Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11308

Search results for: thermal energy storage

11308 An Overview of Thermal Storage Techniques for Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: Talha Shafiq


The traditional electricity operation in solar thermal plants is designed to operate on a single path initiating at power plant and executes at the consumer. Due to lack of energy storage facilities during this operation, a decrease in the efficiency is often observed with the power plant performance. This paper reviews the significance of energy storage in supply design and elaborates various methods that can be adopted in this regard which are equally cost effective and environmental friendly. Moreover, various parameters in thermal storage technique are also critically analyzed to clarify the pros and cons in this facility. Discussing the different thermal storage system, their technical and economical evaluation has also been reviewed.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage

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11307 3D Simulation for Design and Predicting Performance of a Thermal Heat Storage Facility using Sand

Authors: Nadjiba Mahfoudi, Abdelhafid Moummi , Mohammed El Ganaoui


Thermal applications are drawing increasing attention in the solar energy research field, due to their high performance in energy storage density and energy conversion efficiency. In these applications, solar collectors and thermal energy storage systems are the two core components. This paper presents a thermal analysis of the transient behavior and storage capability of a sensible heat storage device in which sand is used as a storage media. The TES unit with embedded charging tubes is connected to a solar air collector. To investigate it storage characteristics a 3D-model using no linear coupled partial differential equations for both temperature of storage medium and heat transfer fluid (HTF), has been developed. Performances of thermal storage bed of capacity of 17 MJ (including bed temperature, charging time, energy storage rate, charging energy efficiency) have been evaluated. The effect of the number of charging tubes (3 configurations) is presented.

Keywords: design, thermal modeling, heat transfer enhancement, sand, sensible heat storage

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11306 Performance Variation of the TEES According to the Changes in Cold-Side Storage Temperature

Authors: Young-Jin Baik, Minsung Kim, Junhyun Cho, Ho-Sang Ra, Young-Soo Lee, Ki-Chang Chang


Surplus electricity can be converted into potential energy via pumped hydroelectric storage for future usage. Similarly, thermo-electric energy storage (TEES) uses heat pumps equipped with thermal storage to convert electrical energy into thermal energy; the stored energy is then converted back into electrical energy when necessary using a heat engine. The greatest advantage of this method is that, unlike pumped hydroelectric storage and compressed air energy storage, TEES is not restricted by geographical constraints. In this study, performance variation of the TEES according to the changes in cold-side storage temperature was investigated by simulation method.

Keywords: energy storage system, heat pump, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics

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11305 Thermal and Flammability Properties of Paraffin/Nanoclay Composite Phase Change Materials Incorporated in Building Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Awni H. Alkhazaleh, Baljinder K. Kandola


In this study, a form-stable composite Paraffin/Nanoclay (PA-NC) has been prepared by absorbing PA into porous particles of NC to be used for low-temperature latent heat thermal energy storage. The leakage test shows that the maximum mass fraction of PA that can be incorporated in NC without leakage is 60 wt.%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal properties of the PA and PA-NC both before and after incorporation in plasterboard (PL). The mechanical performance of the samples has been evaluated in flexural mode. The thermal energy storage performance has been studied using a small test chamber (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm) made from 10 mm thick PL and measuring the temperatures using thermocouples. The flammability of the PL+PL-NC has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results indicate that the form composite PA has good potential for use as thermal energy storage materials in building applications.

Keywords: building materials, flammability, phase change materials, thermal energy storage

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11304 An Analysis on Thermal Energy Storage in Paraffin-Wax Using Tube Array on a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Syukri Himran, Rustan Taraka, Anto Duma


The aim of the study is to improve the understanding of latent and sensible thermal energy storage within a paraffin wax media by an array of cylindrical tubes arranged both in in-line and staggered layouts. An analytical and experimental study was carried out in a horizontal shell-and-tube type system during the melting process. Pertamina paraffin-wax was used as a phase change material (PCM), where as the tubes are embedded in the PCM. From analytical study we can obtain the useful information in designing a thermal energy storage such as : the motion of interface, amount of material melted at any time in the process, and the heat storage characteristic during melting. The use of staggered tubes is proposed as superior to in-line layout for thermal storage. The experimental study was used to verify the validity of the analytical predictions. From the comparisons, the analytical and experimental data are in a good agreement.

Keywords: latent, sensible, paraffin-wax, thermal energy storage, conduction, natural convection

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11303 Two-Channels Thermal Energy Storage Tank: Experiments and Short-Cut Modelling

Authors: M. Capocelli, A. Caputo, M. De Falco, D. Mazzei, V. Piemonte


This paper presents the experimental results and the related modeling of a thermal energy storage (TES) facility, ideated and realized by ENEA and realizing the thermocline with an innovative geometry. Firstly, the thermal energy exchange model of an equivalent shell & tube heat exchanger is described and tested to reproduce the performance of the spiral exchanger installed in the TES. Through the regression of the experimental data, a first-order thermocline model was also validated to provide an analytical function of the thermocline, useful for the performance evaluation and the comparison with other systems and implementation in simulations of integrated systems (e.g. power plants). The experimental data obtained from the plant start-up and the short-cut modeling of the system can be useful for the process analysis, for the scale-up of the thermal storage system and to investigate the feasibility of its implementation in actual case-studies.

Keywords: CSP plants, thermal energy storage, thermocline, mathematical modelling, experimental data

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11302 High Power Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications Using Phase Change Material Slurry

Authors: Anastasia Stamatiou, Markus Odermatt, Dominic Leemann, Ludger J. Fischer, Joerg Worlitschek


The successful integration of thermal energy storage in industrial processes is expected to play an important role in the energy turnaround. Latent heat storage technologies can offer more compact thermal storage at a constant temperature level, in comparison to conventional, sensible thermal storage technologies. The focus of this study is the development of latent heat storage solutions based on the Phase Change Slurry (PCS) concept. Such systems promise higher energy densities both as refrigerants and as storage media while presenting better heat transfer characteristics than conventional latent heat storage technologies. This technology is expected to deliver high thermal power and high-temperature stability which makes it ideal for storage of process heat. An evaluation of important batch processes in industrial applications set the focus on materials with a melting point in the range of 55 - 90 °C. Aluminium ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate (NH₄Al(SO₄)₂·12H₂O) was chosen as the first interesting PCM for the next steps of this study. The ability of this material to produce slurries at the relevant temperatures was demonstrated in a continuous mode in a laboratory test-rig. Critical operational and design parameters were identified.

Keywords: esters, latent heat storage, phase change materials, thermal properties

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11301 Influence of the Non-Uniform Distribution of Filler Porosity on the Thermal Performance of Sensible Heat Thermocline Storage Tanks

Authors: Yuchao Hua, Lingai Luo


Thermal energy storage is of critical importance for the highly-efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. Over the past decades, single-tank thermocline technology has attracted much attention owing to its high cost-effectiveness. In the present work, we investigate the influence of the filler porosity’s non-uniform distribution on the thermal performance of the packed-bed sensible heat thermocline storage tanks on the basis of the analytical model obtained by the Laplace transform. It is found that when the total amount of filler materials (i.e., the integration of porosity) is fixed, the different porosity distributions can result in the significantly-different behaviors of outlet temperature and thus the varied charging and discharging efficiencies. Our results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the fillers with the proper design can improve the heat storage performance without changing the total amount of the filling materials.

Keywords: energy storage, heat thermocline storage tank, packed bed, transient thermal analysis

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11300 Enhancement of Thermal Performance of Latent Heat Solar Storage System

Authors: Rishindra M. Sarviya, Ashish Agrawal


Solar energy is available abundantly in the world, but it is not continuous and its intensity also varies with time. Due to above reason the acceptability and reliability of solar based thermal system is lower than conventional systems. A properly designed heat storage system increases the reliability of solar thermal systems by bridging the gap between the energy demand and availability. In the present work, two dimensional numerical simulation of the melting of heat storage material is presented in the horizontal annulus of double pipe latent heat storage system. Longitudinal fins were used as a thermal conductivity enhancement. Paraffin wax was used as a heat-storage or phase change material (PCM). Constant wall temperature is applied to heat transfer tube. Presented two-dimensional numerical analysis shows the movement of melting front in the finned cylindrical annulus for analyzing the thermal behavior of the system during melting.

Keywords: latent heat, numerical study, phase change material, solar energy

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11299 Enhanced Thermal Stability of Dielectric and Energy Storage Properties in 0.4BCZT-0.6BTSn Lead-Free Ceramics Elaborated by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: S. Khardazi, H. Zaitouni, A. Neqali, S. Lyubchyk, D. Mezzane, M. Amjoud, E. Choukri, S. Lyubchyk, Z. Kutnjak


In the present paper, structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and energy storage properties of pure perovskite lead-free BCZT, BTSn, and BTSn-BCZT ferroelectric ceramics have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms the coexistence of the rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases at room temperature in the composite BCZT–BTSn ceramic. Remarkably, an improved recoverable energy density of 137.86 mJ/cm³ and a high energy storage efficiency of 86.19 % at 80°C under a moderate applied electric field of 30 kV/cm were achieved in the designed BCZT–BTSn ceramic. Besides, the sample exhibits excellent thermal stability of the energy storage efficiency (less than 3%) in the temperature range of 70 to 130 °C under 30 kV/cm. Such results make the pb-free BCZT–BTSn ferroelectric ceramic a very promising potential matrix for energy storage capacitor applications.

Keywords: sol-gel, ferroelectrics, lead-free, perovskites, energy storage

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11298 Thermal Analysis and Experimental Procedure of Integrated Phase Change Material in a Storage Tank

Authors: Chargui Ridha, Agrebi Sameh


The integration of phase change materials (PCM) for the storage of thermal energy during the period of sunshine before being released during the night is a complement of free energy to improve the system formed by a solar collector, tank storage, and a heat exchanger. This paper is dedicated to the design of a thermal storage tank based on a PCM-based heat exchanger. The work is divided into two parts: an experimental part using paraffin as PCM was carried out within the Laboratory of Thermal Processes of Borj Cedria in order to improve the performance of the system formed by the coupling of a flat solar collector and a thermal storage tank and to subsequently determine the influence of PCM on the whole system. This phase is based on the measurement instrumentation, namely, a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and the thermal analyzer (hot disk: HOT DISK) in order to determine the physical properties of the paraffin (PCM), which has been chosen. The second phase involves the detailed design of the PCM heat exchanger, which is incorporated into a thermal storage tank and coupled with a solar air collector installed at the Research and Technology Centre of Energy (CRTEn). A numerical part based on the TRANSYS and Fluent software, as well as the finite volume method, was carried out for the storage reservoir systems in order to determine the temperature distribution in each chosen system.

Keywords: phase change materials, storage tank, heat exchanger, flat plate collector

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11297 Properties of Ettringite According to Hydration, Dehydration and Carbonation Process

Authors: Bao Chen, Frederic Kuznik, Matthieu Horgnies, Kevyn Johannes, Vincent Morin, Edouard Gengembre


The contradiction between energy consumption, environment protection, and social development is increasingly intensified during recent decade years. At the same time, as avoiding fossil-fuels-thirsty, people turn their view on the renewable green energy, such as solar energy, wind power, hydropower, etc. However, due to the unavoidable mismatch on geography and time for production and consumption, energy storage seems to be one of the most reasonable solutions to enlarge the use of renewable energies. Thermal energy storage (TES), a branch of energy storage solution, mainly concerns the capture, storage and consumption of thermal energy for later use in different scales (individual house, apartment, district, and city). In TES research field, sensible heat and latent heat storage have been widely studied and presented at an advanced stage of development. Compared with them, thermochemical energy storage is still at initial phase but provides a relatively higher theoretical energy density and a long shelf life without heat dissipation during storage. Among thermochemical energy storage materials, inorganic pure or composite compounds like micro-porous silica gel, SrBr₂ hydrate and MgSO₄-Zeolithe have been reported as promising to be integrated into thermal energy storage systems. However, the cost of these materials, one of main obstacles, may hinder the wide use of energy storage systems in real application scales (individual house, apartment, district and even city). New studies on ettringite show promising application for thermal energy storage since its high energy density and large resource from cementitious materials. Ettringite, or calcium trisulfoaluminate hydrate, of which chemical formula is 3CaO∙Al₂O₃∙3CaSO₄∙32H₂O, or C₆AS̅₃H₃₂ as known in cement chemistry notation, is one of the most important members of AFt group. As a common compound in hydrated cements, ettringite has been widely studied for its performances in construction but barely known as a thermochemical material. For this study, we summarize available data about the structure and properties of ettringite and its metastable phase (meta-ettringite), including the processes of hydration, thermal conversion and carbonation durability for thermal energy storage.

Keywords: building materials, ettringite, meta-ettringite, thermal energy storage

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11296 Investigation on Solar Thermoelectric Generator Using D-Mannitol/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Composite Phase Change Materials

Authors: Zihua Wu, Yueming He, Xiaoxiao Yu, Yuanyuan Wang, Huaqing Xie


The match of Solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) and phase change materials (PCM) can enhance the solar energy storage and reduce environmental impact from the day-and-night transformation and weather changes. This work utilizes D-mannitol (DM) matrix as the suitable PCM for coupling with thermoelectric generator to achieve the middle-temperature solar energy storage performance at 165℃-167℃. DM/MWCNT composite phase change materials prepared by ball milling not only can keep a high phase change enthalpy of DM material but also have great photo-thermal conversion efficiency of 82%. Based on the self-made storage device container, the effect of PCM thickness on the solar energy storage performance is further discussed and analyzed. The experimental results prove that PCM-STEG coupling system can output more electric energy than pure STEG system because PCM can decline the heat transfer and storage thermal energy to further generate the electric energy through thermal-to-electric conversion when the light is removed. The increase of PCM thickness can reduce the heat transfer and enhance thermal storage, and then the power generation performance of PCM-STEG coupling system can be improved. As the increase of light intensity, the output electric energy of the coupling system rises accordingly, and the maximum amount of electrical energy can reach by 113.85 J at 1.6 W/cm2. The study of the PCM-STEG coupling system has certain reference for the development of solar energy storage and application.

Keywords: solar energy, solar thermoelectric generator, phase change materials, solar-to-electric energy, DM/MWCNT

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11295 Prediction-Based Midterm Operation Planning for Energy Management of Exhibition Hall

Authors: Doseong Eom, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu


Large exhibition halls require a lot of energy to maintain comfortable atmosphere for the visitors viewing inside. One way of reducing the energy cost is to have thermal energy storage systems installed so that the thermal energy can be stored in the middle of night when the energy price is low and then used later when the price is high. To minimize the overall energy cost, however, we should be able to decide how much energy to save during which time period exactly. If we can foresee future energy load and the corresponding cost, we will be able to make such decisions reasonably. In this paper, we use machine learning technique to obtain models for predicting weather conditions and the number of visitors on hourly basis for the next day. Based on the energy load thus predicted, we build a cost-optimal daily operation plan for the thermal energy storage systems and cooling and heating facilities through simulation-based optimization.

Keywords: building energy management, machine learning, operation planning, simulation-based optimization

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11294 Alcohols as a Phase Change Material with Excellent Thermal Storage Properties in Buildings

Authors: Dehong Li, Yuchen Chen, Alireza Kaboorani, Denis Rodrigue, Xiaodong (Alice) Wang


Utilizing solar energy for thermal energy storage has emerged as an appealing option for lowering the amount of energy that is consumed by buildings. Due to their high heat storage density, and non-corrosive and non-polluting properties, alcohols can be a good alternative to petroleum-derived paraffin phase change materials (PCMs). In this paper, ternary eutectic PCMs with suitable phase change temperatures were designed and prepared using lauryl alcohol (LA), cetyl alcohol (CA), stearyl alcohol (SA), and xylitol (X). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results revealed that the phase change temperatures of LA-CA-SA, LA-CA-X, and LA-SA-X were 20.52°C, 20.37°C, and 22.18°C, respectively. The latent heat of phase change of the ternary eutectic PCMs was all stronger than that of the paraffinic PCMs at roughly the same temperature. The highest latent heat was 195 J/g. It had good thermal energy storage capacity. The preparation mechanism was investigated using Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and it was found that the ternary eutectic PCMs were only physically mixed among the components. Ternary eutectic PCMs had a simple preparation process, suitable phase change temperature, and high energy storage density. They are suitable for low-temperature architectural packaging applications.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, buildings, phase change materials, alcohols

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11293 A Modular Reactor for Thermochemical Energy Storage Examination of Ettringite-Based Materials

Authors: B. Chen, F. Kuznik, M. Horgnies, K. Johannes, V. Morin, E. Gengembre


More attention on renewable energy has been done after the achievement of Paris Agreement against climate change. Solar-based technology is supposed to be one of the most promising green energy technologies for residential buildings since its widely thermal usage for hot water and heating. However, the seasonal mismatch between its production and consumption makes buildings need an energy storage system to improve the efficiency of renewable energy use. Indeed, there exist already different kinds of energy storage systems using sensible or latent heat. With the consideration of energy dissipation during storage and low energy density for above two methods, thermochemical energy storage is then recommended. Recently, ettringite (3CaO∙Al₂O₃∙3CaSO₄∙32H₂O) based materials have been reported as potential thermochemical storage materials because of high energy density (~500 kWh/m³), low material cost (700 €/m³) and low storage temperature (~60-70°C), compared to reported salt hydrates like SrBr₂·6H₂O (42 k€/m³, ~80°C), LaCl₃·7H₂O (38 k€/m³, ~100°C) and MgSO₄·7H₂O (5 k€/m³, ~150°C). Therefore, they have the possibility to be largely used in building sector with being coupled to normal solar panel systems. On the other side, the lack in terms of extensive examination leads to poor knowledge on their thermal properties and limit maturity of this technology. The aim of this work is to develop a modular reactor adapting to thermal characterizations of ettringite-based material particles of different sizes. The filled materials in the reactor can be self-compacted vertically to ensure hot air or humid air goes through homogenously. Additionally, quick assembly and modification of reactor, like LEGO™ plastic blocks, make it suitable to distinct thermochemical energy storage material samples with different weights (from some grams to several kilograms). In our case, quantity of stored and released energy, best work conditions and even chemical durability of ettringite-based materials have been investigated.

Keywords: dehydration, ettringite, hydration, modular reactor, thermochemical energy storage

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11292 The Influence of Microcapsulated Phase Change Materials on Thermal Performance of Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Vinh Duy Cao, Shima Pilehvar, Anna M. Szczotok, Anna-Lena Kjøniksen


The total energy consumption is dramatically increasing on over the world, especially for building energy consumption where a significant proportion of energy is used for heating and cooling purposes. One of the solutions to reduce the energy consumption for the building is to improve construction techniques and enhance material technology. Recently, microcapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) with high energy storage capacity within the phase transition temperature of the materials is a potential method to conserve and save energy. A new composite materials with high energy storage capacity by mixing MPCM into concrete for passive building technology is the promising candidate to reduce the energy consumption. One of the most untilized building materials for mixing with MPCM is Portland cement concrete. However, the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to producing cement which plays the important role in the global warming is the main drawback of PCC. Accordingly, an environmentally friendly building material, geopolymer, which is synthesized by the reaction between the industrial waste material (aluminosilicate) and a strong alkali activator, is a potential materials to mixing with MPCM. Especially, the effect of MPCM on the thermal and mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete (GPC) is very limited. In this study, high thermal energy storage capacity materials were fabricated by mixing MPCM into geopolymer concrete. This article would investigate the effect of MPCM concentration on thermal and mechanical properties of GPC. The target is to balance the effect of MPCM on improving the thermal performance and maintaining the compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete at an acceptable level for building application.

Keywords: microencapsulated phase change materials, geopolymer concrete, energy storage capacity, thermal performance

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11291 Utilization of a Composite of Oil Ash, Scoria, and Expanded Perlite with Polyethylene Glycol for Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Khaled Own Mohaisen, Md. Hasan Zahir, Salah U. Al-Dulaijan, Shamsad Ahmad, Mohammed Maslehuddin


Shape-stabilized phase change materials (ss-PCMs) for energy storage systems were developed using perlite, scoria, and oil ash as a carrier, with polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 6000 as phase change material (PCM). Physical mixing using simple impregnation of ethanol evaporation technique method was carried out to fabricate the form stabilized PCM. The fabricated PCMs prevent leakage, reduce the supercooling effect and minimize recalescence problems of the PCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show that perlite composite (ExPP) has the highest latent heat of melting and freezing values of (141.6 J/g and 143.7 J/g) respectively, compared with oil ash (OAP) and scoria (SCP) composites. Moreover, ExPP has the highest impregnation ratio, energy storage efficiency, and energy storage capacity compared with OAP and SCP. However, OAP and SCP have higher thermal conductivity values compared to ExPP composites which accelerate the thermal storage response in the composite. These results were confirmed with DSC, and the characteristic of the PCMs was investigated by using XRD and FE-SEM techniques.

Keywords: expanded perlite, oil ash, scoria, energy storage material

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11290 Heat Transfer Enhancement of Structural Concretes Made of Macro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials

Authors: Ehsan Mohseni, Waiching Tang, Shanyong Wang


Low thermal conductivity of phase change materials (PCMs) affects the thermal performance and energy storage efficiency of latent heat thermal energy storage systems. In the current research, a structural lightweight concrete with function of indoor temperature control was developed using thermal energy storage aggregates (TESA) and nano-titanium (NT). The macro-encapsulated technique was served to incorporate the PCM into the lightweight aggregate through vacuum impregnation. The compressive strength was measured, and the thermal performance of concrete panel was evaluated by using a self-designed environmental chamber. The impact of NT on microstructure was also assessed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) tests. The test results indicated that NT was able to increase the compressive strength by filling the micro pores and making the microstructure denser and more homogeneous. In addition, the environmental chamber experiment showed that introduction of NT into TESA improved the heat transfer of composites noticeably. The changes were illustrated by the reduction in peak temperatures in the centre, outside and inside surfaces of concrete panels by the inclusion of NT. It can be concluded that NT particles had the capability to decrease the energy consumption and obtain higher energy storage efficiency by the reduction of indoor temperature.

Keywords: heat transfer, macro-encapsulation, microstructure properties, nanoparticles, phase change material

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11289 Rock-Bed Thermocline Storage: A Numerical Analysis of Granular Bed Behavior and Interaction with Storage Tank

Authors: Nahia H. Sassine, Frédéric-Victor Donzé, Arnaud Bruch, Barthélemy Harthong


Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems are central elements of various types of power plants operated using renewable energy sources. Packed bed TES can be considered as a cost–effective solution in concentrated solar power plants (CSP). Such a device is made up of a tank filled with a granular bed through which heat-transfer fluid circulates. However, in such devices, the tank might be subjected to catastrophic failure induced by a mechanical phenomenon known as thermal ratcheting. Thermal stresses are accumulated during cycles of loading and unloading until the failure happens. For instance, when rocks are used as storage material, the tank wall expands more than the solid medium during charge process, a gap is created between the rocks and tank walls and the filler material settles down to fill it. During discharge, the tank contracts against the bed, resulting in thermal stresses that may exceed the wall tank yield stress and generate plastic deformation. This phenomenon is repeated over the cycles and the tank will be slowly ratcheted outward until it fails. This paper aims at studying the evolution of tank wall stresses over granular bed thermal cycles, taking into account both thermal and mechanical loads, with a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM). Simulations were performed to study two different thermal configurations: (i) the tank is heated homogeneously along its height or (ii) with a vertical gradient of temperature. Then, the resulting loading stresses applied on the tank are compared as well the response of the internal granular material. Besides the study of the influence of different thermal configurations on the storage tank response, other parameters are varied, such as the internal angle of friction of the granular material, the dispersion of particles diameters as well as the tank’s dimensions. Then, their influences on the kinematics of the granular bed submitted to thermal cycles are highlighted.

Keywords: discrete element method (DEM), thermal cycles, thermal energy storage, thermocline

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11288 Paraffin/Expanded Perlite Composite as a Novel Form-Stable Phase Change Material for Latent Heat Energy Storage

Authors: Awni Alkhazaleh


Latent heat storage using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has attracted growing attention recently in the renewable energy utilization and building energy efficiency. Paraffin (PA) of low melting temperature, which is close to human comfort temperature in the range of 24-28 °C has been considered to be used in building applications. A form-stable composite Paraffin/Expanded perlite (PA-EP) has been prepared by retaining PA into porous particles of EP. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) is used to measure the thermal properties of PA in the form-stable composite with/without building materials. TGA (Thermal gravimetric analysis) shows that the composite is thermally stable. SEM (Scanning electron microscope) demonstrates that the layer structure of the EP particles is uniformly absorbed by PA. The mechanical properties in flexural mode have been discussed. The thermal energy storage performance has been evaluated using a small test room (100 mm ×100 mm ×100 mm) with thickness 10 mm. The flammability test of modified sample has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results confirm that the form-stable composite PA has the function of reducing building energy consumption.

Keywords: flammability, latent heat storage, paraffin, plasterboard

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11287 Soybean Oil Based Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Emre Basturk, Memet Vezir Kahraman


In many developing countries, with the rapid economic improvements, energy shortage and environmental issues have become a serious problem. Therefore, it has become a very critical issue to improve energy usage efficiency and also protect the environment. Thermal energy storage system is an essential approach to match the thermal energy claim and supply. Thermal energy can be stored by heating, cooling or melting a material with the energy and then enhancing accessible when the procedure is reversed. The overall thermal energy storage techniques are sorted as; latent heat or sensible heat thermal energy storage technology segments. Among these methods, latent heat storage is the most effective method of collecting thermal energy. Latent heat thermal energy storage depend on the storage material, emitting or discharging heat as it undergoes a solid to liquid, solid to solid or liquid to gas phase change or vice versa. Phase change materials (PCMs) are promising materials for latent heat storage applications due to their capacities to accumulate high latent heat storage per unit volume by phase change at an almost constant temperature. Phase change materials (PCMs) are being utilized to absorb, collect and discharge thermal energy during the cycle of melting and freezing, converting from one phase to another. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) can generally be arranged into three classes: organic materials, salt hydrates and eutectics. Many kinds of organic and inorganic PCMs and their blends have been examined as latent heat storage materials. Organic PCMs are rather expensive and they have average latent heat storage per unit volume and also have low density. Most organic PCMs are combustible in nature and also have a wide range of melting point. Organic PCMs can be categorized into two major categories: non-paraffinic and paraffin materials. Paraffin materials have been extensively used, due to their high latent heat and right thermal characteristics, such as minimal super cooling, varying phase change temperature, low vapor pressure while melting, good chemical and thermal stability, and self-nucleating behavior. Ultraviolet (UV)-curing technology has been generally used because it has many advantages, such as low energy consumption , high speed, high chemical stability, room-temperature operation, low processing costs and environmental friendly. For many years, PCMs have been used for heating and cooling industrial applications including textiles, refrigerators, construction, transportation packaging for temperature-sensitive products, a few solar energy based systems, biomedical and electronic materials. In this study, UV-curable, fatty alcohol containing soybean oil based phase change materials (PCMs) were obtained and characterized. The phase transition behaviors and thermal stability of the prepared UV-cured biobased PCMs were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The heating process phase change enthalpy is measured between 30 and 68 J/g, and the freezing process phase change enthalpy is found between 18 and 70 J/g. The decomposition of UVcured PCMs started at 260 ºC and reached a maximum of 430 ºC.

Keywords: fatty alcohol, phase change material, thermal energy storage, UV curing

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11286 Design of a Solar Water Heating System with Thermal Storage for a Three-Bedroom House in Newfoundland

Authors: Ahmed Aisa, Tariq Iqbal


This letter talks about the ready-to-use design of a solar water heating system because, in Canada, the average consumption of hot water per person is approximately 50 to 75 L per day and the average Canadian household uses 225 L. Therefore, this paper will demonstrate the method of designing a solar water heating system with thermal storage. It highlights the renewable hybrid power system, allowing you to obtain a reliable, independent system with the optimization of the ingredient size and at an improved capital cost. The system can provide hot water for a big building. The main power for the system comes from solar panels. Solar Advisory Model (SAM) and HOMER are used. HOMER and SAM are design models that calculate the consumption of hot water and cost for a house. Some results, obtained through simulation, were for monthly energy production, annual energy production, after tax cash flow, the lifetime of the system and monthly energy usage represented by three types of energy. These are system energy, electricity load electricity and net metering credit.

Keywords: water heating, thermal storage, capital cost solar, consumption

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11285 Development of a CFD Model for PCM Based Energy Storage in a Vertical Triplex Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Pratibha Biswal, Suyash Morchhale, Anshuman Singh Yadav, Shubham Sanjay Chobe


Energy demands are increasing whereas energy sources, especially non-renewable sources are limited. Due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, it has become the need of the hour to find new ways to store energy. Out of various energy storage methods, latent heat thermal storage devices are becoming popular due to their high energy density per unit mass and volume at nearly constant temperature. This work presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model using ANSYS FLUENT 19.0 for energy storage characteristics of a phase change material (PCM) filled in a vertical triplex tube thermal energy storage system. A vertical triplex tube heat exchanger, just like its name consists of three concentric tubes (pipe sections) for parting the device into three fluid domains. The PCM is filled in the middle domain with heat transfer fluids flowing in the outer and innermost domains. To enhance the heat transfer inside the PCM, eight fins have been incorporated between the internal and external tubes. These fins run radially outwards from the outer-wall of innermost tube to the inner-wall of the middle tube dividing the middle domain (between innermost and middle tube) into eight sections. These eight sections are then filled with a PCM. The validation is carried with earlier work and a grid independence test is also presented. Further studies on freezing and melting process were carried out. The results are presented in terms of pictorial representation of isotherms and liquid fraction

Keywords: heat exchanger, thermal energy storage, phase change material, CFD, latent heat

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11284 Development of Expanded Perlite-Caprylicacid Composite for Temperature Maintainance in Buildings

Authors: Akhila Konala, Jagadeeswara Reddy Vennapusa, Sujay Chattopadhyay


The energy consumption of humankind is growing day by day due to an increase in the population, industrialization and their needs for living. Fossil fuels are the major source of energy to satisfy energy needs, which are non-renewable energy resources. So, there is a need to develop green resources for energy production and storage. Phase change materials (PCMs) derived from plants (green resources) are well known for their capacity to store the thermal energy as latent heat during their phase change from solid to liquid. This property of PCM could be used for storage of thermal energy. In this study, a composite with fatty acid (caprylic acid; M.P 15°C, Enthalpy 179kJ/kg) as a phase change material and expanded perlite as support porous matrix was prepared through direct impregnation method for thermal energy storage applications. The prepared composite was characterized using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The melting point of the prepared composite was 15.65°C, and the melting enthalpy was 82kJ/kg. The surface nature of the perlite was observed through FESEM. It was observed that there are micro size pores in the perlite surface, which were responsible for the absorption of PCM into perlite. In TGA thermogram, the PCM loss from composite was started at ~90°C. FTIR curves proved there was no chemical interaction between the perlite and caprylic acid. So, the PCM composite prepared in this work could be effective to use in temperature maintenance of buildings.

Keywords: caprylic acid, composite, phase change materials, PCM, perlite, thermal energy

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11283 Impact of Nanoparticles in Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity of Phase Change Materials in Thermal Energy Storage and Cooling of Concentrated Photovoltaics

Authors: Ismaila H. Zarma, Mahmoud Ahmed, Shinichi Ookawara, Hamdi Abo-Ali


Phase change materials (PCM) are an ideal thermal storage medium. They are characterized by a high latent heat, which allows them to store large amounts of energy when the material transitions into different physical states. Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems are widely recognized as the most efficient form of Photovoltaic (PV) for thermal energy which can be stored in Phase Change Materials (PCM). However, PCMs often have a low thermal conductivity which leads to a slow transient response. This makes it difficult to quickly store and access the energy stored within the PCM based systems, so there is need to improve transient responses and increase the thermal conductivity. The present study aims to investigate and analyze the melting and solidification process of phase change materials (PCMs) enhanced by nanoparticle contained in a container. Heat flux from concentrated photovoltaic is applied in an attempt to analyze the thermal performance and the impact of nanoparticles. The work will be realized by using a two dimensional model which take into account the phase change phenomena based on the principle of enthalpy method. Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate heat and flow characteristics by using governing equations, to ascertain the impacts of the nanoparticle loading. The Rayleigh number, sub-cooling as well as the unsteady evolution of the melting front and the velocity and temperature fields were also observed. The predicted results exhibited a good agreement, showing thermal enhancement due to present of nanoparticle which leads to decreasing the melting time.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, phase-change material, nanoparticle, concentrated photovoltaic

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11282 Integration of Icf Walls as Diurnal Solar Thermal Storage with Microchannel Solar Assisted Heat Pump for Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water Production

Authors: Mohammad Emamjome Kashan, Alan S. Fung


In Canada, more than 32% of the total energy demand is related to the building sector. Therefore, there is a great opportunity for Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction by integrating solar collectors to provide building heating load and domestic hot water (DHW). Despite the cold winter weather, Canada has a good number of sunny and clear days that can be considered for diurnal solar thermal energy storage. Due to the energy mismatch between building heating load and solar irradiation availability, relatively big storage tanks are usually needed to store solar thermal energy during the daytime and then use it at night. On the other hand, water tanks occupy huge space, especially in big cities, space is relatively expensive. This project investigates the possibility of using a specific building construction material (ICF – Insulated Concrete Form) as diurnal solar thermal energy storage that is integrated with a heat pump and microchannel solar thermal collector (MCST). Not much literature has studied the application of building pre-existing walls as active solar thermal energy storage as a feasible and industrialized solution for the solar thermal mismatch. By using ICF walls that are integrated into the building envelope, instead of big storage tanks, excess solar energy can be stored in the concrete of the ICF wall that consists of EPS insulation layers on both sides to store the thermal energy. In this study, two solar-based systems are designed and simulated inTransient Systems Simulation Program(TRNSYS)to compare ICF wall thermal storage benefits over the system without ICF walls. In this study, the heating load and DHW of a Canadian single-family house located in London, Ontario, are provided by solar-based systems. The proposed system integrates the MCST collector, a water-to-water HP, a preheat tank, the main tank, fan coils (to deliver the building heating load), and ICF walls. During the day, excess solar energy is stored in the ICF walls (charging cycle). Thermal energy can be restored from the ICF walls when the preheat tank temperature drops below the ICF wall (discharging process) to increase the COP of the heat pump. The evaporator of the heat pump is taking is coupled with the preheat tank. The provided warm water by the heat pump is stored in the second tank. Fan coil units are in contact with the tank to provide a building heating load. DHW is also delivered is provided from the main tank. It is investigated that the system with ICF walls with an average solar fraction of 82%- 88% can cover the whole heating demand+DHW of nine months and has a 10-15% higher average solar fraction than the system without ICF walls. Sensitivity analysis for different parameters influencing the solar fraction is discussed in detail.

Keywords: net-zero building, renewable energy, solar thermal storage, microchannel solar thermal collector

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11281 Kaolinite-Assisted Microencapsulation of Octodecane for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Ting Pan, Jiacheng Wang, Pengcheng Lin, Ying Chen, Songping Mo


Phase change materials (PCMs) are widely used in latent heat thermal energy storage because of their good properties such as high energy storage density and constant heat-storage/release temperature. Microencapsulation techniques can prevent PCMs from leaking during the liquid-solid phase transition and enhance thermal properties. This technique has been widely applied in architectural materials, thermo-regulated textiles, aerospace fields, etc. One of the most important processes during the synthesis of microcapsules is to form a stable emulsion of the PCM core and reactant solution for the formation of the shell of the microcapsules. The use of surfactants is usually necessary for the formation of a stable emulsion system because of the difference in hydrophilia/lipophilicity of the PCM and the solvent. Unfortunately, the use of surfactants may cause pollution to the environment. In this study, modified kaolinite was used as an emulsion stabilizer for the microencapsulation of octodecane as PCM. Microcapsules were synthesized by phase inversion emulsification method, and the shell of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was formed through free radical polymerization. The morphologies, crystalloid phase, and crystallization properties of microcapsules were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TG). The FT-IR, XRD results showed that the octodecane was well encapsulated in the PMMA shell. The SEM results showed that the microcapsules were spheres with an average size of about 50-100nm. The DSC results indicated that the latent heat of the microcapsules was 152.64kJ/kg and 164.23kJ/kg. The TG results confirmed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability due to the PMMA shell. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the modified kaolinite can be used as an emulsifier for the synthesis of PCM microcapsules, which is valid for reducing part of the possible pollution caused by the utilization of surfactants.

Keywords: kaolinite, microencapsulation, PCM, thermal energy storage

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11280 Useful Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Energy Storage

Authors: Dong Won Kim, Hye Ji Kim, Hyun Young Jung


Improved energy storage is inevitably needed to improve energy efficiency and to be environmentally friendly to chemical processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) can play a crucial role in addressing these needs due to inherent adjustable properties including low volatility, low flammability, inherent conductivity, wide liquid range, broad electrochemical window, high thermal stability, and recyclability. Here, binary mixtures of ILs were prepared with fumed silica nanoparticles and characterized to obtain ILs with conductivity and electrochemical properties optimized for use in energy storage devices. The solutes were prepared by varying the size and the weight percent concentration of the nanoparticles and made up 10 % of the binary mixture by weight. We report on the physical and electrochemical properties of the individual ILs and their binary mixtures.

Keywords: ionic liquid, silica nanoparticle, energy storage, electrochemical properties

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11279 Investigation of Heat Transfer Mechanism Inside Shell and Tube Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Saeid Seddegh, Xiaolin Wang, Alan D. Henderson, Dong Chen, Oliver Oims


The main objective of this research is to study the heat transfer processes and phase change behaviour of a phase change material (PCM) in shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. The thermal behaviour in a vertical and horizontal shell-and-tube heat energy storage system using a pure thermal conduction model and a combined conduction-convection heat transfer model is compared in this paper. The model is first validated using published experimental data available in literature and then used to study the temperature variation, solid-liquid interface, phase distribution, total melting and solidification time during melting and solidification processes of PCMs. The simulated results show that the combined convection and conduction model can better describe the energy transfer in PCMs during melting process. In contrast, heat transfer by conduction is more significant during the solidification process since the two models show little difference. Also, it was concluded that during the charging process for the horizontal orientation, convective heat transfer has a strong effect on melting of the upper part of the solid PCM and is less significant during melting of the lower half of the solid PCM. However, in the vertical orientation, convective heat transfer is the same active during the entire charging process. In the solidification process, the thermal behavior does not show any difference between horizontal and vertical systems.

Keywords: latent heat thermal energy storage, phase change material, natural convection, melting, shell and tube heat exchanger, melting, solidification

Procedia PDF Downloads 500