Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: startup

50 Effect of Financial and Institutional Ecosystems on Startup Mergers and Acquisitions

Authors: Saurabh Ahluwalia, Sul Kassicieh

Abstract:

The conventional wisdom has maintained that being in proximity to entrepreneurial ecosystems helps startups to raise financing, develop and grow. In this paper, we examine the effect of a major component of an entrepreneurial ecosystem- financial or venture capital clusters on the exit of a startup through mergers and acquisitions (M&A). We find that the presence of a venture capitalist in a venture capital (VC) cluster is a major success factor for M&A exits. The location of startups in the top VC clusters did not turn out to be significant for success. Our results are robust to different specifications of the model that use different time periods, types of success, the reputation of VC, industry and the quality of the startup company. Our results provide evidence for VCs, startups and policymakers who want to better understand the components of entrepreneurial ecosystems and their relation to the M&A exits of startups.

Keywords: financial institution, mergers and acquisitions, startup financing, venture capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
49 Startup Ecosystem in India: Development and Impact

Authors: Soham Chakraborty

Abstract:

This article examines the development of start-up culture in India, its development as well as related impact on the Indian society. Another vibrant synonym of start-up in the present century can be starting afresh. Startups have become the new flavor of this decade. A startup ecosystem is formed by mainly the new generation in the making. A startup ecosystem involves a variety of elements without which a startup can never prosper, they are—ideas, inventions, innovations as well as authentic research in the field into which one is interested, mentors, advisors, funding bodies, service provider organizations, angel, venture and so on. The culture of startup is quiet nascent but rampant in India. This is largely due to the widespread of media as a medium through which the newfangled entrepreneurs can spread their word of mouth far and wide. Different kinds of media such as Television, Radio, Internet, Print media and so on, act as the weapon to any startup company in India. The article explores how there is a sudden shift in the growing Indian economy due to the rise of startup ecosystem. There are various reasons, which are the result of the growing success of startup in India, firstly, entrepreneurs are building up startup ideas on the basis of various international startup but giving them a pinch of Indian flavor; secondly, business models are framed based on the current problems that people face in the modern century; thirdly, balance between social and technological entrepreneurs and lastly, quality of mentorship. The Government of India boasts startup as a flagship initiative. Bunch full of benefits and assistance was declared in an event named as 'Start Up India, Stand Up India' on 16th January 2016 by the current Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi. One of the biggest boon that increasing startups are creating in the society is the proliferation of self-employment. Noted Startups which are thriving in India are like OYO, Where’s The Food (WTF), TVF Pitchers, Flipkart and so on are examples of India is getting covered up by various innovative startups. The deep impact can be felt by each Indian after a few years as various governmental and non-governmental policies and agendas are helping in the sprawling up of startups and have mushroom growth in India. The impact of startup uprising in India is also possible due to increasing globalization which is leading to the eradication of national borders, thereby creating the environment to enlarge one’s business model. To conclude, this article points out on the correlation between rising startup in Indian market and its increasing developmental benefits for the people at large. Internationally, various business portals are tagging India to be the world’s fastest growing startup ecosystem.

Keywords: business, ecosystem, entrepreneurs, media, globalization, startup

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
48 Building Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in the Beginning of a Startup Nation: Case of Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc T. B. Hoang

Abstract:

With a young population showing a greatly entrepreneurial spirit, Vietnam has become a potential land for a growing knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem (KBEE). KBEE is the key to new job formation, and well solution for the crisis of unemployment of higher education graduates and powerful engine for knowledge-based development and building the knowledge based economy in Vietnam. Consequently, Vietnam is attempting to build a healthy KBEE, giving local entrepreneurs more opportunities to develop their businesses. The purpose of the research article is to sketch up a general map to show the current situation of Vietnam's startup ecosystem in the beginning of a startup nation and take into consideration the influence of socio-cultural norms, institutional landscape and socio-economic factors on motivation to develop a KBEE. This paper also proposes a qualitative approach to explore the relationship between these and other elements of Vietnamese entrepreneurial ecosystems. Eventually, viable recommendations are drawn for Vietnamese entrepreneurs and policymakers to improve the quality of the knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem in Vietnam.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem, startup ecosystem, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
47 Data-driven Decision-Making in Digital Entrepreneurship

Authors: Abeba Nigussie Turi, Xiangming Samuel Li

Abstract:

Data-driven business models are more typical for established businesses than early-stage startups that strive to penetrate a market. This paper provided an extensive discussion on the principles of data analytics for early-stage digital entrepreneurial businesses. Here, we developed data-driven decision-making (DDDM) framework that applies to startups prone to multifaceted barriers in the form of poor data access, technical and financial constraints, to state some. The startup DDDM framework proposed in this paper is novel in its form encompassing startup data analytics enablers and metrics aligning with startups' business models ranging from customer-centric product development to servitization which is the future of modern digital entrepreneurship.

Keywords: startup data analytics, data-driven decision-making, data acquisition, data generation, digital entrepreneurship

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
46 The Morphing Avatar of Startup Sales - Destination Virtual Reality

Authors: Sruthi Kannan

Abstract:

The ongoing covid pandemic has accelerated digital transformation like never before. The physical barriers brought in as a result of the pandemic are being bridged by digital alternatives. While basic collaborative activities like voice, video calling, screen sharing have been replicated in these alternatives, there are several others that require a more intimate setup. Pitching, showcasing, and providing demonstrations are an integral part of selling strategies for startups. Traditionally these have been in-person engagements, enabling a depth of understanding of the startups’ offerings. In the new normal scenario of virtual-only connects, startups are feeling the brunt of the lack of in-person connections with potential customers and investors. This poster demonstrates how a virtual reality platform has been conceptualized and custom-built for startups to engage with their stakeholders and redefine their selling strategies. This virtual reality platform is intended to provide an immersive experience for startup showcases and offers the nearest possible alternative to physical meetings for the startup ecosystem, thereby opening newer frontiers for entrepreneurial collaborations.

Keywords: collaboration, sales, startups, strategy, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
45 The Establishment of RELAP5/SNAP Model for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: C. Shih, J. R. Wang, H. C. Chang, S. W. Chen, S. C. Chiang, T. Y. Yu

Abstract:

After the measurement uncertainty recapture (MUR) power uprates, Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) was uprated the power from 2894 MWt to 2943 MWt. For power upgrade, several codes (e.g., TRACE, RELAP5, etc.) were applied to assess the safety of Kuosheng NPP. Hence, the main work of this research is to establish a RELAP5/MOD3.3 model of Kuosheng NPP with SNAP interface. The establishment of RELAP5/SNAP model was referred to the FSAR, training documents, and TRACE model which has been developed and verified before. After completing the model establishment, the startup test scenarios would be applied to the RELAP5/SNAP model. With comparing the startup test data and TRACE analysis results, the applicability of RELAP5/SNAP model would be assessed.

Keywords: RELAP5, TRACE, SNAP, BWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
44 Together - A Decentralized Application Connects Ideas and Investors

Authors: Chandragiri Nagadeep, M. V. V. S. Durga, Sadu Mahikshith

Abstract:

Future generation is depended on new ideas and innovations that develops the country economical growth and technology standards so, Startups plays an important role in satisfying above goals. Startups includes support which is given by investing into it by investors but, single digit investors can’t keep supporting one startup and lot of security problems occurs while transferring large funds to startup’s bank account. Targeting security and most supportive funding, TogEther solves these issues by providing a platform where “Crowd Funding” is available in a decentralized way such that funding is done with digital currency called cryptocurrency where transactions are done in a secured way using “Block Chain Technology”. Not only Funding but also Ideas along with their documents can be presented and hosted with help of IPFS (Inter Planetary File System).

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, web3, reactjs, interplanetary file system, funding

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43 A Model for Analyzing the Startup Dynamics of a Belt Transmission Driven by a DC Motor

Authors: Giovanni Incerti

Abstract:

In this paper the dynamic behavior of a synchronous belt drive during start-up is analyzed and discussed. Besides considering the belt elasticity, the mathematical model here proposed also takes into consideration the electrical behaviour of the DC motor. The solution of the motion equations is obtained by means of the modal analysis in state space, which allows to obtain the decoupling of all equations of the mathematical model without introducing the hypothesis of proportional damping. The mathematical model of the transmission and the solution algorithms have been implemented within a computing software that allows the user to simulate the dynamics of the system and to evaluate the effects due to the elasticity of the belt branches and to the electromagnetic behavior of the DC motor. In order to show the details of the calculation procedure, the paper presents a case study developed with the aid of the abovementioned software.

Keywords: belt drive, vibrations, startup, DC motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
42 A 5-V to 30-V Current-Mode Boost Converter with Integrated Current Sensor and Power-on Protection

Authors: Jun Yu, Yat-Hei Lam, Boris Grinberg, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan

Abstract:

This paper presents a 5-V to 30-V current-mode boost converter for powering the drive circuit of a micro-electro-mechanical sensor. The design of a transconductance amplifier and an integrated current sensing circuit are presented. In addition, essential building blocks for power-on protection such as a soft-start and clamp block and supply and clock ready block are discussed in details. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the soft-start and clamp block can effectively limit the inrush current during startup and protect the boost converter from startup failure.

Keywords: boost converter, current sensing, power-on protection, step-up converter, soft-start

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
41 The Impact of the Corona Virus Outbreak Crisis on Startups

Authors: Mohammad Mehdizadeh, Sara Miri

Abstract:

Due to the recent events surrounding the global health crisis and the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19), the activities of many businesses and start-up companies have been disrupted. It solves many economic problems and can reduce unemployment in countries because governments can take advantage of their potential without direct investment. However, with the help of their innovative ideas and new technologies, these companies can develop and grow the economy. But it is essential to consider that there will be no guarantee of their success in the event of unforeseen events, as the coronavirus outbreak in the last two years has seriously damaged these companies and, like other businesses, challenges and stagnation have started. The startup companies' challenge in the face of coronavirus begins with its impact on customers. Changing customer behavior can affect their products and distribution channels. On the other hand, to prevent countless losses in this crisis, startup companies require creative solutions to address challenges in various areas of human capital, supply chain management, sales and marketing, and so on. Therefore, all business leaders must consider and plan for the current crisis and the future; after overcoming these conditions and returning to regular business routines, it will no longer be an option, and new situations will prevail in a competitive environment. The essential strategies for developing and growing startups during the Coronavirus outbreak can be connecting with the global startup ecosystem, hosting webinars, providing podcasts and free question and answer sessions, mentoring services to growing teams, and consulting pointed out this to firms for digitalization.

Keywords: business, COVID-19, digitalization, startups

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
40 Entrepreneurial Leadership in a Startup Context: A Comparative Study on Two Egyptian Startup Businesses

Authors: Nada Basset

Abstract:

Problem Statement: The study examines the important role of leading change inside start-ups and highlights the challenges faced by an entrepreneur during the startup phase of the business. Research Methods/Procedures/Approaches: A qualitative research approach is taken, using the case study analysis method. A comparative study was made between two day care nurseries in Greater Cairo. Non-probability purposive sampling was used and a triangulation of semi-structured interviews, document analysis and participant-observation were applied simultaneously. The in-depth case study analysis took place over a longitudinal study of four calendar months. Results/Findings: Findings demonstrated that leading change in an entrepreneurial setup must be initiated by the entrepreneur, who must also be the owner of the change process. Another important finding showed that the culture of change, although created by the entrepreneur, needs the support and engagement of followers, who should be sharing the same value system and vision of the entrepreneur. Conclusions and Implications: An important implication suggests that during the first year of a start-up lifecycle, special emphasis must be made to the recruitment and selection of personnel, who should play a role into setting the new start-up culture and help it grow or shrink. Another drawn conclusion is that the success of the change must be measured in both quantitative and qualitative terms. Increasing revenues and customer attrition rates -as quantitative KPIs- must be aligned with other qualitative KPIs like customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and organizational commitment and business reputation. Originality of Paper: The paper addresses change management in an entrepreneurial concept, with an empirical application on an Egyptian start-up model providing a service to both adults and children. This privileges the research as the constructs measured merged together the level of satisfaction of employees, decision-makers (parents of children), and the users (children).

Keywords: leadership, change management, entrepreneurship, startup business

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
39 Maximizing Profit Using Optimal Control by Exploiting the Flexibility in Thermal Power Plants

Authors: Daud Mustafa Minhas, Raja Rehan Khalid, Georg Frey

Abstract:

The next generation power systems are equipped with abundantly available free renewable energy resources (RES). During their low-cost operations, the price of electricity significantly reduces to a lower value, and sometimes it becomes negative. Therefore, it is recommended not to operate the traditional power plants (e.g. coal power plants) and to reduce the losses. In fact, it is not a cost-effective solution, because these power plants exhibit some shutdown and startup costs. Moreover, they require certain time for shutdown and also need enough pause before starting up again, increasing inefficiency in the whole power network. Hence, there is always a trade-off between avoiding negative electricity prices, and the startup costs of power plants. To exploit this trade-off and to increase the profit of a power plant, two main contributions are made: 1) introducing retrofit technology for state of art coal power plant; 2) proposing optimal control strategy for a power plant by exploiting different flexibility features. These flexibility features include: improving ramp rate of power plant, reducing startup time and lowering minimum load. While, the control strategy is solved as mixed integer linear programming (MILP), ensuring optimal solution for the profit maximization problem. Extensive comparisons are made considering pre and post-retrofit coal power plant having the same efficiencies under different electricity price scenarios. It concludes that if the power plant must remain in the market (providing services), more flexibility reflects direct economic advantage to the plant operator.

Keywords: discrete optimization, power plant flexibility, profit maximization, unit commitment model

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
38 The SOCI Strategy as a Method to Meet the Innovation Challenges of COVID-19

Authors: Victoria Wolf, Renata Dobrucka, Robert Prezkop, Stephan Haubold

Abstract:

The COVID-19 causes a worldwide crisis and has an impact in every dimension of the economy. Organizations with the ability to adapt to new developments and which innovate solutions for the disrupted world during and after the Corona crises have the opportunity to not only survive the crisis but rather to use new trends to implement new business models and gain advantage. In this context, startups seem to have better opportunities to manage the Corona crisis through their innovation-based nature. The main result of this paper is the understanding that by applying a startup orientated innovation (SOCI) strategy, established companies can be motivated to meet the challenge of COVID-19 in a similar way like startups. This result can be achieved by describing the role of innovation and a SOCI strategy as helpful methods for organizations to meet the coming challenges during and after the COVID-19 epidemics. In addition to this, this paper presents a practical application of SOCI through the PANDA approach of the Fresenius University of Applied Sciences in Germany and discuss it in the context of COVID-19 as an exemplary successful real-world implementation of SOCI strategy.

Keywords: Covid-19, innovation, open innovation, startup, soci framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
37 Study of Incubation Centres and Its Role in Fostering Entrepreneurship in India with Special Reference to Centres Set up in IIMs/IITs

Authors: Kalpeshkumar L. Gupta, Shivali Rathore

Abstract:

India is home to over 30 crore rural poor, aware of the criticality of the situation that has made to come with an innovative business idea. Entrepreneurship in India is on the verge of explosive growth and which is actually need of an hour for employment generation, poverty elevation at grass root through developmental intervention. India economic progress has started from the development of its small and medium scale enterprises to ensure that the sectors continues to stay competitive and achieve sustained growth in the era of global economy many incubators centers has been established with the mission to give the encouragement to many innovative ideas. If we define an Incubator, it is simply an enclosed apparatus in which premature small babies are placed and which provides a controlled and protective environment for their care this gives them a chance to adjust to outside environment, and grow stronger before they face the outside world. In a similar way the startup entrepreneur’s business idea is incubated in the incubation centers. Entrepreneurship has been conventionally rated as risky career, to break the myth and to augment the supply of new entrepreneurs through education; research training the incubation centers has been established, their goal is to help create and grow young businesses by providing them with necessary support and financial and technical services. The startup companies spend on an average two years in a business incubator during which numerous benefits like funding, office space, equipment’s etc. is provided by the incubators to the startup business. Present paper will study the background, role, objectives of different incubators set up in Indian Institute of Management (IIMs) and Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) for our study.

Keywords: incubation centres, entrepreneurship, Indian Institute of Management, Indian Institute of Technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
36 Company's Orientation and Human Resource Management Evolution in Technological Startup Companies

Authors: Yael Livneh, Shay Tzafrir, Ilan Meshoulam

Abstract:

Technological startup companies have been recognized as bearing tremendous potential for business and economic success. However, many entrepreneurs who produce promising innovative ideas fail to implement them as successful businesses. A key argument for such failure is the entrepreneurs' lack of competence in adaptation of the relevant level of formality of human resource management (HRM). The purpose of the present research was to examine multiple antecedents and consequences of HRM formality in growing startup companies. A review of the research literature identified two central components of HRM formality: HR control and professionalism. The effect of three contextual predictors was examined. The first was an intra-organizational factor: the development level of the organization. We based on a differentiation between knowledge exploration and knowledge exploitation. At a given time, the organization chooses to focus on a specific mix of these orientations, a choice which requires an appropriate level of HRM formality, in order to efficiently overcome the challenges. It was hypothesized that the mix of orientations of knowledge exploration and knowledge exploitation would predict HRM formality. The second predictor was the personal characteristics the organization's leader. According the idea of blueprint effect of CEO's on HRM, it was hypothesized that the CEO's cognitive style would predict HRM formality. The third contextual predictor was an external organizational factor: the level of investor involvement. By using the agency theory, and based on Transaction Cost Economy, it was hypothesized that the level of investor involvement in general management and HRM would be positively related to the HRM formality. The effect of formality on trust was examined directly and indirectly by the mediation role of procedural justice. The research method included a time-lagged field study. In the first study, data was obtained using three questionnaires, each directed to a different source: CEO, HR position-holder and employees. 43 companies participated in this study. The second study was conducted approximately a year later. Data was recollected using three questionnaires by reapplying the same sample. 41 companies participated in the second study. The organizations samples included technological startup companies. Both studies included 884 respondents. The results indicated consistency between the two studies. HRM formality was predicted by the intra-organizational factor as well as the personal characteristics of the CEO, but not at all by the external organizational context. Specifically, the organizational orientations was the greatest contributor to both components of HRM formality. The cognitive style predicted formality to a lesser extent. The investor's involvement was found not to have any predictive effect on the HRM formality. The results indicated a positive contribution to trust in HRM, mainly via the mediation of procedural justice. This study contributed a new concept for technological startup company development by a mixture of organizational orientation. Practical implications indicated that the level of HRM formality should be matched to that of the company's development. This match should be challenged and adjusted periodically by referring to the organization orientation, relevant HR practices, and HR function characteristics. A relevant matching could enhance further trust and business success.

Keywords: control, formality, human resource management, organizational development, professionalism, technological startup company

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
35 Virtual Reality for Chemical Engineering Unit Operations

Authors: Swee Kun Yap, Sachin Jangam, Suraj Vasudevan

Abstract:

Experiential learning is dubbed as a highly effective way to enhance learning. Virtual reality (VR) is thus a helpful tool in providing a safe, memorable, and interactive learning environment. A class of 49 fluid mechanics students participated in starting up a pump, one of the most used equipment in the chemical industry, in VR. They experience the process in VR to familiarize themselves with the safety training and the standard operating procedure (SOP) in guided mode. Students subsequently observe their peers (in groups of 4 to 5) complete the same training. The training first brings each user through the personal protection equipment (PPE) selection, before guiding the user through a series of steps for pump startup. One of the most common feedback given by industries include the weakness of our graduates in pump design and operation. Traditional fluid mechanics is a highly theoretical module loaded with engineering equations, providing limited opportunity for visualization and operation. With VR pump, students can now learn to startup, shutdown, troubleshoot and observe the intricacies of a centrifugal pump in a safe and controlled environment, thereby bridging the gap between theory and practical application. Following the completion of the guided mode operation, students then individually complete the VR assessment for pump startup on the same day, which requires students to complete the same series of steps, without any cues given in VR to test their recollection rate. While most students miss out a few minor steps such as the checking of lubrication oil and the closing of minor drain valves before pump priming, all the students scored full marks in the PPE selection, and over 80% of the students were able to complete all the critical steps that are required to startup a pump safely. The students were subsequently tested for their recollection rate by means of an online quiz 3 weeks later, and it is again found that over 80% of the students were able to complete the critical steps in the correct order. In the survey conducted, students reported that the VR experience has been enjoyable and enriching, and 79.5% of the students voted to include VR as a positive supplementary exercise in addition to traditional teaching methods. One of the more notable feedback is the higher ease of noticing and learning from mistakes as an observer rather than as a VR participant. Thus, the cycling between being a VR participant and an observer has helped tremendously in their knowledge retention. This reinforces the positive impact VR has on learning.

Keywords: experiential learning, learning by doing, pump, unit operations, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
34 Success Factors and Challenges of Startup Businesses in a Crisis Context

Authors: Joanna Konstantinou

Abstract:

The study is about the challenges faced by entrepreneurs in a crisis context and in turbulent economies. The scope is to determine which factors, if any, are related to the success of a new business venture, such as innovation, access to funding and capital, enhanced digital skills, employment relations and organizational culture as well as a company’s strategic orientation towards international markets. The crisis context has been recorded to have affected the number of SMEs in the Greek economy, the number of people employed as well as the volume of the output produced. Although not all SMEs have been equally impacted by the crisis, which has been identified to affect certain sectors more than others, and although research is not exhaustive in that end, employment relations and patterns, firm’s age, and innovation practices in relation to employees’ learning curve seem to have a positive correlation with the successful survival and resilience of the firm. The aim is to identify important factors that can contribute positively to the success of a startup business, and that will allow businesses to acquire resilience and survive economic adversities, and it will focus on businesses of the Greek economy, the country with the longer lasting economic crisis and the findings will be lessons to learn for other economies.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, innovation, crisis, challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
33 Fuzzy and Fuzzy-PI Controller for Rotor Speed of Gas Turbine

Authors: Mandar Ghodekar, Sharad Jadhav, Sangram Jadhav

Abstract:

Speed control of rotor during startup and under varying load conditions is one of the most difficult tasks of gas turbine operation. In this paper, power plant gas turbine (GE9001E) is considered for this purpose and fuzzy and fuzzy-PI rotor speed controllers are designed. The goal of the presented controllers is to keep the turbine rotor speed within predefined limits during startup condition as well as during operating condition. The fuzzy controller and fuzzy-PI controller are designed using Takagi-Sugeno method and Mamdani method, respectively. In applying the fuzzy-PI control to a gas-turbine plant, the tuning parameters (Kp and Ki) are modified online by fuzzy logic approach. Error and rate of change of error are inputs and change in fuel flow is output for both the controllers. Hence, rotor speed of gas turbine is controlled by modifying the fuel ƒflow. The identified linear ARX model of gas turbine is considered while designing the controllers. For simulations, demand power is taken as disturbance input. It is assumed that inlet guide vane (IGV) position is fixed. In addition, the constraint on the fuel flow is taken into account. The performance of the presented controllers is compared with each other as well as with H∞ robust and MPC controllers for the same operating conditions in simulations.

Keywords: gas turbine, fuzzy controller, fuzzy PI controller, power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
32 Diagnosis of Induction Machine Faults by DWT

Authors: Hamidreza Akbari

Abstract:

In this paper, for detection of inclined eccentricity in an induction motor, time–frequency analysis of the stator startup current is carried out. For this purpose, the discrete wavelet transform is used. Data are obtained from simulations, using winding function approach. The results show the validity of the approach for detecting the fault and discriminating with respect to other faults.

Keywords: induction machine, fault, DWT, electric

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
31 Effects of Seed Culture and Attached Growth System on the Performance of Anammox Hybrid Reactor (AHR) Treating Nitrogenous Wastewater

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The start-up of anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in hybrid reactor delineated four distinct phases i.e. cell lysis, lag phase, activity elevation and stationary phase. Cell lysis phase was marked by death and decay of heterotrophic denitrifiers resulting in breakdown of organic nitrogen into ammonium. Lag phase showed initiation of anammox activity with turnover of heterotrophic denitrifiers, which is evident from appearance of NO3-N in the effluent. In activity elevation phase, anammox became the dominant reaction, which can be attributed to consequent reduction of NH4-N into N2 with increased NO3-N in the effluent. Proper selection of mixed seed culture at influent NO2-/NH4+ ratio (1:1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day led to early startup of anammox within 70 days. Pseudo steady state removal efficiencies of NH4+ and NO2- were found as 94.3% and 96.4% respectively, at nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.35 kg N/m3d at an HRT of 1 day. Analysis of the data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 11% increase in the ammonium removal and results in an average of 29% reduction in sludge washout rate. Mass balance study of nitrogen indicated that 74.1% of total input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2% being utilized in biomass development. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge clearly showed the presence of cocci and rod shaped microorganisms intermingled on the external surface of the granules. The average size of anammox granules (1.2-1.5 mm) with an average settling velocity of 45.6 m/h indicated a high degree of granulation resulting into formation of well compacted granules in the anammox process.

Keywords: anammox, hybrid reactor, startup, granulation, nitrogen removal, mixed seed culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
30 Exploring Management of the Fuzzy Front End of Innovation in a Product Driven Startup Company

Authors: Dmitry K. Shaytan, Georgy D. Laptev

Abstract:

In our research we aimed to test a managerial approach for the fuzzy front end (FFE) of innovation by creating controlled experiment/ business case in a breakthrough innovation development. The experiment was in the sport industry and covered all aspects of the customer discovery stage from ideation to prototyping followed by patent application. In the paper we describe and analyze mile stones, tasks, management challenges, decisions made to create the break through innovation, evaluate overall managerial efficiency that was at the considered FFE stage. We set managerial outcome of the FFE stage as a valid product concept in hand. In our paper we introduce hypothetical construct “Q-factor” that helps us in the experiment to distinguish quality of FFE outcomes. The experiment simulated for entrepreneur the FFE of innovation and put on his shoulders responsibility for the outcome of valid product concept. While developing managerial approach to reach the outcome there was a decision to look on product concept from the cognitive psychology and cognitive science point of view. This view helped us to develop the profile of a person whose projection (mental representation) of a new product could optimize for a manager or entrepreneur FFE activities. In the experiment this profile was tested to develop breakthrough innovation for swimmers. Following the managerial approach the product concept was created to help swimmers to feel/sense water. The working prototype was developed to estimate the product concept validity and value added effect for customers. Based on feedback from coachers and swimmers there were strong positive effect that gave high value for customers, and for the experiment – the valid product concept being developed by proposed managerial approach for the FFE. In conclusions there is a suggestion of managerial approach that was derived from experiment.

Keywords: concept development, concept testing, customer discovery, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial management, idea generation, idea screening, startup management

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
29 Evaluate the Effect of Teaching Small Scale Bussiness and Entrepreneurship on Graduates Unemployment in Nigeria: A Case Study of Anambra and Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Authors: Erinma Chibuzo Nwandu

Abstract:

Graduates unemployment has risen astronomically in spite of the emphasis on teaching of small scale business and Entrepreneurship in schools. This study sets out to evaluate the effect of teaching small scale business and Entrepreneurship on graduates’ unemployment in Nigeria. This study adopted the survey research design. Thus the nature of data for this study is primary, sourced by the use of a questionnaire administered to a sample of two thousand and sixty-five (2065) respondents drawn from groups of graduates who are employed, unemployed and self-employed in South East Nigeria. Simple percentages, Chi-square and regression analysis were used to derive useful and meaningful information and test the hypotheses respectively. Findings from the study suggest that Nigeria graduates are ill prepared to embark on small-scale business and entrepreneurship after graduation, and that teaching of small scale business and entrepreneurship in Nigeria tertiary institutions is ineffective on graduate unemployment reduction. Findings also suggest that while a lot of graduates agreed that they have taken a class(s) on small scale or entrepreneurship, they received more theoretical teachings than practical, more so while teachings on small scale business or entrepreneurship motivated graduates to think of self-employment, most of them cannot do a good business plan and hence could not benefit from some kind of Government assisted program for small-scale business and bank loan for the sake of small scale business. Thus, so many graduates are not interested in small scale business or entrepreneurship development as a result of lack of startup capital. The study thus recommends that course content and teaching method of entrepreneurship education needs to be reviewed and re-structured to constitute more practical teachings than theoretical teachings. Also, graduates should be exposed to seminar /workshop for self-employment at least once every semester. There should be practical teaching and practice of developing a business plan that will be viable to attract government or private sponsorship as well for it to be viable to attract financing from financing institutions. Government should provide a fund such as venture capital financing arrangement to empower business startups in Nigeria by graduates’.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, small scale business, startup capital, unemployment

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
28 The Establishment and Application of TRACE/FRAPTRAN Model for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: S. W. Chen, W. K. Lin, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, H. T. Lin, H. C. Chang, W. Y. Li

Abstract:

Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 type NPP and located on the northern coast of Taiwan. First, Kuosheng NPP TRACE model were developed in this research. In order to assess the system response of Kuosheng NPP TRACE model, startup tests data were used to evaluate Kuosheng NPP TRACE model. Second, the over pressurization transient analysis of Kuosheng NPP TRACE model was performed. Besides, in order to confirm the mechanical property and integrity of fuel rods, FRAPTRAN analysis was also performed in this study.

Keywords: TRACE, safety analysis, BWR/6, FRAPTRA

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27 A Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Single Rod Bundles with 54 Fuel Rods without Spacers

Authors: S. K. Verma, S. L. Sinha, D. K. Chandraker

Abstract:

The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a vertical pressure tube type, heavy water moderated and boiling light water cooled natural circulation based reactor. The fuel bundle of AHWR contains 54 fuel rods arranged in three concentric rings of 12, 18 and 24 fuel rods. This fuel bundle is divided into a number of imaginary interacting flow passage called subchannels. Single phase flow condition exists in reactor rod bundle during startup condition and up to certain length of rod bundle when it is operating at full power. Prediction of the thermal margin of the reactor during startup condition has necessitated the determination of the turbulent mixing rate of coolant amongst these subchannels. Thus, it is vital to evaluate turbulent mixing between subchannels of AHWR rod bundle. With the remarkable progress in the computer processing power, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology can be useful for investigating the thermal–hydraulic characteristics phenomena in the nuclear fuel assembly. The present report covers the results of simulation of pressure drop, velocity variation and turbulence intensity on single rod bundle with 54 rods in circular arrays. In this investigation, 54-rod assemblies are simulated with ANSYS Fluent 15 using steady simulations with an ANSYS Workbench meshing. The simulations have been carried out with water for Reynolds number 9861.83. The rod bundle has a mean flow area of 4853.0584 mm2 in the bare region with the hydraulic diameter of 8.105 mm. In present investigation, a benchmark k-ε model has been used as a turbulence model and the symmetry condition is set as boundary conditions. Simulation are carried out to determine the turbulent mixing rate in the simulated subchannels of the reactor. The size of rod and the pitch in the test has been same as that of actual rod bundle in the prototype. Water has been used as the working fluid and the turbulent mixing tests have been carried out at atmospheric condition without heat addition. The mean velocity in the subchannel has been varied from 0-1.2 m/s. The flow conditions are found to be closer to the actual reactor condition.

Keywords: AHWR, CFD, single-phase turbulent mixing rate, thermal–hydraulic

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26 Attributes of Employee Engagement Best Practices: A Guideline for SMEs

Authors: Ghazanfar Bozai, Kanwal Gul

Abstract:

In Pakistan, SMEs are the major source of contribution to the economy, but due to lack of proper HR practices (lack of employee engagement), these fast growing business shut down with in few years of startup. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive literature survy of the major best practices used for employee engagement globally. This paper could be used as employee engagement best practices guide for SME’s in developing countries. This article is focused on identifying the attributes of employee engagement in different countries/ cultures and organizations. It will provide a summary of employee engagement models used globally and how SMEs could pick suitable attributes of employee engagement as per their structural culture. This article will add valuable literature on employee engagement in developing countries for new startups and small, medium business.

Keywords: attributes, employee engagement, human resources practices, small medium enterprises

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25 The Wellness Wheel: A Tool to Reimagine Schooling

Authors: Jennifer F. Moore

Abstract:

The wellness wheel as a tool for school growth and change is currently being piloted by a startup school in Chicago, IL. In this case study, members of the school community engaged in the appreciative inquiry process to plan their organizational development around the wellness wheel. The wellness wheel (comprised of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, environmental, cognitive, and financial wellness) is used as a planning tool by teachers, students, parents, and administrators. Through the appreciative inquiry method of change, the community is reflecting on their individual level of wellness and developing organizational structures to ensure the well being of children and adults. The goal of the case study is to test the appropriateness of the use of appreciative inquiry (as a method) and the wellness wheel (as a tool) for school growth and development. Findings of the case study will be realized by the conference. The research is in process now.

Keywords: education, schools, well being, wellness

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24 Malware Detection in Mobile Devices by Analyzing Sequences of System Calls

Authors: Jorge Maestre Vidal, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba

Abstract:

With the increase in popularity of mobile devices, new and varied forms of malware have emerged. Consequently, the organizations for cyberdefense have echoed the need to deploy more effective defensive schemes adapted to the challenges posed by these recent monitoring environments. In order to contribute to their development, this paper presents a malware detection strategy for mobile devices based on sequence alignment algorithms. Unlike the previous proposals, only the system calls performed during the startup of applications are studied. In this way, it is possible to efficiently study in depth, the sequences of system calls executed by the applications just downloaded from app stores, and initialize them in a secure and isolated environment. As demonstrated in the performed experimentation, most of the analyzed malicious activities were successfully identified in their boot processes.

Keywords: android, information security, intrusion detection systems, malware, mobile devices

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23 Telehealth Ecosystem: Challenge and Opportunity

Authors: Rattakorn Poonsuph

Abstract:

Technological innovation plays a crucial role in virtual healthcare services. A growing number of telehealth platforms are concentrating on using digital tools to improve the quality and availability of care. As a result, telehealth represents an opportunity to redesign the way health services are delivered. The research objective is to discover a new business model for digital health services and related industries to participate with telehealth solutions. The business opportunity is valuable for healthcare investors as a startup company to further investigations or implement the telehealth platform. The paper presents a digital healthcare business model and business opportunities to related industries. These include digital healthcare services extending from a traditional business model and use cases of business opportunities to related industries. Although there are enormous business opportunities, telehealth is still challenging due to the patient adaption and digital transformation process within a healthcare organization.

Keywords: telehealth, Internet hospital, HealthTech, InsurTech

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22 Racial Diversity in Founding Ownership Teams and Business Performance in New Firms

Authors: Cedric Herring, Loren Henderson, Hayward Derrick Horton, Melvin Thomas

Abstract:

This paper asks whether business startups benefit from having racially diverse founding ownership teams. Using nationally representative data from the Kauffman Firm Survey, the analysis examines the relationship between the racial diversity of the founding ownership teams of business startups and their net worth, revenue, debt, and profits. The analysis shows that, net of firm characteristics and human capital characteristics, startups with racially diverse founding teams have higher net worth, lower debt, and greater profits than their non-diverse counterparts. The racial diversity of ownership teams is not, however, related to startup firms’ revenues, net of other factors. The implications of these findings are explored.

Keywords: racial diversity, business startups, founding ownership teams, diversity and business performance

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21 Fermentation of Xylose and Glucose Mixture in Intensified Reactors by Scheffersomyces stipitis to Produce Ethanol

Authors: S. C. Santos, S. R. Dionísio, A. L. D. De Andrade, L. R. Roque, A. C. Da Costa, J. L. Ienczak

Abstract:

In this work, two fermentations at different temperatures (25 and 30 ºC), with cell recycling, were accomplished to produce ethanol, using a mix of commercial substrates, xylose (70%) and glucose (30%), as organic source for Scheffersomyces stipitis. Five consecutive fermentations of 80 g L-1 (1º, 2º and 3º recycles), 96 g L-1 (4º recycle) and 120 g L-1 (5º recycle)reduced sugars led to a final maximum ethanol concentration of 17.2 and 34.5 g L-1, at 25 and 30 ºC, respectively. Glucose was the preferred substrate; moreover xylose startup degradation was initiated after a remaining glucose presence in the medium. Results showed that yeast acid treatment, performed before each cycle, provided improvements on cell viability, accompanied by ethanol productivity of 2.16 g L-1 h-1 at 30 ºC. A maximum 36% of xylose was retained in the fermentation medium and after five-cycle fermentation an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g sugars was observed. S. stipitis fermentation capacity and tolerance showed better results at 30 ºC with 83.4% of theoretical yield referenced on initial biomass.

Keywords: 5-carbon sugar, cell recycling fermenter, mixed sugars, xylose-fermenting yeast

Procedia PDF Downloads 355