Search results for: postmodernism
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: postmodernism

18 Parvi̇z Jabrail's Novel 'in Foreign Language': Delimitation of Postmodernism with Modernism

Authors: Nargiz Ismayilova


The issue of modernism and the concept of postmodernism has been the focus of world researchers for many years, and there are very few researchers who have come to a common denominator about this term. During the independence period, the expansion of the relations of Azerbaijani literature with the world has led to the spread of many currents and tendencies formed in the West to the literary environment in our country. In this context, the works created in our environment are distinguished by their extreme richness in terms of subject matter and diversity in terms of genre. As an interesting example of contemporary postmodern prose in Azerbaijan, Parviz Jabrayil's novel "In a Foreign Language" pays attention with its more different plotline. The disagreement exists among the critics about the novel. Some are looking for high artistry in work; others are satisfied with the elements of postmodernism in work. Delimitation of the border between modernism and postmodernism can serve to carry out a deep scientific study of the novel. The novel depicts the world in the author's consciousness against the background of water shortage (thirst) in the Old City (Icharishahar). The author deconstructs today's Ichari Shahar mould. Along with modernism, elements of postmodernism occupy a large place in the work. When we look at the general tendencies of postmodernist art, we see that science and individuality are questioned, criticizing the sharp boundaries of modernism and the negativity of these restrictions, and modernism offers alternatives to artistic production by identifying its negatives and shortcomings in the areas of artistic freedom. The novel is extremely interesting in this point of view.

Keywords: concept of postmodernism, modernism, delimitation, political postmodernism, modern postmodern prose, Azerbaijani literature, novel, comparison, world literature, analysis

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17 Consumer Based Online Authenticity: An Exploratory Approach: Case of Terroir Product of Souss Massa Region, Morocco

Authors: Fatima Ezzahra Ouboutaib, Abdellatif Aitheda, Soumiya Mekkaoui


Marketing research is starting to focus on authenticity to position an offer, especially local products. However, its use remains more problematic with the internet for cooperatives. This paper investigates how digitalization impacts the satisfaction of the quest for authenticity. On the theoretical level, it explains authenticity in online and offline contexts in the postmodernism era. Then, an exploratory qualitative study tries to understand the contribution of digitization to the satisfaction of the search for authenticity. Therefore, cooperatives selling terroir products on the Internet are advised to keep also direct contact which tends to show a traditional manner of production to enhance customers’ perception of terroir product authenticity.

Keywords: authenticity, terroir product, online authenticity, postmodernism

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16 Enigmatic Identity and Alienated Self: Existential Analysis of Paul Auster's the Brooklyn Follies

Authors: Sapna Bhargav


Contemporary fiction is an intricate exercise where novelist acquires the role of a philosopher, a sociologist and a psychologist. The dilemma of fragmented self that a man experiences, is a crucial subject of contemporary fiction. Paul Auster's fiction is exemplary of the merger of Existentialism and Postmodernism, and while both of these movements insist on isolation of the self from all aspects of social affiliation, Auster's unique blend of these concepts presents man in a state which is not just alienated, but stranded in a desolate abyss, rendering even the release of death as questionable. The conundrums of the self is a compulsory consequence of the existentialist alienation that postmodern man is subjected to, and is further accentuated by the fact that existentialist freedom dictates that not only are one's actions not dictated by any form of external entity, but also the onus of one's destiny lies on an individual's own deeds. This paper will analyse Auster's The Brooklyn Follies from an Existentialist perspective, and will attempt to trace the alienation and identity conflicts of the Auster’s characters along with some of the common Austerian themes. An emphasis will be laid on the characters’ endeavour to reconstruct their lost self.

Keywords: alienation, existentialism, identity, postmodernism, self

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15 The Novel of 'the Adventure of the Secrets': Character in Postmodern Labyrinth, the Problem of Time and Subject

Authors: Nargiz Ismayilova


In Kamal Abdulla's "The Adventure of Mysteries", the plot develops on two parallel lines. While reading the work, the future looks hazy on the background of the present and the past. It is impossible to predict the end of the work in particular. This can be considered the success of the author. The novel has reflected the features of postmodernism. The novel is characterized by a richness of intertwined plots, themes, meta- submission, device (fiction) typical of postmodern prose technique. The introduction and progress of the work takes the reader to the place, which is an unrecognizable unknown for him but at the same time, its native for him very well. Parts of the novel, divided into chapter techniques, force the reader to distinguish mystical repetitions from the artistic circulation of reality. This makes people think directly. Intertextual communication and the variety of fiction, intelligence, and informativeness determine the perspective of the exemplary reader. As is well known, “postmodern novels, which often use intertextual communication and superstructure techniques, focus on expression rather than on the subject, and benefit from history by combining fiction with historical facts, are able to attract attention with their extraordinary foreign fiction.

Keywords: Kamal Abdulla, postmodernism, parallelism, labyrinth, comparison, novel

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14 The Evaluation and Assessment of Modernism

Authors: Mohammad Mirzaei


The term "modernism" is at the heart of debates about 20th-century literature and critical theory. Astradur Eysteinsson argues here that the notion of modernity does not emerge directly from the literature it encompasses but is actually a product of critical practices related to non-traditional literature. By intervening in and relating them to modernist works and contemporary literary theories, Esteinsson takes a comprehensive look at the idea of modernity. Eysteinsson critically examines various expressions of modernism in the rich spectrum of American, British, and European literature, criticism, and theory. He first explored a number of modernist paradigms and found a conflict between modernism's potential for cultural subversion and its relatively conservative status as a formalist project. In turn, he sees these paradigms as interpretations and inventions of literary history. Seen in this way, modernism presents both a historical change in the literary scene and the context of this change. Imbued with the connotations of tradition and modernity, modernity fulfills its primary function. Highlights and defines the complex relationship between history and post-realist literature. Eysteinsson focuses on how concepts of modernism guide our understanding of literature and literary history and how they influence the evaluation of experimental and 3post realist works in literature and art. He discusses in detail the relationship between modernism and the key terms postmodernism, avant-garde, and realism. In staging a crisis of subject and reference, modernity is not a form of discourse but its subversion, the "other" that may reveal important aspects of our social and linguistic experience in Western culture.

Keywords: literature, modernism, western cultures, postmodernism

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13 Research Analysis in Eclectic Theory (Kaboudan and Sfandiar)

Authors: Farideh Alizadeh, Mohd Nasir Hashi


Present research investigates eclecticism in Iranian theatre on the basis of eclectic theory. Eclectic theatre is a new theory in postmodernism. The theory appeared during 60th – 70th century in some theatres such as “Conference of the Birds”. Special theatrical forms have been developed in many geographical- cultural areas of the world and are indigenous to that area. These forms, as compared with original forms, are considered to be traditional while being comprehensive, the form is considered to be national. Kaboudan and Sfandiar theatre has been influenced by elements of traditional form of Iran.

Keywords: eclectic theatre, theatrical forms, tradition, play

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12 The Criteria of the Aesthetic Quality of Art: Contemporary Photography

Authors: Artem Surkov


This work is devoted to a problem of aesthetic quality determinism in the context of contemporary art. The object of study is photography regarding as a kind of art which demands specific system of quality marking. Objective: To define aesthetic criteria in photography art. For current searching different kind of texts by such powerful authors like Clement Greenberg and Rosalind Krauss, Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse, Charlott Cotton and Boris Groys, Viktor Miziano and Ekaterina Degot' were analyzed. Before all, there are two different kinds of photography: the classic art photography (by Ansel Adams) and the photography as kind of art (by Andreas Gursky). In this text we are talking about the photography as kind of art. The main principle of current searching is synthesis of two different approaches: modernism and postmodernism. This method helps us to define uniform criteria of aesthetic quality in photography as kind of art. The criteria mentioned in conclusion paragraph are: aesthetic rationality, aesthetic economy, awareness (using photographic technics or references), and intention to go beyond form, practice and method.

Keywords: aesthetic, art, criteria of quality, photography, visually

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11 Culture and Commodification: A Study of William Gibson's the Bridge Trilogy

Authors: Aruna Bhat


Culture can be placed within the social structure that embodies both the creation of social groups, and the manner in which they interact with each other. As many critics have pointed out, culture in the Postmodern context has often been considered a commodity, and indeed it shares many attributes with commercial products. Popular culture follows many patterns of behavior derived from Economics, from the simple principle of supply and demand, to the creation of marketable demographics which fit certain criterion. This trend is exemplary visible in contemporary fiction, especially in contemporary science fiction; Cyberpunk fiction in particular which is an off shoot of pure science fiction. William Gibson is one such author who in his works portrays such a scenario, and in his The Bridge Trilogy he adds another level of interpretation to this state of affairs, by describing a world that is centered on industrialization of a new kind – that focuses around data in the cyberspace. In this new world, data has become the most important commodity, and man has become nothing but a nodal point in a vast ocean of raw data resulting into commodification of each thing including Culture. This paper will attempt to study the presence of above mentioned elements in William Gibson’s The Bridge Trilogy. The theories applied will be Postmodernism and Cultural studies.

Keywords: culture, commodity, cyberpunk, data, postmodern

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10 Eros and Postmodern Nihilism in Don Delillo’s Zero K (2016): A Psychoanalytical Reading

Authors: Nouioua Wafa


It is broadly accepted that the existence of postmodern individuals is distinguished by a predominant presence of skepticism, anxiety and loneliness. This social unrest is the consequence of a drastic shift in how reality and meaning are conceived, which has been replaced by something that is referred to in media theory and criticism as hyperreality. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the hyperreality that exists in the postmodern nihilistic American community that Don Delillo depicts in Zero K (2016) through the use of Jean Baudrillard's notions of Simulacra and Simulations. It is a troubled technological late capitalist society obsessed with immortality and fear of demise, and ergo it is an appropriate reading to implement Sigmund Freud’s theory of life drive (Eros), which refers to the life instinct fundamental to all humans and the urge to support productivity and construction. The results obtained from a qualitative analysis of Zero K indicate the presence of a clash between the character’s life drive and fear of mortality. In an effort to escape loneliness and death, the character Ross Lockhart undergoes, after a moment of hesitation, cryonic freezing in the convergence to preserve his life as well as that of his wife Artis, yet his son Jeffery is firmly convinced of the uselessness of combating the inevitable death.

Keywords: Don DeLillo, Eros, postmodernism Nihilism, Zero K

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9 Eros and Postmodern Nihilism in Don Delillo’s Zero K (2016): A Psychoanalytical Reading

Authors: Wafa Nouioua


It is broadly accepted that the existence of postmodern individuals is distinguished by a predominant presence of skepticism, anxiety and loneliness. This social unrest is the consequence of a drastic shift in how reality and meaning are conceived, which has been replaced by something that is referred to in media theory and criticism as hyperreality. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the hyperreality that exists in the postmodern nihilistic American community that Don Delillo depicts in Zero K (2016) through the use of Jean Baudrillard notions of Simulacra and Simulations. It is a troubled technological late capitalist society obsessed with immortality and fear of demise, ergo it is an appropriate reading to implement Sigmund Freud’s theory of life drive (Eros), which refers to the life instinct fundamental to all humans and the urge to support productivity and construction. The results obtained from a qualitative analysis of Zero K indicate the presence of a clash between the character’s life drive and fear of mortality. In an effort to escape loneliness and death, the character Ross Lockhart undergoes, after a moment of hesitation, cryonic freezing in the convergence to preserve his life as well as that of his wife Artis, yet his son Jeffery is firmly convinced of the uselessness of combating the inevitable death.

Keywords: Don Dellilo, Eros, Postmodernism Nihilism, Zero K

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8 Asian Cinema and Hollywood Remakes: Cultural Hybridization, Convergence and Partition in the Age of Global Capitalism

Authors: Chan Ka Lok Sobel


Recently, several famous Asian films have been remade in North America, set in the context of U.S. society and with the financial and cultural scale of Hollywood cinema. Notably, the practice of remaking films is interactive, with famous Hollywood films also being remade in Asia; for example, Charlie’s Angels (McG, 2002) was remade as So Close (Yuen, 2002), Seven (Fincher, 1995) was remade as Double Vision (Fu, 2002), and Cellular (Ellis, 2004) was remade as Connected (Chan, 2008). Conversely, Asian films such as Infernal Affairs (Lau & Mak, 2002), il Mare (Lee, 2000), and Bangkok Dangerous (Pang, 2000) were remade into Hollywood blockbuster films The Departed (Scorsese, 2006), The Lake House (Agresti, 2006), and Bangkok Dangerous (Pang, 2007), respectively. This research examined Asian cinema and Hollywood remakes from the perspective of cultural hybridization and partition in the context of global capitalism and postmodernism. Using Infernal Affairs and The Departed as a case study, key concepts such as crosscultural adaptation, intercultural and global communication competence, and cultural identity and authorship were compared and analyzed.

Keywords: remake and originality, double cultural identity, studio system, genre and authorship

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7 Carl von Clausewitz and Foucault on War and Power

Authors: Damian Winczewski


Carl von Clausewitz’s political theory of war was criticized in the 20th century in several ways. It was also the source of many disagreements over readings of its most popular theses. Among them, the reflections of thinkers categorized as part of the broader postmodern current stand out, such as Michael Foucault and his successors, who presented a nuanced and critical approach to strategy theory. Foucault viewed it as part of a broader political–legal discourse of sovereignty rooted in the Middle Ages, which underlies modern biopower. Clausewitz’s theory of strategy underpinned a new humanist discourse rationalizing the phenomenon of war while, in a methodological sense, becoming an epistemic model of how Foucault conceived power strategy. Foucault’s contemporary commentators try to develop his position by arguing the analogy between the discourse prevailing in Clausewitz’s time and the contemporary neoliberal discourse and technological revolution on the battlefield, which create a new order of power. Meanwhile, they recognize that the modern development of strategy was to make Clausewitz’s understanding of war obsolete. However, postmodernists focusing on showy stylistics in their assessments rely on a mythologized narrative about Clausewitz, reducing his theories to a discourse of war as a way for nation-states to conduct foreign policy. In this article, Clausewitz shows that his theory goes much deeper and provides a critical perspective on the relationship between war and politics. The dialectical structure makes it possible to understand war as a historically variable but constantly policy-dependent phenomenon.

Keywords: Clausewitz, Foucault, Virilio, postmodernism, war and politics, power

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6 Postmodernism and Metanarrative: Deconstruction of Narrative in a Song of Ice and Fire Fantasy TV Series

Authors: Narjes Azimi


It has been a while that narrative and storytelling turned to be the inevitable part of media. The narrative has so many aspects and among those entire aspects, the fantasy genre is consciously challenging one as fantasy readers are used to reading narratives like good versus evil plot. This paper will analyze the ASOIF TV series as a Meta narrative cultural production that deconstructs the elements of a traditional narrative. This study will shade on a grand narrative perspective from poststructuralism point of view. The theoretical framework is structuralism and post structuralism. Lyotard and Barthes are two main poststructuralists and focus of the study. Lyotard grand narrative elements will analyze in this research study. Fantasy genre generated a number of outstanding authors that explore innovative perspectives. Among all these leading authors George R.R Martin is one of the best. George R. R. Martin’s Fantasy a Song of Ice and Fire picturized the brutal world that seven kingdoms struggling for the power. Since 2011 this production has been followed and watched by millions of audiences all around the world. The methodology is the textual analysis of selected scenes. Martin’s distinctive fantasy style which makes it different from other fantasies, yet this shift does not negate how the previous fantasy writers represent the mentioned concepts of war, and etc., but Martin’ fantasy and left the mature audiences full of uncertainty.

Keywords: narrative theory, metanarrative, deconstruction, post-structuralism, Lyotard, Barthes

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5 The Stylistic Representation of Subjectivity in Exemplary Written and Audiovisual Biographical Records about the Brazilian Modernist Artist Tarsila Do Amaral

Authors: Juliane Noack Napoles, Vivian Martins Nogueira Napoles


This paper operates at the stylistic level of biographical records about the artist Tarsila do Amaral (1886-1973) and the various biographical modes of representation of her subjectivity. Tarsila do Amaral was a Brazilian nationalistic painter, who took part in the first half of the last century in the Antoprofágico Moviment and in the Surrealistic Movement - artistic movements that emerged in the 1920’s. The paper will be developed in the field of Cultural and Media Science and based on an understanding of biography as a subgenre of historical records that will be discussed. Doing that, the theoretical principles about the history genre will also be discussed. In this context, the analytical focus of the present project is the stylistic forms of representation of subjectivity in the postmodern period as expressed in written and audiovisual biographical representation of Tarsila do Amaral. Some exemplary audiovisual biographical records about Tarsila do Amaral will be first analyzed on their own. Then, they will be related to some written biographical records about the painter. At the end, both written and audiovisual records and their stylistic forms of representation of Tarsila do Amaral’s subjectivity are going be analyzed. Tarsila do Amaral will be considered as a Subject Form, following actual concepts about this term in Cultural Studies. For these purposes, it will also be discussed about cultural identity – gender and national identity – and developed a heuristic model so that different understandings and conceptual proposals correlate, including those pertaining to the terms biography, gender, identity, mediality, style, subject and subjectivity. This model will finally be used for the analysis of the selected biographical records.

Keywords: biography, gender, identity, modernism, postmodernism, style, subject, subjectivity, surrealism, Tarsila do Amaral

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4 Providing Support for Minority LGBTQ Students: Developing a Queer Studies Course

Authors: Karen Butler


The LGBTQ youth of color face stigma related to both race and gender identity. Effectively dealing with racial/ethnic discrimination requires strong connections to family and one’s racial/ethnic group. However, LGBTQ youth of color seldom receive support from family, peer groups or church groups. Moreover, ethnic communities often perceive LGBTQ identities as a rejection of ethnic heritage. Thus, stigma places these young people at greater risk for substance use, violence, risky sexual behaviors, suicide, and homelessness. Offering a Queer Studies (QS) class is one way to facilitate a safer and more inclusive environment for LGBTQ students, faculty and staff. The discipline of Queer Studies encompasses theories and thinkers from numerous fields: cultural studies, gay and lesbian studies, race studies, women's studies, media, postmodernism, post-colonialism, psychoanalysis and more. We began our course development by researching existing programs and classes. Several course syllabi were examined and course materials such as readings, videos, and guest speakers were assessed for possible inclusion. We also employed informal survey methods with students and faculty in order to gauge interest in the course. We then developed a sample course syllabus and began the process of new course approval. Feedback thus far indicates that students of various sexual orientations and gender identities are interested in the course and understand the need to offer it; faculty in Psychology, Social Work, and Interdisciplinary Studies are interested in cross-listing the course; library staff is willing to assist with course material acquisition, and the administration is supportive. The purpose of this session is to 1) explore the various health and wellness issues facing LGBTQ students of color and 2) share our experience of developing a QS course in health education in order to address these needs. This process, from initial recognition of the need to a course offering, will be described and discussed in the hopes that participants will increase their awareness of the issues. A QS course would be an appropriate requirement for any number of majors as well as an elective for any major.

Keywords: black colleges, health education, LGBTQ, queer studies

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3 Foundations for Global Interactions: The Theoretical Underpinnings of Understanding Others

Authors: Randall E. Osborne


In a course on International Psychology, 8 theoretical perspectives (Critical Psychology, Liberation Psychology, Post-Modernism, Social Constructivism, Social Identity Theory, Social Reduction Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory) are used as a framework for getting students to understand the concept of and need for Globalization. One of critical psychology's main criticisms of conventional psychology is that it fails to consider or deliberately ignores the way power differences between social classes and groups can impact the mental and physical well-being of individuals or groups of people. Liberation psychology, also known as liberation social psychology or psicología social de la liberación, is an approach to psychological science that aims to understand the psychology of oppressed and impoverished communities by addressing the oppressive sociopolitical structure in which they exist. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. It stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. Lev Vygotsky argued that all cognitive functions originate in, and must therefore be explained as products of social interactions and that learning was not simply the assimilation and accommodation of new knowledge by learners. Social Identity Theory discusses the implications of social identity for human interactions with and assumptions about other people. Social Identification Theory suggests people: (1) categorize—people find it helpful (humans might be perceived as having a need) to place people and objects into categories, (2) identify—people align themselves with groups and gain identity and self-esteem from it, and (3) compare—people compare self to others. Social reductionism argues that all behavior and experiences can be explained simply by the affect of groups on the individual. Symbolic interaction theory focuses attention on the way that people interact through symbols: words, gestures, rules, and roles. Meaning evolves from human their interactions in their environment and with people. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of human learning describes learning as a social process and the origination of human intelligence in society or culture. The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. This presentation will discuss how these theoretical perspectives are incorporated into a course on International Psychology, a course on the Politics of Hate, and a course on the Psychology of Prejudice, Discrimination and Hate to promote student thinking in a more ‘global’ manner.

Keywords: globalization, international psychology, society and culture, teaching interculturally

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2 Subjective Realities of Neoliberalized Social Media Natives: Trading Affect for Effect

Authors: Rory Austin Clark


This primary research represents an ongoing two year inductive mixed-methods project endeavouring to unravel the subjective reality of hyperconnected young adults in Western societies who have come of age with social media and smartphones. It is to be presented as well as analyzed and contextualized through a written master’s thesis as well as a documentary/mockumentary meshed with a Web 2.0 app providing the capacity for prosumer, 'audience 2.0' functionality. The media component seeks to explore not only thematic issues via real-life research interviews and fictional narrative but technical issues within the format relating to the quest for intimate, authentic connection as well as compelling dissemination of scholarly knowledge in an age of ubiquitous personalized daily digital media creation and consumption. The overarching hypothesis is that the aforementioned individuals process and make sense of their world, find shared meaning, and formulate notions-of-self in ways drastically different than pre-2007 via hyper-mediation-of-self and surroundings. In this pursuit, research questions have progressed from examining how young adult digital natives understand their use of social media to notions relating to the potential functionality of Web 2.0 for prosocial and altruistic engagement, on and offline, through the eyes of these individuals no longer understood as simply digital natives, but social media natives, and at the conclusion of that phase of research, as 'neoliberalized social media natives' (NSMN). This represents the two most potent macro factors in the paradigmatic shift in NSMS’s worldview, that they are not just children of social media, but of the palpable shift to neoliberal ways of thinking and being in the western socio-cultures since the 1980s, two phenomena that have a reflexive æffective relationship on their perception of figure and ground. This phase also resulted in the working hypothesis of 'social media comparison anxiety' and a nascent understanding of NSMN’s habitus and habitation in a subjective reality of fully converged online/offline worlds, where any phenomena originating in one realm in some way are, or at the very least can be, re-presented or have effect in the other—creating hyperreal reception. This might also be understood through a 'society as symbolic cyborg model', in which individuals have a 'digital essence'-- the entirety of online content that references a single person, as an auric living, breathing cathedral, museum, gallery, and archive of self of infinite permutations and rhizomatic entry and exit points.

Keywords: affect, hyperreal, neoliberalism, postmodernism, social media native, subjective reality, Web 2.0

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1 Awareness of 'Psychosocial Restraint': A Proper Caring Attitude and Truly Listening to People with Dementia in the Hong Kong’S Residential Care Homes

Authors: Kenny Chi Man Chui


Background: In Chinese culture, the traditional equivalent term for English dementia is chi dai zheng, which, whether translated as ‘insanity’ or ‘idiocy’ carries a sharply negative connotation. In fact, even though the traditional name for dementia has evolved, from chi dai zheng to shi zhi zheng, nao tui hua zheng or ren zhi zhang ai zheng, educating the population about more respectful terms for the condition and promoting a positive understanding about people with dementia in society have proven to be time-intensive endeavors. By extension, the use of such terms promotes the perception that people with dementia undergo a ‘total loss of self’ or experience a ‘living death’ or ‘social death’. Both in Asia and elsewhere, the appropriate nomenclature for dementia remains controversial, and different medical and healthcare professionals in Hong Kong have taken various stances on how to refer to the condition there. Indeed, how this negative perception affects the interaction between people with dementia and the surrounding others? Methodology: Qualitative research with the concept of postmodernism, interpretivism, and Foucauldian theory was adopted as frameworks in applying participatory observations, in-depth interviews, and other qualitative methods. First, ten people with dementia—one man and nine women—living in two residential care homes in Hong Kong were interviewed, as were ten members of the care staff, all of whom were women. Next, to coach the staff in understanding the feelings and self-perceptions of people with dementia, two reflective training sessions were provided. Afterward, to assess the impact of the training sessions on the staff, two focus groups were held. Findings: The findings revealed that residents with dementia did not perceive themselves as being ‘demented’ and were confused by not getting responses from the others. From the understanding of care staff, they perceived the residents as being ‘demented’, desolate troublemakers. They described people with dementia as ‘naughty children’ who should be controlled and be punished while treated them as ‘psychiatric patients’ who could be ignored and be mute. “Psychosocial restraint” happened regarding the discrepancy of perception between people with dementia and the care staff. People with dementia did not think that their confusion of memory was related to dementia or, frankly speaking, they did not know what dementia was. When others treated them as ‘demented patients, the residents with mild to moderate dementia fiercely rejected that designation and reported a host of negative feelings, hence the fluctuations of mood and emotion noted by the care staff. Conclusion: As the findings revealed, the people with dementia were also discontent with the care arrangements in the care homes, felt abandoned by others and worried about bothering others. Their shifting emotional states and moods were treated as the Behavioral and Psychological symptoms of Dementia (BPSD), which nothing can do reported by the care staff in the residential care homes. People with dementia become social withdrawal or isolated in daily living, which should be alert and be changed by the social work professionals about the occurrence of “psychosocial restraint” in dementia care.

Keywords: psychosocial restraint, qualitative research, social work with dementitude, voice of people with dementia

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