Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 294

Search results for: law enforcement

294 Beyond Rhetoric: Giving Effect to Social Rights Provisions under Chapter II of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Authors: Abiodun Odusote

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This paper gives content to the Provisions of Chapter II of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, it offers new perspectives on the nature of fundamental objectives and directive principles of state policy and the duties of citizens. It makes inquiries into the justiciability of these rights and examines the reasoning of the Nigerian courts in the interpretation and enforcement of the rights. The paper examines the emerging jurisprudence in India and South Africa and lessons are drawn from their respective models of enforcement of similar rights. The paper concludes by proposing more creative and novel alternatives to the enforcement and enjoyments of these rights, including: enforcement through Acts of Parliament, enforcement through other Constitutional provisions, indirect enforcement, enforcement through regional and international courts, enforcement by constructive engagement, and enforcement through electoral process. Overall, it is shown that there are available a variety of practical and effective ways of improving the realization and enjoyment of the provisions of Chapter II of the CFRN.

Keywords: constructive-engagement, indirect enforcement, judicial activism, justiciability, social rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
293 Does Citizens’ Involvement Always Improve Outcomes: Procedures, Incentives and Comparative Advantages of Public and Private Law Enforcement

Authors: Avdasheva Svetlanaa, Kryuchkova Polinab

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Comparative social efficiency of private and public enforcement of law is debated. This question is not of academic interest only, it is also important for the development of the legal system and regulations. Generally, involvement of ‘common citizens’ in public law enforcement is considered to be beneficial, while involvement of interest groups representatives is not. Institutional economics as well as law and economics consider the difference between public and private enforcement to be rather mechanical. Actions of bureaucrats in government agencies are assumed to be driven by the incentives linked to social welfare (or other indicator of public interest) and their own benefits. In contrast, actions of participants in private enforcement are driven by their private benefits. However administrative law enforcement may be designed in such a way that it would become driven mainly by individual incentives of alleged victims. We refer to this system as reactive public enforcement. Citizens may prefer using reactive public enforcement even if private enforcement is available. However replacement of public enforcement by reactive version of public enforcement negatively affects deterrence and reduces social welfare. We illustrate the problem of private vs pure public and private vs reactive public enforcement models with the examples of three legislation subsystems in Russia – labor law, consumer protection law and competition law. While development of private enforcement instead of public (especially in reactive public model) is desirable, replacement of both public and private enforcement by reactive model is definitely not.

Keywords: public enforcement, private complaints, legal errors, competition protection, labor law, competition law, russia

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
292 Establishing Digital Forensics Capability and Capacity among Malaysia's Law Enforcement Agencies: Issues, Challenges and Recommendations

Authors: Sarah Taylor, Nor Zarina Zainal Abidin, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib

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Although cybercrime is on the rise, yet many Law Enforcement Agencies in Malaysia faces difficulty in establishing own digital forensics capability and capacity. The main reasons are undoubtedly because of the high cost and difficulty in convincing their management. A survey has been conducted among Malaysia’s Law Enforcement Agencies owning a digital forensics laboratory to understand their history of building digital forensics capacity and capability, the challenges and the impact of having own laboratory to their case investigation. The result of the study shall be used by other Law Enforcement Agencies in justifying to their management to establish own digital forensics capability and capacity.

Keywords: digital forensics, digital forensics capacity and capability, laboratory, law enforcement agency

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
291 Enforcement against Illegal Logging: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Nur Haniff Mohd Noor, Rokiah Kadir, Suriyani Muhamad

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Sustainable forest management and forest protection can be hampered by illegal logging. Illegal logging is not uncommon in many wood-producing countries. Hence, law enforcement, especially in timber-producing countries, is crucial in ensuring compliance with forestry related regulations, as well as confirming that all parties obey the rules and regulations prescribed by the authorities. However, enforcement officers are encountering various challenges and difficulties which have undermined the enforcement capacity and efficiency. The appropriate policy responses for these issues are important to resolve the problems in the long term and empowering enforcement capacity to meet future challenges of forest law enforcement. This paper is written according to extensive review of the articles and publications by The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), Chatham House and The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Subsequently, various books and journal articles are reviewed to gain further insight towards enforcement issues and challenges. This paper identifies several issues which consist of (1) insufficient enforcement capacity and resources (2) lack of coordination between various enforcement agencies, (3) corruption in the government and private sectors and (4) unclear legal frameworks related to the forestry sector. Next, this paper discusses appropriate policy responses to address each enforcement challenges according to various publications. This includes specific reports concerning forest law enforcement published by international forestry-related organizations. Therefore, lack of resources, inadequate synchronization between agencies, corruption, and legal issues present challenges to enforcement officers in their daily routines. Recommendations regarding proper policy responses to overcome the issues are of great importance in assisting forest authorities in prioritizing their resources appropriately.

Keywords: corruption, enforcement challenges, enforcement capacity, forest law enforcement, insufficient agency coordination, legislative ambiguity

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
290 Organizational Decision to Adopt Digital Forensics: An Empirical Investigation in the Case of Malaysian Law Enforcement Agencies

Authors: Siti N. I. Mat Kamal, Othman Ibrahim, Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Jafalizan M. Jali

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The use of digital forensics (DF) is nowadays essential for law enforcement agencies to identify analysis and interpret the digital information derived from digital sources. In Malaysia, the engagement of Malaysian Law Enforcement Agencies (MLEA) with this new technology is not evenly distributed. To investigate the factors influencing the adoption of DF in Malaysia law enforcement agencies’ operational environment, this study proposed the initial theoretical framework based on the integration of technology organization environment (TOE), institutional theory, and human organization technology (HOT) fit model. A questionnaire survey was conducted on selected law enforcement agencies in Malaysia to verify the validity of the initial integrated framework. Relative advantage, compatibility, coercive pressure, normative pressure, vendor support and perceived technical competence of technical staff were found as the influential factors on digital forensics adoption. In addition to the only moderator of this study (agency size), any significant moderating effect on the perceived technical competence and the decision to adopt digital forensics by Malaysian law enforcement agencies was found insignificant. Thus, these results indicated that the developed integrated framework provides an effective prediction of the digital forensics adoption by Malaysian law enforcement agencies.

Keywords: digital forensics, digital forensics adoption, digital information, law enforcement agency

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289 A Comparative Synopsis of the Enforcement of Market Abuse Prohibition in Australia and South Africa

Authors: Howard Chitimira

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In Australia, the market abuse prohibition is generally well accepted by the investing and non-investing public as well as by the government. This co-operative and co-ordinated approach on the part of all the relevant stakeholders has to date given rise to an increased awareness and commendable combating of market abuse activities in the Australian corporations, companies, and securities markets. It is against this background that this article seeks to comparatively explore the general enforcement approaches that are employed to combat market abuse (insider trading and market manipulation) activity in Australia and South Africa. In relation to this, the role of selected enforcement authorities and possible enforcement methods which may be learnt from both the Australian and South African experiences will be isolated where necessary for consideration by such authorities, especially, in the South African market abuse regulatory framework.

Keywords: insider trading, market abuse, market manipulation, regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
288 Utilities as Creditors: The Effect of Enforcement of Water Bill Payment in Zambia

Authors: Elizabeth Spink

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Providing safe and affordable drinking water to low-income households in developing countries remains a challenge. Policy goals of increasing household piped-water access and cost recovery for utility providers are often at odds. Nonpayment of utility bills is frequently cited as a constraint to improving the quality of utility service. However, nonpayment is widely tolerated, and households often accumulate significant debt to the utility provider. This study examines the effect of enforcement of water bill payment through supply disconnections in Livingstone, Zambia. This research uses a dynamic model of household monthly payments and accumulation of arrears, which determine the probability of disconnection, and simulates the effect of exogenous changes in enforcement levels. This model is empirically tested using an event-study framework of exogenous increases in enforcement capacity that occur during administrative rezoning events, which reduce the number of households that one enforcement agent is responsible for. The results show that households are five percentage points more likely to make a payment in the months following a rezoning event, but disconnections for low-income households increase as well, resulting in little change in revenue collected by the water utility. The results suggest that high enforcement of water bill payments toward credit-constrained households may be ineffective and lead to reduced piped-water access.

Keywords: enforcement, nonpayment, piped-water access, water utilities

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287 IIROC's Enforcement Performance: Funnel in, Funnel out, and Funnel away

Authors: Mark Lokanan

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The paper analyzes the processing of complaints against investment brokers and dealer members through the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC) from 2008 to 2017. IIROC is the self-regulatory organization (SRO) that is responsible for policing investment dealers and brokerage firms that trade in Canada’s securities market. Data from the study came from IIROC's enforcement annual reports for the years examined. The case processing is evaluated base on the misconduct funnel that was originally designed for street crime and applies to the enforcement of investment fraud. The misconduct funnel is used as a framework to examine IIROC’s claim that it brought in more complaints (funnel in) than government regulators and shows how these complaints are funneled out and funneled away as they are processed through IIROC’s enforcement system. The results indicate that IIROC is ineffective in disciplining its members and is unable to handle the more serious quasi-criminal and improper sales practices offenses. It is hard not to see the results of the paper being used by the legislator in Ottawa to show the importance of a federal securities regulatory agency such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States.

Keywords: investment fraud, securities regulation, compliance, enforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
286 Organizational Change in the FBI after 9/11: An Institutional Theoretical Analysis

Authors: Ben D. Atkins

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This study will examine the impact of September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the organizational development of American federal law enforcement through focusing on the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Content analysis of discourse in a federal law enforcement practitioner publication along with official FBI statements will be used to gain a better understanding of FBI organizational changes that have taken place since the events of September 11, 2001. Analysis of content trends in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin and public discourse of FBI officials from 1999 to 2005 indicate that, in addition to structural changes, the bureau has also undergone a variety of cultural changes. The results offer some support for the institutional theoretical perspective, suggesting that post-9/11 organizational changes such as new mission priorities and the establishment of new branches were partially initiated due to a variety external pressures, which lends support for coercive isomorphism. Furthermore, structural changes are discussed in relation to the attainment and maintenance of organizational legitimacy.

Keywords: institutional theory, organizational theory, law enforcement, public administration

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
285 Enforcement of Decisions of Ombudsmen and the South African Public Protector: Muzzling the Watchdogs

Authors: Roxan Venter

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Ombudsmen often face the challenge of a lack of authority to have their decisions and recommendations enforced. This lack of authority may be seen as one of the major obstacles in the way of the effectiveness of the institutions of Ombudsman and also the South African Public Protector. The paper will address the current legal position in South Africa with regard to the status of the decisions and recommendations of the South African Public Protector and the enforcement thereof. In addition, the paper will compare the South African position with the experiences of other jurisdictions, including Scandinavian countries like Sweden, Denmark and Norway, but also New Zealand and Northern Ireland, with regard to the enforcement of the decisions of Ombudsmen. Finally, the paper will make recommendations with regard to the enhancement of the power and authority of Ombudsmen in order to effectively enforce their decisions. It is submitted that the creation of the office of Ombudsman, and the Public Protector in the South African system, is an essential tool to ensure the protection of society against governmental abuse of power and it is therefore imperative to ensure that these watchdogs of democracy are not muzzled by a lack of powers of enforcement.

Keywords: enforcement of decisions of ombudsmen, governmental control, ombudsman, South African public protector

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
284 Recognition and Enforcement of International Commercial Arbitral Awards in Sri Lanka, A Lesson from Singapore

Authors: Kahandawala Arachchige Thani Chathurika Kahandawala

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This research is attempted to analyse, Sri Lanka’s current situation regarding the recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration awards. Sri Lanka has been involved with commercial arbitration for a long time period. But there are good and bad legal practices in place in proceedings in Sri Lanka legal system. The common perception and reality of Sri Lanka’s arbitration law and practices regarding recognition and enforcement of international arbitral awards is far behind the international standards. Therefore arbitration as a dispute resolution method has become a time-consuming and costly method in Sri Lanka. This research is employed with the qualitative method based on both primary and secondary resources. This carried out the comparative analysis of recognition and enforcement in international arbitration laws established jurisdiction in Singapore and the United Kingdom, which are known as best counties as a seat of arbitration in Asia and Europe. International conventions, act and all the legal proceedings regarding recognition and enforcement of an international arbitral award in Sri Lanka are going to be discussed in the research. In the Jurisdiction of Sri Lanka, critically need to value an international arbitral award in the domestic legal system. Therefore an award has to be recognised in Sri Lanka. Otherwise, it doesn’t have any value. After recognizing it, court can enforce it. This research intends to provide a comparative analysis to overcome the drawbacks.

Keywords: arbitration, alternative dispute method, recognition and enforcement, foreign arbitral awards, Sri Lankan legal system, arbitral award in Singapore

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283 The Role of Asset Recovery in Combatting Organized Crime

Authors: Tamas Bezsenyi, Noemi Katona

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Fighting Human Trafficking is a highly important issue worldwide that states need to deal with in international politics. In the EU combatting human trafficking is emphasized in international policy making and also in the work of international law enforcement, thus in the work of the EUROPOL. While the EU Directive against Human Trafficking prescribes how states should fight this transnational crime and also how victims should be assisted, the EUROPOL focuses on the effective cooperation between national law enforcement agencies. However, despite the aims of the common fight, human trafficking is regulated differently in the punitive law of various nation states. This deeply defines the work and possibilities of national law enforcement organizations. Among the manifold differences in this paper, we focus on the role of regulating asset recovery. We highlight that money, and the regulation and practice how the law enforcement deals with income gained from criminal activities, play essential role in combatting human trafficking. While doing research on the investigation of transnational human trafficking by the Hungarian Law Enforcement Agencies, we have found that the unfortunate regulation of asset recovery determines the lower effectiveness of eliminating criminal organizations. While i.e. in the Netherlands confiscation of property takes place in an early stage of the criminal procedure, in Hungary it can be conducted only if money laundering is also assumed. Our presentation builds on the comparison of criminal procedures which we analyse based on criminal files and interviews with coworkers of the National Bureau of Investigation.

Keywords: human trafficking, law enforcement, asset recovery, organized crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
282 Energy Efficiency in Hot Arid Climates Code Compliance and Enforcement for Residential Buildings

Authors: Mohamed Edesy, Carlo Cecere

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This paper is a part of an ongoing research that proposes energy strategies for residential buildings in hot arid climates. In Egypt, the residential sector is dominated by increase in consumption rates annually. A building energy efficiency code was introduced by the government in 2005; it indicates minimum design and application requirements for residential buildings. Submission is mandatory and should lead to about 20% energy savings with an increase in comfort levels. However, compliance is almost nonexistent, electricity is subsidized and incentives to adopt energy efficient patterns are very low. This work presents an overview of the code and analyzes the impact of its introduction on different sectors. It analyses compliance barriers and indicates challenges that stand in the way of a realistic enforcement. It proposes an action plan for immediate code enforcement, updating current code to include retrofit, and development of rating systems for buildings. This work presents a broad national plan for energy efficiency empowerment in the residential sector.

Keywords: energy efficiency, housing, energy policies, code enforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
281 Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Decree Divorces in India with Special Reference to the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

Authors: Poonamdeep kaur

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With the increase in number of Non-Resident Indian marriages there is also increase in foreign decree divorces which inevitably causes the problem of recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in India. The Hindus in India are governed by the Hindu Marriage Act, 1956. According to the said Act the courts in India have jurisdiction to try the matrimonial dispute if the marriage is performed in India or the parties to the marriage have domicile in India irrespective of their nationality status. But, sometimes one of the parties to the marriage whose marriage is solemnized in India obtains divorce in foreign courts and prays for the recognition and enforcement of such divorce in India. In such case section 13 of the Indian Civil Procedure Code, 1908, comes into play for the recognition and enforcement of foreign divorces in India. The section makes a foreign judgment conclusive in India subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions. Even if a foreign decree divorce is given on personal connecting factors of the parties to the matrimonial dispute like domicile, such divorce may still be refused recognition in India by virtue of section 13 of the Indian Civil Procedure Code, 1908. It is a universal truth that municipal law of countries is not the same throughout the world. Comity plays an important role in recognition and enforcing a foreign judgment, but, now in India the principle is not applied mechanically as the divorce matter is dealt strictly with regard to Indian Law. So in this paper there will be deep analysis of Indian case laws relating to recognition and enforcement of foreign divorces and based on this a comparative study will be made with the laws of Canada and England on the same subject to find out whether the Indian law on recognition and Enforcement of foreign judgment are in line with the laws of Canada and England and whether in recent years the Indian courts have evolved some new principles of private international law to deal with limping marriages. At last conclusions will be drawn out from the comparative study and suggestions would be given to make the rules of recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments on divorce more certain.

Keywords: divorce, foreign decree, private international law, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgment

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280 Rights of Patients: Via Fundamental Rights Enforcement Procedure Rules 2009 and the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Authors: Nzewi Chino Nnenne, Anyaehi Juliet Chizoba

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The rights of patients are the application of the full rights a patient has. Patients are entitled to the full range of human rights. The Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules 2009 made pursuant to Section 46(3) of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the current procedural rule for the commencement of an action for the enforcement of fundamental human rights. The 1999 Constitution of Nigeria is the ground norm. It is the supreme law to which all other legal norms must conform. Many patients are not aware of their rights and this has resulted in rampant abuses and inhuman treatments from medical practitioners of different field. This can be seen in the rampant cases of medical malpractice by these medical practitioners. This paper has taken a critical appraisal of the rights of the patient via Fundamental Right Enforcement procedure rules 2009 and 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The objectives of this paper is to create awareness to patients on their rights via Fundamental Rights Enforcement Procedure Rules 2009 and the possibility of redressing any breach of these rights via Fundamental Rights Enforcement Procedure Rules 2009, which is recognized and a domesticated Law in Nigeria. This paper discusses the various rights of patients, the challenges patients face, the various inhuman treatments patients are faced with and ways of redressing any breach of these rights. The methodology of this paper is doctrinal. The study found out that inhuman treatment of patients is a breach of fundamental rights of a person and can be redressed via Fundamental Rights Enforcement Procedure Rules 2009 in Nigeria. It also found out that many patients are not aware of their rights and this has resulted in rampant cases of abuse on patients. This paper recommends a stiffer punishment on any breach of a patients’ rights; this is to deter others from committing the same act and to reduce the abuses patients face. It recommends wider communication modes on the rights of patients; this would create more awareness to patients on their rights. It recommends that government should help in implementing these policies.

Keywords: duty of care, fundamental rights, fundamental rights enforcement procedure rules 2009, human rights, medical practitioner, medical malpractice

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279 Platform-as-a-Service Sticky Policies for Privacy Classification in the Cloud

Authors: Maha Shamseddine, Amjad Nusayr, Wassim Itani

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In this paper, we present a Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) model for controlling the privacy enforcement mechanisms applied on user data when stored and processed in Cloud data centers. The proposed architecture consists of establishing user configurable ‘sticky’ policies on the Graphical User Interface (GUI) data-bound components during the application development phase to specify the details of privacy enforcement on the contents of these components. Various privacy classification classes on the data components are formally defined to give the user full control on the degree and scope of privacy enforcement including the type of execution containers to process the data in the Cloud. This not only enhances the privacy-awareness of the developed Cloud services, but also results in major savings in performance and energy efficiency due to the fact that the privacy mechanisms are solely applied on sensitive data units and not on all the user content. The proposed design is implemented in a real PaaS cloud computing environment on the Microsoft Azure platform.

Keywords: privacy enforcement, platform-as-a-service privacy awareness, cloud computing privacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
278 Ballast Water Management Triad: Administration, Ship Owner and the Seafarer

Authors: Rajoo Balaji, Omar Yaakob

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The Ballast Water Convention requires less than 5% of the world tonnage for ratification. Consequently, ships will have to comply with the requirements. Compliance evaluation and enforcement will become mandatory. Ship owners have to invest in treatment systems and shipboard personnel have to operate them and ensure compliance. The monitoring and enforcement will be the responsibilities of the Administrations. Herein, a review of the current status of the Ballast Water Management and the issues faced by these are projected. Issues range from efficacy and economics of the treatment systems to sampling and testing. Health issues of chemical systems, paucity of data for decision support etc., are other issues. It is emphasized that management of ballast water must be extended to ashore and sustainable solutions must be researched upon. An exemplar treatment system based on ship’s waste heat is also suggested.

Keywords: Ballast Water Management, compliance evaluation, compliance enforcement, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
277 Competing Discourses of Masculinity and Seeking Mental Health Assistance among Male Police Officers in Canada

Authors: Maria T. Cruz, Scott N. Thompson

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In recent years, Canadian federal and provincial law enforcement organizations have implemented numerous mental health strategies in an attempt to address officers’ mental health and wellness needs. Despite these reforms, however, mental illness continues to persist in these populations. Whereas workplace stressors continue to be factored into the development of mental health initiatives, it is proposed that aspects of masculine culture have been overlooked as contributing to the prevalence of mental illness among Canadian officers. By drawing on Michel Foucault’s theory of discourse, this study was conducted to determine if elements of masculine discourse exist as a socio-cultural barrier for officers seeking mental health assistance. This research supported the above hypothesis, and furthermore, identified how masculine discourse works in competition with mental health-related help-seeking discourses. To answer the research question, semi-structured phone interviews with active and retired male officers from Western provincial and municipal policing organizations, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were employed. Through thematic analysis of the transcripts, the data revealed three themes: i) masculinity in law enforcement is a determinant of workplace competency; ii) the dominance of masculine culture in law enforcement is problematic for mental health, and iii) improved help-seeking policies complicate how masculinity is expressed in law enforcement organizations. These findings suggest that within the reviewed Canadian law enforcement organizations, aspects of masculinity act as a socio-cultural barrier to officers seeking mental health services, and that the two conflicting discourses of masculinity and mental health-related help-seeking appear to be in competition with each other.

Keywords: competing discourses, dominant discourses, Foucault’s theory of discourse, law enforcement, masculinity, mental health, police officers

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276 Tax Avoidance and Leadership Replacement: Moderating Influence of Ownership and Political Connections

Authors: Radwan Hussien Alkebsee

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Under the argument that reputational costs deter firms from engaging in tax avoidance activities, this paper investigates the relationship between tax avoidance and forced CEO turnover. This study is based on a broad sample of Chinese listed companies spanning the period 2011 to 2018. The findings reveal that tax avoidance is positively associated with forced CEO turnover. This suggests that firms that engage in tax avoidance experience a high rate of leadership replacement. The findings also reveal that the positive association between tax avoidance and forced CEO turnover is pronounced for state-owned firms, firms with no political connections, and firms located in “more developed” regions with extensive tax enforcement action, while it is not for private firms, firms with political connections, and firms located in “less developed” regions with weak tax enforcement actions. The baseline results remain consistent and robust for endogeneity concerns.

Keywords: tax avoidance, CEO turnover, political connections, regional tax enforcement, China

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275 Graffiti as Intelligence: an Analysis of Encoded Messages in Gang Graffiti Renderings

Authors: Timothy Kephart

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Many law enforcement officials believe that gangs communicate messages to both the community and to rival gangs through graffiti. Some social scientists have documented this as well, however no recent research has examined gang graffiti for its underlying meaning. Empirical research on gang graffiti and gang communication through graffiti is limited. This research can be described as an exploratory effort to better understand how, and perhaps why, gangs employ this medium for communication. Furthermore this research showcases how law enforcement agencies can utilize this hidden form of communication to better direct resources and impact gang violence.

Keywords: gangs, graffiti, juvenile justice, policing

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
274 Malaysian Challenges and Experiences with National Higher Education Fund Corporation’s Educational Loan Default

Authors: Anjali Dewi Krishnan

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This paper attempts to explore the factors causing student loan defaults among NHEFC borrower besides measuring the enforcement actions that have been took by NHEFC to improve repayment rate. It starts by reviewing the causes of student loan default from the perspective of the loan borrowers besides finding out about the effectiveness of approaches taken by NHEFC (National Higher Education Fund Corporation) until now in order to increase the repayment rate and recover student loan default. The results gathered from the research used to investigate or identify the relationship between job statuses, gender, and ethnicity of the borrowers with repayment status, enforcement from the NHEFC side in the sense of student loan repayment; and respondent's opinion about enforcement in encouraging repayment of student loan and recover loan default. A combination of unemployment, financial constraint, inefficient repayment method and some other reasons of student loan defaults were discovered through this research. It finishes by presenting the reality whereby a student loan default is a result of inability to pay back and not about willingness to pay back.

Keywords: loan default, loan recovery, loan repayment, national higher education fund corporation

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
273 Provider Perceptions of the Effects of Current U.S. Immigration Enforcement Policies on Service Utilization in a Border Community

Authors: Isabel Latz, Mark Lusk, Josiah Heyman

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The rise of restrictive U.S. immigration policies and their strengthened enforcement has reportedly caused concerns among providers about their inadvertent effects on service utilization among Latinx and immigrant communities. This study presents perceptions on this issue from twenty service providers in health care, mental health, nutrition assistance, legal assistance, and immigrant advocacy in El Paso, Texas. All participants were experienced professionals, with fifteen in CEO, COO, executive director, or equivalent positions, and based at organizations that provide services for immigrant and/or low-income populations in a bi-national border community. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by two primary investigators via semi-structured telephone interviews with an average length of 20 minutes. A survey script with closed and open-ended questions inquired about participants’ demographic information and perceptions of impacts of immigration enforcement policies under the current federal administration on their work and patient or client populations. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to produce descriptive statistics and identify salient themes, respectively. Nearly all respondents stated that their work has been negatively (N=13) or both positively and negatively (N=5) affected by current immigration enforcement policies. Negative effects were most commonly related to immigration enforcement-related fear and uncertainty among patient or client populations. Positive effects most frequently referred to a sense of increased community organizing and greater cooperation among organizations. Similarly, the majority of service providers either reported an increase (N=8) or decrease (N=6) in service utilization due to changes in immigration enforcement policies. Increased service needs were primarily related to a need for public education about immigration enforcement policy changes, information about how new policies impact individuals’ service eligibility, legal status, and civil rights, as well as a need to correct misinformation. Decreased service utilization was primarily related to fear-related service avoidance. While providers observed changes in service utilization among undocumented immigrants and mixed-immigration status families, in particular, participants also noted ‘spillover’ effects on the larger Latinx community, including legal permanent and temporary residents, refugees or asylum seekers, and U.S. citizens. This study reveals preliminary insights into providers’ widespread concerns about the effects of current immigration enforcement policies on health, social, and legal service utilization among Latinx individuals. Further research is necessary to comprehensively assess impacts of immigration enforcement policies on service utilization in Latinx and immigrant communities. This information is critical to address gaps in service utilization and prevent an exacerbation of health disparities among Latinx, immigrant, and border populations. In a global climate of rising nationalism and xenophobia, it is critical for policymakers to be aware of the consequences of immigration enforcement policies on the utilization of essential services to protect the well-being of minority and immigrant communities.

Keywords: immigration enforcement, immigration policy, provider perceptions, service utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
272 Brazilian Public Security: Governability and Constitutional Change

Authors: Gabriel Dolabella, Henrique Rangel, Stella Araújo, Carlos Bolonha, Igor de Lazari

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Public security is a common subject on the Brazilian political agenda. The seventh largest economy in the world has high crime and insecurity rates. Specialists try to explain this social picture based on poverty, inequality or public policies addressed to drug trafficking. This excerpt approaches State measures to handle that picture. Therefore, the public security - law enforcement institutions - is at the core of this paper, particularly the relationship among federal and state law enforcement agencies, mainly ruled by a system of urgency. The problems are informal changes on law enforcement management and public opinion collaboration to these changes. Whenever there were huge international events, Brazilian armed forces occupied streets to assure law enforcement - ensuring the order. This logic, considered in the long time, could impact the federal structure of the country. The post-madisonian theorists verify that urgency is often associated to delegation of powers, which is true for Brazilian law enforcement, but here there is a different delegation: States continuously delegate law enforcement powers to the federal government throughout the use of Armed Forces. Therefore, the hypothesis is: Brazil is under a political process of federalization of public security. The political framework addressed here can be explained by the disrespect of legal constraints and the failure of rule of law theoretical models. The methodology of analysis is based on general criteria. Temporally, this study investigates events from 2003, when discussions about the disarmament statute begun. Geographically, this study is limited to Brazilian borders. Materially, the analysis result from the observation of legal resources and political resources (pronouncements of government officials). The main parameters are based on post-madisonianism and federalization of public security can be assessed through credibility and popularity that allow evaluation of this political process of constitutional change. The objective is to demonstrate how the Military Forces are used in public security, not as a random fact or an isolated political event, in order to understand the political motivations and effects that stem from that use from an institutional perspective.

Keywords: public security, governability, rule of law, federalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
271 Leadership Education for Law Enforcement Mid-Level Managers: The Mediating Role of Effectiveness of Training on Transformational and Authentic Leadership Traits

Authors: Kevin Baxter, Ron Grove, James Pitney, John Harrison, Ozlem Gumus

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The purpose of this research is to determine the mediating effect of effectiveness of the training provided by Northwestern University’s School of Police Staff and Command (SPSC), on the ability of law enforcement mid-level managers to learn transformational and authentic leadership traits. This study will also evaluate the leadership styles, of course, graduates compared to non-attendees using a static group comparison design. The Louisiana State Police pay approximately $40,000 in salary, tuition, housing, and meals for each state police lieutenant attending the 10-week program of the SPSC. This school lists the development of transformational leaders as an increasing element. Additionally, the SPSC curriculum addresses all four components of authentic leadership - self-awareness, transparency, ethical/moral, and balanced processing. Upon return to law enforcement in roles of mid-level management, there are questions as to whether or not students revert to an “autocratic” leadership style. Insufficient evidence exists to support claims for the effectiveness of management training or leadership development. Though it is widely recognized that transformational styles are beneficial to law enforcement, there is little evidence that suggests police leadership styles are changing. Police organizations continue to hold to a more transactional style (i.e., most senior police leaders remain autocrats). Additionally, research in the application of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership related to police organizations is minimal. The population of the study is law enforcement mid-level managers from various states within the United States who completed leadership training presented by the SPSC. The sample will be composed of 66 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have graduated from SPSC and 65 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have not attended SPSC. Participants will answer demographics questions, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, and the Kirkpatrick Hybrid Evaluation Survey. Analysis from descriptive statistics, group comparison, one-way MANCOVA, and the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model survey will be used to determine training effectiveness in the four levels of reaction, learning, behavior, and results. Independent variables are SPSC graduates (two groups: upper and lower) and no-SPSC attendees, and dependent variables are transformational and authentic leadership scores. SPSC graduates are expected to have higher MLQ scores for transformational leadership traits and higher ALQ scores for authentic leadership traits than SPSC non-attendees. We also expect the graduates to rate the efficacy of SPSC leadership training as high. This study will validate (or invalidate) the benefits, costs, and resources required for leadership development from a nationally recognized police leadership program, and it will also help fill the gap in the literature that exists between law enforcement professional development and transformational and authentic leadership styles.

Keywords: training effectiveness, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, law enforcement mid-level manager

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270 An Analysis of Digital Forensic Laboratory Development among Malaysia’s Law Enforcement Agencies

Authors: Sarah K. Taylor, Miratun M. Saharuddin, Zabri A. Talib

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Cybercrime is on the rise, and yet many Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) in Malaysia have no Digital Forensics Laboratory (DFL) to assist them in the attrition and analysis of digital evidence. From the estimated number of 30 LEAs in Malaysia, sadly, only eight of them owned a DFL. All of the DFLs are concentrated in the capital of Malaysia and none at the state level. LEAs are still depending on the national DFL (CyberSecurity Malaysia) even for simple and straightforward cases. A survey was conducted among LEAs in Malaysia owning a DFL to understand their history of establishing the DFL, the challenges that they faced and the significance of the DFL to their case investigation. The results showed that the while some LEAs faced no challenge in establishing a DFL, some of them took seven to 10 years to do so. The reason was due to the difficulty in convincing their management because of the high costs involved. The results also revealed that with the establishment of a DFL, LEAs were better able to get faster forensic result and to meet agency’s timeline expectation. It is also found that LEAs were also able to get more meaningful forensic results on cases that require niche expertise, compared to sending off cases to the national DFL. Other than that, cases are getting more complex, and hence, a continuous stream of budget for equipment and training is inevitable. The result derived from the study is hoped to be used by other LEAs in justifying to their management the benefits of establishing an in-house DFL.

Keywords: digital evidence, digital forensics, digital forensics laboratory, law enforcement agency

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
269 Analyzing and Determining the Ideal Response Force for Combatting Terrorist Groups

Authors: Erhan Turgut, Salih Ergün, Abdülkadir Öz

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Terror is a modern war strategy which uses violence as a means of communication in order to achieve political objectives. In today’s security environment narrowing the propaganda field of terrorist organization is the primary goal for the security forces. In this sense, providing and maintaining public support is the most necessary ability for security units. Rather than enemy and threat-oriented approach, homeland security oriented approach is essential to ensure public support. In this study, terror assumed as a homeland security issue and assigning the law enforcement forces with military status is analyzed.

Keywords: terrorism, counter-terrorism, military status law-enforcement, terrorist groups

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268 The Social Area Disclosure to Reduce Conflicts between Community and the State: A Case of Mahakan Fortress, Bangkok

Authors: Saowapa Phaithayawat

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The purposes of this study are 1) to study the over 20-year attempt of Mahakan fort community to negotiate with Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) to remain in their residential area belonging to the state, and 2) to apply the new social and cultural dimension between the state and the community as an alternative for local participation in keeping their residential area. This is a qualitative research, and the findings reveal that the community claimed their ancestors’ right as owners of this piece of land for over 200 years. The community, therefore, requested to take part in the preservation of land, culture and local intellect and the area management in terms of being a learning resource on the cultural road in Rattanakosin Island. However, BMA imposed the law concerning the community area relocation in Rattanakosin Island. The result of law enforcement led to the failure of the area relocation, and the hard hit on physical structure of the area including the overall deterioration of the cultural road renovated in the year 1982, the 200 years’ celebration of Bangkok. The enforcement of law by the state required the move of the community, and the landscape improvement based on the capital city plan. However, this enforcement resulted in the unending conflicts between the community and the state, and the solution of this problem was unclear. At the same time the community has spent a long time opposing the state’s action, and preparing themselves by administrating the community behind Mahakan fortress with community administrative committee under the suggestion of external organization by registering all community members, providing funds for community administration. At the meantime the state lacked the continuation of the enforcement due to political problem and BMA’s administration problem. It is, therefore, suggested that an alternative solution to this problem lie at the negotiation between the state and the community with the purpose of the collaboration between the two to develop the area under the protective law of each side.

Keywords: Pom-Mahakan community, reduction of conflicts, social area disclosure, residential area

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
267 Client Importance and Audit Quality under Civil Law versus Common Law Societies

Authors: Kelly Grani Yuen

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Accounting scandals and auditing frauds are perceived to be driven by aggressive companies and misrepresentation of audit reports. However, local legal systems and law enforcements may affect the services auditors provide to their ‘important’ clients. Under the civil law and common law jurisdictions, the standard setters, the government, and the regulatory bodies treat cases differently. As such, whether or not different forms of legal systems and extent of law enforcement plays an important role in auditor’s Audit Quality is a question this paper attempts to explore. The paper focuses on the investigation in Asia, where Hong Kong represents the common-law jurisdiction, while Taiwan and China represent the civil law jurisdiction. Only the ten reputable accounting firms are used in this study due to the differences in rankings and establishments of some of the small local audit firms. This will also contribute to the data collected between the years 2007-2013. By focusing on the use of multiple regression based on the dependent (Audit Quality) and independent variables (Client Importance, Law Enforcement, and Press Freedom), six different models are established. Results demonstrate that since different jurisdictions have different legal systems and market regulations, auditor’s treatment on ‘important’ clients will vary. However, with the moderators in place (law enforcement and press freedom), the relationship between client importance and audit quality may be smoothed out. With that in mind, this study contributes to local governments and standard setters’ consideration on legal reform and proper law enforcement in the market. Perhaps, with such modifications on the economic systems, collusion between companies and auditors can finally be put to a halt.

Keywords: audit quality, client importance, jurisdiction, modified audit opinions

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
266 From Knives to Kites: Developments and Dilemmas around the Use of Force in the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict since "Protective Edge"

Authors: Hilly Moodrick-Even Khen

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This study analyzes the legal regulation of the use of force in international law in the context of three emerging Palestinian forms of struggle against Israeli occupation: the Knife Intifada, Gaza border disturbances, and the launching of incendiary kites. It discusses what legal paradigms or concepts should regulate the type and level of force used in each situation—a question that is complicated by various dilemmas—and appraises the Israel Defence Forces policies tailored in response. Methodologically, the study is based on analysis of scholarship on the conceptual legal issues as well as dicta of the courts. It evaluates the applicability of two legal paradigms regulating the use of force in military operations—(i) the conduct of hostilities and (ii) law enforcement—as well as the concept of self-defense in international law and the escalation of force procedure. While the “Knife Intifada” clearly falls under the law enforcement paradigm, the disturbances at the border and the launching of incendiary kites raise more difficult questions, as applying law enforcement, especially in the latter case, can have undesirable ramifications for safeguarding humanitarian interests. The use of force in the cases of the border disturbances and the incendiary kites should thus be regulated, mutatis mutandis, by the concept of self-defense and escalation of force procedures; and in the latter case, the hostilities paradigm can also be applied. The study provides a factual description and analysis of the background and nature of the forms of struggle in Gaza and the West Bank—in each case surveying the geo-political developments since operation Protective Edge, contextualizing how the organized and unorganized violent activities evolved, and analyzing them in terms of level of organization and intensity. It then presents the two paradigms of the use of force—law enforcement and conduct of hostilities—and the concept of self-defense. Lastly, it uses the factual findings as the basis for legally analyzing which paradigm or concept regulating the use of force applies for each form of struggle. The study concludes that in most cases, the concept of self-defense is preferable to the hostilities or the law enforcement paradigms, as it best safeguards humanitarian interests and ensures the least loss of civilian lives.

Keywords: Israeli-Palestinian conflict, self defense, terrorism, use of force

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
265 The Consequences of Complaint Offenses against Copyright Protection

Authors: Chryssantus Kastowo, Theresia Anita Christiani, Anny Retnowati

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Copyright infringement as a form of infringement does not always mean causing harm to the creator. This can be proven with so many copyright violations in society and there is no significant law enforcement effort when compared with the violations that occurred. Copyright law as a form of appreciation from the state to the creator becomes counter productive if there is omission of violations. The problem raised in this article is how is the model of copyright regulation in accordance with the purpose of the law of copyright protection. This article is based on normative legal research focusing on secondary data. The analysis used is a conceptual approach. The analysis shows that the regulation of copyright emphasizes as a subjective right that is wholly within the author's power. This perspective will affect the claim of rights by the creator or allow violations. The creator is obliged to maintain the overall performance of copyright protection, especially in the event of a violation.

Keywords: copyright, enforcement, law, violation

Procedia PDF Downloads 58