Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: Swati Rajput

58 Health and Wellbeing: Measuring and Mapping Diversity in India

Authors: Swati Rajput


Wellbeing is a multifaceted concept. Its definition has evolved to become more holistic over the years. The paper attempts to build up the understanding of the concept of wellbeing and marks the trajectory of its conceptual evolution. The paper will also elaborate and analyse various indicators of socio-economic wellbeing in India at state level. Ranking method has been applied to assess the situation of each state in context to the variable selected and wellbeing as a whole. Maps have been used to depict and illustrate the same. The data shows that the socio-economic wellbeing level is higher in states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, and Lakshadweep. The level of wellbeing is very lower in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Telengana, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Tripura. Environment plays an important role in maintaining health. Environment and health are important indicators of wellbeing. The paper would further analyse some indicators of environment and health and find the change in the result of wellbeing levels of different states.

Keywords: socio economic factors, wellbeing index, health, mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
57 Assessing Environmental Psychology and Health Awareness in Delhi: A Fundamental Query for Sustainable Urban Living

Authors: Swati Rajput


Environmental psychology explains that the person is a social agent that seeks to extract meaning from their built and natural environment to behave in a particular manner. It also shows the attachment or detachment of people to their environment. Assessing environmental psychology of people is imperative for planners and policy makers for urban planning. The paper investigates the environmental psychology of people living in nine districts of Delhi by calculating and assessing their Environmental Emotional Quotient (EEQ). Emotional Quotient deals with the ability to sense, understand, attach and respond according to the power of emotions. An Environmental Emotional Quotient has been formulated based upon the inventory administered to them. The respondents were asked questions related to their view and emotions about the green spaces, water resource conservation, air and environmental quality. An effort has been made to assess the feeling of belongingness among the residents. Their views were assessed on green spaces, reuse, and recycling of resources and their participation level. They were also been assessed upon health awareness level by considering both preventive and curative segments of health care. It was found that only 12 percent of the people is emotionally attached to their surroundings in the city. The emotional attachment reduces as we move away from the house to housing complex to neighbouring areas and rest of the city. In fact, the emotional quotient goes lower to lowest from house to other ends of the city. It falls abruptly after the radius of 1 km from the residence. The result also shows that nearly 54% respondents accept that there is environment pollution in their area. Around 47.8% respondents in the survey consider that diseases occur because of green cover depiction in their area. Major diseases are to airborne diseases like asthma and bronchitis. Seasonal disease prevalent, which specially occurred from last 3-4 years are malaria, dengue and chikengunya. Survey also shows that only 31 % of respondents visit government hospitals while 69% respondents visit private hospitals or small clinics for healthcare services. The paper suggests the need for environmental sensitive policies and need for green insurance in mega cities like Delhi.

Keywords: environmental psychology, environmental emotional quotient, preventive health care and curative health care, sustainable living

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
56 Arterial Compliance Measurement Using Split Cylinder Sensor/Actuator

Authors: Swati Swati, Yuhang Chen, Robert Reuben


Coronary stents are devices resembling the shape of a tube which are placed in coronary arteries, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary arterial diseases. Coronary stents are routinely deployed to clear atheromatous plaque. The stent essentially applies an internal pressure to the artery because its structure is cylindrically symmetrical and this may introduce some abnormalities in final arterial shape. The goal of the project is to develop segmented circumferential arterial compliance measuring devices which can be deployed (eventually) in vivo. The segmentation of the device will allow the mechanical asymmetry of any stenosis to be assessed. The purpose will be to assess the quality of arterial tissue for applications in tailored stents and in the assessment of aortic aneurism. Arterial distensibility measurement is of utmost importance to diagnose cardiovascular diseases and for prediction of future cardiac events or coronary artery diseases. In order to arrive at some generic outcomes, a preliminary experimental set-up has been devised to establish the measurement principles for the device at macro-scale. The measurement methodology consists of a strain gauge system monitored by LABVIEW software in a real-time fashion. This virtual instrument employs a balloon within a gelatine model contained in a split cylinder with strain gauges fixed on it. The instrument allows automated measurement of the effect of air-pressure on gelatine and measurement of strain with respect to time and pressure during inflation. Compliance simple creep model has been applied to the results for the purpose of extracting some measures of arterial compliance. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to study the effect of air pressure on strain at varying time intervals. The results clearly demonstrate that with decrease in arterial volume and increase in arterial pressure, arterial strain increases thereby decreasing the arterial compliance. The measurement system could lead to development of portable, inexpensive and small equipment and could prove to be an efficient automated compliance measurement device.

Keywords: arterial compliance, atheromatous plaque, mechanical symmetry, strain measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
55 Ontology-Based Representation of Islamic Rules to Perform Salah

Authors: Hamza Zafar, Quratulain Rajput


Salah (نماز ) is one of five pillars of Islam and obligatory for every Muslims. However, due to the lack of Islamic knowledge it might be very difficult for a layperson to perform it correctly. This paper presents an ontology based representation of Islamic rules to perform Salah. The Salah ontology has been built under the guidance of domain expert in light of Quran and Hadith. The ontology consists of basic concepts as well as relationship among concepts and constraints on them. The basic concepts include cleanness, body cover, Salah timing and steps to perform Salah. The SWRL rule language has been used to represent rule to determine whether the Salah performed correctly or it should be repeated. Finally, we evaluate the use of the Salat ontology through user’s example queries using SPARQL queries.

Keywords: prayer, salah, ontology, SPARQL queries, reasoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
54 [Keynote Talk]: Implementation of 5 Level and 7 Level Multilevel Inverter in Local Trains of Mumbai

Authors: Sharvari Sane, Swati Sharma, Sanjay K. Prasad


Local trains are the lifelines of Mumbai city. Earlier 1500 Volt D.C. supply, is now completely and successfully converted into 25 KV A.C. in central, western and harbour routes. This task is the outcome of the advancement in the area of power electronics. Author has already done the comparative study between D.C. and A.C. supply of traction and predicted the serious problem regarding the harmonics. In this paper, the simulation for 5 level as well as 7 level multilevel inverter has been done which is the substitute for the present cascade type inverter. This paper also showed the reduced level of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the traction system.

Keywords: total harmonic distortion (THD), traction sub station (TSS), harmonics, multilevel inverter

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53 Development of a Mathematical Model to Characterize the Oil Production in the Federal Republic of Nigeria Environment

Authors: Paul C. Njoku, Archana Swati Njoku


The study deals with the development of a mathematical model to characterize the oil production in Nigeria. This is calculated by initiating the dynamics of oil production in million barrels revenue plan cost of oil production in million nairas and unit cost of production from 1974-1982 in the contest of the federal Republic of Nigeria. This country export oil to other countries as well as importing specialized crude. The transport network from origin/destination tij to pairs is taking into account simulation runs, optimization have been considered in this study.

Keywords: mathematical oil model development dynamics, Nigeria, characterization barrels, dynamics of oil production

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
52 Music Note Detection and Dictionary Generation from Music Sheet Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Ammar, Talha Ali, Abdul Basit, Bakhtawar Rajput, Zobia Sohail


Music note detection is an area of study for the past few years and has its own influence in music file generation from sheet music. We proposed a method to detect music notes on sheet music using basic thresholding and blob detection. Subsequently, we created a notes dictionary using a semi-supervised learning approach. After notes detection, for each test image, the new symbols are added to the dictionary. This makes the notes detection semi-automatic. The experiments are done on images from a dataset and also on the captured images. The developed approach showed almost 100% accuracy on the dataset images, whereas varying results have been seen on captured images.

Keywords: music note, sheet music, optical music recognition, blob detection, thresholding, dictionary generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
51 Disposable PANI-CeO2 Sensor for the Electrocatalytic Simultaneous Quantification of Amlodipine and Nebivolol

Authors: Nimisha Jadon, Rajeev Jain, Swati Sharma


A chemically modified carbon paste sensor has been developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine (AML) and nebivolol (NBV). Carbon paste electrode (CPE) was fabricated by the addition of Gr/PANI-CeO2. Gr/PANI-CeO2/CPE has achieved excellent electrocatalytic activity and sensitivity. AML and NBV exhibited oxidation peaks at 0.70 and 0.90 V respectively on Gr/ PANI-CeO2/CPE. The linearity range of AML and NBV was 0.1 to 1.6 μgmL-1 in BR buffer (pH 8.0). The Limit of detection (LOD) was 20.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 30.0 ngmL-1 for NBV and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 80.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 100 ngmL-1 for NBV respectively. These analyses were also determined in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum and good recovery was obtained for the developed method.

Keywords: amlodipine, nebivolol, square wave voltammetry, carbon paste electrode, simultaneous quantification

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50 Impact of Digitized Monitoring & Evaluation System in Technical Vocational Education and Training

Authors: Abdul Ghani Rajput


Although monitoring and evaluation concept adopted by Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) organization to track the progress over the continuous interval of time based on planned interventions and subsequently, evaluating it for the impact, quality assurance and sustainability. In digital world, TVET providers are giving preference to have real time information to do monitoring of training activities. Identifying the benefits and challenges of digitized monitoring & evaluation real time information system has not been sufficiently tackled in this date. This research paper looks at the impact of digitized M&E in TVET sector by analyzing two case studies and describe the benefits and challenges of using digitized M&E system. Finally, digitized M&E have been identified as carriers for high potential of TVET sector.

Keywords: digitized M&E, innovation, quality assurance, TVET

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
49 Hybrid GA-PSO Based Pitch Controller Design for Aircraft Control System

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Rajput, Ravi Kumar Jatoth, Nagu Bhookya, Bhasker Boda


In this paper proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is used to control the pitch angle of the aircraft when the elevation angle is changed or modified. The pitch angle is dependent on elevation angle; a change in one corresponds to a change in the other. The PID controller helps in restricted change of pitch rate in response to the elevation angle. The PID controller is dependent on different parameters like Kp, Ki, Kd which change the pitch rate as they change. Various methodologies are used for changing those parameters for getting a perfect time response pitch angle, as desired or wished by a concerned person. While reckoning the values of those parameters, trial and guessing may prove to be futile in order to provide comfort to passengers. So, using some metaheuristic techniques can be useful in handling these errors. Hybrid GA-PSO is one such powerful algorithm which can improve transient and steady state response and can give us more reliable results for PID gain scheduling problem.

Keywords: pitch rate, elevation angle, PID controller, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, phugoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
48 Evaluations of 3D Concrete Printing Produced in the Environment of United Arab Emirates

Authors: Adil K. Tamimi, Tarig Ali, Rawan Anoohi, Ahmed Rajput, Kaltham Alkamali


3D concrete printing is one of the most innovative and modern techniques in the field of construction that achieved several milestones in that field for the following advantages: saving project’s time, ability to execute complicated shapes, reduce waste and low cost. However, the concept of 3D printing in UAE is relatively new where construction teams, including clients, consultants, and contractors, do not have the required knowledge and experience in the field. This is the most significant obstacle for the construction parties, which make them refrained from using 3D concrete printing compared to conventional concreting methods. This study shows the historical development of the 3D concrete printing, its advantages, and the challenges facing this innovation. Concrete mixes and materials have been proposed and evaluated to select the best combination for successful 3D concrete printing. The main characteristics of the 3D concrete printing in the fresh and hardened states are considered, such as slump test, flow table, compressive strength, tensile, and flexural strengths. There is need to assess the structural stability of the 3D concrete by testing the bond between interlayers of the concrete.  

Keywords: 3D printing, workability, compressive strength, robots, dimensions

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
47 A New Approach for Improving Accuracy of Multi Label Stream Data

Authors: Kunal Shah, Swati Patel


Many real world problems involve data which can be considered as multi-label data streams. Efficient methods exist for multi-label classification in non streaming scenarios. However, learning in evolving streaming scenarios is more challenging, as the learners must be able to adapt to change using limited time and memory. Classification is used to predict class of unseen instance as accurate as possible. Multi label classification is a variant of single label classification where set of labels associated with single instance. Multi label classification is used by modern applications, such as text classification, functional genomics, image classification, music categorization etc. This paper introduces the task of multi-label classification, methods for multi-label classification and evolution measure for multi-label classification. Also, comparative analysis of multi label classification methods on the basis of theoretical study, and then on the basis of simulation was done on various data sets.

Keywords: binary relevance, concept drift, data stream mining, MLSC, multiple window with buffer

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46 Preparation of Superparamagnetic Functionalized Magnetite Nanoparticles for Magnetically Separable Catalysis

Authors: Priya Arora, Jaspreet K. Rajput


Superparamagnetism has accelerated the research and use of more economical and ecological magnetically separable catalysts due to their more efficient isolation by response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetite nanomaterials coated by SiO2 shell have received a great deal of focus in the last decades as it provides high stability and also easy further surface functionalization depending upon the application. In this protocol, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation combined with sonication method. Further, Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been functionalized by various moieties to serve as efficient catalysts for multicomponent reactions. The functionalized nanoparticles were characterized by techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The as prepared nanocatalysts can be reused for several times without any significant loss in its activity. The utilization of magnetic nanoparticles as catalysts for this reaction is one approach i.e. green, inexpensive, facile and widely applicable.

Keywords: functionalized, magnetite, multicomponent reactions, superparamagnetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
45 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Environmental Application

Authors: Shalini Rajput, Dinesh Mohan


Water is the most important and essential resources for existing of life on the earth. Water quality is gradually decreasing due to increasing urbanization and industrialization and various other developmental activities. It can pose a threat to the environment and public health therefore it is necessary to remove hazardous contaminants from wastewater prior to its discharge to the environment. Recently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been arise as significant materials due to its distinct properties. This article focuses on the synthesis method with a possible mechanism, structure and application of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The various characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer are useful to describe the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles. Nanosized iron oxide particles utilized for remediation of contaminants from aqueous medium through adsorption process. Due to magnetic properties, nanoparticles can be easily separate from aqueous media. Considering the importance and emerging trend of nanotechnology, iron oxide nanoparticles as nano-adsorbent can be of great importance in the field of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: nanoparticles, adsorption, iron oxide, nanotechnology

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44 Mental Health Problems in College Students of India

Authors: Swati Naruka


"Looking after one’s mind is as important as looking after one’s body". As part of one’s overall health, mental and emotional health or well being is a necessary condition to enable one to manage one’s life successfully. Mental health is the capacity of an individual to form harmonious adjustments to one’s social and physical environments. Universities and colleges are dealing with substantial challenges posed by the changing mental health needs of today’s college students. It is important for administrators, faculty, and staff to understand the profound impact that mental health problems can have on all aspects of campus life, and to treat mental health issues as an institutional responsibility and priority. Counselling centres can respond effectively to the current challenges if they have the support and commitment of the administration; and if they take steps to balance the demand for services with existing resources by reviewing priorities, establishing appropriate limits, employing innovative strategies, and practicing good self-care to minimize stress and burnout. The need for counselling centres has never been greater. They will continue to play an important role in supporting the mission of higher education institutions by providing counselling for students who are experiencing problems and assisting them in achieving their educational and personal goals.

Keywords: mental health, well being, India, college students

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43 Design and Characterization of Aromatase Inhibitor Loaded Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Breast Cancer

Authors: Harish K. Chandrawanshi, Mithun S. Rajput, Neelima Choure, Purnima Dey Sarkar, Shailesh Jain


The present research study aimed to fabricate and evaluate biodegradable nanoparticles of aromatase inhibitor letrozole, intended for breast cancer therapy. Letrozole loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using dichlorometane as solvent (oil phase) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as aqueous phase. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, infrared spectra, drug loading efficiency, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro release and also evaluated for in vivo anticancer activity. The high speed homogenizer was used to produce stable nanoparticles of mean size range 198.35 ± 0.04 nm with high entrapment efficiency (69.86 ± 2.78%). Percentage of drug and homogenization speed significantly influenced the particle size, entrapment efficiency and release (p<0.05). The nanoparticles show significant in vivo anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. The significant system sustained the release of letrozole drug effectively and further investigation could exhibit its potential usefulness in breast cancer therapy.

Keywords: breast cancer/therapy, letrozole, nanoparticles, PLGA

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42 Global Mittag-Leffler Stability of Fractional-Order Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Network with Discrete and Distributed Transmission Delays

Authors: Swati Tyagi, Syed Abbas


Fractional-order Hopfield neural networks are generally used to model the information processing among the interacting neurons. To show the constancy of the processed information, it is required to analyze the stability of these systems. In this work, we perform Mittag-Leffler stability for the corresponding Caputo fractional-order bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with various time-delays. We derive sufficient conditions to ensure the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium point by using the theory of topological degree theory. By applying the fractional Lyapunov method and Mittag-Leffler functions, we derive sufficient conditions for the global Mittag-Leffler stability, which further imply the global asymptotic stability of the network equilibrium. Finally, we present two suitable examples to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

Keywords: bidirectional associative memory neural network, existence and uniqueness, fractional-order, Lyapunov function, Mittag-Leffler stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
41 Amelioration of Arsenic and Mercury Induced Vasoconstriction by Eugenol, Linalool and Carvone

Authors: Swati Kundu, Seemi Farhat Basir, Luqman A. Khan


Acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and mercury is known to produce vasoconstriction. Pathways involved in this hypercontraction and their relative contribution are not understood. In this study, we measure agonist-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta exposed to arsenic and mercury aorta and delineate pathways mediating this effect. PE-induced hypercontraction of 37% and 32% was obtained with 25 µM As(III) and 6 nM Hg(II), respectively. Isometric contraction measurements in the presence of apocynin, verapamil and sodium nitroprusside indicates that the major cause of increased contraction is reactive oxygen species and depletion of nitric oxide. Calcium influx plays a minor role in both arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction. In the unexposed aorta, eugenol causes relaxation by inhibiting ROS and elevating NO, linalool by blocking voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) and elevating NO, and carvone by blocking calcium influx through VDDC. Since arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction is mediated by increased ROS and depletion of nitric oxide, we hypothesize that molecules which neutralize ROS or elevate NO will be better ameliorators. In line with this argument, we find eugenol to be the best ameliorator of arsenic and mercury hypercontraction followed by linalool and carvone.

Keywords: carvone, eugenol, linalool, mercury

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
40 Effect of the Birth Order and Arrival of Younger Siblings on the Development of a Child: Evidence from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay


Using longitudinal data from three waves of Young Lives Study and Ordinary Least Square methods, study has investigated the effect of birth order and arrival of younger siblings on child development in India. Study used child’s height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for age z-score, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-Score)c, maths score, Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (ERGA) score, and memory score to measure the physical and cognitive development of child during wave-3. Findings suggest that having a high birth order is detrimental for child development and the gap between adjacent siblings is larger for children late in the birth sequences than early in the birth sequences. Study also reported that not only older siblings but arrival of younger siblings before assessment of test also reduces the development of a child. The effects become stronger in case of female children than male children.

Keywords: height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for z-score, PPVT score, math score, EGRA score, memory score, birth order, siblings, Young Lives Study, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
39 Isolation Preserving Medical Conclusion Hold Structure via C5 Algorithm

Authors: Swati Kishor Zode, Rahul Ambekar


Data mining is the extraction of fascinating examples on the other hand information from enormous measure of information and choice is made as indicated by the applicable information extracted. As of late, with the dangerous advancement in internet, stockpiling of information and handling procedures, privacy preservation has been one of the major (higher) concerns in data mining. Various techniques and methods have been produced for protection saving data mining. In the situation of Clinical Decision Support System, the choice is to be made on the premise of the data separated from the remote servers by means of Internet to diagnose the patient. In this paper, the fundamental thought is to build the precision of Decision Support System for multiple diseases for different maladies and in addition protect persistent information while correspondence between Clinician side (Client side) also, the Server side. A privacy preserving protocol for clinical decision support network is proposed so that patients information dependably stay scrambled amid diagnose prepare by looking after the accuracy. To enhance the precision of Decision Support System for various malady C5.0 classifiers and to save security, a Homomorphism encryption algorithm Paillier cryptosystem is being utilized.

Keywords: classification, homomorphic encryption, clinical decision support, privacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
38 Building a Dynamic News Category Network for News Sources Recommendations

Authors: Swati Gupta, Shagun Sodhani, Dhaval Patel, Biplab Banerjee


It is generic that news sources publish news in different broad categories. These categories can either be generic such as Business, Sports, etc. or time-specific such as World Cup 2015 and Nepal Earthquake or both. It is up to the news agencies to build the categories. Extracting news categories automatically from numerous online news sources is expected to be helpful in many applications including news source recommendations and time specific news category extraction. To address this issue, existing systems like DMOZ directory and Yahoo directory are mostly considered though they are mostly human annotated and do not consider the time dynamism of categories of news websites. As a remedy, we propose an approach to automatically extract news category URLs from news websites in this paper. News category URL is a link which points to a category in news websites. We use the news category URL as a prior knowledge to develop a news source recommendation system which contains news sources listed in various categories in order of ranking. In addition, we also propose an approach to rank numerous news sources in different categories using various parameters like Traffic Based Website Importance, Social media Analysis and Category Wise Article Freshness. Experimental results on category URLs captured from GDELT project during April 2016 to December 2016 show the adequacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: news category, category network, news sources, ranking

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37 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: Swati Sharma, R. P. Sharma


We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: solar wind, turbulence, dispersive alfven wave

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36 Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Matrix Formulation and Its Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation

Authors: Swapnila V. Shinde, Hemant P. Joshi, Sumit R. Dhas, Dhananjaysingh B. Rajput


The objective of the present study is to develop hydro-dynamically balanced system for atenolol, β-blocker as a single unit floating tablet. Atenolol shows pH dependent solubility resulting into a bioavailability of 36%. Thus, site specific oral controlled release floating drug delivery system was developed. Formulation includes novice use of rate controlling polymer such as locust bean gum (LBG) in combination of HPMC K4M and gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate. Tablet was prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for physico-mechanical properties. The statistical method was utilized to optimize the effect of independent variables, namely amount of HPMC K4M, LBG and three dependent responses such as cumulative drug release, floating lag time, floating time. Graphical and mathematical analysis of the results allowed the identification and quantification of the formulation variables influencing the selected responses. To study the gastrointestinal transit of the optimized gastro-retentive formulation, in vivo gamma scintigraphy was carried out in six healthy rabbits, after radio labeling the formulation with 99mTc. The transit profiles demonstrated that the dosage form was retained in the stomach for more than 5 hrs. The study signifies the potential of the developed system for stomach targeted delivery of atenolol with improved bioavailability.

Keywords: floating tablet, factorial design, gamma scintigraphy, antihypertensive model drug, HPMC, locust bean gum

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
35 Novel Pyrimidine Based Semicarbazones: Confirmation of Four Binding Site Pharmacophoric Model Hypothesis for Antiepileptic Activity

Authors: Harish Rajak, Swati Singh


A series of novel pyrimidine based semicarbazone were designed and synthesized on the basis of semicarbazone based pharmacophoric model to satisfy the structural prerequisite crucial for antiepileptic activity. The semicarbazones based pharmacophoric model consists of following four essential binding sites: (i) An aryl hydrophobic binding site with halo substituent; (ii) A hydrogen bonding domain; (iii) An electron donor group and (iv) Another hydrophobic-hydrophilic site controlling the pharmacokinetic features of the anticonvulsant. The aryl semicarbazones has been recognized as a structurally novel class of compounds with remarkable anticonvulsant activity. In the present study, all the test semicarbazones were subjected to molecular docking using Glide v5.8. Some of the compounds were found to interact with ARG192, GLU270 and THR353 residues of 1OHV protein, present in GABA-AT receptor. The chemical structures of the synthesized molecules were characterized by elemental and spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) analysis. The anticonvulsant activities of the compounds were investigated using maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetrtrazole (scPTZ) models. The neurotoxicity was evaluated in mice by the rotorod test. The attempts were also made to establish structure-activity relationships among synthesized compounds. The results of the present study confirmed that the pharmacophore model with four binding sites is essential for antiepileptic activity.

Keywords: pyrimidine, semicarbazones, anticonvulsant activity, neurotoxicity

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34 Lipidomic Profiling of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus abundans towards Deciphering Phospholipids and Glycolipids under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: J. Singh, Swati Dubey, R. P. Singh


Microalgal strains can accumulate greatly enhanced levels of lipids under nitrogen-deficient condition, making these as one of the most promising sustainable sources for biofuel production. High-grade biofuel production from microalgal biomass could be facilitated by analysing the lipid content of the microalgae and enumerating its dynamics under varying nutrient conditions. In the present study, a detailed investigation of changes in lipid composition in Chlorella species and Scenedesmus abundans in response to nitrogen limited condition was performed to provide novel mechanistic insights into the lipidome during stress conditions. The mass spectroscopic approaches mainly LC-MS and GC-MS were employed for lipidomic profiling in both the microalgal strains. The analyses of lipid profiling using LC-MS revealed distinct forms of lipids mainly phospho- and glycolipids, including betaine lipids, and various other forms of lipids in both the microalgal strains. As detected, an overall decrease in polar lipids was observed. However, GC-MS analyses had revealed that the synthesis of the storage lipid i.e. triacylglycerol (TAG) was substantially stimulated in both the strains under nitrogen limited conditions. The changes observed in the overall fatty acid profile were primarily due to the decrease in proportion of polar lipids to TAGs. This study had enabled in analysing a detailed and orchestrated form of lipidomes in two different microalgal strains having potential for biodiesel production.

Keywords: biofuel, GC-MS, LC-MS, lipid, microalgae

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33 Time-Course Lipid Accumulation and Transcript Analyses of Lipid Biosynthesis Gene of Chlorella sp.3 under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Swati Dubey, Mukta Singh, R. P. Singh


The freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. is alluring considerable interest as a source for biofuel production due to its fast growth rate and high lipid content. Under nitrogen limited conditions, they can accumulate significant amounts of lipids. Thus, it is important to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of their lipid metabolism. In this study under nitrogen limited conditions, regular pattern of growth characteristics lipid accumulation and gene expression analysis of key regulatory genes of lipid biosynthetic pathway were carried out in microalgae Chlorella sp 3. Our results indicated that under nitrogen limited conditions there is a significant increase in the lipid content and lipid productivity, achieving 44.21±2.64 % and 39.34±0.66 mg/l/d at the end of the cultivation, respectively. Time-course transcript patterns of lipid biosynthesis genes i.e. acetyl coA carboxylase (accD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (dgat) showed that during late log phase of microalgae Chlorella sp.3 both the genes were significantly up regulated as compared to early log phase. Moreover, the transcript level of the dgat gene is two-fold higher than the accD gene. The results suggested that both the genes responded sensitively to the nitrogen limited conditions during the late log stage, which proposed their close relevance to lipid biosynthesis. Further, this transcriptome data will be useful for engineering microalgae species by targeting these genes for genetic modification to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

Keywords: biofuel, gene, lipid, microalgae

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32 Effect of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB) Vaccination on Child Anthropometry in India: Evidence from Young Lives Study

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay


Haemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib) cause infections of pneumonia, meningitis, epiglottises and other invasive disease exclusively among children under age five. Occurrence of these infections may impair child growth by causing micronutrient deficiency. Using longitudinal data from first and second waves of Young Lives Study conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 respectively and multivariable logistic regression models (using generalised estimation equation to take into account the cluster nature of sample), this study aims to examine the impact of Hib vaccination on child anthropometric outcomes (stunting, underweight and wasting) in India. Bivariate result shows that, a higher percent of children were stunted and underweight among those who were not vaccinated against Hib (39% & 48% respectively) as compare to those who were vaccinated (31% and 39% respectively).The risk of childhood stunting and underweight was significantly lower among children who were vaccinated against Hib (odds ratio: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96 and odds ratio: 0.79, 95% C.I: 0.64-0.98 respectively) as compare to the unvaccinated children. No significant association was found between vaccination status against Hib and childhood wasting. Moreover, in the statistical models, about 13% of stunting and 12% of underweight could be attributable to lack of vaccination against Hib in India. Study concludes that vaccination against Hib- in addition to being a major intervention for reducing childhood infectious disease and mortality- can be consider as a potential tool for reducing the burden of undernutrition in India. Therefore, the Government of India must include the vaccine against Hib into the Universal Immunization Programme in India.

Keywords: Haemophilus influenzae Type-B, Stunting, Underweight, Wasting, Young Lives Study (YLS), India

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31 Correlation between Neck Circumference and Other Anthropometric Indices as a Predictor of Obesity

Authors: Madhur Verma, Meena Rajput, Kamal Kishore


Background: The general view that obesity is a problem of prosperous Western countries has been repealed with substantial evidence showing that middle-income countries like India are now at the heart of a fat explosion. Neck circumference has evolved as a promising index to measure obesity, because of the convenience of its use, even in culture sensitive population. Objectives: To determine whether neck circumference (NC) was associated with overweight and obesity and contributed to the prediction like other classical anthropometric indices. Methodology: Cross-sectional study consisting of 1080 adults (> 19 years) selected through Multi-stage random sampling between August 2013 and September 2014 using the pretested semi-structured questionnaire. After recruitment, the demographic and anthropometric parameters [BMI, Waist & Hip Circumference (WC, HC), Waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BF %), neck circumference (NC)] were recorded & calculated as per standard procedures. Analysis was done using appropriate statistical tests. (SPSS, version 21.) Results: Mean age of study participants was 44.55+15.65 years. Overall prevalence of overweight & obesity as per modified criteria for Asian Indians (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) was 49.62% (Females-51.48%; Males-47.77%). Also, number of participants having high WHR, WHtR, BF%, WC & NC was 827(76.57%), 530(49.07%), 513(47.5%), 537(49.72%) & 376(34.81%) respectively. Variation of NC, BMI & BF% with age was non- significant. In both the genders, as per the Pearson’s correlational analysis, neck circumference was positively correlated with BMI (men, r=0.670 {p < 0.05}; women, r=0.564 {p < 0.05}), BF% (men, r=0.407 {p < 0.05}; women, r= 0.283 {p < 0.05}), WC (men, r=0.598{p < 0.05}; women, r=0.615 {p < 0.05}), HC (men, r=0.512{p < 0.05}; women, r=0.523{p < 0.05}), WHR (men, r= 0.380{p > 0.05}; women, r=0.022{p > 0.05}) & WHtR (men, r=0.318 {p < 0.05}; women, r=0.396{p < 0.05}). On ROC analysis, NC showed good discriminatory power to identify obesity with AUC (AUC for males: 0.822 & females: 0.873; p- value < 0.001) with maximum sensitivity and specificity at a cut-off value of 36.55 cms for males & 34.05cms for females. Conclusion: NC has fair validity as a community-based screener for overweight and obese individuals in the study context and has also correlated well with other classical indices.

Keywords: neck circumference, obesity, anthropometric indices, body fat percentage

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30 Testing of Protective Coatings on Automotive Steel, a Correlation Between Salt Spray, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, and Linear Polarization Resistance Test

Authors: Dhanashree Aole, V. Hariharan, Swati Surushe


Corrosion can cause serious and expensive damage to the automobile components. Various proven techniques for controlling and preventing corrosion depend on the specific material to be protected. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests are commonly used to assess the corrosion degradation mechanism of coatings on metallic surfaces. While, the only test which monitors the corrosion rate in real time is known as Linear Polarisation Resistance (LPR). In this study, electrochemical tests (EIS & LPR) and spray test are reviewed to assess the corrosion resistance and durability of different coatings. The main objective of this study is to correlate the test results obtained using linear polarization resistance (LPR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with the results obtained using standard salt spray test. Another objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of various coating systems- CED, Epoxy, Powder coating, Autophoretic, and Zn-trivalent coating for vehicle underbody application. The corrosion resistance coating are assessed. From this study, a promising correlation between different corrosion testing techniques is noted. The most profound observation is that electrochemical tests gives quick estimation of corrosion resistance and can detect the degradation of coatings well before visible signs of damage appear. Furthermore, the corrosion resistances and salt spray life of the coatings investigated were found to be according to the order as follows- CED> powder coating > Autophoretic > epoxy coating > Zn- Trivalent plating.

Keywords: Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), salt spray test, sacrificial and barrier coatings

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29 Luminescent and Conductive Cathode Buffer Layer for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Swati Bishnoi, D. Haranath, Vinay Gupta


In this work, we demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) could be improved significantly by using ZnO doped with Aluminum (Al) and Europium (Eu) as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The ZnO:Al,Eu nanoparticle layer has broadband absorption in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm) region. The Al doping contributes to the enhancement in the conductivity whereas Eu doping significantly improves emission in the visible region. Moreover, this emission overlaps with the absorption range of polymer poly [N -9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′- benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) significantly and results in an enhanced absorption by the active layer and hence high photocurrent. An increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.8% has been obtained for ZnO: Al,Eu CBL as compared to 5.9% for pristine ZnO, in the inverted device configuration ITO/CBL/active layer/MoOx/Al. The active layer comprises of a blend of PCDTBT donor and [6-6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor. In the reference device pristine ZnO has been used as CBL, whereas in the other one ZnO:Al,Eu has been used as CBL. The role of the luminescent CBL layer is to down-shift the UV light into visible range which overlaps with the absorption of PCDTBT polymer, resulting in an energy transfer from ZnO:Al,Eu to PCDTBT polymer and the absorption by active layer is enhanced as revealed by transient spectroscopy. This enhancement resulted in an increase in the short circuit current which contributes in an increased PCE in the device employing ZnO: Al,Eu CBL. Thus, the luminescent ZnO: Al, Eu nanoparticle CBL has great potential in organic solar cells.

Keywords: cathode buffer layer, energy transfer, organic solar cell, power conversion efficiency

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