Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: negation

14 Negation of Insinuation Rule on the Ideas of Imam Khomeini (RA)

Authors: Seyed Jafar Hosseini, Rahim Vakilzadeh, Hassan Movassagi


‘Negation of insinuation’ or ‘negation of dominance’ Rule is considered as one of the most important principles governing the policies and external relations of Islamic and religious countries. The stable and influential role which this rule puts on the behavior and policies of the Islamic religion and foreign policies of Islamic countries shows the importance of the presented topic. Among Islamic scholars, Imam Khomeini (RA) has been paid most attention to this rule on governing issues. In the present study, we are going to investigate the nature and dimensions of Negation of insinuation rule in Imam Khomeini's ideas with an analytical and descriptive method. The obtained results show that Negation of insinuation rule is an effective and main guidance in Imam's thoughts and behavior.

Keywords: negation of insinuation Rule, Imam Khomeini (RA), cultural domination, political domination, economic domination

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13 English 2A Students’ Oral Presentation Errors: Basis for English Policy Revision

Authors: Marylene N. Tizon


English instructors pay attention on errors committed by students as errors show whether they know or master their oral skills and what difficulties they may have in the process of learning the English language. This descriptive quantitative study aimed at identifying and categorizing the oral presentation errors of the purposively chosen 118 English 2A students enrolled during the first semester of school year 2013 – 2014. The analysis of the data for this study was undertaken using the errors committed by the students in their presentation. Marking and classifying of errors were made by first classifying them into linguistic grammatical errors then all errors were categorized further into Surface Structure Errors Taxonomy with the use of Frequency and Percentage distribution. From the analysis of the data, the researcher found out: Errors in tenses of the verbs (71 or 16%) and in addition 167 or 37% were most frequently uttered by the students. And Question and negation mistakes (12 or 3%) and misordering errors (28 or 7%) were least frequently enunciated by the students. Thus, the respondents in this study most frequently enunciated errors in tenses and in addition while they uttered least frequently the errors in question, negation, and misordering.

Keywords: grammatical error, oral presentation error, surface structure errors taxonomy, descriptive quantitative design, Philippines, Asia

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12 Healing to Be a Man or Living in the Truth: Comparison on the Concept of Healing between Foucault and Chan

Authors: Jing Li Hong


This study compared Michel Foucault’s thoughts and the Chan School’s thoughts on the idea of healing. Healing is not an unfamiliar idea in Buddhist thoughts. The paired concepts of illness and medicine are often used as a metaphor to describe the relationship between people and truth. Foucault investigated the topic of care of self in his later studies and dedicated a large portion of his final semester course at the Collège de France in 1984 to discuss the meaning of Socrates’s offering of a sacrifice to the god of medicine in Phaedo. Foucault indicated a key preposition in ancient philosophy, namely healing. His idea of healing also addressed the relationship between subject and truth. From this relationship, Foucault unraveled his novel study on truth, namely the technologies of the self, with an emphasis on the care of self. Whereas numerous philosophers ask obvious questions such as ‘what is truth’ and ‘how to learn about truth,’ Foucault proposed distinct questions such as ‘what is our relationship to truth’ and ‘how does our relationship with truth turn us into who we are now?’ Thus, healing in both Buddhist and Foucault’s thoughts is related to the relationship between being and truth. This study first reviews Buddhist and Foucault’s ideas of healing to explicate what is illness and what is medicine. Because Buddhist thoughts cover an extensive scope, this study focuses on the thoughts of the Chan School. The second part is a discussion on medicine (treatment), specifically what is used as the medicine for the illness in both thoughts, and how can this medicine treat the illness. This part includes a description and comparison of the use of concepts of negation in these two thought groups. Finally, the subjects that practice the technologies of the self in both groups are compared from the idea of care of self; in other words, the differences between the subjects formed by the different relationships between being and truth are analyzed.

Keywords: Chan, heterogeneous, living style, language of paradox, Michel Foucault, negation, parrhesia, the care of self

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11 Theorem on Inconsistency of The Classical Logic

Authors: T. J. Stepien, L. T. Stepien


This abstract concerns an extremely fundamental issue. Namely, the fundamental problem of science is the issue of consistency. In this abstract, we present the theorem saying that the classical calculus of quantifiers is inconsistent in the traditional sense. At the beginning, we introduce a notation, and later we remind the definition of the consistency in the traditional sense. S1 is the set of all well-formed formulas in the calculus of quantifiers. RS1 denotes the set of all rules over the set S1. Cn(R, X) is the set of all formulas standardly provable from X by rules R, where R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. The couple < R,X > is called a system, whenever R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. Definition: The system < R,X > is consistent in the traditional sense if there does not exist any formula from the set S1, such that this formula and its negation are provable from X, by using rules from R. Finally, < R0+, L2 > denotes the classical calculus of quantifiers, where R0+ consists of Modus Ponens and the generalization rule. L2 is the set of all formulas valid in the classical calculus of quantifiers. The Main Result: The system < R0+, L2 > is inconsistent in the traditional sense.

Keywords: classical calculus of quantifiers, classical predicate calculus, generalization rule, consistency in the traditional sense, Modus Ponens

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10 Negativization: A Focus Strategy in Basà Language

Authors: Imoh Philip


Basà language is classified as belonging to Kainji family, under the sub-phylum Western-Kainji known as Rubasa (Basa Benue) (Croizier & Blench, 1992:32). Basà is an under-described language spoken in the North-Central Nigeria. The language is characterized by subject-verb-object (henceforth SVO) as its canonical word order. Data for this work is sourced from the researcher’s native intuition of the language corroborated with a careful observation of native speakers. This paper investigates the syntactic derivational strategy of information-structure encoding in Basà language. It emphasizes on a negative operator, as a strategy for focusing a constituent or clause that follows it and negativizes a whole proposition. For items that are not nouns, they have to undergo an obligatory nominalization process, either by affixation, modification or conversion before they are moved to the pre verbal position for these operations. The study discovers and provides evidence of the fact showing that deferent constituents in the sentence such as the subject, direct, indirect object, genitive, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, clause and idiophone, etc. can be focused with the same negativizing operator. The process is characterized by focusing the pre verbal NP constituent alone, whereas the whole proposition is negated. The study can stimulate similar study or be replicated in other languages.

Keywords: negation, focus, Basà, nominalization

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9 Islam, Forced Marriages and Pakistani Culture: An Analytical Overview

Authors: Naseem Akhter, Rozina Khattak, Arshad Munir


The Islamic social and family system is very clear concerning will, choice, consent and negation of compulsion and force in human life. Marriage is not only a civil contract but also a religious and spiritual contract between spouse (man and woman), which allows them for each other to live gladly, joyfully and legally in the society. It is an immortal and perpetual association between man and woman, which is filled with sympathetic affection, kindness, compassion and security. Islam gives specific rights to parents and guardians to set up the marriage ceremony and get done it as a respectful family occasion, confer their blessing and advice for a life partner of their children. The rights of parents and guardians are summed up in the term of "Willayah”. Islam does not permit parents, guardians and other relatives to compel their children regarding the marriage of their choice, because the groom and the bride are the real parties of the contract. Therefore, their willingness is of prime importance in order to spend whole life with each other. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prohibits forcing a virgin to marriage without her permission, whether this is her father or someone else. The right of free consent to choose a life partner is the basic right for the human which is God (Allah) gifted. Unfortunately, forced marriage is a common practice in Pakistani society that has no link with Islam. This article is being written in the same context.

Keywords: choice, consent, forced marriage, Islam, parents, spouse

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8 From a Madwoman in the Attic to a Fairy Land: A Conversation with Antoinette in Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea

Authors: Prasenjit Panda


Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea, a prequel to Bronte’s Jane Eyre, explores the history of the other and gives voices to the people who were silenced and kept under the darkness of negation and denial for a long time. Jean Wide Sargasso Sea provides an alternative understanding of Charlotte Brontë’s mad Creole woman, i.e., Bertha Mason of Jane Eyre in the postcolonial context. Rhys transforms Charlotte Bronte’s Victorian romance into a realistic narrative. In doing so, she re-reads Bertha as Antoinette, the unspeakable figure of otherness, into an unnameable self, and creates a new stage for the inner self. She in the novel is no longer a lunatic heiress in Rochester’s attic rather in this novel she finds her fantasy, dream and most importantly, voice. Rhys peeps through the character of Antoinette through her fragmented memories, dreams, and identity. Antoinette’s identity is mutilated constantly in the conflicts between colonizers and colonized, male and female, black and white. We shall use postcolonial theories like Bhaba’s hybridity and third space as a methodology to reveal the dialectics of struggle of a doubly colonized woman.We shall see that Bertha Mason was neglected by Bronte because of her madness and was locked in the Rochester’s Attic, but here Rhys beautifully converts her madness as a language of Antoinette, a language for her protest, a language for her liberation, a language for her dreams. In this present paper, we shall try to show how Antoinette tries to free her soul and body from the clutches of her multiple existences, identity, and narratives.

Keywords: colonizer, dislocation, fragmented memories, identity, narratives

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7 Geographic and Territorial Knowledge as Epistemic Contexts for Intercultural Curriculum Development

Authors: Verónica Muñoz-Rivero


The historically marginalized indigenous communities in the Atacama Desert continue to experience and struggle curricular hegemony in a prevalent monocultural educational context that denies heritage, culture and epistemologies in a documented attempted knowledge negation by the educational policies, the national curriculum and educational culture. The ancestral indigenous community of Toconce demands a territorial-based intercultural education and a school in their ancestral land to prevent the progressive cultural loss as they reclaim their memory and identity negated. This case study makes use of the intercultural theoretical framework and open qualitative methodology to analyze local socio-educational reality integrating aspects related to the educational experience, education demands for future generations and importance given to formal education. The interlocutors: elders, parents, caretakers and former teachers raised the educational experience for the indigenous childhood as an intergenerational voice that experienced discrimination, exclusion and racism on their K-12 trajectories. By center, the indigenous epistemologies, geography and memory, this research proposes a project-based learning approach anchored to the Limpia de Canales ceremony to develop a situated territorial intercultural curriculum unpacking from the local epistemology and structure thinking. The work on terraces gives students the opportunity to co-create a real-life application with practical purpose and present the importance of reinforcing notions related to the relevance of a situated intercultural curriculum for social justice in the formative development of prospective teachers.

Keywords: cultural studies, decolonial education, epistemic symmetry, intercultural curriculum, multidimensional curriculum

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6 Lexical Features and Motivations of Product Reviews on Selected Philippine Online Shops

Authors: Jimmylen Tonio, Ali Anudin, Rochelle Irene G. Lucas


Alongside the progress of electronic-business websites, consumers have become more comfortable with online shopping. It has become customary for consumers that prior to purchasing a product or availing services, they consult online reviews info as bases in evaluating and deciding whether or not they should push thru with their procurement of the product or service. Subsequently, after purchasing, consumers tend to post their own comments of the product in the same e-business websites. Because of this, product reviews (PRS) have become an indispensable feature in online businesses equally beneficial for both business owners and consumers. This study explored the linguistic features and motivations of online product reviews on selected Philippine online shops, LAZADA and SHOPEE. Specifically, it looked into the lexical features of the PRs, the factors that motivated consumers to write the product reviews, and the difference of lexical preferences between male and female when they write the reviews. The findings revealed the following: 1. Formality of words in online product reviews primarily involves non-standard spelling, followed by abbreviated word forms, colloquial contractions and use of coined/novel words; 2. Paralinguistic features in online product reviews are dominated by the use of emoticons, capital letters and punctuations followed by the use of pictures/photos and lastly, by paralinguistic expressions; 3. The factors that motivate consumers to write product reviews varied. Online product reviewers are predominantly driven by venting negative feelings motivation, followed by helping the company, helping other consumers, positive self-enhancement, advice seeking and lastly, by social benefits; and 4. Gender affects the word frequencies of product online reviews, while negation words, personal pronouns, the formality of words, and paralinguistic features utilized by both male and female online product reviewers are not different.

Keywords: lexical choices, motivation, online shop, product reviews

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5 Towards an Eastern Philosophy of Religion: on the Contradictory Identity of Philosophy and Religion

Authors: Carlo Cogliati


The study of the relationship of philosophical reason with the religious domain has been very much a concern for many of the Western philosophical and theological traditions. In this essay, I will suggest a proposal for an Eastern philosophy of religion based on Nishida’s contradictory identity of the two: philosophy soku hi (is, and yes is not) religion. This will pose a challenge to the traditional Western contents and methods of the discipline. This paper aims to serve three purposes. First, I will critically assess Charlesworth’s typology of the relation between philosophy and religion in the West: philosophy as/for/against/about/after religion. I will also engage Harrison’s call for a global philosophy of religion(s) and argue that, although it expands the scope and the range of the questions to address, it is still Western in its method. Second, I will present Nishida’s logic of absolutely contradictory self-identity as the instrument to transcend the dichotomous pair of identity and contradiction: ‘A is A’ and ‘A is not A’. I will then explain how this ‘concrete’ logic of the East, as opposed to the ‘formal’ logic of the West, exhibits at best the bilateral dynamic relation between philosophy and religion. Even as Nishida argues for the non-separability of the two, he is also aware and committed to their mutual non-reducibility. Finally, I will outline the resulting new relation between God and creatures. Nishida in his philosophy soku hi religion replaces the traditional Western dualistic concept of God with the Eastern non-dualistic understanding of God as “neither transcendent nor immanent, and at the same time both transcendent and immanent.” God is therefore a self-identity of contradiction, nowhere and yet everywhere present in the world of creatures. God as absolute being is also absolute nothingness: the world of creatures is the expression of God’s absolute self-negation. The overreaching goal of this essay is to offer an alternative to traditional Western approaches to philosophy of religion based on Nishida’s logic of absolutely contradictory self-identity, as an example of philosophical and religious counter(influence). The resulting relationship between philosophy and religion calls for a revision of traditional concepts and methods. The outcome is not to reformulate the Eastern predilection to not sharply distinguish philosophical thought from religious enlightenment rather to bring together philosophy and religion in the place of identity and difference.

Keywords: basho, Nishida Kitaro, shukyotetsugaku, soku hi, zettai mujunteki jikodoitsu no ronri

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4 Towards a Deconstructive Text: Beyond Language and the Politics of Absences in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot

Authors: Afia Shahid


The writing of Samuel Beckett is associated with meaning in the meaninglessness and the production of what he calls ‘literature of unword’. The casual escape from the world of words in the form of silences and pauses, in his play Waiting for Godot, urges to ask question of their existence and ultimately leads to investigate the theory behind their use in the play. This paper proposes that these absences (silence and pause) in Beckett’s play force to think ‘beyond’ language. This paper asks how silence and pause in Beckett’s text speak for the emergence of poststructuralist text. It aims to identify the significant features of the philosophy of deconstruction in the play of Beckett to demystify the hostile complicity between literature and philosophy. With the interpretive paradigm of poststructuralism this research focuses on the text as a research data. It attempts to delineate the relationship between poststructuralist theoretical concerns and text of Beckett. Keeping in view the theoretical concerns of Poststructuralist theorist Jacques Derrida, the main concern of the discussion is directed towards the notion of ‘beyond’ language into the absences that are aimed at silencing the existing discourse with the ‘radical irony’ of this anti-formal art that contains its own denial and thus represents the idea of ceaseless questioning and radical contradiction in art and any text. This article asks how text of Beckett vibrates with loud silence and has disrupted language to demonstrate the emptiness of words and thus exploring the limitless void of absences. Beckett’s text resonates with silence and pause that is neither negation nor affirmation rather a poststructuralist’s suspension of reality that is ever changing with the undecidablity of all meanings. Within the theoretical notion of Derrida’s Différance this study interprets silence and pause in Beckett’s art. The silence and pause behave like Derrida’s Différance and have questioned their own existence in the text to deconstruct any definiteness and finality of reality to extend an undecidable threshold of poststructuralists that aims to evade the ‘labyrinth of language’.

Keywords: Différance, language, pause, poststructuralism, silence, text

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3 Changing the Biopower Hierarchy between Women’s Bodily Knowledge and the Medical Knowledge about the Body: The Case of Female Ejaculation and #Notpee

Authors: Lior B. Navon


The objective of this study is to investigate how technology, such as social media, can influence the biopower hierarchy between the medical knowledge about the body and women’s bodily knowledge through the case study of the hashtag 'notpee'. In January 2015, the hashtag #notpee, relating to a feminine physiological phenomenon called female ejaculation (FE) or squirting (SQ) started circulating on twitter. This hashtag, born as a reaction to a medical study claiming that SQ is essentially involuntary emission of urine during sexual activity, sparked an unusual public discourse about FE, a phenomenon that is usually not discussed or referred to in socio-legitimate public spheres. This unusual backlash got the attention of women’s magazines and blogs, as well as more mainstream large and respected outlets such as The Guardian and CNN. Both the tweets on twitter, as well as the media coverage of them, were mainly aimed at rejecting the research’s findings. While not offering an alternative and choosing to define the phenomenon by negation, women argued that the fluid extracted was not pee based on their personal experiences. Based on a critical discourse analysis of 742 tweets with the hashtag 'notpee' between January 2015 and January 2016, and of 15 articles covering the backlash, this study suggests that the #notpee backlash challenged the power balance between the medical knowledge about the feminine body and the feminine bodily knowledge through two different, yet related, forms of resistance to biopower. The first resistance is to the authority over knowledge production — who has the power to produce 'true' statements when it comes to the body? Is it the women who experience the phenomenon, or is it the medical institution? The second resistance to biopower has to do with what we regard as facts or veracity. A critical discourse analysis reveals that while both the scientific field, as well as the women arguing against its findings, use empirical information, they, nevertheless, rely on two dichotomic databases- while the scientific research relies on samples from the 'dead like body', these woman are relying on their lived subjective senses as a source for fact making. Nevertheless, while #notpee is asking to change the power relations between the feminine subjective bodily knowledge and the seemingly objective masculine medical knowledge about the body, it by no means dismisses it. These women are essentially asking the medical institution to take into consideration the subjective body as well as the objective one while acknowledging and accepting the power of the latter over knowledge production.

Keywords: biopower, female ejaculation, new media, bodily knowledge

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2 The Politics of Plantation Development and Formation of 'Tribal Settlements': Life and Livelihood of the Mannans in the Cardamom Hills of India

Authors: Anu Krishna


Cardamom Hills geographically falls into the Western Ghat region in the state of Kerala (India). The fame of these hills dates back to antiquity as the abode of various indigenous communities and treasure house of spices like cardamom. With the colonial conquest over the region, the evergreen forests got converted into zones of mono-cropping with commercial crops such as coffee, tea, cardamom etc. on plantation basis; a process which has been further accentuated with the migration of settlers during the post-independent times. Curiously, when Cardamom Hills are better known today as the plantation belt of the country or as one of the most fostering grounds of agrarian capitalism producing the lion share of Indian cardamom, the indigenous communities of the place such as the Mannans got alienated of their ancestral lands, became inter-generational proletariats and got reduced into ‘segmented spaces’ called the settlements. While dispossession of land for plantations has dislocated the economic life of the Mannans, the migration of the settlers has resulted into a complete social, cultural, political and demographic dominion over them. This has not only relegated their existential relations, history, culture and association with the place but also condensed them as the ‘Other’ in their own territories. Therefore inquisitively, violation of rights of the communities like Mannans, encroachment of their lands, negation towards their very existence and distortion of their history gets defined as the ‘Manifest Destiny’ of the people and place whereby its inevitability gets manufactured. This paper is an attempt to elicit the ways in which the formation of Mannan settlements are interconnected to the historical reality and contemporary opulence of the plantation industry in the place. The arguments put forth by this study is based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork conducted in various Mannan settlements in the cardamom hills. The study basically dwells on to the methodological premises of multi-sited ethnography wherein information was gathered from different sites such as settlements, plantations and other interactive spaces wherein the Mannans from the settlements engages in socio-economic, cultural and political relations. Such an attempt was made to understand in depth the associations and interactions that people in the settlements have among themselves and others. The study equally uses the method of oral history to understand the alternative history, the socio-cultural and economic life of the people before the importation of plantations to the place. The paper gauges into the ways in which settlements imprisons generations of Mannans into plantation work and acts as moulds for subservient, hardworking plantation labourers.

Keywords: Cardamom Hills, plantations, labourers, Mannans, segmented spaces, settlements

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1 Human Facial Emotion: A Comparative and Evolutionary Perspective Using a Canine Model

Authors: Catia Correia Caeiro, Kun Guo, Daniel Mills


Despite its growing interest, emotions are still an understudied cognitive process and their origins are currently the focus of much debate among the scientific community. The use of facial expressions as traditional hallmarks of discrete and holistic emotions created a circular reasoning due to a priori assumptions of meaning and its associated appearance-biases. Ekman and colleagues solved this problem and laid the foundations for the quantitative and systematic study of facial expressions in humans by developing an anatomically-based system (independent from meaning) to measure facial behaviour, the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). One way of investigating emotion cognition processes is by applying comparative psychology methodologies and looking at either closely-related species (e.g. chimpanzees) or phylogenetically distant species sharing similar present adaptation problems (analogy). In this study, the domestic dog was used as a comparative animal model to look at facial expressions in social interactions in parallel with human facial expressions. The orofacial musculature seems to be relatively well conserved across mammal species and the same holds true for the domestic dog. Furthermore, the dog is unique in having shared the same social environment as humans for more than 10,000 years, facing similar challenges and acquiring a unique set of socio-cognitive skills in the process. In this study, the spontaneous facial movements of humans and dogs were compared when interacting with hetero- and conspecifics as well as in solitary contexts. In total, 200 participants were examined with FACS and DogFACS (The Dog Facial Action Coding System): coding tools across four different emotionally-driven contexts: a) Happiness (play and reunion), b) anticipation (of positive reward), c) fear (object or situation triggered), and d) frustration (negation of a resource). A neutral control was added for both species. All four contexts are commonly encountered by humans and dogs, are comparable between species and seem to give rise to emotions from homologous brain systems. The videos used in the study were extracted from public databases (e.g. Youtube) or published scientific databases (e.g. AM-FED). The results obtained allowed us to delineate clear similarities and differences on the flexibility of the facial musculature in the two species. More importantly, they shed light on what common facial movements are a product of the emotion linked contexts (the ones appearing in both species) and which are characteristic of the species, revealing an important clue for the debate on the origin of emotions. Additionally, we were able to examine movements that might have emerged for interspecific communication. Finally, our results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective adding to the recent line of work that supports an ancient shared origin of emotions in a mammal ancestor and defining emotions as mechanisms with a clear adaptive purpose essential on numerous situations, ranging from maintenance of social bonds to fitness and survival modulators.

Keywords: comparative and evolutionary psychology, emotion, facial expressions, FACS

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