Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 395

Search results for: police officers

395 Lies and Pretended Fairness of Police Officers in Sharing

Authors: Eitan Elaad

Abstract:

The current study aimed to examine lying and pretended fairness by police personnel in sharing situations. Forty Israeli police officers and 40 laypeople from the community, all males, self-assessed their lie-telling ability, rated the frequency of their lies, evaluated the acceptability of lying, and indicated using rational and intuitive thinking while lying. Next, according to the ultimatum game procedure, participants were asked to share 100 points with an imagined target, either a male policeman or a male non-policeman. Participants allocated points to the target person bearing in mind that the other person must accept or reject their offer. Participants' goal was to retain as many points as possible, and to this end, they could tell the target person that fewer than 100 points were available for distribution. We defined concealment or lying as the difference between the available 100 points and the sum of points designated for sharing. Results indicated that police officers lied less to their fellow police targets than non-police targets, whereas laypeople lied less to non-police targets than imagined police targets. The ratio between the points offered to the imagined target person and the points endowed by the participant as available for sharing defined pretended fairness.Enhanced pretended fairness indicates higher motivation to display fair sharing even if the fair sharing is fictitious. Police officers presented higher pretended fairness to police targets than laypeople, whereas laypeople set off more fairness to non-police targets than police officers. We discussed the results concerning occupation solidarity and loyalty among police personnel. Specifically, police work involves uncertainty, danger and risk, coercive authority, and the use of force, which isolates the police from the community and dictates strong bonds of solidarity between police personnel. No wonder police officers shared more points (lied less) to fellow police targets than non-police targets. On the other hand, police legitimacy or the belief that the police are acting honestly in the best interest of the citizens constitutes citizens' attitudes toward the police. The relatively low number of points shared for distribution by laypeople to police targets indicates difficulties with the legitimacy of the Israeli police.

Keywords: lying, fairness, police solidarity, police legitimacy, sharing, ultimatum game

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394 Polish Police in the Fight against Terrorism and Cyberterrorism

Authors: Izabela Nowicka, Jacek Dworzecki

Abstract:

The paper will be presented to selected legal and organizational solutions for the prevention and combating of terrorism by the police in Poland. Development will include information on the organization and functioning of the police anti-terrorist sub-units, whose officers are on the front line of the fight against terrorism. They will be presented to the conditions and cases of use of firearms by police officers in the course of special operations aimed against organizations and terrorist groups, and the perpetrators of criminal acts of terrorism as well as the legal foundation for the Polish police to take immediate counterterrorism operations. Article will be prepared in the context of an international research project entitled. Understand the Dimensions of Organised Crime and Terrorist Networks for Developing Effective and Efficient Security Solutions for First-line-practitioners and Professionals [Project: H2020-FCT-2015, No: 700688].

Keywords: the fight against terrorism, police, Poland, takedown

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393 A Study of Police Culture Themes Towards the Public Among South African Police Service

Authors: Nkosingiphile M. Mbhele, Jean Steyn

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A focus group discussion was implemented, which comprised of senior South African Police Service managers and police academics in South Africa. The measurement of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism among functional South African Police Service officials and a thirty-item questionnaire came about by reviewing the literature. This research uses a survey format to assess the police culture theme of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism among South African Police Service officers in 9 South African provinces. Although a survey format is used in research, it engages in a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test repeated measures research (longitudinal) design. Although there are differences among South African Police Service police (SAPS) officers, overall, there are signs of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism among SAPS members. Attitudes of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism are present among most police officials and have been presented from the start of training and held, maintained, or strengthened for the next years of their SAPS careers. This issue is problematic to society with regard to community-orientated policing since they have to interact with the members of the community. To author’s best knowledge, longitudinal studies of police culture are rare to find; not much has been researched on this topic. However, this paper offers to bridge that gap by providing answers to longitudinal police attitudes towards the public within the police culture themes of isolation and cynicism attitudes.

Keywords: South African police service, police culture, solidarity, isolation, cynicism, public

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392 The Models of Character Development Bali Police to Improve Quality of Moral Members in Bali Police Headquarters

Authors: Agus Masrukhin

Abstract:

This research aims to find and analyze the model of character building in the Police Headquarters in Bali with a case study of Muslim members in improving the quality of the morality of its members. The formation of patterns of thinking, behavior, mentality, and police officers noble character, later can be used as a solution to reduce the hedonistic nature of the challenges in the era of globalization. The benefit of this study is expected to be a positive recommendation to find a constructive character building models of police officers in the Republic of Indonesia, especially Bali Police. For the long term, the discovery of the character building models can be developed for the entire police force in Indonesia. The type of research that would apply in this study researchers mix the qualitative research methods based on the narrative between the subject and the concrete experience of field research and quantitative research methods with 92 respondents from the police regional police Bali. This research used a descriptive analysis and SWOT analysis then it is presented in the FGD (focus group discussion). The results of this research indicate that the variable modeling the leadership of the police and variable police offices culture have significant influence on the implementation of spiritual development.

Keywords: positive constructive, hedonistic, character models, morality

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391 Self-Image of Police Officers

Authors: Leo Carlo B. Rondina

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Self-image is an important factor to improve the self-esteem of the personnel. The purpose of the study is to determine the self-image of the police. The respondents were the 503 policemen assigned in different Police Station in Davao City, and they were chosen with the used of random sampling. With the used of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), latent construct variables of police image were identified as follows; professionalism, obedience, morality and justice and fairness. Further, ordinal regression indicates statistical characteristics on ages 21-40 which means the age of the respondent statistically improves self-image.

Keywords: police image, exploratory factor analysis, ordinal regression, Galatea effect

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390 The Political Economy of Police Corruption in Nigeria

Authors: Tosin Osasona

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The Nigeria Police Force bears the constitutional mandate as the primary policing agency for the protection of life and property within Nigeria; however, the police have an historical ill-reputation for corruption, ineptitude and impunity. Using the institutional theory of police as the framework of analysis, the paper argues that the performance of the police in Nigeria mirrors the dominant political, social and economic institutions and the structural environment of the Nigerian state. The article puts in perspective the deliberate political decision to underfund the police, leaving officers of the force the extra task of foraging for funds to undertake the duty that the Nigeria state primarily exists for; the article further explores the nexus between corruption in the police in Nigeria and the issue of funding. The article finds that the Nigerian state, by deliberately under-funding the police, while expecting the agency to perform its duties, has indirectly sanctioned the corruption of the force and approved the cooption of the institution of police and policing for private use in Nigeria.

Keywords: Police Corruption, Funding , Informal Taxation, POlice Checkpoint

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389 Comparing Nonverbal Deception Detection of Police Officers and Human Resources Students in the Czech Republic

Authors: Lenka Mynaříková, Hedvika Boukalová

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The study looks at the ability to detect nonverbal deception among police officers and management students in the Czech Republic. Respondents from police departments (n=197) and university students of human resources (n=161) completed a deception detection task and evaluated veracity of the statements of suspects in 21 video clips from real crime investigations. Their evaluations were based on nonverbal behavior. Voices in the video clips were modified so that words were not recognizable, yet paraverbal voice characteristics were preserved. Results suggest that respondents have a tendency to lie bias based on their profession. In the evaluation of video clips, stereotypes also played a significant role. The statements of suspects of a different ethnicity, younger age or specific visual features were considered deceitful more often. Research might be beneficial for training in professions that are in need of deception detection techniques.

Keywords: deception detection, police officers, human resources, forensic psychology, forensic studies, organizational psychology

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388 Psychological Contract Violation and Occupational Stressors amongst UK Police Officers

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

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Psychological contract refers to the perceptions of an employee and their employer regarding their mutual obligations towards each other. The rationale for applying the psychological contract theory in UK policing was to investigate its impact on their wellbeing because the psychological contract is a useful tool in identifying factors having a negative effect on the wellbeing of employees. The paper will report on a study, which examined how occupational stressors and psychological contract violation may influence the wellbeing (e.g. Physical Stress and General Health) of a sample of police officers (N=127). The design of the study was cross-sectional and based on data collected through a self-report survey. The results of hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation model, suggest that occupational stressors and psychological contract violation play a critical role in both physical and psychological health. The implications of these findings and the utility of considering the psychological contract will be discussed.

Keywords: police officers, psychological contract, occupational stressors, wellbeing

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387 Swedish Police Officers' Experiences of Meeting with Women Who Were Raped

Authors: Lisa Rudolfsson

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Socio-cognitive factors, such as social support and attribution of blame, influence the victim’s psychological adjustment after the abuse. Furthermore, the response from the person that the victim first confides to effect adjustment following the abuse. In Sweden, although police are investigating most of the reported cases of rape, very few rape-cases leads to trial and sentence. For many women who have been raped, contact with the police officer when reporting the crime will, therefore, be the most notable experience of how representatives for the Swedish society regard and handle what has happened. Hence, it seems urgent to gather information about these initial meetings. This study is part of a three-year research project, titled 'Female rape victims: Quality of initial police and medical care contact', funded by the Swedish Crime Victim and Support Authority. The focus of this study was on police officers in Sweden: their thoughts and experiences of meeting with raped women. Forthcoming are interviews with raped women about their experiences of meeting with police. Sixteen police officers participated in three focus groups and one interview. The participants consisted of five men and eleven women. Focus groups and interview were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The material was analyzed using thematic analysis. Participants described how violence against women was not a priority in Swedish society or within the Police Authority. They talked about rape cases as a Sisyphean work-task that put high demands on them, while they also lacked training and support. They expressed a wish to offer the woman some kind of restoration, and they talked about their work as potentially making a difference for the woman – even if she did not get juridical justice. However, participants also described that they did not feel validated in their hard work. They talked about working rape cases as causing them a great deal of frustration - directed towards the Police Authority, the juridical system, colleagues, and sometimes towards the woman. Participants also described how meeting with raped women was a work that affected them in a personal manner. Listening to stories about sexual violence made the participants sad, and they described it as a struggle to understand. They described wondering how the woman’s life turned out and how they sometimes questioned if they had done enough. Some of the conclusions concern the lack of prerequisites needed for police officers to be able to offer a good-enough treatment of raped women, as well as the lack of tools needed for police officers to care for themselves. In lack of training, validation, and support, the knowledge of how to offer a good- enough treatment of raped women becomes a task learned by doing. Attempts to offer, if not legal justice, then at least some kind of restoration becomes a personal task, dependent on individual police officers. It seems urgent that we address the risk of police officers’ frustration building up to be detrimental for both the crime victim and the officer her/himself.

Keywords: focus groups, police, raped women, restoration

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386 19th Century Exam, 21st Century Policing: An Examination of the New York State Civil Service and Police Officer Recruitment Efforts

Authors: A. Edwards

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The civil service was created to reform the hiring process for public officials, changing the patronage system to a merit-based system. Though exam reforms continued throughout the 20th century, there have been few during the 21st century, particularly in New York state. In the case of police departments, the civil service exam has acted as a hindrance to its ‘21st Century Policing’ goals and new exam reform efforts have left out officers voices and concerns. Through in-depth interviews of current and retired police officers and local and state civil service administrators in Albany County in New York, this study seeks to understand police influence and insight regarding the civil service exam, placing some of the voice and input for civil service reform on police departments, instead of local and state bureaucrats. The study also looks at the relationship between civil service administrators and police departments. Using practice theory, the study seeks to understand the ways in which the civil service exam was defined in the 20th century and how it is out of step with current thinking while examining possible changes to the civil service exam that would lead to a more equitable hiring process and successful police departments.

Keywords: civil service, hiring, merit, policing

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385 Lies of Police Interrogators in the Ultimatum Game

Authors: Eitan Elaad

Abstract:

The present study's purpose was to examine lyingand pretend fairness by police interrogators in sharing situations. Forty police officers and 40 laypeople from the community, all males, self-assessed their lie-telling ability, rated the frequency of their lies, evaluated the acceptability of lying, and indicated using rational and intuitive thinking while lying. Next, according to the ultimatum game procedure, participants were asked to share 100 points with a virtual target, either a male police interrogator or a male layman. Participantsallocated points to the target person bearing in mind that the other person must accept their offer. Participants' goal was to retain as many points as possible, and to this end, they could tell the target person that fewer than 100 points were available for distribution. The difference between the available 100 points and the sum of points designated for sharing defines lying. The ratio of offered and designated points defines pretend fairness. Results indicate that those police officers lied more than laypeople. Similar results emergedeven when the target person was a police interrogator. However, police interrogators presented higher pretend fairness than laypeople. The higher pretend fairness may be in line with interrogation tactics of persuasion used in the criminal interrogation. Higher-lying frequency reported by police interrogators compared with laypeople support the present results. Finally, lie acceptability predicted lying in the ultimatum game. Specifically, participants who rated lying as more acceptable tended to lie more than low acceptability raters.

Keywords: lying, police interrogators, lie acceptability, ultimatum game, pretend fairness

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384 Investigating the Effects of Empowering the Employees in Managing Crimes by the Police

Authors: Akbar Salimi, Mehdi Moghimi

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Goal: The human resource empowerment is a new strategy in achieving a competitive advantage. The aim of the research is to understand crime management by the police by using this strategy. Method: The research is applied in terms of goal and it is a survey type research. The sample intended include all the police officers of a police station for as many as 52 people. The data were collected by a researcher made four choice questionnaire after the validity and reliability were confirmed. Findings: By regarding the Melhem pattern as the framework, four dimensions of empowerment were identified and the triangle of crime was explained and then four hypotheses proportionate to it were formulated. Results: Given the fact that the sample was all counted, all the four hypotheses were supported by using the average data received and by regarding the %50 as the criterion.

Keywords: management, empowerment, employees, police

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383 Competing Discourses of Masculinity and Seeking Mental Health Assistance among Male Police Officers in Canada

Authors: Maria T. Cruz, Scott N. Thompson

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In recent years, Canadian federal and provincial law enforcement organizations have implemented numerous mental health strategies in an attempt to address officers’ mental health and wellness needs. Despite these reforms, however, mental illness continues to persist in these populations. Whereas workplace stressors continue to be factored into the development of mental health initiatives, it is proposed that aspects of masculine culture have been overlooked as contributing to the prevalence of mental illness among Canadian officers. By drawing on Michel Foucault’s theory of discourse, this study was conducted to determine if elements of masculine discourse exist as a socio-cultural barrier for officers seeking mental health assistance. This research supported the above hypothesis, and furthermore, identified how masculine discourse works in competition with mental health-related help-seeking discourses. To answer the research question, semi-structured phone interviews with active and retired male officers from Western provincial and municipal policing organizations, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were employed. Through thematic analysis of the transcripts, the data revealed three themes: i) masculinity in law enforcement is a determinant of workplace competency; ii) the dominance of masculine culture in law enforcement is problematic for mental health, and iii) improved help-seeking policies complicate how masculinity is expressed in law enforcement organizations. These findings suggest that within the reviewed Canadian law enforcement organizations, aspects of masculinity act as a socio-cultural barrier to officers seeking mental health services, and that the two conflicting discourses of masculinity and mental health-related help-seeking appear to be in competition with each other.

Keywords: competing discourses, dominant discourses, Foucault’s theory of discourse, law enforcement, masculinity, mental health, police officers

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382 NO2 Exposure Effect on the Occurrence of Pulmonary Dysfunction the Police Traffic in Jakarta

Authors: Bambang Wispriyono, Satria Pratama, Haryoto Kusnoputranto, Faisal Yunus, Meliana Sari

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Introduction/objective: The impact of the development of motor vehicles is increasing the number of pollutants in the air. One of the substances that cause serious health problems is NO2. The health impacts arising from exposure to NO2 include pulmonary function impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of NO2 exposure on the incidence of pulmonary function impairment. Methods: We are using a cross-sectional study design with 110 traffic police who were divided into two groups: exposed (police officers working on the highway) and the unexposed group (police officers working in the office). Election subject convenient sampling carried out in each group to the minimum number of samples met. Results: The results showed that the average NO2 in the exposed group was 18.72 ppb and unexposed group is 4.14 ppb. Pulmonary dysfunction on exposed and unexposed groups showed that FVC (Forced Vital Capacity) value are 88.68 and 90.27. And FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in One) value are 94.9 and 95.16. Some variables like waist circumference, Body Mass Index, Visceral Fat, and Fat has associated with the incidence of Pulmonary Dysfunction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Health monitoring is needed to decreasing health risk in Policeman.

Keywords: NO2, pulmonary dysfunction, police traffic, Jakarta

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381 Black Masculinity, Media Stereotyping And Its Influence on Policing in the United States: A Functionalist Perspective

Authors: Jack Santiago Monell

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In America, misrepresentations of black males have been perpetuated throughout the history of popular culture. Because of these narratives, varying communities have developed biases and stereotypes about what black male masculinity represents and more importantly, how they respond to them. The researcher explored the perspectives of police officers in the following states, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina. Because of the nature of police and community relations, and national attention to high profile cases, having officers provide context into how black males are viewed from their lens, was critical while expanding on the theoretical explanations to describe attitudes towards police confrontations. As one of the objectives was to identify specific themes relevant to why police officers may view African American males differently, hence, responding more aggressively, this proved to be the most beneficial method of initial analysis to identify themes. The following nodes (appearance, acting suspicious/ troublesome behavior, upbringing about black males, excessive force) were identified to analyze the transcripts to discern associations. The data was analyzed through NVivo 11, and several themes resulted to elaborate on the data received. In analyzing the data, four themes were identified: appearance, acting suspicious/ troublesome behavior, upbringing about black males, and excessive force. The data conveyed that continuous stereotypes about African American men will ultimately result in excessive use of force or pervasive shootings, albeit the men are armed or unarmed. African American males are consistently targeted because of their racial makeup and appearance over any other probable circumstances. As long as racial bias and stereotypical practices continue in policing, African American males will endlessly be unjustly targeted and at times, the victims of violent encounters with police officers in the United States.

Keywords: African American males, police perceptions, masculinity, popular culture

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380 The Psychological Effect of Debriefing Work on Occupational Stress of Police Officers

Authors: Nobumi Nakajima

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Objective: Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) was developed by J.T. Mitchell in 1974 for use with small homogeneous groups of paramedics, and firefighters who were distressed by their jobs. The term “debriefing” is widely used, however, and means many different things (J.T. Mitchell et al., 2001). In Japan, debriefing has been researched as Debriefing Work for psychoeducation to nurses and childcare workers for over twenty years after the Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake Disaster (Nakajima, 2010). Therefore, Debriefing Work is a Japanese version for human services professionals. National Network for Victim Support Center in one prefecture in Japan cooperates with the prefectural police office and provides an annual training for helpline counselors who work at police stations. Helpline counselors who are not psychological professionals have to deal with various consultations every single day but rarely have the opportunity to talk to each other about their job. The aim of this study was to clarify the psychological effect of Debriefing Work on occupational stress of police officers who work as helpline counselors. Methods: Debriefing Work was conducted for a total of 139 police officers once a year from 2018 to 2020. The procedure was as follows. First of all, a preliminary survey using a questionnaire method to evaluate stress was administered to all participants. Before Debriefing Work, the lecture gave participants a theoretical background as preventive education. Participants form small groups of about six people, and talk about their difficulties at work in accordance with the rules. It is important that they only have what they want to talk about on their mind. A second survey followed that. Results: The response rate for the questionnaire was 135 in 139 participants (97%, 98% male, 96% female). 107 of them reduced stress after Debriefing Work (76%, 80% male, 74% female). A total average was found to decrease significantly after Debriefing Work (t=9.31 (134), p<0.001). Conclusions: The result provides insight that Debriefing Work is useful and meaningful to the police officer who works as a helpline counselor in Japan to keep working without burnout. Needless to say, a police officer is a human service professional of a sort. Continuing practical research is necessary to ascertain the psychological effect of Debriefing Work on occupational stress of a human service professional in Japan.

Keywords: debriefing work, occupational stress, police officer, burnout

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379 The Association between Health-Related Quality of Life and Physical Activity in Different Domains with Other Factors in Croatian Male Police Officers

Authors: Goran Sporiš, Dinko Vuleta, Stefan Lovro

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The purpose of the present study was to determine the associations between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and physical activity (PA) in different domains. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 169 Croatian police officers (mean age 35.14±8.95 yrs, mean height 180.93±7.53 cm, mean weight 88.39±14.05 kg, mean body-mass index 26.90±3.39 kg/m2). The dependent variables were two general domains extracted from the HRQOL questionnaire: (1) physical component scale (PCS) and (2) mental component scale (MCS). The independent variables were job-related, transport, domestic and leisure-time PA, along with other factors: age, body-mass index, smoking status, psychological distress, socioeconomic status and time spent in sedentary behaviour. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis. Significance was set up at p < 0.05. PCS was positively associated with leisure-time PA (β 0.28, p < 0.001) and socioeconomic status (SES) (β 0.16, p=0.005), but inversely associated with job-related PA (β -0.15, p=0.012), domestic-time PA (β -0.14, p=0.014), age (β -0.12, p=0.050), psychological distress (β -0.43, p<0.001) and sedentary behaviour (β -0.15, p=0.009). MCS was positively associated with leisure-time PA (β 0.19, p=0.013) and SES (β 0.20, p=0.002), while inversely associated with age (β -0.23, p=0.001), psychological distress (β -0.27, p<0.001) and sedentary behaviour (β -0.22, p=0.001). Our results added new information about the associations between domain-specific PA and both physical and mental component scale in police officers. Future studies should deal with the same associations in other stressful occupations.

Keywords: health, fitness, police force, relations

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378 Pension Policy and Police Retirement: An Exploratory Study Applied to Special Policy Enforcement in Taiwan

Authors: Yung-Ching Chou, Albert Shangpao Yeh, Luke H. C. Hsiao

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Police used to be an honor job. However, the police are no longer concerned about the mission and public safety instead of the issue of retirement. The main reason is the amendment of 'Public Servants Retirement Act' in Taiwan was effective since January 2011. The purposes of change were to solve the problem of the financial crisis which caused by the Hugh deficit of the civil servants pension fund. The policy of the civil servants pension reform was not only seriously impact the motives of policy, but also negatively impact the workforce of police. This research conducted a secondary data of Baoanjingcha Fifth Police Corps during the period between 2011 and 2015. Secondly, the research interviewed six representatives from the retired police in order to explore the retirement motives. In short, there were several major findings and suggestions in the following: 1. The police won't choice to retire which the nature of task is simple. 2. The ranking level of positions positively correlated with the retired age of police. 3. The police officers who are categorized as 'hazardous work' first class personnel should decrease the standard of the retirement age and allow the option of a monthly pension. 4. The information of the retirees' rights, as well as protection, are correlated with the service as well professional of personnel officer. More findings, as well as suggestions, will be elaborated on the content of this paper.

Keywords: human resource management, pension policy change, police retirement rush, public servants retirement act

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377 Cultural Competence of Philippine National Police Personnel

Authors: Nestor C. Nabe, Melvie F. Bayog

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The cultural competence of police officers can lead to effective law enforcement and gain respect to their organization. This study evaluated the level of cultural competence of Philippine National Police Personnel in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. Descriptive survey research design was used in this study. The survey utilized an adapted questionnaire to measure the level of cultural competence of the respondents. Questionnaires were administered to 305 ethnic minorities coming from the four major ethnic tribes in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. The data gathered were treated using Percentage, Mean, T-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings are as follows: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is moderate; and, there is no significant difference in the cultural competence of the police personnel when analyzed by age, gender, civil status and, occupation while there is a significant difference analyzed by educational attainment and ethnic tribe. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is only manifested sometimes; and, civil status, and occupation has no significant difference in the cultural competence of police personnel while educational attainment and ethnic tribe has a significant difference.

Keywords: competence, cultural, Philippines, police

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376 The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Police Decisions in Intimate Partner Violence Cases

Authors: Brenda Russell

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Police officers spend a great deal of time responding to domestic violence calls. Recent research has found that men and women in heterosexual and same-sex relationships are equally likely to initiate intimate partner violence IPV) and likewise susceptible to victimization, yet police training tends to focus primarily on male perpetration and female victimization. Criminal justice studies have found that male perpetrators of IPV are blamed more than female perpetrators who commit the same offense. While previous research has examined officer’s response in IPV cases with male and female heterosexual offenders, research has yet to investigate police response in same-sex relationships. This study examined officers’ decisions to arrest, perceptions of blame, perceived danger to others, disrespect, and beliefs in prosecution, guilt and sentencing. Officers in the U.S. (N = 248) were recruited using word of mouth and access to police association websites where a link to an online study was made available. Officers were provided with one of 4 experimentally manipulated scenarios depicting a male or female perpetrator (heterosexual or same-sex) in a clear domestic assault situation. Officer age, experience with IPV and IPV training were examined as possible covariates. Training in IPV was not correlated to any dependent variable of interest. Age was correlated with perpetrator arrest and blame (.14 and .16, respectively) and years of experience was correlated to arrest, offering informal advice, and mediating the incident (.14 to -.17). A 2(perpetrator gender) X 2 (victim gender) factorial design was conducted. Results revealed that officers were more likely to provide informal advice and mediate in gay male relationships, and were less likely to arrest perpetrators in same-sex relationships. When officer age and years of experience with domestic violence were statistically controlled, effects for perpetrator arrest and providing informal advice were no longer significant. Officers perceived heterosexual male perpetrators as more dangerous, blameworthy, disrespectful, and believed they would receive significantly longer sentences than all other conditions. When officer age and experience were included as covariates in the analyses perpetrator blame was no longer statistically significant. Age, experience and training in IPV were not related to perceptions of victims. Police perceived victims as more truthful and believable when the perpetrator was a male. Police also believed victims of female perpetrators were more responsible for their own victimization. Victims were more likely to be perceived as a danger to their family when the perpetrator was female. Female perpetrators in same-sex relationships and heterosexual males were considered to experience more mental illness than heterosexual female or gay male perpetrators. These results replicate previous research suggesting male perpetrators are more blameworthy and responsible for their own victimization, yet expands upon previous research by identifying potential biases in police response to IPV in same-sex relationships. This study brings to the forefront the importance of evidence-based officer training in IPV and provides insight into the need for a gender inclusive approach as well as addressing the necessity of the practical applications for police.

Keywords: domestic violence, heterosexual, intimate partner violence, officer response, police officer, same-sex

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375 Conceptual Model Providing More Information on the Contact Situation between Crime Victim and the Police

Authors: M. Inzunza

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In contemporary society, victims of crime has been given more recognition, which have contributed to advancing the knowledge on the effects of crime. There exists a complexity of who gets the status of victim and that the typology of good versus bad can interfere with the contact situation of the victim with the police. The aim of this study is to identify the most central areas affecting the contact situation between crime victims and the police to develop a conceptual model to be useful empirically. By considering previously documented problem areas and different theoretical domains, a conceptual model has been developed. Preliminary findings suggest that an area that should be given attention is to get a better understanding of the victim, not only in terms of demographics but also in terms of risk behavior and social network. This area has been considered to influence the status of the crime victim. Another domain of value is the type of crime and the context of the incident in more detail. The police officer approach style in the contact situation is also a pertinent area that is influenced by how the police based victim services are organized and how individual police officers are suited for the mission. Suitability includes constructs from empathy models adapted to the police context and especially focusing on sub-constructs such as perspective taking. Discussion will focus on how these findings can be operationalized in practice and how they are used in ongoing empirical studies.

Keywords: empathy, perspective taking, police contact, victim of crime

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374 Community Policing Interventions in the Tribal Hamlets as a Positive Criminal Justice and Social Justice Strategy: A Study Based on the Community Policing Project of the Government of Kerala

Authors: Bharathadas Sandhya

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Janamaithri Suraksha Project is the community policing project of Kerala police, fully sponsored by the Government of Kerala and in vogue in Kerala for the last ten years. The socio-economically weaker areas in the hilly terrains consisting of tribal hamlets are given special importance under the project. These hamlets are visited by the beat police officers, and they intervene in various issues in the hamlets. This study is based on data collected from 350 respondents living in the tribal hamlets of the Nilambur area in the District of Malappuram. The respondents were personally interviewed by the research team using a questionnaire consisting of 183 questions, seeking the details regarding their interaction with beat police officers, their ability to prevent or detect crimes, the menace of Maoists (extremist) presence, their interventions in other socio-economic problems like alcoholism, school dropout issues, lack of facilities for preparation for competitive examinations for educated youth, etc. The perception of the tribal population regarding the effectiveness of police intervention in their criminal justice complaints, the attitude of the police officers towards the tribal population when they approach the police station with a criminal complaint, are also studied. The general socio-economic problems of the tribal population as perceived by them are also brought out. Being the visible agency of the government, the police person coming on beat duty to the hamlet is generally seen by the tribal population as a representative to whom they can communicate the issues, even if it’s solution rests with another department like the forest or agriculture. The analysis of the primary data is carried out using computer applications. The amount of social justice benefits the tribal hamlets received through various government schemes, and their deficiencies are brought out in the study. From the conclusions of the study, certain suggestions for positive criminal justice and social justice intervention strategies are made out. The need for various government departments to work in tandem with each other so as to bring out more effectiveness in the socio-economic projects is evident from the study. Whether it is the need to obtain a transport to go to school or problem of drinking water or even opening a bank account, at least occasionally, the visiting beat police officer is of help to the tribal population. Mostly the tribal population feels free to approach the police with a criminal complaint without any inhibitions.

Keywords: community policing, beat police officer, criminal justice, social justice

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373 An Attempt to Explore Occupational Stressors among West Bengal Police Officials

Authors: Malini Nandi Majumdar, Avijan Dutta

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The West Police (WBP) is restructured under provisions of the Police Act 1861 during the period of British domination. It is one of the two police forces of the Indian state of west Bengal and is headed by an officer designated as Director General of Police (DG) who directly reports to the State Government. It covers a jurisdiction with eighteen revenue districts of the state and a District Superintendent of Police (SP) controls each district. The purpose of this empirical study is to explore the causes and factors of occupational stress in West Bengal Police officers so that the incumbents can perform their assigned tasks more diligently and the society could be free from evils and devils at a large. Using a self-developed close ended questionnaire that covers 20 critical job-related stressors, the study captures 310 respondents across the organizational hierarchy ranging from Sub Inspectors to the Superintendant of police and covers 5 districts and one commision rate under the jurisdiction of West Bengal Police. The present research has successfully indicated four major occupational stressors such as Organizational Stressors, Hierarchical Stressors, Situational Stressors and Environmental Stressors with 64% of the variance. Further we have employed CFA to determine the goodness of fit indices in terms of i) Absolute Fit Measures like CMIN, FMIN, RMSEA, ECVI ii) Incremental Fit Measures like TLI, NFI, AGFI, CFI(Byne, 2010) demonstrate that value of the measure has passed the requirement criteria and thus fit the model. The major stressors of West Bengal Police have been explored and the ways to deal with these inevitable stressors have been suggested.

Keywords: organizational stressors, hierarchical stressors, situational stressors, environmental stressors

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372 The Islamic Administrative Morals among Criminal Investigators in the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Practical Study on the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Majed Aldusaimani

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Introduction: The researcher aims to verify the extent of the criminal investigator's commitment to the Islamic morals set out in the Holy Quran, their application in his work, and to understand the point of view of police officers, clerks and suspects regarding the investigator's commitment to moral and ethics in practice. Research question: Are the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia committed to the application of the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran in the view of the police officers, clerks and suspects with whom they work? Objectives of the study: 1. Identifying the standing of morality in Islam. 2. Identifying the practical morals outlined in the Holy Quran. 3. Identifying the most important practical morals in the Holy Quran that must be met by the criminal investigator from the viewpoint of the investigator himself. 4. Identifying the criminal investigator's commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran as perceived from the perspectives of police officers, clerks and suspects. Methodology: This study will use a descriptive methodology through quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data from respondents, who will be asked to answer questions about the extent of the commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran of the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution that they have encountered.

Keywords: Islamic, investigator, Morals, Quran

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371 Mending Broken Fences Policing: Developing the Intelligence-Led/Community-Based Policing Model(IP-CP) and Quality/Quantity/Crime(QQC) Model

Authors: Anil Anand

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Despite enormous strides made during the past decade, particularly with the adoption and expansion of community policing, there remains much that police leaders can do to improve police-public relations. The urgency is particularly evident in cities across the United States and Europe where an increasing number of police interactions over the past few years have ignited large, sometimes even national, protests against police policy and strategy, highlighting a gap between what police leaders feel they have archived in terms of public satisfaction, support, and legitimacy and the perception of bias among many marginalized communities. The decision on which one policing strategy is chosen over another, how many resources are allocated, and how strenuously the policy is applied resides primarily with the police and the units and subunits tasked with its enforcement. The scope and opportunity for police officers in impacting social attitudes and social policy are important elements that cannot be overstated. How do police leaders, for instance, decide when to apply one strategy—say community-based policing—over another, like intelligence-led policing? How do police leaders measure performance and success? Should these measures be based on quantitative preferences over qualitative, or should the preference be based on some other criteria? And how do police leaders define, allow, and control discretionary decision-making? Mending Broken Fences Policing provides police and security services leaders with a model based on social cohesion, that incorporates intelligence-led and community policing (IP-CP), supplemented by a quality/quantity/crime (QQC) framework to provide a four-step process for the articulable application of police intervention, performance measurement, and application of discretion.

Keywords: social cohesion, quantitative performance measurement, qualitative performance measurement, sustainable leadership

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370 A Quantitative Analysis of the Conservation of Resources, Burnout, and Other Selected Behavioral Variables among Law Enforcement Officers

Authors: Nathan Moran, Robert Hanser, Attapol Kuanliang

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The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between personal and social resources and burnout for police officers. Current conceptualizations of the condition of burnout are challenged as being too phenomenological and ambiguous, and consequently, not given to direct empirical testing. The conservation of resources model is based on the supposition that people strive to retain, protect, and build resources as a means to protect them from the impacts of burnout. The model proposes that the effects of stress (i.e. burnout) can be manifested in personal and professional attitudes and attributes, which can measure burnout using self-reports to provide strong support for the conservation of resources model, in that, personal and professional demands are related to the exhaustion component of burnout, whereas personal and professional resources can be compiled to counteract the negative impact of the burnout condition. Highly similar patterns of burnout resistance factors were witnessed in police officers in two department precincts (N:81). In addition, results confirmed the positive influence of key demographic variables in burnout resistance using the conservation of resources model. Participants in this study are all sheriff’s deputies with a populous county in a Pacific Northwestern state (N = 274). Four instruments will be used in this quantitative study for data collection (a) a series of demographic questions, (b) the Organizational Citizenship Behavior, (c) the PANAS-X Scale (OCB: Watson& Clark, 1994), and (d) The Maslach Burnout Inventory.

Keywords: behavioral, burnout, law enforcement, quantitative

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
369 Qualitative Descriptive Approaches for Interpreting in Police Settings with Trauma Victims

Authors: Ning Guo, Olav Muurlink, Shane Doyle

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Interpreters are usually regarded as neutral conduits for transferring information and assisting in maintaining social order in public services. The engagement of interpreters to work in police settings is invariably entrusted to officers on the front line. Working in unison with police when conducting bilingual interviews, the role of interpreters can be akin to that of police. Nonetheless, only police interpreters are experts in two different linguistic and cultural frameworks in the police-suspect interaction; they must undertake the principal role of acting on behalf of speakers in solving communication problems in police interviews. The interpreter’s multi-faced role involves fathoming complex policies and procedures, understanding interviewing patterns, and dealing with traumatised victims, all within emotionally charged policing contexts. Owing to their direct involvement in domestic violence cases, the status of interpreters is prone to becoming marginalised within this highly contested environment. Whilst being considered non-neutral by clients, they are often regarded as the only person who can truly understand the clients’ needs for assistance. Despite interpreters’ pivotal role in police interviews, evidence suggests that they are invariably treated in a functionary manner by investigators. Less scholarly attention has been paid to the psychological consequences for interpreters exposed to victims’ traumatic experiences in police interviews. Some researchers assert that interpreters working with victims may feel helpless and hopeless regarding the root causes of crime and violence. Other studies endorse this view, adding that interpreters might be psychologically impacted by long-term exposure to traumatic content in the workplace. Owing to different cultural viewpoints, this situation can often be compounded when most interpreters felt shame when sharing their emotional problems with others. Some research revealed that interpreters were susceptible to displaying overly empathetic or supportive responses to victims due to constant and prolonged exposure to vulnerable groups. A few studies have found that interpreters perceive police officers as generally approachable and personable. However, within emotionally charged situations, this relationship can often be strained. Some early research found that interpreters lacked self-esteem and received inadequate recognition from police when performing their duties. Some evidence suggests that officers often attempt to devolve their responsibilities to interpreters when conducting investigative interviews. For instance, officers have been accused of coercing interpreters into making statements on their behalf, which breached the interpreters’ code of conduct. Research also revealed that when interpreters failed to comprehend the various multicultural and multilingual nuances, police vented their frustration with interpreters in the form of bullying behaviour. This paper will draw on role-playing theory in examining how trauma may impact interpreters in domestic violence policing settings. A systematic review regarding police interpreters’ vicarious trauma will be conducted, complemented by a documentary analysis, focusing on tertiary education of interpreting competencies. It is anticipated that results could potentially inform theory and practice on how interpreters can more effectively deal with traumatic cases encountered in the workplace.

Keywords: documentary analysis, interpreters’ role, police interpreting, systematic review, vicarious trauma, workplace relationship

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368 Philippine National Police Strategies in the Implementation of 'Peace and Order Agenda for Transformation and Upholding of the Rule-Of-Law' Plan 2030

Authors: Ruby A. L. Espineli

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The study assessed the Philippine National Police strategies in the implementation of ‘Peace and Order Agenda for Transformation and Upholding of the Rule-of-Law’ P.A.T.R.O.L Plan 2030. Its operational roadmap presents four perspectives which include resource management, learning and growth, process excellence; and community. Focused group discussion, observation, and distribution of survey questionnaire to selected PNP officers and community members were done to identify and describe the implementation, problems encountered and measures to address the problems of the PNP P.A.T.R.O.L Plan 2030. In resource management, PNP allocates most sufficient funds in providing service firearms, patrol vehicle, and internet connections. In terms of learning and growth, the attitude of PNP officers is relatively higher than their knowledge and skills. Moreover, in terms of process excellence, the PNP use several crime preventions and crime solution strategies to deliver an immediate response to calls of the community. As regards, community perspective, PNP takes effort in establishing partnership with community. It is also interesting to note that PNP officers and community were both undecided on the existence of problems encountered in the implementation of P.A.T.R.O.L Plan 2030. But, they had proactive behavior as they agreed on all the specified measures to address the problems encountered in implementation of PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030. A strategic framework, based on the findings was formulated in this study that could improve and entrench the harmonious working relationship between the PNP and stakeholders in the enhancement of the implementation of PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030.

Keywords: community perspectives, learning and growth, process excellence, resource management

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
367 Violence against Police Officers in Germany

Authors: Anne T. Herr, Clemens Lorei

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Employees of organizations with security tasks, such as emergency services, public order services, or police forces, work every day to ensure people's safety. Violence against police is, therefore, a relevant topic both socially and politically. An increase in violence is often discussed without there being any verifiable and generally valid data. So far, scientific research has mainly focused on offender characteristics and crime statistics. These surveys are mostly subjective, retrospective, and neglect the dynamics and interactions in concrete violent situations. Therefore, more recent research methods attempt to capture the issue of violence against emergency forces more comprehensively. However, the operationalization of the constructs and the methodological approach pose particular challenges. This contribution provides an overview of new perspectives on the understanding of violent assaults and identifies current research gaps. In addition, a new research project of the Hessian University of Police and Administration in Germany is presented. In the 'AMBOSafe' study, different theoretical backgrounds for understanding violence against police and emergency services personnel will be combined in order to capture as many different perspectives of violent assaults as possible in a multimodal research approach. In a retrospective as well as in a longitudinal survey, the conditions of escalation dynamics in the assaults are recorded and supplemented by the current and valid prevalence of physical and verbal assaults in a period of four months. In addition, qualitative interviews with those affected will be used to record more detailed descriptions of and the feelings during the assaults, as well as possible causes and connections between the different groups of people. In addition to the reports of the police forces, the motives of the attackers will be collected and supplemented by analyzing the criminal case files. This knowledge can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of violent assaults against police forces in order to be able to derive scientifically based preventive measures.

Keywords: assaults, crime statistics, escalation dynamics, police

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366 The Role of Police in Counterinsurgency: A Case Study of Tripura

Authors: Yagnik Patel

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This paper will analyze and explain two main objectives. First, it will examine the emergence of the insurgency in the state of Tripura. The State of Tripura was facing the full blow of insurgency problem since 1978 after the formation of Tripura National Volunteers (TNV). But, the roots of this insurgency were found even before 1978. This study will analyze the roots and trajectory of insurgency in the Tripura. Second, it will examine the role played by the police in counterinsurgency in the State of Tripura. Even though state police are mandated for the maintenance of the law and order and public order (like every police), the state police of Tripura have played a significant role in curbing the insurgency by enhancing their counterinsurgency (COIN) capabilities and re-structuring the new comprehensive COIN doctrine. And by the end of May 2015, the State Government has lifted The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) from the State of Tripura, as declaiming of the violence. The fight against the insurgency, usually done by the military or para-military, but nowadays the police organization is also becoming a vital state apparatus. After Punjab police and Andhra Pradesh police, Tripura police have also successfully curbed the insurgency from the state. This was the third time when successful counterinsurgency did by the state police in India. This has shown the importance of the police in the fight against the insurgency. In this regard, this paper will use both quantitative and qualitative research methods for an explanatory case study to analyze and explain the roots, causes and the trajectory of insurgency in the state of Tripura and the role played by the police in COIN in Tripura. Along with this, the paper will also examine the successful ‘Police Model of Tripura’.

Keywords: counterinsurgency, insurgency, police, Tripura state rifles

Procedia PDF Downloads 101