Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 148

Search results for: NGOs

148 Increasing Number of NGOs and Their Conduct: A Case Study of Far Western Region of Nepal

Authors: Raju Thapa

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Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are conducting activities in Nepal with the overall objective to strengthen peace, progress and prosperity in the society. Based on the research objectives, this study has tried to trace out the reasons behind massive growth of NGOs and the trends that have shaped the handling and functioning of NGOs in the Kailali district. The outcomes of this research are quite embarrassing for NGOs officials. Based on the findings of this research, NGOs are expected to review their guiding principal, integrity and conduct for the betterment of the society.

Keywords: NGO, trends, increasing, conduct, integrity, guiding principle, legal, governance, human resources, public trust, financial, collaboration, networking

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
147 Understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility and Non-Governmental Organizations

Authors: Abdul Ghafar, Malini Nair

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Non-governmental organizations have been seemed to struggle the battle of balancing many concerns with corporates which may impact on their financial solvency. Some of these concerns relates to uphold the relationship where weighing up the impacts of their involvement with corporates takes priority over the main purpose of creating valuable impacts for communities. To some extent, it can be argued that NGOs are influenced by corporates’ power to tackle contemporary issues rather than eradicating the root causes of such issues and transform the results into more sustainable manner. NGOs spend massive amount of energy, time and resources in order to move some corporates to embrace their social responsibilities. It has become a norm, where an active NGO that is becoming more successful on building partnerships with corporates is perceived to be more socially responsible. In contrast to this, as some researchers argue that the social responsibility for NGOs is not a voluntary act; they must exhibit the core values in all their practices require much attention to address. This article stresses the need of understanding ‘Social Responsibility’ of NGOs that stem from an argument that NGOs tend to act on narrow mandate rather than considering broader outcomes of their CSR initiatives. This paper argues that NGOs must focus on building capabilities of the recipients from CSR initiatives which should serve as a core value of partnerships mandate between NGOs, Corporates and Governments. We argue that SEN’s Capabilities Approach can further enhance the mainstream CSR agenda of NGOs which seems to incline more towards providing palliative solutions to social issues.

Keywords: non-profit organization, corporate social responsibility, partnerships, capabilities approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
146 Non-Governmental Organisations and Human Development in Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Sadeeq Launi

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NGOs, the world over, have been recognized as part of the institutions that complement government activities in providing services to the people, particularly in respect of human development. This study examined the role played by the NGOs in human development in Bauchi State, Nigeria, between 2004 and 2013. The emphasis was on reproductive health and access to education role of the selected NGOs. All the research questions, objectives and hypotheses were stated in line with these variables. The theoretical framework that guided the study was the participatory development approach. Being a survey research, data were generated from both primary and secondary sources with questionnaires and interviews as the instruments for generating the primary data. The population of the study was made up of the staff of the selected NGOs, beneficiaries, health staff and school teachers in Bauchi State. The sample drawn from these categories were 90, 107 and 148 units respectively. Stratified random and simple random sampling techniques were adopted for NGOs staff, and Health staff and school teachers data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and hypotheses were tested using Pearson Chi-square test through SPSS computer statistical package. The study revealed that despite the challenges facing NGOs operations in the study area, NGOs rendered services in the areas of health and education This research recommends among others that, both government and people should be more cooperative to NGOs to enable them provide more efficient and effective services. Governments at all levels should be more dedicated to increasing accessibility and affordability of basic education and reproductive health care facilities and services in Bauchi state through committing more resources to the Health and Education sectors, this would support and facilitate the complementary role of NGOs in providing teaching facilities, drugs, and other reproductive health services in the States. More enlightenment campaigns should be carried out by governments to sensitize the public, particularly women on the need to embrace immunization programmes for their children and antenatal care services being provided by both the government and NGOs.

Keywords: access to education, human development, NGOs, reproductive health

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
145 NGOs from the Promotion of Civic Participation to Public Problems Solving: Case Study Urmia, Iran

Authors: Amin Banae Babazadeh

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In the contemporary world, NGOs are considered as important tool for motivating the community. So they committed their true mission and the promotion of civic participation and strengthen social identities. Functional characteristics of non-governmental organizations are the element to leverage the centers of political and social development of powerful governments since they are concrete and familiar with the problems of society and the operational strategies which would facilitate this process of mutual trust between the people and organizations. NGOs on the one hand offer reasonable solutions in line with approved organizations as agents to match between the facts and reality of society and on the other hand changes to a tool to have true political, social and economic behavior. However, the NGOs are active in the formulation of national relations and policy formulation in an organized and disciplined based on three main factors, i.e., resources, policies, and institutions. Organizations are not restricted to state administration in centralized system bodies and this process in the democratic system limits the accumulation of desires and expectations and at the end reaches to the desired place. Hence, this research will attempt to emphasis on field research (questionnaire) and according to the development evolution and role of NGOs analyze the effects of this center on youth. Therefore, the hypothesis is that there is a direct relationship between the Enlightenment and the effectiveness of policy towards NGOs and solving social damages.

Keywords: civic participation, community vulnerability, insightful, NGO, urmia

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144 Grassroots Innovation for Greening Bangladesh's Urban Slums: The Role of Local Agencies

Authors: Razia Sultana

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The chapter investigates the roles of local Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) in climate change adaptation through grassroots innovation in urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The section highlights green infrastructure as an innovative process to mitigate the challenges emanating from climate change at the bottom of the pyramid. The research draws on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 11 NGOs and 2 CBOs working in various slums in Dhaka. The study explores the activities of local agencies relating to urban green infrastructure (UGI) and its possible mitigation of a range of climate change impacts: thermal discomfort, heat stress, flooding and the urban heat island. The main argument of the chapter is unlike the Global North stakeholders’ activities relating to UGI in cities of the Global South have not been expanded on a large scale. Moreover, UGI as a risk management strategy is underutilised in the developing countries. The study finds that, in the context of Bangladesh, climate change adaptation through green infrastructure in cities is still nascent for local NGOs and CBOs. Mostly their activities are limited to addressing the basic needs of slum communities such as water and sanitation. Hence urban slum dwellers have been one of the most vulnerable groups in that they are deprived of the city’s basic ecological services. NGOs are utilizing UGI in an innovative way despite various problems in slums. For instance, land scarcity and land insecurity in slums are two key areas where UGI faces resistance. There are limited instances of NGOs using local and indigenous techniques to encourage slum dwellers to adopt UGI for creating sustainable environments. It is in this context that the paper is an attempt to showcase some of the grassroots innovation that NGOs are currently adopting in slums. Also, some challenges and opportunities are discussed to address UGI as a strategy for climate change adaptation in slums.

Keywords: climate change adaptation, green infrastructure, Dhaka, slums, NGOs

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
143 Environmental Online Campaigns Through Website Interactivity: The Case of Malaysia Environmental NGOs (MENGO)

Authors: Mohd Fadzil Mohd Idris, Aida Nasirah Abdullah, Kalthom Husain, Hanipah Hussin

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Online campaigns reflect all the advantages; namely speed, low cost, accessibility, customization, interactivity, and persuasive ability over other media channels. Normally via websites, expensive campaigns could be done not only faster and cheaper, but also successfully. Web interactivity seems to be highly beneficial to ENGOs in advocating environmental campaigns and trigger interaction. This paper looks into the environmental online campaigns through websites of the environmental NGOs in Malaysia (MENGO); particularly on how is web interactivity structured and employed by the selected the MENGO to conduct campaigns on important issues and encourage dialogue among the audience. In this study, a quantitative method for website content analysis was conducted to investigate the availability of the coded units and to determine on which level(s) the units were placed. Twelve (12) interactivity features were coded, including the placement of units of analysis for interactivity category as units of analysis until the fourth level (Level 0-Level 3). The result demonstrates how the MENGO do not effectively structure and employ the web interactivity to conduct campaigns on important issues and encourage dialogue among the audience. It is suggested that the MENGO should redevelop the interactive website in order to effectively advocate environmental campaigns on important issues and encourage dialogue among the audience.

Keywords: environmental NGOs (ENGO), Malaysia environmental NGOs (MENGO), internet, website, online campaigns, web interactivity

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142 The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Combating Human Trafficking in South India: An Overview

Authors: Kumudini Achchi

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India, being known for its rich cultural values has given a special place to women who are also been victims of humiliation, torture, and exploitation. The major share of Human Trafficking goes to sex trafficking which is recognised as world’s second most huge social evil. The original form of sex trafficking in India is prostitution with and without religious sanction. Today the situation of such women reached as an issue of human rights where they rights are denied severely. This situation demanded intervention to protect them from the exploitative situation. NGO are the proactive initiatives which offer support to the exploited women in sex trade. To understand the intervention programs of NGOs in South India, a study was conducted covering four states and a union territory considering 32 NGOs based on their preparedness to participate in the research study. Descriptive and diagnostic research design was adopted along with interview schedule as a tool for collecting data. The study reveals that these NGOs believes in the possibility of mainstreaming commercially sexually exploited women and found adopted seven different programs in the process such as rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration, prevention, developmental, advocacy and research. Each area involves different programs to reach and prepare the exploited women towards mainstreamed society which has been discussed in the paper. Implementation of these programs is not an easy task for the organizations rather they are facing hardships in the areas such as social, legal, financial, political which are hindering the successful operations. Rescue, advocacy, and research are the least adopted areas by the NGOs because of lack of support as well as knowledge in the area. Rehabilitation stands as the most adopted area in implementation. The paper further deals with the challenges in the implementation of the programs as well as the remedial measures in social work point of view having Indian cultural background.

Keywords: NGOs, commercially sexually exploited women, programmes, South India

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141 The Role Of Data Gathering In NGOs

Authors: Hussaini Garba Mohammed

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Background/Significance: The lack of data gathering is affecting NGOs world-wide in general to have good data information about educational and health related issues among communities in any country and around the world. For example, HIV/AIDS smoking (Tuberculosis diseases) and COVID-19 virus carriers is becoming a serious public health problem, especially among old men and women. But there is no full details data survey assessment from communities, villages, and rural area in some countries to show the percentage of victims and patients, especial with this world COVID-19 virus among the people. These data are essential to inform programming targets, strategies, and priorities in getting good information about data gathering in any society.

Keywords: reliable information, data assessment, data mining, data communication

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140 The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Promoting Humanitarian Development: A Case Study in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Muamar Salameh, Rania Sinno

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Non-governmental organizations in Saudi Arabia play a vital role in promoting humanitarian development. Though this paper will emphasize this role and will provide a specific case study on the role of Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd Foundation for Humanitarian Development, yet many organizations do not provide transparent information for the accomplishments of the NGOs. This study will provide answers to the main research question regarding this role that NGOs play in promoting humanitarian development. The recent law regulating associations and foundations in Saudi Arabia was issued in December 2015 and went into effect March 2016. Any new association or foundation will need to follow these regulations. Though the registration, implementation, and workflow of the organizations still need major improvement and development, yet, the currently-registered organizations have several notable achievements. Most of these organizations adopt a centralized administration approach which in many cases still hinders progress and may be an obstacle in achieving and reaching a larger population of beneficiaries. A large portion of the existing organizations are charities, some of which have some sort of government affiliation. The laws and regulations limit registration of new organizations. Any violations to Islamic Sharia, contradictions to public order, breach to national unity, foreign and foreign-affiliation organizations prohibits any organization from registration. The lack of transparency in the operations and inner-working of NGOs in Saudi Arabia is apparent for the public. However, the regulations invoke full transparency with the governing ministry. This transparency should be available to the public and in specific to the target population that are eligible to benefit from the NGOs services. In this study, we will provide an extensive review of all related laws, regulations, policies and procedures related to all NGOs in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This review will include some examples of current NGOs, services and target population. The study will determine the main accomplishments of reputable NGOs that have impacted positively the Saudi communities. The results will highlight and concentrate on actions, services and accomplishments that achieve sustainable assistance in promoting humanitarian development and advance living conditions of target populations of the Saudi community. In particular, we will concentrate on a case study related to PMFHD; one of the largest foundations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The authors have access to the data related to this foundation and have access to the foundation administration to gather, analyze and conclude the findings of this group. The study will also analyze whether the practices, budgets, services and annual accomplishments of the foundation have fulfilled the humanitarian role of the foundation while meeting the governmental requirements, with an analysis in the light of the new laws. The findings of the study show that great accomplishments for advancing and promoting humanitarian development in Saudi community and international communities have been achieved. Several examples will be included from several NGOs, with specific examples from PMFHD.

Keywords: development, foundation, humanitarian, non-governmental organization, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
139 The Role of Chennai NGOs in Combatting Human Trafficking

Authors: Nisha James, Shubha Ranganathan

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Sex trafficking is a type of human trafficking involving prostitution of individuals for sexual exploitation. The stigma and social isolation they face in the society often makes it difficult for them to become rehabilitated from trafficking, due to which many of them continue in prostitution for years after being sex trafficked. Victims are subjected to violations of their fundamental human rights, deprived of basic medical facilities and undergo long-term abuse. This paper focuses on the role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the rescue and rehabilitation of victims of sex trafficking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 survivors of sex trafficking, five sex workers and 14 non-community staff members of a project running NGO in the city of Chennai in South India. Chennai has a number of NGOs that are involved in HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention programs. In many cases, rehabilitation of sex trafficking victims is also a mandate of these NGOs. This particular NGO was also involved in development activities towards the eradication of HIV/AIDS. For instance, they were engaged in inculcating safe sex practices among high-risk groups such as sex workers or in fighting for sex worker rights. The study found that the NGO’s role in combatting sex trafficking is overrun by the way it approaches these issue related to HIV/AIDS. Further, their activities are dependent solely on funding. Given that gradually, international funding for HIV/AIDS has slowly been withdrawn, there have been problems such as reduction in the salary of the project staff, the outreach workers and peer educators, many of whom were survivors of sex trafficking who have been able to survive on their wages instead of continuing in prostitution. Therefore, till date, the project funding has helped in making them aware of the health and social consequences of continuing in prostitution, and in supporting them socioeconomically, but the lack of funding may also lead the NGO workers into a state of unemployment, poverty and eventually into being re-trafficked. The study concludes by pointing to the need for disengaging anti-trafficking efforts from the HIV/AIDS related programs.

Keywords: non-governmental organization role, non-governmental organization staff, sex trafficking survivors, sex workers

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138 Employer Branding and Its Influence in Employee Retention in the Non Governmental Organizations in Jordan

Authors: Wasfi Alrawabdeh

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Abstract The prime purpose of this study was to investigate whether employers use branding in their organizations, and how employer branding influence the attraction and retention of employees in the Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Jordan. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. 500 random NGOs employees', including junior and senior staff were conveniently sampled for the study. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study suggest that organizations use employer-branding processes in their business to attract employees and customers. It was also found that brand names of organizations might significantly influence the decision of employees to join and stay in the organizations. It was therefore suggested that employers need to create conducive work environment with conditions to enable employees feel comfortable and remain in the organization.

Keywords: Employer branding, Employee attraction , and retention , Trust , Satisfaction.

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137 Climbing up to Safety and Security: The Facilitation of an NGO Awareness Culture

Authors: Mirad Böhm, Diede De Kok

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It goes without saying that for many NGOs a high level of safety and security are crucial issues, which often necessitates the support of military personnel to varying degrees. The relationship between military and NGO personnel is usually a difficult one and while there has been progress, clashes naturally still occur owing to different interpretations of mission objectives amongst many other challenges. NGOs tend to view safety and security as necessary steps towards their goal instead of fundamental pillars of their core ‘business’. The military perspective, however, considers them primary objectives; thus, frequently creating a different vision of how joint operations should be conducted. This paper will argue that internalizing safety and security into the NGO organizational culture is compelling in order to ensure a more effective cooperation with military partners and, ultimately, to achieve their goals. This can be accomplished through a change in perception of safety and security concepts as a fixed and major point on the everyday agenda. Nowadays, there are several training programmes on offer addressing such issues but they primarily focus on the individual level. True internalization of these concepts should reach further by encompassing a wide range of NGO activities, beginning with daily proceedings in office facilities far from conflict zones including logistical and administrative tasks such as budgeting, and leading all the way to actual and potentially hazardous missions in the field. In order to effectuate this change, a tool is required to help NGOs realize, firstly, how they perceive and define safety and security, and secondly, how they can adjust this perception to their benefit. The ‘safety culture ladder’ is a concept that suggests what organizations can and should do to advance their safety. While usually applied to private industrial scenarios, this work will present the concept as a useful instrument to visualize and facilitate the internalization process NGOs ought to go through. The ‘ladder’ allows them to become more aware of the level of their safety and security measures, and moreover, cautions them to take these measures proactively rather than reactively. This in turn will contribute to a rapprochement between military and NGO priority setting in regard to what constitutes a safe working environment.

Keywords: NGO-military cooperation, organisational culture, safety and security awareness, safety culture ladder

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136 The Right to Water in the Lancang-Mekong River Basin Disputes

Authors: Heping Dang, Raymond Yu Wang

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The Langcang-Mekong River is the most important international watercourse in mainland Southeast Asia. In recent years, the six riparian states, China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, have confronted increasing disputes over the use of the trans-boundary water. To settle these disputes and protect the fundamental right to water, quite a few inter-state mechanisms have been established, such as the Mekong River Commission, the economic cooperation program of the Greater Mekong Subregion, the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ and the ‘Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Mechanism’ and the ‘Lower Mekong Initiative’. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have also been an important and constructive institutional entrepreneur in trans-boundary water governance. Although the status and extent of the right to water are yet to be clearly defined, this paper aims to 1) unpack how the right to water is interpreted and exercised in the Lancang-Mekong River Basin Dispute; and 2) to evaluate the roles of the right to water in settling international water disputes. To achieve these objectives, Secondary data such as archival documents of international law and relevant stakeholders will be compiled for analysis. First-hand information about the organizational structure, accountability, values and strategies of the international mechanisms and NGOs in question will also be collected through fieldwork in the Mekong river basin. Semi-structural interviews, group discussions and participatory observation will be conducted to collect data. The authors have access to the fieldwork because they have abundant experience of collaborating with Mekong-based international NGOs in previous research projects. This research will display how the concepts and principles of international law and the UN guidelines are interpreted in practice. These principles include the definition and extent of the right to water, the practical use of ‘vital human need’, the indicators of ‘adequacy of water’ including ‘availability, quality and accessibility’, and how the right to water is related to the progressive realization of the right to life. This down-to earth research will enrich the theoretical discussion of international law, particularly international human rights law, within the UN framework. Moreover, the outcomes of this research will provide new insights into the roles that the right to water might play in consensus-building and dispute settlement in a rapidly changing context, where water is pivotal for poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation and the promotion of sustainable livelihoods.

Keywords: international water dispute, Lancang-Mekong River, right to water, state and non-state actors

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135 Complaint Management Mechanism: A Workplace Solution in Development Sector of Bangladesh

Authors: Nusrat Zabeen Islam

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Partnership between local Non-Government organizations (NGO) and International development organizations has become an important feature in the development sector of Bangladesh. It is an important challenge for International development organizations to work with local NGOs with proper HR practice. Local NGOs have a lack of quality working environment and this affects the employee’s work experiences and overall performance at individual, partnership with International development organizations and organizational level. Many local development organizations due to the size of the organization and scope do not have a human resource (HR) unit. Inadequate Human Resource Policies, skills, leadership and lack of effective strategy is now a common scenario in Non-Government organization sector of Bangladesh. So corruption, nepotism, and fraud, risk of Political Contribution in office /work space, Sexual/ gender based abuse, insecurity take place in work place of development sector. The Complaint Management Mechanism (CMM) in human resource management could be one way to improve human resource competence in these organizations. The responsibility of Complaint Management Unit (CMU) of an International development organization is to make workplace maltreating, discriminating communities free. The information of impact of CMM was collected through case study of an International organization and some of its partner national organizations in Bangladesh who are engaged in different projects/programs. In this mechanism International development organizations collect complaints from beneficiaries/ staffs by complaint management unit and investigate by segregating the type and mood of the complaint and find out solution to improve the situation within a very short period. A complaint management committee is formed jointly with HR and management personnel. Concerned focal point collect complaints and share with CM unit. By conducting investigation, review of findings, reply back to CM unit and implementation of resolution through this mechanism, a successful bridge of communication and feedback can be established within beneficiaries, staffs and upper management. The overall result of Complaint management mechanism application indicates that by applying CMM accountability and transparency of workplace and workforce in development organization can be increased significantly. Evaluations based on outcomes, and measuring indicators such as productivity, satisfaction, retention, gender equity, proper judgment will guide organizations in building a healthy workforce, and will also clearly articulate the return on investment and justify any need for further funding.

Keywords: human resource management in NGOs, challenges in human resource, workplace environment, complaint management mechanism

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134 Possible Number of Dwelling Units Using Waste Plastic Bottle for Construction

Authors: Dibya Jivan Pati, Kazuhisa Iki, Riken Homma

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Unlike other metro cities of India, Bhubaneswar–the capital city of Odisha, is expected to reach 1-million-mark population by now. The demands of dwelling unit requirement mostly among urban poor belonging to Economically Weaker section (EWS) and Low Income groups (LIG) is becoming a challenge due to high housing cost and rents. As a matter of fact, it’s also noted that, with increase in population, the solid waste generation also increases subsequently affecting the environment due to inefficiency in collection of waste by local government bodies. Methods of utilizing Solid Waste - especially in form of Plastic bottles, Glass bottles and Metal cans (PGM) are now widely used as an alternative material for construction of low-cost building by Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in developing countries like India to help the urban poor afford a shelter. The application of disposed plastic bottle used in construction of single dwelling significantly reduces the overall cost of construction to as much as 14% compared to traditional construction material. Therefore, considering its cost-benefit result, it’s possible to provide housing to EWS and LIGs at an affordable price. In this paper, we estimated the quantity of plastic bottles generated in Bhubaneswar which further helped to estimate the possible number of single dwelling unit that can be constructed on yearly basis so as to refrain from further housing shortage. The estimation results will be practically used for planning and managing low-cost housing business by local government and NGOs.

Keywords: construction, dwelling unit, plastic bottle, solid waste generation, groups

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133 Exploring Perceptions of Local Stakeholders in Climate Change Adaptation in Central and Western Terai, Nepal

Authors: Shree Kumar Maharjan

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Climate change has varied impacts on diverse livelihood sectors, which is more prominent at the community level. The stakeholders and local institutions have been supporting the communities either by building adaptive capacities and resilience or minimizing the impacts of different adaptation interventions. Some of these interventions are effective, whereas others need further dynamisms and exertions considering the complexity of the risks and vulnerabilities. Hence, consolidated efforts of concerned stakeholders are required to minimize and adapt the present and future impacts. This study digs out and analyses the perceptions of local stakeholders in climate change adaptation in Madi and Deukhuri valleys of Nepal through a questionnaire survey. The study has categorized the local stakeholders into 5 groups in the study sites – Farmers groups and cooperatives, Government, I/NGOs, Development banks and education and other organizations. The local stakeholders revealed flood, drought, cold wave and riverbank erosion as the major climatic risks and hazards found in the sites eventually impacting on the loss of agricultural production, loss of agricultural land and properties, loss of livestock, the emergence of diseases and pest. The stakeholders believed that most of the farmers dealing with these impacts based on their traditional knowledge and practices, followed by with the support of NGOs and with the help of neighbors and community. The major supports of the stakeholders to deal with these impacts were on training and awareness, risk analysis and minimization, livelihood improvement, financial support, coordination and networking and facilitation in policy formulation. The stakeholders emphasized primarily on capacity building, appropriate technologies, community-based planning and monitoring, prioritization to the poor and the marginalized and establishment of community fund respectively for building adaptive capacities.

Keywords: climate change adaptation, local stakeholders, Madi, Deukhuri, Nepal

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132 Conservation and Restoration of Biodiversity in Khagrachari

Authors: Anima Ashraf

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Over the past few decades biodiversity has become the issue of global concern for its rapid reduction worldwide. Bangladesh is no exception. The country is exceptionally endowed with a vast variety of flora and fauna, but due to tremendous population pressure, rural poverty and unemployment it has been decreased alarmingly. Since, both biodiversity and sustainable development are the part of human life in modern era and both work together to make our life safer and comfortable therefore balance should be kept in development and biodiversity conservation and priority should be given to alternative and sustainable development paths. This paper is based on study of two projects undertaken by Arannayk Foundation jointly with its local NGO partners. The aim was to understand previous, current and future scenarios for the hilly biodiversity of Khagrachari in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh. It is also observed how alternative income generating activities (AIGA) improve livelihood of the tribal inhabitants of the area, decrease their dependency on forest resources and also aid conservation activities. Intensive field visits were made and interviews were conducted with key informants to see the progress and achievements of local NGOs working with the tribal community for the past seven years to restore the denuded hills of Khagrachari. The paper also covers the impacts and interventions of the projects and the methods used to aid conservation activities. Raising awareness among the villagers has reduced extraction of forests resources by 47% and granting funds and access to microcredit to adopt AIGAs have increased their average annual income by 25%. Finally, the paper concludes that effective community-based conservation practices are fundamental to ensure biodiversity conservation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. In order to conserve biodiversity and restore the forests of CHT, livelihood development of the villagers has to be considered as the main component of the projects undertaken by all NGOs and the Government.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forests, livelihood

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131 Better Together: Diverging Trajectories of Local Social Work Practice and Nationally-Regulated Social Work Education in the UK

Authors: Noel Smith

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To achieve professional registration, UK social workers need to complete a programme of education and training which meets standards set down by central government. When it comes to practice, social work in local authorities must fulfil requirements of national legislation but there is considerable local variation in the organisation and delivery of services. This presentation discusses the on-going reform of social work education by central government in the context of research of social work services in a local authority. In doing so it highlights that the ‘direction of travel’ of the national reform of social work education seems at odds with the trajectory of development of local social work services. In terms of education reform, the presentation cites key government initiatives including the knowledge and skills requirements which have been published separately for, respectively, child and family social work and adult social work. Also relevant is the Government’s new ‘teaching partnership’ pilot which focuses exclusively on social work in local government, in isolation from social work in NGOs. In terms of research, the presentation discusses two studies undertaken by Professor Smith in Suffolk County Council, a local authority in the east of England. The first is an equality impact analysis of the introduction of a new model for the delivery of adult and community services in Suffolk. This is based on qualitative research with local government representatives and NGOs involved in social work with older people and people with disabilities. The second study is an on-going, mixed method evaluation of the introduction of a new model of social care for children and young people in Suffolk. This new model is based on the international ‘Signs of Safety’ approach, which is applied in this model to a wide range of services from early intervention to child protection. While both studies are localised, the service models they examine are good illustrations of the way services are developing nationally. Analysis of these studies suggest that, if services continue to develop as they currently are, then social workers will require particular skills which are not be adequately addressed in the Government’s plans for social work education. Two issues arise. First, education reform concentrates on social work within local government while increasingly local authorities are outsourcing service provision to NGOs, expecting greater community involvement in providing care, and integrating social care with health care services. Second, education reform focuses on the different skills required for working with older and disabled adults and working with children and families, to the point where potentially the profession would be fragmented into two different classes of social worker. In contrast, the development of adult and children’s services in local authorities re-asserts the importance of common social work skills relating to personalisation, prevention and community development. The presentation highlights the importance for social work education in the UK to be forward looking, in terms of the changing design of service delivery, and outward looking, in terms of lessons to be drawn from international social work.

Keywords: adult social work, children and families social work, European social work, social work education

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130 The Effectiveness of First World Asylum Practices in Deterring Applications, Offering Bureaucratic Deniability, and Violating Human Rights: A Greek Case Study

Authors: Claudia Huerta, Pepijn Doornenbal, Walaa Elsiddig

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Rising waves of nationalism around the world have led first-world migration receiving countries to exploit the ambiguity of international refugee law and establish asylum application processes that deter applications, allow for bureaucratic deniability, and violate human rights. This case study of Greek asylum application practices argues that the 'pre-application' asylum process in Greece violates the spirit of international law by making it incredibly difficult for potential asylum seekers to apply for asylum, in essence violating the human rights of thousands of asylum seekers. This study’s focus is on the Greek mainland’s asylum 'pre-application' process, which in 2016 began to require those wishing to apply for asylum to do so during extremely restricted hours via a basic Skype line. The average wait to simply begin the registration process to apply for asylum is 81 days, during which time applicants are forced to live illegally in Greece. This study’s methodology in analyzing the 'pre-application' process consists of hours of interviews with asylum seekers, NGOs, and the Asylum Service office on the ground in Athens, as well as an analysis of the Greek Asylum Service historical asylum registration statistics. This study presents three main findings: the delays associated with the Skype system in Greece are the result of system design, as proven by a statistical analysis of Greek asylum registrations, NGOs have been co-opted by the state to perform state functions during the process, and the government’s use of technology is both purposefully lazy and discriminatory. In conclusion, the study argues that such asylum practices are part of a pattern of first-world migration receiving countries policies’ which discourage asylum seekers from applying and fall short of the standards in international law.

Keywords: asylum, European Union, governance, Greece, irregular, migration, policy, refugee, Skype

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129 Community Participation in Health Related Activities in Ignié-Ngabé-Mayama Health District, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

Authors: Tebeu Pierre Marie

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Introduction: WHO defines community participation as a process in which the local population, take responsibility in planning for their health, participates in the strategy’s development for implementation and accessibility to physical, moral and social well-being. For the purpose of dealing with health, the community participation is made through the organization called health Centre committee leader (HCCL/COSA) for Integrated health Center and District hospital committee leaser (HDCL/COGES) for District Hospital. Little is known about the effective participation of the community in health related activities in Ignié-Ngabé-Mayama health district. Objective: This study aimed at assessing the involvement of community in the health system running at the Ignié-Ngabé-Mayama health district. Methods: This was a qualitative cross-sectional study conducted in the Ignié-Ngabé-Mayama health district from 15 December 2020 to 30 April 2021. The study population consisted of 10 HCCL and one District hospital committee leaser (DHCL). Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire and validated by the investigating team. The variables of interest were; effective existence of HCCL/DHCL, their involvement HCCL/DHCL in health related activities, their financing management, planning of activities and leadership. Results: A total of 11 participants were interviewed, including 10 HCCL and 1 DHCL. The Sex-Ratio was 9/11; with primary level 6/11 and were mostly farmers 6/11. Analyzing the involvement of the HDCL/DHCL in health promotion and preventive activities; this was effective only for two of them (2/11). Analyzing the barriers for their involvement, the leaders reported the lack of financial support by the state, lack NGO support. Additionally, they reported to have been very active when there was Performance Based Founding Project in the District. Conclusion: Only two of the (HDCL/HCCL) out of 11 were really functioning. Reported barriers to their running were: lack of state/NGOs support and ending of PBF Project. There is a need to organize a tripartite forum including stats, NGOs and Community for boosting the community participation in health related activities in Ignié-Ngabé-Mayama health district.

Keywords: health district committee, health Centre committee, community participation, Brazzaville, Congo

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128 Psychoeducation to Prevent Spread of HIV Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Surabaya City

Authors: Christina Albertina Ludwinia Parung, I Gusti Ayu Maya Vratasti

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Sexual transmission of HIV among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) is believed to be one of the sources of the AIDS epidemic. Nowadays, government, communities, and NGOs are taking action to prevent its spread by assisting and educating groups of MSM in their countries. This assistance involves experts in many fields of study, including psychology. In the field of psychology, psychoeducation is believed to be one of the ways to assist the MSM groups. Just like in other countries, this psychoeducation assistance is also needed in Indonesia, where MSM groups are found in many cities within. Surabaya, as the second largest and densely populated city in Indonesia, is known to have a big number of MSM population. In September to December 2020, the author and a colleague conducted a mentoring effort to the MSM community at the MSM community gathering location called Gang Pattaya, in the city of Surabaya. The existence of this community is disguised by the general public, but is well known by NGOs. Community members do MSM out of their liking, although some do it in exchange for money. However, safety factors, such as using condoms for MSM, are not a priority for this community. They do MSM whether they receive a reward or not, just out of a boost of pleasure. There is no attempt to find out the health of the partner once they are attracted to each other. In general, they do not know whether they are infected with HIV. Most of them feel healthy and since they do not show any symptoms, they think it is not necessary to get tested. In the mentoring process, the researchers conduct psychoeducation, which begins with an approach to certain individuals so that they are comfortable with the researchers’ presence, then increasing awareness of safe sex behavior for HIV prevention for groups in the form of counseling using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) approach. Counseling is carried out in various forms including roleplay, games, and seminars. The number of participants was 11 people, varying from 19-47 years old. Pretest related to knowledge of safe sex was carried out before conducting the intervention and post-test after the intervention. The normality test used is the Shapiro-Wilk analysis. Different tests on the data obtained were carried out using the non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. None of the participants had lower post-test knowledge scores than the pre-test. Prestest and post test for safer sex behavior showed 2 participants with safer sex behavior did not change. Both belong to the senior group, while other participants have an improvement in their safer sex behavior. These findings suggest that intervention programs for MSM as an effort to reduce HIV transmission should pay attention to affective and cognitive coping strategies.

Keywords: HIV, men who have sex with men, psychoeducation, psychology health, safer sex behavior, theory of reasoned action

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127 On the Move: Factors Impacting the Migratory Decision-Making Capabilities of Gambians Relocating to Europe

Authors: Jeremy Goldsmith

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The Gambia, the smallest country in mainland Africa and one of the poorest countries on Earth, is currently experiencing historically unprecedented levels of out-migration to Europe. As a result, Gambians are currently among the top four nationalities emigrating to Europe. The central question that this thesis will address is: what factors impact the migration-related decision-making capabilities of Gambians? Based on interviews with NGOs, as well as those who have migrated and returned, are planning to migrate, and their friends and families, a pattern will emerge. This pattern will be woven into first person narratives which will explore the politico-economic, environmental, and socio-cultural factors that inform individual decision-making with regards to migration.

Keywords: migration, The Gambia, Africa, politico-economic, sociocultural, environmental

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126 Combating Domestic Violence in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Aspalella A. Rahman

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Domestic violence is not an uncommon phenomenon throughout the world. Malaysia is no exception. However, the exact prevalence of domestic violence in Malaysia is difficult to capture due to cultural understanding and sensitivity of the issues existing in the society. This paper aims to examine the issues and problems with the law of domestic violence in Malaysia. As such, it will mainly rely on statutes as its primary sources of information. It will analyse the scope and provisions of the Penal Code as well as the Domestic Violence Act 1994. Any shortcomings and gaps in the laws will be highlighted. It is submitted that domestic violence remains a problem in Malaysia. Although many strategies and plans have been implemented in attempting to combat this social problem, it remains unresolved. This is due to the inefficient implementation of the law. Although much has been done, there is still more to be done by the Malaysian government to combat domestic violence more effectively. For this reason, significant cooperation between the law enforcement authorities, NGOs, and the community must be established.

Keywords: challenges, domestic violence, issues, Malaysia

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125 Dalit Struggle in Nepal: From Invoking Dalit to Becoming Part of the Nepalese Power

Authors: Mom Bishwakarma

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This research traces out how the Dalit in Nepal evolved from the early 1950s to the current day, from invoking Dalit against caste discrimination through to the asserting proportional representation in state structures. The research focused most closely on the formation of Dalit association and resistance, as well as on the different struggles throughout this period. It then discusses the expansion of Dalit movement in NGOs, its internationalization and responses. The research sees that Dalit movement has been influenced by its network with the national and international civil rights movement particularly Dalit movement in India and argues that Dalit movement in Nepal have in many ways, challenged the orthodox based caste stratification for Dalit equality and justice. It can be seen that at the same time as Dalit participation was increasing, divisions by caste line also emerged. Rather reshaping the power structures, Dalit movement encircled into division and contentious politics.

Keywords: Dalit, equality, justice, movements, Nepal

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124 Rebuilding Health Post-Conflict: Case Studies from Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique

Authors: Spencer Rutherford, Shadi Saleh

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War and conflict negatively impact all facets of a health system; services cease to function, resources become depleted, and any semblance of governance is lost. Following cessation of conflict, the rebuilding process includes a wide array of international and local actors. During this period, stakeholders must contend with various trade-offs, including balancing sustainable outcomes with immediate health needs, introducing health reform measures while also increasing local capacity, and reconciling external assistance with local legitimacy. Compounding these factors are additional challenges, including coordination amongst stakeholders, the re-occurrence of conflict, and ulterior motives from donors and governments, to name a few. Therefore, the present paper evaluated health system development in three post-conflict countries over a 12-year timeline. Specifically, health policies, health inputs (such infrastructure and human resources), and measures of governance, from the post-conflict periods of Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique, were assessed against health outputs and other measures. All post-conflict countries experienced similar challenges when rebuilding the health sector, including; division and competition between donors, NGOs, and local institutions; urban and rural health inequalities; and the re-occurrence of conflict. However, countries also employed unique and effective mechanisms for reconstructing their health systems, including; government engagement of the NGO and private sector; integration of competing factions into the same workforce; and collaborative planning for health policy. Based on these findings, best-practice development strategies were determined and compiled into a 12-year framework. Briefly, during the initial stage of the post-conflict period, primary stakeholders should work quickly to draft a national health strategy in collaboration with the government, and focus on managing and coordinating NGOs through performance-based partnership agreements. With this scaffolding in place, the development community can then prioritize the reconstruction of primary health care centers, increasing and retaining health workers, and horizontal integration of immunization services. The final stages should then concentrate on transferring ownership of the health system national institutions, implementing sustainable financing mechanisms, and phasing-out NGO services. Overall, these findings contribute post-conflict health system development by evaluating the process holistically and along a timeline and can be of further use by healthcare managers, policy-makers, and other health professionals.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Cambodia, health system development, health system reconstruction, Mozambique, post-conflict, state-building

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123 Graphic Narratives: Representations of Refugeehood in the Form of Illustration

Authors: Pauline Blanchet

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In a world where images are a prominent part of our daily lives and a way of absorbing information, the analysis of the representation of migration narratives is vital. This thesis raises questions concerning the power of illustrations, drawings and visual culture in order to represent the migration narratives in the age of Instagram. The rise of graphic novels and comics has come about in the last fifteen years, specifically regarding contemporary authors engaging with complex social issues such as migration and refugeehood. Due to this, refugee subjects are often in these narratives, whether they are autobiographical stories or whether the subject is included in the creative process. Growth in discourse around migration has been present in other art forms; in 2018, there has been dedicated exhibitions around migration such as Tania Bruguera at the TATE (2018-2019), ‘Journeys Drawn’ at the House of Illustration (2018-2019) and dedicated film festivals (2018; the Migration Film Festival), which have shown the recent considerations of using the arts as a medium of expression regarding themes of refugeehood and migration. Graphic visuals are fast becoming a key instrument when representing migration, and the central thesis of this paper is to show the strength and limitations of this form as well the methodology used by the actors in the production process. Recent works which have been released in the last ten years have not being analysed in the same context as previous graphic novels such as Palestine and Persepolis. While a lot of research has been done on the mass media portrayals of refugees in photography and journalism, there is a lack of literature on the representation with illustrations. There is little research about the accessibility of graphic novels such as where they can be found and what the intentions are when writing the novels. It is interesting to see why these authors, NGOs, and curators have decided to highlight these migrant narratives in a time when the mainstream media has done extensive coverage on the ‘refugee crisis’. Using primary data by doing one on one interviews with artists, curators, and NGOs, this paper investigates the efficiency of graphic novels for depicting refugee stories as a viable alternative to other mass medium forms. The paper has been divided into two distinct sections. The first part is concerned with the form of the comic itself and how it either limits or strengthens the representation of migrant narratives. This will involve analysing the layered and complex forms that comics allow such as multimedia pieces, use of photography and forms of symbolism. It will also show how the illustration allows for anonymity of refugees, the empathetic aspect of the form and how the history of the graphic novel form has allowed space for positive representations of women in the last decade. The second section will analyse the creative and methodological process which takes place by the actors and their involvement with the production of the works.

Keywords: graphic novel, refugee, communication, media, migration

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122 Resilience Building, the Case of Dire Dawa Community, Ethiopia

Authors: Getachew Demesa Bexa

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Building resilience to withstand extreme weather events through reduction and mitigation measures towards predicted disasters with appropriate contingency plans complemented by timely and effective emergency response demands committed and integrated/coordinated efforts. The 2006 flood disaster that claimed more than 200 people in Dire Dawa town shifted the paradigm from reactive to proactive engagement among government, NGOs and communities to contain future disasters through resilience building. Dire Dawa CMDRR Association is a model community organization that demonstrated the basic minimum and turning adversity into opportunity by mobilizing vulnerable community members. Meanwhile the birth of African Centre for Disaster Risk Management is a milestone in changing the image of the country and beyond in resilience building while linking relief and development.

Keywords: Dire Dawa, disaster, resilience, risk management

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121 NGO Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation Abroad: The Effects on Local Social Economies

Authors: Renee Nank

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Nongovernmental organizations that operate in other countries are, under American law, permitted to apply for and receive special tax status even when their programs and services are situated in other countries. NGO's are lauded as incubators for innovation as they typically tackle difficult problems that public and private organizations are unable or uninterested in addressing. Little research has been undertaken that explores both the extent of these organizations in number and reach, their impact on addressing local issues they seek to resolve, and their effect on local social economies - namely job creation. This study explores the landscape of these NGOs that are afforded tax benefits in the U.S., but operate in other countries, the degree to which they are entrepreneurial and innovate, and their effect on local social economies. This applies this lens to particular cases by exploring in greater depth several American NGO's operating in Mexico.

Keywords: civil society, nongovernmental organizations, social entrepreneurship, social economy, NGO innovation

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120 Green Building Practices: Harmonizing Non-Governmental Organizations Roles and Energy Efficiency

Authors: Abimbola A. Adebayo, Kikelomo I. Adebayo

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Green buildings provide serious challenges for governments all over the world with regard to achieving energy efficiency in buildings. Energy efficient buildings are needed to keep up with minimal impacts on the environment throughout their cycle and to enhance sustainable development. The lack of awareness and benefits of energy efficient buildings have given rise to NGO’s playing important role in filling data gaps, publicizing information, and undertaking awareness raising and policy engagement activities. However, these roles are countered by concerns about subsidies for evaluations, incentives to facilitate data-sharing, and incentives to finance independent research. On the basis of literature review on experiences with NGO’s involvement in energy efficient buildings, this article identifies governance strategies that stimulate the harmonization of NGO’s roles in green buildings with the objective to increase energy efficiency in buildings.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green buildings, NGOs, sustainable development

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119 An Exploratory Study of Changing Organisational Practices of Third-Sector Organisations in Mandated Corporate Social Responsibility in India

Authors: Avadh Bihari

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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a global parameter to define corporates' ethical and responsible behaviour. It was a voluntary practice in India till 2013, driven by various guidelines, which has become a mandate since 2014 under the Companies Act, 2013. This has compelled the corporates to redesign their CSR strategies by bringing in structures, planning, accountability, and transparency in their processes with a mandate to 'comply or explain'. Based on the author's M.Phil. dissertation, this paper presents the changes in organisational practices and institutional mechanisms of third-sector organisations (TSOs) with the theoretical frameworks of institutionalism and co-optation. It became an interesting case as India is the only country to have a law on CSR, which is not only mandating the reporting but the spending too. The space of CSR in India is changing rapidly and affecting multiple institutions, in the context of the changing roles of the state, market, and TSOs. Several factors such as stringent regulation on foreign funding, mandatory CSR pushing corporates to look out for NGOs, and dependency of Indian NGOs on CSR funds have come to the fore almost simultaneously, which made it an important area of study. Further, the paper aims at addressing the gap in the literature on the effects of mandated CSR on the functioning of TSOs through the empirical and theoretical findings of this study. The author had adopted an interpretivist position in this study to explore changes in organisational practices from the participants' experiences. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with five corporate officials, eleven officials from six TSOs, and two academicians, located at Mumbai and Delhi, India. The findings of this study show the legislation has institutionalised CSR, and TSOs get co-opted in the process of implementing mandated CSR. Seventy percent of the corporates implement their CSR projects through TSOs in India; this has affected the organisational practices of TSOs to a large extent. They are compelled to recruit expert workforce, create new departments for monitoring & evaluation, communications, and adopt management practices of project implementation from corporates. These are attempts to institutionalise the TSOs so that they can produce calculated results as demanded by corporates. In this process, TSOs get co-opted in a struggle to secure funds and lose their autonomy. The normative, coercive, and mimetic isomorphisms of institutionalism come into play as corporates are mandated to take up CSR, thereby influencing the organisational practices of TSOs. These results suggest that corporates and TSOs require an understanding of each other's work culture to develop mutual respect and work towards the goal of sustainable development of the communities. Further, TSOs need to retain their autonomy and understanding of ground realities without which they become an extension of the corporate-funder. For a successful CSR project, engagement beyond funding is required from corporate, through their involvement and not interference. CSR-led community development can be structured by management practices to an extent, but cannot overshadow the knowledge and experience of TSOs.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, institutionalism, organisational practices, third-sector organisations

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