% increase in the ammonium removal and results in an average of 29% reduction in sludge washout rate. Mass balance study of nitrogen indicated that 74.1% of total input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2% being utilized in biomass development. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge clearly showed the presence of cocci and rod shaped microorganisms intermingled on the external surface of the granules. The average size of anammox granules (1.2-1.5 mm) with an average settling velocity of 45.6 m/h indicated a high degree of granulation resulting into formation of well compacted granules in the anammox process.

Keywords: anammox, hybrid reactor, startup, granulation, nitrogen removal, mixed seed culture

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20 Eosinopenia: Marker for Early Diagnosis of Enteric Fever

Authors: Swati Kapoor, Rajeev Upreti, Monica Mahajan, Abhaya Indrayan, Dinesh Srivastava

Abstract:

Enteric Fever is caused by gram negative bacilli Salmonella typhi and paratyphi. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely initiation of treatment is a crucial step for prevention of any complications. Cultures of body fluids are diagnostic, but not always conclusive or practically feasible in most centers. Moreover, the results of cultures delay the treatment initiation. Serological tests lack diagnostic value. The blood counts can offer a promising option in diagnosis. A retrospective study to find out the relevance of leucopenia and eosinopenia was conducted on 203 culture proven enteric fever patients and 159 culture proven non-enteric fever patients in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. The patient details were retrieved from the electronic medical records section of the hospital. Absolute eosinopenia was considered as absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of less than 40/mm³ (normal level: 40-400/mm³) using LH-750 Beckman Coulter Automated machine. Leucopoenia was defined as total leucocyte count (TLC) of less than 4 X 10⁹/l. Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT FA plus automated blood culture system before first antibiotic dose was given. Case and control groups were compared using Pearson Chi square test. It was observed that absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of 0-19/mm³ was a significant finding (p < 0.001) in enteric fever patients, whereas leucopenia was not a significant finding (p=0.096). Using Receiving Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, it was observed that patients with both AEC < 14/mm³ and TCL < 8 x 10⁹/l had 95.6% chance of being diagnosed as enteric fever and only 4.4% chance of being diagnosed as non-enteric fever. This result was highly significant with p < 0.001. This is a very useful association of AEC and TLC found in enteric fever patients of this study which can be used for the early initiation of treatment in clinically suspected enteric fever patients.

Keywords: absolute eosinopenia, absolute eosinophil count, enteric fever, leucopenia, total leucocyte count

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19 Non-Candida Albicans Candida: Virulence Factors and Species Identification in India

Authors: Satender Saraswat, Dharmendra Prasad Singh, Rajesh Kumar Verma, Swati Sarswat

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: The predominant cause of candidiasis was Candida albicans which has shifted towards non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) (Candida species other than the C. albicans). NCAC, earlier considered non-pathogenic or minimally virulent, are now considered a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised. With the NCAC spp. gaining weightage in the clinical cases, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of NCAC spp. in different clinical specimens and to assess a few of their virulence factors. Material and Methods: Routine samples for bacterial culture and sensitivity, showing colony characteristics like Candida on Blood Agar and microscopic features resembling Candida spp. were processed further. Candida isolates were tested for chlamydospore formation, biochemical tests including sugar fermentation and sugar assimilation tests, and growth at 42oC, colony colour on HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar, HiCandida Identification Kit and VITEK-2 Compact. Virulence factors like adherence to buccal epithelial cells (ABEC), biofilm formation, hemolytic activity, and production of coagulase enzyme were also tested. Results: Mean age of the patients was 38.46 with a male-female ratio of 1.36:1. 137 Candida isolates were recovered. 45.3% isolates were isolated from urine, 19.7% from vaginal swabs and 13.9% from oropharyngeal swabs. 55 (40.1%) isolates of C. albicans and 82 (59.9%) of NCAC spp. were identified, with C. tropicalis (23.4%) in NCAC. C. albicans (3; 50%) was the commonest species in cases of candidemia. Haemolysin production (85.5%) and ABEC (78.2%) were the major virulence factors in C. albicans. C. tropicalis (59.4%) and C. dubliniensis (50%) showed maximum ABEC. Biofilm forming capacity was higher in C. tropicalis (78.1%) than C. albicans (67%). Conclusion: This study suggests varied prevalence and virulence based on geographical locations, even within a subcontinent. It clearly demarcates the emergence of NCAC and their predominance in different body fluids. Identification of Candida to species level should become a routine in all the laboratories.

Keywords: ABEC, NCAC, non-Candida albicans Candida, Vitek-2TM compact

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18 Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Silicone Containing Phase Change Polymer for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Swati Sundararajan, , Asit B. Samui, Prashant S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The global energy crisis has led to extensive research on alternative sources of energy. The gap between energy supply and demand can be met by thermal energy storage techniques, of which latent heat storage is most effective in the form of phase change materials (PCMs). Phase change materials utilize latent heat absorbed or released over a narrow temperature range of the material undergoing phase transformation, to store energy. The latent heat can be utilized for heating or cooling purposes. It can also be used for converting to electricity. All these actions amount to minimizing the load on electricity demand. These materials retain this property over repeated number of cycles. Different PCMs differ in the phase change temperature and the heat storage capacities. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was cross-linked to hydroxyl-terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) in the presence of cross-linker, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and catalyst, dibutyltin dilaurate. Four different ratios of PEG and PDMS were reacted together, and the composition with the lowest PEG concentration resulted in the formation of a flexible solid-solid phase change membrane. The other compositions are obtained in powder form. The enthalpy values of the prepared PCMs were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry and the crystallization properties were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy. The incorporation of silicone moiety was expected to reduce the hydrophilic character of PEG, which was evaluated by measurement of contact angle. The membrane forming ability of this crosslinked polymer can be extended to several smart packaging, building and textile applications. The detailed synthesis, characterization and performance evaluation of the crosslinked polymer blend will be incorporated in the presentation.

Keywords: phase change materials, poly(ethylene glycol), poly(dimethyl siloxane), thermal energy storage

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17 Cybernetic Model-Based Optimization of a Fed-Batch Process for High Cell Density Cultivation of E. Coli In Shake Flasks

Authors: Snehal D. Ganjave, Hardik Dodia, Avinash V. Sunder, Swati Madhu, Pramod P. Wangikar

Abstract:

Batch cultivation of recombinant bacteria in shake flasks results in low cell density due to nutrient depletion. Previous protocols on high cell density cultivation in shake flasks have relied mainly on controlled release mechanisms and extended cultivation protocols. In the present work, we report an optimized fed-batch process for high cell density cultivation of recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) for protein production. A cybernetic model-based, multi-objective optimization strategy was implemented to obtain the optimum operating variables to achieve maximum biomass and minimized substrate feed rate. A syringe pump was used to feed a mixture of glycerol and yeast extract into the shake flask. Preliminary experiments were conducted with online monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) and offline measurements of biomass and glycerol to estimate the model parameters. Multi-objective optimization was performed to obtain the pareto front surface. The selected optimized recipe was tested for a range of proteins that show different extent soluble expression in E. coli. These included eYFP and LkADH, which are largely expressed in soluble fractions, CbFDH and GcanADH , which are partially soluble, and human PDGF, which forms inclusion bodies. The biomass concentrations achieved in 24 h were in the range 19.9-21.5 g/L, while the model predicted value was 19.44 g/L. The process was successfully reproduced in a standard laboratory shake flask without online monitoring of DO and pH. The optimized fed-batch process showed significant improvement in both the biomass and protein production of the tested recombinant proteins compared to batch cultivation. The proposed process will have significant implications in the routine cultivation of E. coli for various applications.

Keywords: cybernetic model, E. coli, high cell density cultivation, multi-objective optimization

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16 Effect of Pregnancy Intention, Postnatal Depressive Symptoms and Social Support on Early Childhood Stunting: Findings from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

Abstract:

Background: According to United Nation Children’s Fund, it has been estimated that worldwide about 165 million children were stunted in 2012 and India alone accounts for 38% of global burden of stunting. In terms of incidence, India is home of more than 60 million stunted children worldwide. Our study aims to examine the effect of pregnancy intention and maternal postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting in India. We hypothesized that effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were mediated by social support. Methods: We used data from first wave of Young Lives Study India. Out of 2011 children recruited in original cohort, 1833 children had complete information on pregnancy intention, maternal depression and other variables. A series of multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting. Results: Bivariate result indicates that a higher percent of children born after unintended pregnancy (40%) were stunted than children of intended pregnancy (26%). Likewise, proportion of stunted children was also higher among women of high postnatal depressive symptoms (35%) than low level of depression (24%). Results of multivariate logistic regression model indicate that children born after unintended pregnancy were significantly more likely to be stunted than children born after intended pregnancy (Coefficient: 1.70, CI: 1.17, 2.48). Likewise, early childhood stunting was also associated with maternal postnatal depressive symptoms among women (Coefficient: 1.48, CI: 1.16, 1.88). The effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting remains unchanged after controlling for social support and other variables. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide conclusive evidence regarding consequences of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting in India. Therefore, there is need to identify the women with unintended pregnancy and incorporate the promotion of mental health into their national reproductive and child health programme.

Keywords: pregnancy intention, postnatal depressive symptoms, social support, childhood stunting, young lives study, India

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