Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5485

Search results for: axial load capacity

5485 Study of TiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive in Two-Axial Groove Journal Bearing

Authors: K. Yathish, K. G. Binu, B. S. Shenoy, D. S. Rao, R. Pai


Load carrying capacity of an oil lubricated two-axial groove journal bearing is simulated by taking into account the viscosity variations in lubricant due to the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive. Shear viscosities of TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions in oil are measured for various nanoparticle additive concentrations. The viscosity model derived from the experimental viscosities is employed in a modified Reynolds equation to obtain the pressure profiles and load carrying capacity of two-axial groove journal bearing. Results reveal an increase in load carrying capacity of bearings operating on nanoparticle dispersions as compared to plain oil

Keywords: journal bearing, TiO2 nanoparticles, viscosity model, Reynold's equation, load carrying capacity

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5484 Effect of CSL Tube Type on the Drilled Shaft Axial Load Carrying Capacity

Authors: Ali Motevalli, Shahin Nayyeri Amiri


Cross-Hole Sonic Logging (CSL) is a common type of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) method, which is currently used to check the integrity of placed drilled shafts. CSL evaluates the integrity of the concrete inside the cage and between the access tubes based on propagation of ultrasonic waves between two or more access tubes. A number of access tubes are installed inside the reinforcing cage prior to concrete placement as guides for sensors. The access tubes can be PVC or steel galvanized based on ASTM6760. The type of the CSL tubes can affect the axial strength of the drilled shaft. The objective of this study is to compare the amount of axial load capacity of drilled shafts due to using a different type of CSL tubes inside the caging. To achieve this, three (3) large-scale drilled shaft samples were built and tested using a hydraulic actuator at the Florida International University’s (FIU) Titan America Structures and Construction Testing (TASCT) laboratory. During the static load test, load-displacement curves were recorded by the data acquisition system (MegaDAC). Three drilled shaft samples were built to evaluate the effect of the type of the CSL tube on the axial load capacity in drilled shaft foundations.

Keywords: drilled shaft foundations, axial load capacity, cage, PVC, galvanized tube, CSL tube

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5483 Evaluating of Design Codes for Circular High Strength Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns

Authors: Soner Guler, Eylem Guzel, Mustafa Gülen


Recently, concrete-filled steel tube columns are highly popular in high-rise buildings. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and American Concrete Institute (ACI) design codes. The axial load capacities of fifteen concrete-filled steel tubes stub columns were compared with design codes EU4 and ACI. The results showed that the EC4 overestimate the axial load capacity for all the specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Eurocode 4, ACI design codes

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5482 Effect of Size and Soil Characteristic on Contribution of Side and Tip Resistance of the Drilled Shafts Axial Load Carrying Capacity

Authors: Mehrak Zargaryaeghoubi, Masood Hajali


Drilled shafts are the most popular of deep foundations, because they have the capability that one single shaft can easily carry the entire load of a large column from a bridge or tall building. Drilled shaft may be an economical alternative to pile foundations because a pile cap is not needed, which not only reduces that expense, but also provides a rough surface in the border of soil and concrete to carry a more axial load. Due to the larger construction sizes of drilled shafts, they have an excellent axial load carrying capacity. Part of the axial load carrying capacity of the drilled shaft is resisted by the soil below the tip of the shaft which is tip resistance and the other part is resisted by the friction developed around the drilled shaft which is side resistance. The condition at the bottom of the excavation can affect the end bearing capacity of the drilled shaft. Also, type of the soil and size of the drilled shaft can affect the frictional resistance. The main loads applied on the drilled shafts are axial compressive loads. It is important to know how many percent of the maximum applied load will be shed inside friction and how much will be transferred to the base. The axial capacity of the drilled shaft foundation is influenced by the size of the drilled shaft, and soil characteristics. In this study, the effect of the size and soil characteristic will be investigated on the contribution of side resistance and end-bearing capacity. Also, the study presents a three-dimensional finite element modeling of a drilled shaft subjected to axial load using ANSYS. The top displacement and settlement of the drilled shaft are verified with analytical results. The soil profile is considered as Table 1 and for a drilled shaft with 7 ft diameter and 95 ft length the stresses in z-direction are calculated through the length of the shaft. From the stresses in z-direction through the length of the shaft the side resistance can be calculated and with the z-direction stress at the tip, the tip resistance can be calculated. The result of the side and tip resistance for this drilled shaft are compared with the analytical results.

Keywords: Drilled Shaft Foundation, size and soil characteristic, axial load capacity, Finite Element

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5481 A Comparative Study for the Axial Load Capacity of Circular High Strength CFST Columns

Authors: Eylem Guzel, Faruk Osmanoglu, Muhammet Kurucu


The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete-filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian standard

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5480 Experimental and Analytical Studies for the Effect of Thickness and Axial Load on Load-Bearing Capacity of Fire-Damaged Concrete Walls

Authors: Yeo Kyeong Lee, Ji Yeon Kang, Eun Mi Ryu, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin


The objective of this paper is an investigation of the effects of the thickness and axial loading during a fire test on the load-bearing capacity of a fire-damaged normal-strength concrete wall. Two factors are attributed to the temperature distributions in the concrete members and are mainly obtained through numerous experiments. Toward this goal, three wall specimens of different thicknesses are heated for 2 h according to the ISO-standard heating curve, and the temperature distributions through the thicknesses are measured using thermocouples. In addition, two wall specimens are heated for 2 h while simultaneously being subjected to a constant axial loading at their top sections. The test results show that the temperature distribution during the fire test depends on wall thickness and axial load during the fire test. After the fire tests, the specimens are cured for one month, followed by the loading testing. The heated specimens are compared with three unheated specimens to investigate the residual load-bearing capacities. The fire-damaged walls show a minor difference of the load-bearing capacity regarding the axial loading, whereas a significant difference became evident regarding the wall thickness. To validate the experiment results, finite element models are generated for which the material properties that are obtained for the experiment are subject to elevated temperatures, and the analytical results show sound agreements with the experiment results. The analytical method based on validated thought experimental results is applied to generate the fire-damaged walls with 2,800 mm high considering the buckling effect: typical story height of residual buildings in Korea. The models for structural analyses generated to deformation shape after thermal analysis. The load-bearing capacity of the fire-damaged walls with pin supports at both ends does not significantly depend on the wall thickness, the reason for it is restraint of pinned ends. The difference of the load-bearing capacity of fire-damaged walls as axial load during the fire is within approximately 5 %.

Keywords: normal-strength concrete wall, wall thickness, axial-load ratio, slenderness ratio, fire test, residual strength, finite element analysis

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5479 A Brief Review of the Axial Capacity of Circular High Strength CFST Columns

Authors: Fuat Korkut, Soner Guler


The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian Standard

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5478 A Review of the Axial Capacity of Circular High Strength Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns

Authors: Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler


The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian Standard

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5477 Eccentric Loading of CFDST Columns

Authors: Trevor N. Haas, Alexander Koen


Columns have traditionally been constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel. Much attention was allocated to estimate the axial capacity of the traditional column sections to the detriment of other forms of construction. Other forms of column construction such as Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubes received little research attention, and almost no attention when subjected to eccentric loading. This paper investigates the axial capacity of columns when subjected to eccentric loading. The experimental axial capacities are compared to other established theoretical formulae on concentric loading to determine a possible relationship. The study found a good correlation between the reduction in axial capacity for different column lengths and hollow section ratios.

Keywords: CSDST, CFST, axial capacity, hollow section ratios

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
5476 Effect of Reinforcement Steel Ratio on the Behavior of R. C. Columns Exposed to Fire

Authors: Hatem Ghith


This research paper experimentally investigates the effect of burning by fire flame from one face on the behavior and load carrying capacity for reinforced columns. Residual ultimate load carrying capacity, axial deformation, crack pattern and maximum crack width for column specimens with and without burning were recorded and discussed. Tested six reinforced concrete columns were divided into control specimen and two groups. The first group was exposed to a fire with a different temperature (300, 500, 700 °C) for an hour with reinforcement ratio 0.89% and the second group was exposed to a fire with a temperature 500 °C for an hour with different reinforcement ratio (0.89%, 2.18%, and 3.57%), then all columns were tested under short-term axial loading. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the fire parameters significantly influence the fire resistance of R.C columns. The fire parameters cause axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity that generated from the difference in temperature and consequently the compressive stresses of both faces of the columns but the increased reinforcement ratio enhanced the resistance of columns for axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity.

Keywords: columns, reinforcement ratio, strength, time exposure

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5475 Effect of Stirrup Corrosion on Concrete Confinement Strength

Authors: Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya


This study investigated how the concrete confinement strength and axial load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns are affected by corrosion damage to the stirrups. A total of small-scale 12 test specimens were cast for evaluating the effect of stirrup corrosion on confinement strength of concrete. The results of this study show that the stirrup corrosion alone dramatically decreases the axial load carrying capacity of corroded reinforced concrete columns. Recommendations were presented for improved inspection practices which will allow estimating concrete confinement strength of corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete bridge columns.

Keywords: bridge, column, concrete, corrosion, inspection, stirrup reinforcement

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5474 Behavior Study of Concrete-Filled Thin-Walled Square Hollow Steel Stub Columns

Authors: Mostefa Mimoune


Test results on concrete-filled steel tubular stub columns under axial compression are presented. The study was mainly focused on square hollow section SHS columns; 27 columns were tested. The main experimental parameters considered were the thickness of the tube, columns length and cross section sizes. Existing design codes and theoretical model were used to predict load-carrying capacities of composite section to compare the accuracy of the predictions by using the recommendations of DTR-BC (Algerian code), CSA (Canadian standard), AIJ, EC4, DBJ, AISC, BS and EC4. Experimental results indicate that the studied parameters have significant influence on both the compressive load capacity and the column failure mode. All codes used in the comparison, provide higher resistance compared to those of tests. Equation method has been suggested to evaluate the axial capacity of the composite section seem to be in agreement with tests.

Keywords: axial loading, composite section, concrete-filled steel tubes, square hollow section

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5473 The Effects of Time and Cyclic Loading to the Axial Capacity for Offshore Pile in Shallow Gas

Authors: Christian H. Girsang, M. Razi B. Mansoor, Noorizal N. Huang


An offshore platform was installed in 1977 at about 260km offshore West Malaysia at the water depth of 73.6m. Twelve (12) piles were installed with four (4) are skirt piles. The piles have 1.219m outside diameter and wall thickness of 31mm and were driven to 109m below seabed. Deterministic analyses of the pile capacity under axial loading were conducted using the current API (American Petroleum Institute) method and the four (4) CPT-based methods: the ICP (Imperial College Pile)-method, the NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute)-Method, the UWA (University of Western Australia)-method and the Fugro-method. A statistical analysis of the model uncertainty associated with each pile capacity method was performed. There were two (2) piles analysed: Pile 1 and piles other than Pile 1, where Pile 1 is the pile that was most affected by shallow gas problems. Using the mean estimate of soil properties, the five (5) methods used for deterministic estimation of axial pile capacity in compression predict an axial capacity from 28 to 42MN for Pile 1 and 32 to 49MN for piles other than Pile 1. These values refer to the static capacity shortly after pile installation. They do not include the effects of cyclic loading during the design storm or time after installation on the axial pile capacity. On average, the axial pile capacity is expected to have increased by about 40% because of ageing since the installation of the platform in 1977. On the other hand, the cyclic loading effects during the design storm may reduce the axial capacity of the piles by around 25%. The study concluded that all piles have sufficient safety factor when the pile aging and cyclic loading effect are considered, as all safety factors are above 2.0 for maximum operating and storm loads.

Keywords: axial capacity, cyclic loading, pile ageing, shallow gas

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5472 Effect of Twin Cavities on the Axially Loaded Pile in Clay

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


Presence of cavities in soil predictably induces ground deformation and changes in soil stress, which might influence adjacent existing pile foundations, though the effect of twin cavities on a nearby pile needs to be understood. This research is an attempt to identify the behaviour of piles subjected to axial load and embedded in cavitied clayey soil. A series of finite element modelling were conducted to investigate the performance of piled foundation located in such soils. The validity of the numerical simulation was evaluated by comparing it with available field test and alternative analytical model. The study involved many parameters such as twin cavities size, depth, spacing between cavities, and eccentricity of cavities from the pile axis on the pile performance subjected to axial load. The study involved many cases; in each case, a critical value has been found in which cavities’ presence has shown minimum impact on the behaviour of pile. Load-displacement relationships of the affecting parameters on the pile behaviour were presented to provide helpful information for designing piled foundation situated near twin underground cavities. It was concluded that the presence of the cavities within the soil mass reduces the ultimate capacity of pile. This reduction differs according to the size and location of the cavity.

Keywords: axial load, clay, finite element, pile, twin cavities, ultimate capacity

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5471 Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Jacketing

Authors: Ebrahim Zamani Beydokhti, Hashem Shariatmadar


This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam–column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The beam-column joints were no seismically designed, i.e. the joint, beam and column critical zones had no special transverse stirrups. The joins were tested under cyclic loading in previous research. The experiment had two phases named damage phase and retrofit phase. Then the experimental results compared with analytical results achieved from modeling in OpenSees software. The presence of lateral slab and the axial load amount were analytically investigated. The results showed that increasing the axial load and presence of lateral slab increased the joint capacity. The presence of lateral slab increased the dissipated energy, while the axial load had no significant effect on it.

Keywords: concrete beam-column joints, CFRP sheets, lateral slab, axial load

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5470 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Diagrid Components

Authors: Taejin Kim, Heonwoo Lee, Jong-Ho Kim, Dongchul Lee


Recently, there have been various high-rise building projects which reflect unique inspiration from architects to their feature. And it is frequently found that some of these buildings have diagrid structural system. Diagrid system provides engineers many options for structural plan, since it has triangular module so it can form a number of complex shapes. Unlike braced frame systems, diagonal members in diagrid system resist gravity and horizontal loads simultaneously. Correspondingly, diagrid members take roles of both beams and columns, and it is expected that their ductile capacity may depend on the amount of gravity loads. However, not enough studies have been made for this issue so far, which means that there is demand of examination on the seismic behavior of diagrid members under large gravity loads. Therefore, in this study, the ductile capacity of diagrid members was evaluated through analytical and experimental method. Several cases that have different vertical load condition were set up for both approaches to consider the effect of initial compression force due to gravity load. Regarding the result, it was found that buckling in a diagonal member occurs at smaller drift angle when larger gravity load acts on the specimen, which also reduces the amount of energy dissipation. It means that axial stress in a diagonal member reaches critical buckling force early due to the combined axial force from not only horizontal load but also gravity load.

Keywords: buckling, diagrid, ductility, seismic performance

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5469 Nonlinear Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Frames Considering Shear Behaviour of Members under Varying Axial Load

Authors: Habib Akbarzadeh Bengar, Mohammad Asadi Kiadehi, Ali Rameeh


The result of the past earthquakes has shown that insufficient amount of stirrups and brittle behavior of concrete lead to the shear and flexural failure in reinforced concrete (RC) members. In this paper, an analytical model proposed to predict the nonlinear behavior of RC and SFRC elements and frames. In this model, some important parameter such as shear effect, varying axial load, and longitudinal bar buckling are considered. The results of analytical model were verified with experimental tests. The results of verification have shown that the proposed analytical model can predict the nonlinear behavior of RC and SFRC members and also frames accurately. In addition, the results have shown that use of steel fibers increased bearing capacity and ductility of RC frame. Due to this enhancement in shear strength and ductility, insufficient amount of stirrups, which resulted in shear failure, can be offset with usage of the steel fibers. In addition to the steps taken, to analyze the effects of fibers percentages on the bearing capacity and ductility of frames parametric studies have been performed to investigate of these effects.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, SFRC frame, shear failure, varying an axial load

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5468 Comparison between Experimental and Numerical Studies of Fully Encased Composite Columns

Authors: Md. Soebur Rahman, Mahbuba Begum, Raquib Ahsan


Composite column is a structural member that uses a combination of structural steel shapes, pipes or tubes with or without reinforcing steel bars and reinforced concrete to provide adequate load carrying capacity to sustain either axial compressive loads alone or a combination of axial loads and bending moments. Composite construction takes the advantages of the speed of construction, light weight and strength of steel, and the higher mass, stiffness, damping properties and economy of reinforced concrete. The most usual types of composite columns are the concrete filled steel tubes and the partially or fully encased steel profiles. Fully encased composite column (FEC) provides compressive strength, stability, stiffness, improved fire proofing and better corrosion protection. This paper reports experimental and numerical investigations of the behaviour of concrete encased steel composite columns subjected to short-term axial load. In this study, eleven short FEC columns with square shaped cross section were constructed and tested to examine the load-deflection behavior. The main variables in the test were considered as concrete compressive strength, cross sectional size and percentage of structural steel. A nonlinear 3-D finite element (FE) model has been developed to analyse the inelastic behaviour of steel, concrete, and longitudinal reinforcement as well as the effect of concrete confinement of the FEC columns. FE models have been validated against the current experimental study conduct in the laboratory and published experimental results under concentric load. It has been observed that FE model is able to predict the experimental behaviour of FEC columns under concentric gravity loads with good accuracy. Good agreement has been achieved between the complete experimental and the numerical load-deflection behaviour in this study. The capacities of each constituent of FEC columns such as structural steel, concrete and rebar's were also determined from the numerical study. Concrete is observed to provide around 57% of the total axial capacity of the column whereas the steel I-sections contributes to the rest of the capacity as well as ductility of the overall system. The nonlinear FE model developed in this study is also used to explore the effect of concrete strength and percentage of structural steel on the behaviour of FEC columns under concentric loads. The axial capacity of FEC columns has been found to increase significantly by increasing the strength of concrete.

Keywords: composite, columns, experimental, finite element, fully encased, strength

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5467 Hysteretic Behavior of the Precast Concrete Column with Head Splice Sleeve Connection

Authors: Seo Soo-Yeon, Kim Sang-Ku, Noh Sang-Hyun, Lee Ji-Eun, Kim Seol-Ki, Lim Jong-Wook


This paper presents a test result to find the structural capacity of Hollow-Precast Concrete (HPC) column with Head-Splice Sleeve (HSS) for the connection of bars under horizontal cyclic load. Two Half-scaled HPC column specimens were made with the consideration of construction process in site. The difference between the HPC specimens is the location of HSS for bar connection. The location of the first one is on the bottom slab or foundation while the other is above the bottom slab or foundation. Reinforced concrete (RC) column was also made for the comparison. In order to evaluate the hysteretic behavior of the specimens, horizontal cyclic load was applied to the top of specimen under constant axial load. From the test, it is confirmed that the HPC columns with HSS have enough structural capacity that can be emulated to RC column. This means that the HPC column with HSS can be used in the moment resisting frame system.

Keywords: structural capacity, hollow-precast concrete column, head-splice sleeve, horizontal cyclic load

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5466 Undrained Bearing Capacity of Circular Foundations on two Layered Clays

Authors: S. Benmebarek, S. Benmoussa, N. Benmebarek


Natural soils are often deposited in layers. The estimation of the bearing capacity of the soil using conventional bearing capacity theory based on the properties of the upper layer introduces significant inaccuracies if the thickness of the top layer is comparable to the width of the foundation placed on the soil surface. In this paper, numerical computations using the FLAC code are reported to evaluate the two clay layers effect on the bearing capacity beneath rigid circular rough footing subject to axial static load. The computation results of the parametric study are used to illustrate the sensibility of the bearing capacity, the shape factor and the failure mechanisms to the layered strength and layered thickness.

Keywords: numerical modeling, circular footings, layered clays, bearing capacity, failure

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5465 Parameters Affecting Load Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Ring Deep Beams

Authors: Atef Ahmad Bleibel


Most codes of practice, like ACI 318-14, require the use of strut-and-tie modeling to analyze and design reinforced concrete deep beams. Though, investigations that conducted on deep beams do not include ring deep beams of influential parameters. This work presents an analytical parametric study using strut-and-tie modeling stated by ACI 318-14 to predict load capacity of 20 reinforced concrete ring deep beam specimens with different parameters. The parameters that were under consideration in the current work are ring diameter (Dc), number of supports (NS), width of ring beam (bw), concrete compressive strength (f'c) and width of bearing plate (Bp). It is found that the load capacity decreases by about 14-36% when ring diameter increases by about 25-75%. It is also found that load capacity increases by about 62-189% when number of supports increases by about 33-100%, while the load capacity increases by about 25-75% when the beam ring width increases by about 25-75%. Finally, it is found that load capacity increases by about 24-76% when compressive strength increases by about 24-76%, while the load capacity increases by about 5-16% when Bp increases by about 25-75%.

Keywords: load parameters, reinforced concrete, ring deep beam, strut and tie

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5464 Effect of Elastic Modulus Varieties on Helical Pile Behavior in Sand

Authors: Javad Shamsi Soosahab, Reza Ziaie Moayed


The compressive and tensile bearing capacity of helical piles in sand is investigated by means of numerical modeling. The analyses are carried out using two-dimensional finite-element software, Optum G2. The load–displacement behavior under compression and tension is compared in different relative densities for constant and various elastic modulus. The criterion used to find the ultimate axial load is the load corresponding to 5% of the helical diameter. The results show that relative density of sand plays an essential role in the response of ultimate capacities towards various condition. Increase in elastic modulus with depth is found to play a relatively more significant role to the increase in ultimate compressive load capacities, however tension bearing capacity decreases.

Keywords: helical piles, Optum G2, relative density, constant and various elastic modulus

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5463 Effect of Cavities on the Behaviour of Strip Footing Subjected to Inclined Load

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


One of the important concerns within the field of geotechnical engineering is the presence of cavities in soils. This present work is an attempt to understand the behaviour of strip footing subjected to inclined load and constructed on cavitied soil. The failure mechanism of strip footing located above such soils was studied analytically. The capability of analytical model to correctly expect the system behaviour is assessed by carrying out verification analysis on available studies. The study was prepared by finite element software (PLAXIS) in which an elastic-perfectly plastic soil model was used. It was indicated, from the results of the study, that the load carrying capacity of foundation constructed on cavity can be analysed well using such analysis. The research covered many foundation cases, and in each foundation case, there occurs a critical depth under which the presence of cavities has shown minimum impact on the foundation performance. When cavities are found above this critical depth, the load carrying capacity of the foundation differs with many influences, such as the location and size of the cavity and footing depth. Figures involving the load carrying capacity with the affecting factors studied are presented. These figures offer information beneficial for the design of strip footings rested on underground cavities. Moreover, the results might be used to design a shallow foundation constructed on cavitied soil, whereas the obtained failure mechanisms may be employed to improve numerical solutions for this kind of problems.

Keywords: axial load, cavity, inclined load, strip footing

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5462 Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers under Eccentric Loading

Authors: Dana J. Abed, Mu'tasim S. Abdel-Jaber, Nasim K. Shatarat


In this paper, an experimental study on twelve square columns was conducted to investigate the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete (RC) short columns subjected to eccentric loadings. The columns were divided into three groups with three cross sections (200×200×1200, 250×250×1500 and 300×300×1800 mm). Each group was tested under two different eccentricities: 10% and 20% of the width of samples measured from the center of the column cross section. Four columns were developed in each arrangement. Two columns in each category were left unwrapped as control samples, and two were wrapped with one layer CFRP perpendicular to the specimen surface. In general; CFRP sheets has enhanced the performance of the strengthened columns compared to the control columns. It was noticed that the percentage of compressive capacity enhancement was decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size, and increasing loading eccentricity generally leads to reduced load bearing capacity in columns. In the same group specimens, when the eccentricity increased the percentage of enhancement in load carrying capacity was increased. The study concludes that the optimum use of the CFRP sheets for axial strength enhancement is for smaller cross-section columns under higher eccentricities.

Keywords: CFRP, columns, eccentric loading, cross-sectional

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5461 Numerical Study on the Ultimate Load of Offshore Two-Planar Tubular KK-Joints at Fire-Induced Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari-Dodaran


A total of 270 nonlinear steady-state finite element (FE) analyses were performed on 54 FE models of two-planar circular hollow section (CHS) KK-joints subjected to axial loading at five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). The primary goal was to investigate the effects of temperature and geometrical characteristics on the ultimate strength, modes of failure, and initial stiffness of the KK-joints. Results indicated that on an average basis, the ultimate load of a two-planar tubular KK-joint at 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC is 90%, 75%, 45%, and 16% of the joint’s ultimate load at ambient temperature, respectively. Outcomes of the parametric study showed that replacing the yield stress at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature to apply the EN 1993-1-8 equations for the calculation of the joint’s ultimate load at elevated temperatures may lead to highly unconservative results that might endanger the safety of the structure. Results of the parametric study were then used to develop a set of design formulas, through nonlinear regression analyses, to calculate the ultimate load of two-planar tubular KK-joints subjected to axial loading at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: ultimate load, two-planar tubular KK-joint, axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation

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5460 Behaviour of Hollow Tubes Filled with Sand Slag Concrete

Authors: Meriem Senani, Noureedine Ferhoune


This paper presents the axial bearing capacity of thin welded rectangular steel stubs filled with concrete sand. A series of tests was conducted to study the behavior of short composite columns under axial compressive load, the cross section dimensions were: 100x70x2 mm. A total of 16 stubs have been tested, as follows: 4 filled with ordinary concrete appointed by BO columns, 6 filled with concrete witch natural sand was completely substitute a crystallized sand slag designated in this paper by BSI, and 6 others were tucked in concrete whose natural sand was partially replace by a crystallized sand slag called by BSII. The main objectives of these tests were to clarify the steel specimen's performance filled by concrete sand compared to those filled with ordinary concrete. The main parameters studied are: The height of the specimen (300mm-500mm), eccentricity of load and type of filling concrete. Based on test results obtained, it is confirmed that the length of the tubes, has a considerable effect on the bearing capacity and the failure mode. In all test tubes, fracture occurred by the convex warping of the largest, followed by the smallest due to the outward thrust of the concrete, it was observed that the sand concrete improves the bearing capacity of tubes compounds compared to those filled with ordinary concrete.

Keywords: concrete sand, crystallized slag, failure mode, buckling

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5459 Performance of Axially Loaded Single Pile Embedded in Cohesive Soil with Cavities

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


The stability of a single model pile located adjacent to a continuous cavity was studied. This paper is an attempt to understand the behaviour of axially loaded single pile embedded in clayey soil with the presences of cavities. The performance of piles located in such soils was studied analytically. A verification analysis was carried out on available studies to assess the ability of analytical model to correctly interpret the system behaviour. The study was adopted by finite element program (PLAXIS). The study included many cases; in each case, there is a critical value in which the presence of cavities has shown minimum effect on the pile performance. Figures including the load carrying capacity of pile with the affecting factors are presented. These figures provide beneficial information for pile design constructed close to underground cavities. It was concluded that the load carrying capacity of the pile is reduced by the presence of the cavity within the soil mass. This reduction varies according to the size and location of cavity.

Keywords: axial load, cavity, clay, pile, ultimate capacity

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5458 Experimental Investigation of Folding of Rubber-Filled Circular Tubes on Energy Absorption Capacity

Authors: MohammadSadegh SaeediFakher, Jafar Rouzegar, Hassan Assaee


In this research, mechanical behavior and energy absorption capacity of empty and rubber-filled brazen circular tubes under quasi-static axial loading are investigated, experimentally. The brazen tubes were cut out of commercially available brazen circular tubes with the same length and diameter. Some of the specimens were filled with rubbers with three different shores and also, an empty tube was prepared. The specimens were axially compressed between two rigid plates in a quasi-static process using a Zwick testing machine. Load-displacement diagrams and energy absorption of the tested tubes were extracted from experimental data. The results show that filling the brazen tubes with rubber causes those to absorb more energy and the energy absorption of specimens are increased by increasing the shore of rubbers. In comparison to the empty tube, the first fold for the rubber-filled tubes occurs at lower load and it can be concluded that the rubber-filled tubes are better energy absorbers than the empty tubes. Also, in contrast with the empty tubes, the tubes that were filled with lower rubber shore deform asymmetrically.

Keywords: axial compression, quasi-static loading, folding, energy absorbers, rubber-filled tubes

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5457 Design of Soil Replacement under Axial Centric Load Isolated Footing by Limit State Method

Authors: Emad A. M. Osman, Ahmed M. Abu-Bakr


Compacted granular fill under shallow foundation is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easiest techniques to improve the soil characteristics to increase the bearing capacity and decrease settlement under footing. There are three main factors affecting the design of soil replacement to gain these advantages. These factors are the type of replaced soil, characteristics, and thickness. The first two factors can be easily determined by laboratory and field control. This paper emphasizes on how to determine the thickness accurately for footing under centric axial load by limit state design method. The advantages of the method are the way of determining the thickness (independent of experience) and it takes into account the replaced and original or underneath soil characteristics and reaches the goals of replaced soils economically.

Keywords: design of soil replacement, LSD method, soil replacement, soil improvement

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5456 Seismic Resistant Columns of Buildings against the Differential Settlement of the Foundation

Authors: Romaric Desbrousses, Lan Lin


The objective of this study is to determine how Canadian seismic design provisions affect the column axial load resistance of moment-resisting frame reinforced concrete buildings subjected to the differential settlement of their foundation. To do so, two four-storey buildings are designed in accordance with the seismic design provisions of the Canadian Concrete Design Standards. One building is located in Toronto, which is situated in a moderate seismic hazard zone in Canada, and the other in Vancouver, which is in Canada’s highest seismic hazard zone. A finite element model of each building is developed using SAP 2000. A 100 mm settlement is assigned to the base of the building’s center column. The axial load resistance of the column is represented by the demand capacity ratio. The analysis results show that settlement-induced tensile axial forces have a particularly detrimental effect on the conventional settling columns of the Toronto buildings which fail at a much smaller settlement that those in the Vancouver buildings. The results also demonstrate that particular care should be taken in the design of columns in short-span buildings.

Keywords: Columns, Demand, Foundation differential settlement, Seismic design, Non-linear analysis

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