Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: granulation

42 Formulation of Highly Dosed Drugs Using Different Granulation Techniques: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ezeddin Kolaib

Abstract:

Paracetamol tablets and cimetidine tablets were prepared by single-step granulation/tabletting and by compression after high shear granulation. The addition of PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) was essential for single-step granulation/tabletting of formulation containing high concentrations of paracetamol or cimetidine. Paracetamol tablets without and with PVP obtained by single-step granulation/tabletting exhibited a significantly higher tensile strength, a significantly lower disintegration time, a lower friability and a faster dissolution compared to those prepared by compression after high shear granulation. Cimetidine tablets with PVP obtained by single-step granulation/tabletting exhibited a significantly lower tensile strength, a significantly lower disintegration time and a faster dissolution compared to those prepared by compression after high shear granulation. Single-step granulation/tabletting allowed to produce tablets containing up to 80% paracetamol or cimetidine with a dissolution profile complying with the USP requirements. For pure paracetamol or pure cimetidine the addition of crospovidone as a disintegrant was required to obtain a dissolution profile that complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements. Long term and accelerated stability studies of paracetamol tablets produced by single-step granulation/tabletting over a period of one year showed no significant influence on the tablet tensile strength, friability and dissolution. Although a significant increase of the disintegration time was observed, it remained below 10 min. These results indicated that single-step granulation/tabletting could be an efficient technique for the production of highly dosed drugs such as paracetamol and cimetidine.

Keywords: single-step granulation/tabletting, twin screw extrusion, high shear granulation, high dosage drugs, paracetamol, cimetidine

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
41 A Survey on Intelligent Techniques Based Modelling of Size Enlargement Process for Fine Materials

Authors: Mohammad Nadeem, Haider Banka, R. Venugopal

Abstract:

Granulation or agglomeration is a size enlargement process to transform the fine particulates into larger aggregates since the fine size of available materials and minerals poses difficulty in their utilization. Though a long list of methods is available in the literature for the modeling of granulation process to facilitate the in-depth understanding and interpretation of the system, there is still scope of improvements using novel tools and techniques. Intelligent techniques, such as artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, self-organizing map, support vector machine and others, have emerged as compelling alternatives for dealing with imprecision and complex non-linearity of the systems. The present study tries to review the applications of intelligent techniques in the modeling of size enlargement process for fine materials.

Keywords: fine material, granulation, intelligent technique, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
40 Recovery of Boron as Homogeneous Perborate Particles from Synthetic Wastewater by Integrating Chemical Oxo-Precipitation with Fluidized-Bed Homogeneous Granulation

Authors: Chiung-Chin Huang, Jui-Yen Lin, Yao-Hui Huang

Abstract:

Among current techniques of boron removal from wastewater with high boron concentration, chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) is one of the promising methods due to its milder condition. COP uses H2O2 to transform boric acid to perborates which can easily precipitate with barium ions at room temperature. However, the generation of the waste sludge that requires sludge/water separation and sludge dewatering is troublesome. This work presents an innovative technology which integrates chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) with fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation (FBHG) to reclaim boron as homogeneous perborate particles. By conducting COP in a fluidized-bed reactor, the barium perborate can be granulated to form homogeneous particles (>1.0 mm) with low water content (< 10%). Under the suitable condition, more than 70% of boron can be recovered from 600 ppm of boron solution and the residual boron is lower than 100 ppm.

Keywords: barium, perborate, chemical oxo-precipitation, boron removal, fluidized-bed, granulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
39 Development of an Erodable Matrix Drug Delivery Platform for Controled Delivery of Non Steroidal Anti Inflamatory Drugs Using Melt Granulation Process

Authors: A. Hilsana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar

Abstract:

Even though a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are available with different chemistries, they share a common solubility characteristic that is they are relatively more soluble in alkaline environment and practically insoluble in acidic environment. This work deals with developing a wax matrix drug delivery platform for controlled delivery of three model NSAIDS, Diclofenac sodium (DNa), Mefenamic acid (MA) and Naproxen (NPX) using the melt granulation technique. The aim of developing the platform was to have a general understanding on how an erodible matrix system modulates drug delivery rate and extent and how it can be optimized to give a delivery system which shall release the drug as per a common target product profile (TPP). Commonly used waxes like Cetostearyl alcohol and stearic acid were used singly an in combination to achieve a TPP of not 15 to 35% in 1 hour and not less than 80% Q in 24 hours. Full factorial design of experiments was followed for optimization of the formulation.

Keywords: NSAIDs, controlled delivery, target product profile, melt granulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
38 The shaping of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Water Vapor Adsorption

Authors: Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Jiun-Jen Chen, Yuhao Kang

Abstract:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn scientists’ attention for decades due to its high specific surface area, tunable pore size, and relatively low temperature for regeneration. Bearing with those mentioned properties, MOFs has been widely used in various applications, such as adsorption/separation and catalysis. However, the current challenge for practical use of MOFs is to effectively shape these crystalline powder material into controllable forms such as pellets, granules, and monoliths with sufficient mechanical and chemical stability, while maintaining the excellent properties of MOFs powders. Herein, we have successfully synthesized an Al-based MOF powder which exhibits a high water capacity at relatively low humidity conditions and relatively low temperature for regeneration. Then the synthesized Al-MOF was shaped into granules with particle size of 2-4 mm by (1) tumbling granulation, (2) High shear mixing granulation, and (3) Extrusion techniques. Finally, the water vapor adsorption rate and crush strength of Al-MOF granules by different shaping techniques were measured and compared.

Keywords: granulation, granules, metal-organic frameworks, water vapor adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
37 Formulation Development, Process Optimization and Comparative study of Poorly Compressible Drugs Ibuprofen, Acetaminophen Using Direct Compression and Top Spray Granulation Technique

Authors: Abhishek Pandey

Abstract:

Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression and top spray granulation technique. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimized formulation, nine different formulations were generated among them batch F7, F8, F9 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of dissolution study. Furtherly, directly compressible granules of both drugs were prepared by using top spray granulation technique in fluidized bed processor equipment and compressed .In order to obtain best product process optimization was carried out by performing four trials in which various parameters like inlet air temperature, spray rate, peristaltic pump rpm, % LOD, properties of granules, blending time and hardness were optimized. Batch T3 coined as optimized batch on the basis physical & chemical evaluation. Finally formulations prepared by both techniques were compared.

Keywords: direct compression, top spray granulation, process optimization, blending time

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
36 Synthesis Characterisation and Evaluation of Co-Processed Wax Matrix Excipient for Controlled Release Tablets Formulation

Authors: M. Kalyan Raj, Vinay Umesh Rao, M. Sudhakar

Abstract:

The work focuses on the development of a directly compressible controlled release co-processed excipient using melt granulation technique. Erodible wax matrix systems are fabricated in which three different types of waxes are co processed separately with Maize starch in different ratios by melt granulation. The resultant free flowing powder is characterized by FTIR, NMR, Mass spectrophotometer and gel permeation chromatography. Also, controlled release tablets of Aripiprazole were formulated and dissolution profile was compared with that of the target product profile given in Zysis patent (Patent no. 20100004262) for Aripiprazole once a week formulation.

Keywords: co-processing, hot melt extrusion, direct compression, maize starch, stearic acid, aripiprazole

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
35 Formulation and Evaluation of Dispersible Tablet of Furosemide for Pediatric Use

Authors: O. Benaziz, A. Dorbane, S. Djeraba

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to formulate a dry dispersible form of furosemide in the context of pediatric dose adjustment. To achieve this, we have produced a set of formulas that will be tested in process and after compression. The formula with the best results will be improved to optimize the final shape of the product. Furosemide is the most widely used pediatric diuretic because of its low toxicity. The manufacturing process was chosen taking into account all the data relating to the active ingredient and the excipients used and complying with the specifications and requirements of dispersible tablets. The process used to prepare these tablets was wet granulation. Different excipients were used: lactose, maize starch, magnesium stearate and two superdisintegrants. The mode of incorporation of super-disintegrant changes with each formula. The use of super-disintegrant in the formula allowed optimization of the disintegration time. Prepared tablets were evaluated for weight, content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, friability and in vitro dissolution test. 

Keywords: formulation, dispersible tablets, wet granulation, superdisintegrants, disintegration

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
34 Design of Control System Based On PLC and Kingview for Granulation Product Line

Authors: Mei-Feng, Yude-Fan, Min-Zhu

Abstract:

Based on PLC and kingview, this paper proposed a method that designed a set of the automatic control system according to the craft flow and demands for granulation product line. There were the main station and subordinate stations in PLC which were communicated by PROFIBUS network. PLC and computer were communicated by Ethernet network. The conversation function between human and machine was realized by kingview software, including actual time craft flows, historic report curves and product report forms. The construction of the control system, hardware collocation and software design were introduced. Besides these, PROFIBUS network frequency conversion control, the difficult points and configuration software design were elaborated. The running results showed that there were several advantages in the control system. They were high automatic degree, perfect function, perfect steady and convenient operation.

Keywords: PLC, PROFIBUS, configuration, frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
33 Knowledge Representation Based on Interval Type-2 CFCM Clustering

Authors: Lee Myung-Won, Kwak Keun-Chang

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with knowledge representation and extraction of fuzzy if-then rules using Interval Type-2 Context-based Fuzzy C-Means clustering (IT2-CFCM) with the aid of fuzzy granulation. This proposed clustering algorithm is based on information granulation in the form of IT2 based Fuzzy C-Means (IT2-FCM) clustering and estimates the cluster centers by preserving the homogeneity between the clustered patterns from the IT2 contexts produced in the output space. Furthermore, we can obtain the automatic knowledge representation in the design of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN), Linguistic Model (LM), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Networks (ANFN) from the numerical input-output data pairs. We shall focus on a design of ANFN in this paper. The experimental results on an estimation problem of energy performance reveal that the proposed method showed a good knowledge representation and performance in comparison with the previous works.

Keywords: IT2-FCM, IT2-CFCM, context-based fuzzy clustering, adaptive neuro-fuzzy network, knowledge representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
32 Integer Programming: Domain Transformation in Nurse Scheduling Problem.

Authors: Geetha Baskaran, Andrzej Barjiela, Rong Qu

Abstract:

Motivation: Nurse scheduling is a complex combinatorial optimization problem. It is also known as NP-hard. It needs an efficient re-scheduling to minimize some trade-off of the measures of violation by reducing selected constraints to soft constraints with measurements of their violations. Problem Statement: In this paper, we extend our novel approach to solve the nurse scheduling problem by transforming it through Information Granulation. Approach: This approach satisfies the rules of a typical hospital environment based on a standard benchmark problem. Generating good work schedules has a great influence on nurses' working conditions which are strongly related to the level of a quality health care. Domain transformation that combines the strengths of operation research and artificial intelligence was proposed for the solution of the problem. Compared to conventional methods, our approach involves judicious grouping (information granulation) of shifts types’ that transforms the original problem into a smaller solution domain. Later these schedules from the smaller problem domain are converted back into the original problem domain by taking into account the constraints that could not be represented in the smaller domain. An Integer Programming (IP) package is used to solve the transformed scheduling problem by expending the branch and bound algorithm. We have used the GNU Octave for Windows to solve this problem. Results: The scheduling problem has been solved in the proposed formalism resulting in a high quality schedule. Conclusion: Domain transformation represents departure from a conventional one-shift-at-a-time scheduling approach. It offers an advantage of efficient and easily understandable solutions as well as offering deterministic reproducibility of the results. We note, however, that it does not guarantee the global optimum.

Keywords: domain transformation, nurse scheduling, information granulation, artificial intelligence, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
31 Evaluation of Excision Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Michelia Champaca ın Diabetic Wistar Rats

Authors: Smita Shenoy, Amoolya Gowda, Tara Shanbhag, Krishnananda Prabhu, Venumadhav Nelluri

Abstract:

The study was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca on excision wound healing in diabetic wistar rats. Excision wound was made in five groups of rats after inducing diabetes with streptozotocin in four groups. Paraffin was applied to wounds in nondiabetic and diabetic control and 2.5%, 5%, 10% ointment of extract to wounds in three diabetic test groups. Monitoring of wound contraction rate, the period of epithelization and histopathological examination of granulation tissue was done. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the period of epithelization and a significant increase in the wound contraction rate on day 12 and 16 in rats treated with 5% and 10% ointment as compared to diabetic rats. There was a better organization of collagen fibers in the granulation tissue of wounds treated with 10% ointment. The higher dose of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca promoted wound healing in diabetic Wistar rats.

Keywords: Michelia champaca, excision wound, contraction, epithelization

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
30 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Levetiracetam for Better Epileptic Treatment

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release oral matrix tablets of anti epileptic drug levetiracetam. The sustained release matrix tablets of levetiracetam were prepared using hydrophilic matrix hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release retarding polymer by wet granulation method. Prior to compression, FTIR studies were performed to understand the compatibility between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients used in the study. The tablets were characterized by physical and chemical parameters and results were found in acceptable limits. In vitro release study was carried out for the tablets using 0.1 N HCl for 2 hours and in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for remaining time up to 12 hours. The effect of polymer concentration was studied. Different dissolution models were applied to drug release data in order to evaluate release mechanisms and kinetics. The drug release data fit well to zero order kinetics. Drug release mechanism was found as a complex mixture of diffusion, swelling and erosion.

Keywords: levetiracetam, sustained-release, hydrophilic matrix tablet, HPMC grade K 100 MCR, wet granulation, zero order release kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
29 Direct Compression Formulation of Poorly Compressible Drugs to Minimize the Tablet Defects

Authors: Abhishek Pandey

Abstract:

Capping and lamination are the most common tablet defects with poorly compressible drugs the common example of that Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen. Generally both these drugs are compressed by wet granulation method which is very time consuming process Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis Acetaminophen used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression technique and their evaluation. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimize formulation nine different formulations were generated among them batch F5, F6, F7 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of evaluation parameters.

Keywords: capping, lamination, tablet defects, direct compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
28 A Histopathological Study on Leech (Hirudo medicinalis) Application in the Management of Vicarcikā (Eczema)

Authors: K. M. Pratap Shankar, Dattatreya Rao, Sai Prasad

Abstract:

Background: Skin diseases are among the most common health problems worldwide and are associated with a considerable burden. Eczema is such a skin ailment which cause psychological, social and financial burden on the patient and their families. Management of eczema with antibiotics, antihistamines, steroids etc., are available but even after their use relapses, recurrences and other complications are very common. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of leech application in the management of vicarcikā (Eczema) with Histopathological study. Methods: For the present study 10 patients having the classical symptoms of Vicarcikā, were randomly selected as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from O.P.D. & I.P.D. sections of Śalya department, S.V. Āyurvedic Hospital, Tirupati. Minimum 4 sittings of Leech application was carried out with seven days interval. Total duration of treatment was 6 weeks. Biopsy samples were collected from the lesion site before and after treatment. Histopathological examination was done by the pathologist. Results: In eczema (dermatitis) the leech application therapy gives excellent response by reducing the inflammatory component, hyperkeratosis, spongiosis, irregular acanthosis and by evoking a granulation tissue response in the dermis and in most of the cases with complete recovery from the lesion. Most of the cases in the study were chronic dermatitis and sebhoric keratosis, almost all local/focal pigmented lesions is totally relieved by leech therapy especially in cases of sebhoric keratosis. Conclusion: In the present study it was found that, leech application evokes significant changes at histological level specifically in reduction of inflammatory component, hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and irregular acanthosis. It was also found that there was a considerable formation of granulation tissue, which helps in formation of healthy new tissues.

Keywords: acanthosis, eczema, hyperkeratosis, leech application, spongiosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
27 Effects of Seed Culture and Attached Growth System on the Performance of Anammox Hybrid Reactor (AHR) Treating Nitrogenous Wastewater

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The start-up of anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in hybrid reactor delineated four distinct phases i.e. cell lysis, lag phase, activity elevation and stationary phase. Cell lysis phase was marked by death and decay of heterotrophic denitrifiers resulting in breakdown of organic nitrogen into ammonium. Lag phase showed initiation of anammox activity with turnover of heterotrophic denitrifiers, which is evident from appearance of NO3-N in the effluent. In activity elevation phase, anammox became the dominant reaction, which can be attributed to consequent reduction of NH4-N into N2 with increased NO3-N in the effluent. Proper selection of mixed seed culture at influent NO2-/NH4+ ratio (1:1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day led to early startup of anammox within 70 days. Pseudo steady state removal efficiencies of NH4+ and NO2- were found as 94.3% and 96.4% respectively, at nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.35 kg N/m3d at an HRT of 1 day. Analysis of the data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 11% increase in the ammonium removal and results in an average of 29% reduction in sludge washout rate. Mass balance study of nitrogen indicated that 74.1% of total input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2% being utilized in biomass development. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge clearly showed the presence of cocci and rod shaped microorganisms intermingled on the external surface of the granules. The average size of anammox granules (1.2-1.5 mm) with an average settling velocity of 45.6 m/h indicated a high degree of granulation resulting into formation of well compacted granules in the anammox process.

Keywords: anammox, hybrid reactor, startup, granulation, nitrogen removal, mixed seed culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
26 Identifying and Optimizing the Critical Excipients in Moisture Activated Dry Granulation Process for Two Anti TB Drugs of Different Aqueous Solubilities

Authors: K. Srujana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar

Abstract:

Isoniazide (INH) a freely water soluble and pyrazinamide (Z) a practically water insoluble first line anti tubercular (TB) drugs were identified as candidates for optimizing the Moisture Activated Dry Granulation (MADG) process. The work focuses on identifying the effect of binder type and concentration as well as the effect of magnesium stearate level on critical quality attributes of Disintegration time (DT) and in vitro dissolution test when the tablets are processed by the MADG process. Also, the level of the drug concentration, binder concentration and fluid addition during the agglomeration stage of the MADG process was evaluated and optimized. For INH, it was identified that for tablets with HPMC as binder at both 2% w/w and 5% w/w level and Magnesium stearate upto 1%w/w as lubrication the DT is within 1 minute and the dissolution rate is the fastest (> 80% in 15 minutes) as compared to when PVP or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. Regarding the process, fast disintegrating and rapidly dissolving tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 25% w/w 0% w/w binder and 0.033%. w/w. At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is also slower. For pyrazinamide,it was identified that for the tablets with 2% w/w level of each of PVP as binder and Cross Caramellose Sodium disintegrant the DT is within 2 minutes and the dissolution rate is the fastest(>80 in 15 minutes)as compared to when HPMC or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. This may be attributed to the fact that PVP may be acting as a solubilizer for the practically insoluble Pyrazinamide. Regarding the process,fast dispersing and rapidly disintegrating tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 10% w/w,25% w/w binder and 1% w/w.At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is comparatively slower and less complete.

Keywords: agglomeration stage, isoniazide, MADG, moisture distribution stage, pyrazinamide

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
25 Development and Evaluation of Surgical Sutures Coated with Antibiotic Loaded Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Sunitha Sampathi, Pankaj Kumar Tiriya, Sonia Gera, Sravanthi Reddy Pailla, V. Likhitha, A. J. Maruthi

Abstract:

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common nosocomial infections localized at the incision site. With an estimated 27 million surgical procedures each year in USA, approximately 2-5% rate of SSIs are predicted to occur annually. SSIs are treated with antibiotic medication. Current trend suggest that the direct drug delivery from the suture to the scared tissue can improve patient comfort and wound recovery. For that reason coating the surface of the medical device such as suture and catguts with broad spectrum antibiotics can prevent the formation of bactierial colonies with out comprimising the mechanical properties of the sutures.Hence, the present study was aimed to develop and evaluate a surgical suture coated with an antibiotic Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride loaded on gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and conjugated with ciprofloxacin using Polyvinylpyrolidone as stabilizer and gold as carrier. Ciprofloxacin conjugated gold nanoparticles were coated over an absorbable surgical suture made of Polyglactan using sodium alginate as an immobilising agent by slurry dipping technique. The average particle size and Polydispersity Index of drug conjugated gold NPs were found to be 129±2.35 nm and 0.243±0.36 respectively. Gold nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. FT-IR revealed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and polymer. Antimicrobial activity for coated sutures was evaluated by disc diffusion method on culture plates of both gram negative (E-coli) and gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and results found to be satisfactory. In vivo studies for coated sutures was performed on Swiss albino mice and histological evaluation of intestinal wound healing parameters such as wound edges in mucosa, muscularis, presence of necrosis, exudates, granulation tissue, granulocytes, macrophages, restoration, and repair of mucosal epithelium and muscularis propria on day 7 after surgery were studied. The control animal group, sutured with plain suture (uncoated suture) showed signs of restoration and repair, but presence of necrosis, heamorraghic infiltration and granulation tissue was still noticed. Whereas the animal group treated with ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin gold nanoparticle coated sutures has shown promising decrease in terms of haemorraghic infiltration, granulation tissue, necrosis and better repaired muscularis layers on comparision with plain coated sutures indicating faster rate of repair and less chance of sepsis. Hence coating of sutures with broad spectrum antibiotics can be an alternate technique to reduce SSIs.

Keywords: ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, gold nanoparticles, surgical site infections, sutures

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
24 Technological Properties and Characterization of Ceramic Slurries Based on Yttrium Iii Oxide for Shell Moulds Preparation

Authors: D. Jakubowska, M. Malek, P. Wisniewski, J. Mizera, K. J. Kurzydlowski

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to analyze the technological properties of ceramic slurries based on Ytttria (Y2O3) for fabrication “prime coat” in ceramic shell moulds for investment casting process. The Yttria with two different granulation of (200# and 325#) in ratio-65%-35% by weight were used for preparation the ceramic slurries. Solid phase was 77 wt.%. The experiment was carried out for 96h. Main technological properties like: viscosity, pH, plate weight test, and density were measured every 24h. Additionally, dynamic viscosity was performed after 96h of test. For further material characterization SEM observations, Zeta potential, XRD measurements were done. Those research showed that Yttria ceramic slurries had very promising properties and there are perspective for future fabrication.

Keywords: ceramic slurries, mechanizal properties, viscosity, fabrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
23 Characterization of Aluminosilicates and Verification of Their Impact on Quality of Ceramic Proppants Intended for Shale Gas Output

Authors: Joanna Szymanska, Paulina Wawulska-Marek, Jaroslaw Mizera

Abstract:

Nowadays, the rapid growth of global energy consumption and uncontrolled depletion of natural resources become a serious problem. Shale rocks are the largest and potential global basins containing hydrocarbons, trapped in closed pores of the shale matrix. Regardless of the shales origin, mining conditions are extremely unfavourable due to high reservoir pressure, great depths, increased clay minerals content and limited permeability (nanoDarcy) of the rocks. Taking into consideration such geomechanical barriers, effective extraction of natural gas from shales with plastic zones demands effective operations. Actually, hydraulic fracturing is the most developed technique based on the injection of pressurized fluid into a wellbore, to initiate fractures propagation. However, a rapid drop of pressure after fluid suction to the ground induces a fracture closure and conductivity reduction. In order to minimize this risk, proppants should be applied. They are solid granules transported with hydraulic fluids to locate inside the rock. Proppants act as a prop for the closing fracture, thus gas migration to a borehole is effective. Quartz sands are commonly applied proppants only at shallow deposits (USA). Whereas, ceramic proppants are designed to meet rigorous downhole conditions to intensify output. Ceramic granules predominate with higher mechanical strength, stability in strong acidic environment, spherical shape and homogeneity as well. Quality of ceramic proppants is conditioned by raw materials selection. Aim of this study was to obtain the proppants from aluminosilicates (the kaolinite subgroup) and mix of minerals with a high alumina content. These loamy minerals contain a tubular and platy morphology that improves mechanical properties and reduces their specific weight. Moreover, they are distinguished by well-developed surface area, high porosity, fine particle size, superb dispersion and nontoxic properties - very crucial for particles consolidation into spherical and crush-resistant granules in mechanical granulation process. The aluminosilicates were mixed with water and natural organic binder to improve liquid-bridges and pores formation between particles. Afterward, the green proppants were subjected to sintering at high temperatures. Evaluation of the minerals utility was based on their particle size distribution (laser diffraction study) and thermal stability (thermogravimetry). Scanning Electron Microscopy was useful for morphology and shape identification combined with specific surface area measurement (BET). Chemical composition was verified by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray Fluorescence. Moreover, bulk density and specific weight were measured. Such comprehensive characterization of loamy materials confirmed their favourable impact on the proppants granulation. The sintered granules were analyzed by SEM to verify the surface topography and phase transitions after sintering. Pores distribution was identified by X-Ray Tomography. This method enabled also the simulation of proppants settlement in a fracture, while measurement of bulk density was essential to predict their amount to fill a well. Roundness coefficient was also evaluated, whereas impact on mining environment was identified by turbidity and solubility in acid - to indicate risk of the material decay in a well. The obtained outcomes confirmed a positive influence of the loamy minerals on ceramic proppants properties with respect to the strict norms. This research is perspective for higher quality proppants production with costs reduction.

Keywords: aluminosilicates, ceramic proppants, mechanical granulation, shale gas

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22 Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying

Authors: Hyeongdo Jeong, Jong Kook Lee

Abstract:

Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.

Keywords: zirconia, solid content, granulation, spray drying

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21 Evaluation of As-Cast U-Mo Alloys Processed in Graphite Crucible Coated with Boron Nitride

Authors: Kleiner Marques Marra, Tércio Pedrosa

Abstract:

This paper reports the production of uranium-molybdenum alloys, which have been considered promising fuel for test and research nuclear reactors. U-Mo alloys were produced in three molybdenum contents: 5 wt.%, 7 wt.%, and 10 wt.%, using an electric vacuum induction furnace. A boron nitride-coated graphite crucible was employed in the production of the alloys and, after melting, the material was immediately poured into a boron nitride-coated graphite mold. The incorporation of carbon was observed, but it happened in a lower intensity than in the case of the non-coated crucible/mold. It is observed that the carbon incorporation increased and alloys density decreased with Mo addition. It was also noticed that the increase in the carbon or molybdenum content did not seem to change the as-cast structure in terms of granulation. The three alloys presented body-centered cubic crystal structure (g phase), after solidification, besides a seeming negative microsegregation of molybdenum, from the center to the periphery of the grains. There were signs of macrosegregation, from the base to the top of the ingots.

Keywords: uranium-molybdenum alloys, incorporation of carbon, solidification, macrosegregation and microsegregation

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20 Design and Development of Sustained Release Floating Tablet of Stavudine

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. Vidya Sagar, G. P. Vadnere

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to prolong the gastric residence time of Stavudine by developing gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS). Moreover, to study influence of different polymers on its release rate using gas-forming agents, like sodium bicarbonate, citric acid. Floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using PVP K-30 as a binder and the other polymers include Pullulan Gum, HPMC K100M, six different formulations with the varying concentrations of polymers were prepared and the tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, Haunsner ratio, angle of repose, compressibility index, post compression physical characteristics, in vitro release, buoyancy, floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) and swelling index. All the formulations showed good floating lag time i.e. less than 3 mins. The batch containing combination of Pullulan Gum and HPMC 100M (i.e. F-6) showed total floating lag time more than 12 h., the highest swelling index among all the prepared batches. The drug release was found to follow zero order kinetics.

Keywords: Suavudine, floating, total floating time (TFT), gastric residence

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19 Cytotoxicity of a Short Chain Fatty Acid Histone Deactylase Inhibitor on HCT116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: N. A. Kazemi Sefat, M. M. Mohammadi, J. Hadjati, S. Talebi, M. Ajami, H. Daneshvar

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer metastases result in a significant number of cancer related deaths. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. Sodium butyrate (SB) is a short chain fatty acid, belongs to HDAC inhibitors which is released in the colonic lumen as a consequence of fiber fermentation. In this study, we are about to assess the effect of sodium butyrate on HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line. The viability of cells was measured by microscopic morphologic study and MTT assay. After 48 hours, treatments more than 10 mM lead to cell injury in HCT116 by increasing cell granulation and decreasing cell adhesion (p>0.05). After 72 hours, treatments at 10 mM and more lead to significant cell injury (p<0.05). Our results may suggest that the gene expression which is contributed in cell proliferation and apoptosis has been changed under pressure of HDAC inhibition.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, sodium butyrate, cytotoxicity, MTT

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18 Preliminary Results on Marine Debris Classification in The Island of Mykonos (Greece) via Coastal and Underwater Clean up over 2016-20: A Successful Case of Recycling Plastics into Useful Daily Items

Authors: Eleni Akritopoulou, Katerina Topouzoglou

Abstract:

The last 20 years marine debris has been identified as one of the main marine pollution sources caused by anthropogenic activities. Plastics has reached the farthest marine areas of the planet affecting all marine trophic levels including the, recently discovered, amphipoda Eurythenes plasticus inhabiting Mariana Trench to large cetaceans, marine reptiles and sea birds causing immunodeficiency disorders, deteriorating health and death overtime. For the time period 2016-20, in the framework of the national initiative ‘Keep Aegean Blue”, All for Blue team has been collecting marine debris (coastline and underwater) following a modified in situ MEDSEALITTER monitoring protocol from eight Greek islands. After collection, marine debris was weighted, sorted and categorised according to material; plastic (PL), glass (G), metal (M), wood (W), rubber (R), cloth (CL), paper (P), mixed (MX). The goal of the project included the documentation of marine debris sources, human trends, waste management and public marine environmental awareness. Waste management was focused on plastics recycling and utilisation into daily useful products. This research is focused on the island of Mykonos due to its continuous touristic activity and lack of scientific information. In overall, a field work area of 1.832.856 m2 was cleaned up yielding 5092 kg of marine debris. The preliminary results indicated PL as main source of marine debris (62,8%) followed by M (15,5%), GL (13,2%) and MX (2,8%). Main items found were fishing tools (lines, nets), disposable cutlery, cups and straws, cigarette butts, flip flops and other items like plastic boat compartments. In collaboration with a local company for plastic management and the Circular Economy and Eco Innovation Institute (Sweden), all plastic debris was recycled. Granulation process was applied transforming plastic into building materials used for refugees’ houses, litter bins bought by municipalities and schools and, other items like shower components. In terms of volunteering and attendance in public awareness seminars, there was a raise of interest by 63% from different age ranges and professions. Regardless, the research being fairly new for Mykonos island and logistics issues potentially affected systemic sampling, it appeared that plastic debris is the main littering source attributed, possibly to the intense touristic activity of the island all year around. However, marine environmental awareness activities were pointed out to be an effective tool in forming public perception against marine debris and, alter the daily habits of local society. Since the beginning of this project, three new local environmental teams were formed against marine pollution supported by the local authorities and stakeholders. The continuous need and request for the production of items made by recycled marine debris appeared to be beneficial socio-economically to the local community and actions are taken to expand the project nationally. Finally, as an ongoing project and whilst, new scientific information is collected, further funding and research is needed.

Keywords: Greece, marine debris, marine environmental awareness, Mykonos island, plastics debris, plastic granulation, recycled plastic, tourism, waste management

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17 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

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16 Influence of Alccofine on Semi-Light Weight Concrete under Accelerated Curing and Conventional Curing Regimes

Authors: P. Parthiban, J. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

This paper deals with the performance of semi-light weight concrete, prepared by using wood ash pellets as coarse aggregates which were improved by partial replacement of cement with alccofine. Alccofine is a mineral admixture which contains high glass content obtained through the process of controlled granulation. This is finer than cement which carries its own pozzolanic property. Therefore, cement could be replaced by alccofine as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, and 70% to enhance the strength and durability properties of concrete. High range water reducing admixtures (HRWA) were used in these mixes which were dosed up to 1.5% weight of the total cementitious content (alccofine & cement). It also develops the weaker transition zone into more impermeable layer. Specimens were subjected in both the accelerated curing method as well as conventional curing method. Experimental results were compared and reported, in that the maximum compressive strength of 32.6 MPa was achieved on 28th day with 30% replacement level in a density of 2200 kg/m3 to a conventional curing, while in the accelerated curing, maximum compressive strength was achieved at 40% replacement level. Rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) output results for the conventional curing method at 0% and 70% give 3296.7 and 545.6 coulombs.

Keywords: Alccofine, compressive strength, RCPT, wood ash pellets

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15 Influence of Processing Parameters on the Reliability of Sieving as a Particle Size Distribution Measurements

Authors: Eseldin Keleb

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In the pharmaceutical industry particle size distribution is an important parameter for the characterization of pharmaceutical powders. The powder flowability, reactivity and compatibility, which have a decisive impact on the final product, are determined by particle size and size distribution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of processing parameters on the particle size distribution measurements. Different Size fractions of α-lactose monohydrate and 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone were prepared by wet granulation and were used for the preparation of samples. The influence of sieve load (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 g), processing time (5, 10, and 15 min), sample size ratios (high percentage of small and large particles), type of disturbances (vibration and shaking) and process reproducibility have been investigated. Results obtained showed that a sieve load of 50 g produce the best separation, a further increase in sample weight resulted in incomplete separation even after the extension of the processing time for 15 min. Performing sieving using vibration was rapider and more efficient than shaking. Meanwhile between day reproducibility showed that particle size distribution measurements are reproducible. However, for samples containing 70% fines or 70% large particles, which processed at optimized parameters, the incomplete separation was always observed. These results indicated that sieving reliability is highly influenced by the particle size distribution of the sample and care must be taken for samples with particle size distribution skewness.

Keywords: sieving, reliability, particle size distribution, processing parameters

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14 Monitoring of Sustainability of Extruded Soya Product TRADKON SPC-TEX in Order to Define Expiration Date

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

New attitudes about nutrition impose new styles, and therefore a neNew attitudes about nutrition impose new styles, and therefore a new kind of food. The goal of our work was to define the shelf life of new extruded soya product with minimum 65% of protein based on the analyses. According to the plan it was defined that a certain quantity of the same batch of new product (soybean flakes) which had predicted shelf life of 2 years had to be stored for 24 months in storage and analyzed at the beginning and end of sustainability plan on instrumental analyses (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) and every month on sensory analyses (odor, taste, color, consistency), microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, sulfite-reducing clostridia, Listeria monocytogenes), chemical analyses (protein, ash, fat, crude cellulose, granulation) and at the beginning on GMO analyses. All analyses were tested according to: sensory analyses ISO 6658, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Escherichia coli ISO 16649-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-2, sulfite-reducing clostridia ISO 15213 and Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, chemical and instrumental analyses Serbian ordinance on the methods of physico-chemical analyses and GMO analyses JRC Compendium. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 24 months indicate that are no changes of products concerning both sensory and chemical analyses. As far as microbiological results are concerned Salmonella spp was not detected and all other quantitative analyses showed values <10 cfu/g. The other parameters for food safety (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) were not present in analyzed samples and also all analyzed samples were negative concerning genetic testing. On the basis of monitoring the sample under defined storage conditions and analyses of quality control, GMO analyses and food safety of the sample during the shelf within two years, the results showed that all the parameters of the sample during defined period is in accordance with Serbian regulative so that indicate that predicted shelf life can be adopted.w kind of food. The goal of our work was to define the shelf life of new extruded soya product with minimum 65% of protein based on the analyses. According to the plan it was defined that a certain quantity of the same batch of new product (soybean flakes) which had predicted shelf life of 2 years had to be stored for 24 months in storage and analyzed at the beginning and end of sustainability plan on instrumental analyses (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) and every month on sensory analyses (odor, taste, color, consistency), microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, sulfite-reducin clostridia, Listeria monocytogenes), chemical analyses (protein, ash, fat, crude cellulose, granulation) and at the beginning on GMO analyses. All analyses were tested according: sensory analyses ISO 6658, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Escherichia coli ISO 16649-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-2, sulfite-reducing clostridia ISO 15213 and Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, chemical and instrumental analyses Serbian ordinance on the methods of physico-chemical analyses and GMO analyses JRC Compendium. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 24 months indicate that are no changes of products concerning both sensory and chemical analyses. As far as microbiological results are concerned Salmonella spp was not detected and all other quantitative analyses showed values <10 cfu/g. The other parameters for food safety (heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins) were not present in analyzed samples and also all analyzed samples were negative concerning genetic testing. On the basis of monitoring the sample under defined storage conditions and analyses of quality control, GMO analyses and food safety of the sample during the shelf within two years, the results showed that all the parameters of the sample during defined period is in accordance with Serbian regulative so that indicate that predicted shelf life can be adopted.

Keywords: extruded soya product, food safety analyses, GMO analyses, shelf life

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13 Impact of Microwave Heating Temperatures on the Pharmaceutical Powder Characteristics

Authors: Maha Al-Ali, Selvakannan Periasamy, Rajarathinam Parthasarathy

Abstract:

Drying temperature is an important factor impacting the physicochemical properties of the dried materials, particularly the pharmaceutical powders. Drying of pharmaceuticals by using microwave radiation is very limited, and the available information about the interaction between the electromagnetic radiations and the pharmaceutical material is still scarce. Therefore, microwave drying process is employed in this work to dry the wet (moisturised) granules of the formulated naproxen-sodium drug. This study aims to investigate the influences of the microwave radiation temperatures on the moisture removal, the crystalline structure, the size and morphology of the dried naproxen-sodium particles, and identify any potential changes in the chemical groups of the drug. In this work, newly formulated naproxen-sodium is prepared and moisturized by wet granulation process and hence dried by using microwave radiation at different temperatures. Moisture analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope are used to characterise the non-moisturised powder (reference powder), the moisturised granules, and the dried particles. The results show that microwave drying of naproxen-sodium at high drying temperature is more efficient than that at low temperatures in terms of the moisture removal. Although there is no significant change in the chemical structure of the dried particles, the particle size, crystallinity and morphology are relatively changed with changing of heating temperature.

Keywords: heating temperature, microwave drying, naproxen-sodium, particle size

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