Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Samet Aktaş

31 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Samet Aktaş, Nurtekin Erkmen, Faruk Guven, Halil Taskin

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: small-sided games, soccer, heart rate, lactate

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30 Small-Sided Games in Football: Effect of Field Sizes on Technical Parameters

Authors: Faruk Guven, Nurtekin Erkmen, Samet Aktas, Cengiz Taskin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine effects of field sizes on technical parameters of small-sided games in football players. Eight amateur football players (27.23±3.08 years, heigth: 171.01±5.36 cm, body weigth: 66.86±4.54 kg, sports experience: 12.88±3.28 years) performed 4-a-side small-sided games (SSG) with different field sizes. In SSGs, field sizes were 30 x 40 m and 26 mx24 m. SSGs was conducted as a series of 3 bouts of 6 min with 5 min recovery durations. All SSGs were video recorded using two digital video camcorder positioned on a tripot. Shoot on taget, passes, succesful passes, unsuccesful passes, dripling, tackle, possession in SSGs were counted by Mathball Match Analysis System. The effects of bouts on technical score were examined separately using a Friedman’s test. Mann Whitney U test was applied to analyse differences between field sizes. There were no significant differences in shoots on target, total pass, successful pass, tackle, interception, possession between bouts in 30x40 m field size (p>0.05). Unsuccessful pass in bout 3 for 30x40 m field size was lower than bout 1 and bout 2 (p<0.05) and dripling in bout 3 was lower than bout 2 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in technical actions between bouts for 26x34 m field size (p>0.05). Shoot on target in SSG with 26 x 34 m field size was higher than SSG with 30x40 m field size (p<0.05). Unsuccessful pass for 26x34 m field size in bout 3 was higher than SSG with 30x40 m field size (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in technical actions between field sizes (p>0.05). In conclusion; in this study demonstrates that technical actions in a-4-side SSG are not influenced by different field sizes (for 30x40 m and 26x34 m field sizes). This consequence is same for both total SSG time and each bout. Dripling and unsuccessful pass decrease in bout 3 during SSG in 30 x 40 m field size.

Keywords: small-sided games, football, technical actions, sport science

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29 Geometric Properties of Some q-Bessel Functions

Authors: İbrahim Aktaş, Árpád Baricz

Abstract:

In this paper, the radii of star likeness of the Jackson and Hahn-Exton q-Bessel functions are considered, and for each of them three different normalizations is applied. By applying Euler-Rayleigh inequalities for the first positive zeros of these functions tight lower, and upper bounds for the radii of starlikeness of these functions are obtained. The Laguerre-Pólya class of real entire functions plays an important role in this study. In particular, we obtain some new bounds for the first positive zero of the derivative of the classical Bessel function of the first kind.

Keywords: bessel function, lommel function, radius of starlikeness and convexity, Struve function

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28 An Evaluation of Medical Waste in Health Facilities through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Method: Turkey-Amasya Public Hospitals Union Model

Authors: Murat Iskender Aktaş, Sadi Ergin, Rasime Acar Aktaş

Abstract:

In the light of fast-paced changes and developments in the health sector, the Ministry of Health started a new structuring with decree law numbered 663 within the scope of the Project of Transformation in Health. Accordingly, hospitals should ensure patient satisfaction through more efficient, more effective use of resources and sustainable finance by placing patients in the centre and should operate to increase efficiency to its maximum level while doing these. Within this study, in order to find out how efficient the hospitals were in terms of medical waste management between the years 2011-2014, the data from six hospitals of Amasya Public Hospitals Union were evaluated separately through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. First of all, input variables were determined. Input variables were the number of patients admitted to polyclinics, the number of inpatients in clinics, the number of patients who were operated and the number of patients who applied to the laboratory. Output variable was the cost of medical wastes in Turkish liras. Each hospital’s total medical waste level before and after public hospitals union; the amounts of average medical waste per patient admitted to polyclinics, per inpatient in clinics, per patient admitted to laboratory and per operated patient were compared within each group. In addition, average medical waste levels and costs were compared for Turkey in general and Europe in general. Paired samples t-test was used to find out whether the changes (increase-decrease) after public hospitals union were statistically significant. The health facilities that were unsuccessful in terms of medical waste management before and after public hospital union and the factors that caused this failure were determined. Based on the results, for each health facility that was ineffective in terms of medical waste management, the level of improvement required for each input was determined. The results of the study showed that there was an improvement in medical waste management applications after the health facilities became a member of public hospitals union; their medical waste levels were lower than the average of Turkey and Europe while the averages of cost of disposal were the highest.

Keywords: medical waste management, cost of medical waste, public hospitals, data envelopment analysis

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27 The Determination of Pb and Zn Phytoremediation Potential and Effect of Interaction between Cadmium and Zinc on Metabolism of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Esculentum)

Authors: Nurdan Olguncelik Kaplan, Aysen Akay

Abstract:

Nowadays soil pollution has become a global problem. External added polluters to the soil are destroying and changing the structure of the soil and the problems are becoming more complex and in this sense the correction of these problems is going to be harder and more costly. Cadmium has got a fast mobility in the soil and plant system because of that cadmium can interfere very easily to the human and animal food chain and in the same time this can be very dangerous. The cadmium which is absorbed and stored by the plants is causing to many metabolic changes of the plants like; protein synthesis, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme (nitrate reductase) activation, photo and chlorophyll synthesis. The biological function of cadmium is not known over the plants and it is not a necessary element. The plant is generally taking in small amounts the cadmium and this element is competing with the zinc. Cadmium is causing root damages. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is an important nutraceutical because of its high content of flavonoids, minerals and vitamins, and their nutritionally balanced amino-acid composition. Buckwheat has relatively high biomass productivity, is adapted to many areas of the world, and can flourish in sterile fields; therefore buckwheat plants are widely used for the phytoremediation process.The aim of this study were to evaluate the phytoremediation capacity of the high-yielding plant Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in soils contaminated with Cd and Zn. The soils were applied to differrent doses cd(0-12.5-25-50-100 mg Cd kg−1 soil in the form of 3CdSO4.8H2O ) and Zn (0-10-30 mg Zn kg−1 soil in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O) and incubated about 60 days. Later buckwheat seeds were sown and grown for three mounth under greenhouse conditions. The test plants were irrigated by using pure water after the planting process. Buckwheat seeds (Gunes and Aktas species) were taken from Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research. After harvest, Cd and Zn concentrations of plant biomass and grain, yield and translocation factors (TFs) for Cd and Cd were determined. Cadmium accumulation in biomass and grain significantly increased in dose-dependent manner. Long term field trials are required to further investigate the potential of buckwheat to reclaimed the soil. But this could be undertaken in conjunction with actual remediation schemes. However, the differences in element accumulation among the genotypes were affected more by the properties of genotypes than by the soil properties. Gunes genotype accumulated higher lead than Aktas genotypes.

Keywords: buckwheat, cadmium, phytoremediation, zinc

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26 Photocatalytic Glucose Electrooxidation Applications of Titanium Dioxide Supported CD and CdTe Catalysts

Authors: Hilal Kivrak, Aykut ÇağLar, Nahit Aktaş, Ali Osman Solak

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At present, Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ catalysts are prepared via sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction method. These catalysts are characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ are employed as catalysts for the photocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are used to investigate their glucose electrooxidation activities of catalysts at long and under UV illumination (ʎ=354 nm). CdTe/TiO₂ catalyst is showed the best photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation activity compared to Cd/TiO₂ catalyst.

Keywords: cadmium, NaBH4 reduction method, photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation, Tellerium, TiO2

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25 Implementation and Modeling of a Quadrotor

Authors: Ersan Aktas, Eren Turanoğuz

Abstract:

In this study, the quad-electrical rotor driven unmanned aerial vehicle system is designed and modeled using fundamental dynamic equations. After that, mechanical, electronical and control system of the air vehicle are designed and implemented. Brushless motor speeds are altered via electronic speed controllers in order to achieve desired controllability. The vehicle's fundamental Euler angles (i.e., roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle) are obtained via AHRS sensor. These angles are provided as an input to the control algorithm that run on soft the processor on the electronic card. The vehicle control algorithm is implemented in the electronic card. Controller is designed and improved for each Euler angles. Finally, flight tests have been performed to observe and improve the flight characteristics.

Keywords: quadrotor, UAS applications, control architectures, PID

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24 A Blockchain-Based Privacy-Preserving Physical Delivery System

Authors: Shahin Zanbaghi, Saeed Samet

Abstract:

The internet has transformed the way we shop. Previously, most of our purchases came in the form of shopping trips to a nearby store. Now, it’s as easy as clicking a mouse. But with great convenience comes great responsibility. We have to be constantly vigilant about our personal information. In this work, our proposed approach is to encrypt the information printed on the physical packages, which include personal information in plain text, using a symmetric encryption algorithm; then, we store that encrypted information into a Blockchain network rather than storing them in companies or corporations centralized databases. We present, implement and assess a blockchain-based system using Ethereum smart contracts. We present detailed algorithms that explain the details of our smart contract. We present the security, cost, and performance analysis of the proposed method. Our work indicates that the proposed solution is economically attainable and provides data integrity, security, transparency, and data traceability.

Keywords: blockchain, Ethereum, smart contract, commit-reveal scheme

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23 Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory

Authors: Ömer Aktaş, Olga A. Suvorova, Oleg Tretyakov

Abstract:

The boundary value problem on non-canonical and arbitrary shaped contour is solved with a numerically effective method called Analytical Regularization Method (ARM) to calculate propagation parameters. As a result of regularization, the equation of first kind is reduced to the infinite system of the linear algebraic equations of the second kind in the space of L2. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.

Keywords: analytical regularization method, electromagnetic theory evolutionary equations of time-domain, TM Field

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22 Mechanical Performance of Geopolymeric Mortars Based on Natural Clay, Fly Ash and Metakaolin

Authors: W. Tahri, B. Samet, F. Pacheco-Torgal, J. L. Barroso de Aguiar, S. Baklouti

Abstract:

Infrastructure rehabilitation represents a multitrillion dollar opportunity for the construction industry. Since the majority of the existent infrastructures are Portland cement concrete based this means that concrete infrastructure rehabilitation is a hot issue to be dealt with. Geopolymers are novel inorganic binders with high potential to replace Portland cement based ones. So far very few studies in the geopolymer field have addressed the rehabilitation of deteriorated concrete structures. This paper discloses results of an investigation concerning the development geopolymeric repair mortars. The mortars are based on Tunisian natural clay plus calcium hydroxide, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. Results show that the geopolymeric mortar has a high compressive strength and a lower unrestrained shrinkage performance as long as partial replacement by metakaolin is carried out. The results also show that Tunisian calcined clay based mortars have hydration products with typical geopolymeric phases.

Keywords: geopolymeric mortars, infrastructure repair, compressive strength, shrinkage

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21 Utilization of Rice and Corn Bran with Dairy By-Product in Tarhana Production

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nihat Akin

Abstract:

Tarhana is a traditional Turkish fermented food. It is widely consumed as soup and includes many different ingredients such as wheat flour, various vegetables, and spices, yoghurt, bakery yeast. It can also be enriched by adding other ingredients. Thus, its nutritional properties can be enhanced. In this study, tarhana was supplemented with two different types of brans (rice bran and corn bran) and WPC (whey protein concentrate powder) to improve its nutritional and functional properties. Some chemical properties of tarhana containing two different brans and their levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) and WPC (0, 5, 10%) were investigated. The results indicated that addition of WPC increased ash content in tarhanas which were fortified with rice and corn bran. The highest antioxidant and phenolic content values were obtained with addition of rice bran in tarhana formulation. Compared to tarhana with corn bran, rice bran addition gave higher oil content values. The cellulose content of tarhana samples was determined between 0.75% and 2.74% and corn bran showed an improving effect on cellulose contents of samples. In terms of protein content, addition of WPC into the tarhana raised protein content for the samples.

Keywords: corn, rice, tarhana, whey

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20 Secure Cryptographic Operations on SIM Card for Mobile Financial Services

Authors: Kerem Ok, Serafettin Senturk, Serdar Aktas, Cem Cevikbas

Abstract:

Mobile technology is very popular nowadays and it provides a digital world where users can experience many value-added services. Service Providers are also eager to offer diverse value-added services to users such as digital identity, mobile financial services and so on. In this context, the security of data storage in smartphones and the security of communication between the smartphone and service provider are critical for the success of these services. In order to provide the required security functions, the SIM card is one acceptable alternative. Since SIM cards include a Secure Element, they are able to store sensitive data, create cryptographically secure keys, encrypt and decrypt data. In this paper, we design and implement a SIM and a smartphone framework that uses a SIM card for secure key generation, key storage, data encryption, data decryption and digital signing for mobile financial services. Our frameworks show that the SIM card can be used as a controlled Secure Element to provide required security functions for popular e-services such as mobile financial services.

Keywords: SIM card, mobile financial services, cryptography, secure data storage

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19 Determination of Organizational Cynicism Levels of Health Care Workers

Authors: Murat İskender Aktaş, Selma Söyük

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The aim of this work is to specify the levels of organizational cynicism health workers. Organizational cynicism concept is evaluated in three sub-branches and these are cognitive, affective, and behavioral. The main objective of the work is to answer the questions about the relationship of demographic characteristics like sub-branches of cynicism and age, marital status, education level, total working hours, occupational groups and income levels. As works in our country are analyzed, there have been studies about cynicism in health and other sectors. However, there were no master’s thesis or organizational cynicism research found about the public health professionals. This is why the aim was chosen as to specify the levels of organizational cynicism of public health professionals. The average of the answers of the health workers to the questions about cynicism levels are 2.86. As organizational cynicism is evaluated according to the sub-branches, cognitive subscale average score is 3.21 affective subscale average score is 2.68 and behavioral subscale average score is counted as 2.67. As the results are analyzed, it is seen that the behavioral subscale has the highest average. This shows that the workers are often criticizing the internal complaints and organizational information with their friends out of the organization.

Keywords: cynicism, organizational cynicism, health care workers

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18 Chemical Demulsification for Treating Crude Oil Emulsion

Authors: Miran Sabah Ibrahim, Nahit Aktas

Abstract:

The utilization of emulsifiers is highly important in the process of breaking emulsions. This examination employed five commercial demulsifiers in various temperatures for evaluating the separation efficiency. Furthermore, two different crude oils (Khurmala and Demir Dagh crude oil) were utilized for preparing emulsion. The outcomes revealed that the application commercial demulsifiers for Khurmala crude oil at 55°C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) the separation efficiency were (78, 80.6, 78, 86 and 90 %) respectively. However, at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) separation efficiency were (87, 85, 91.3, 94 and 97 %) respectively. Nonetheless, utilizing Demir Dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) resulted in the separation efficiency of (63.3, 66.6, 65, 73 and 76.6 %) respectively, and at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) were (77, 76.6, 80, 82 and 85 %) respectively. The combinations of FD-6144 and RI35Q at 55°C and ratio of (1:1) and (1:3) for Khurmala crude oil led to (96 and 90.6 %) efficiency respectively. However, the efficiency decreased to (98.6 and 93.3 %) respectively at 65 °C. The same combinations applied on Demir Dagh Crude oil and the results were (78 and 63.3 %) at 55 °C and (86.6 and 71 %) at 65 °C. Three different brine concentrations (NaCl) (0.5, 2 and 3.5 %) were prepared and utilized. It was found that the optimum NaCl concentration was at 3.5 % NaCl concentration for both khurmala and Demir dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 65 °C.

Keywords: demulsifier, emulsion, breaking emulsion, emulsifying agent (surfactant)

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17 Effects of Some Legume Flours and Gums on Some Properties of Turkish Noodle

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nermin Bilgiçli, Tayyibe Erten, Perihan Kübra Çiçek

Abstract:

In this research, different wheat-legume flour blends were used in Turkish noodle preparation with the aid of some gums (xanthan and guar). Chickpea, common bean and soy flours were used in noodle formulation at 20% level with and without gum (1%) addition. Some physical, chemical and sensory properties of noodles were determined. Water uptake, volume increase and cooking loss values of the noodles changed between 92.03-116.37%, 125.0-187.23% and 4.88-8.10%, respectively. Xanthan or guar gam addition decreased cooking loss values of legume fortified noodles. Both legume flour and gum addition significantly (p<0.05) affected the color values of the noodles. The lowest lightness (L*), redness (a*) and the highest yellowness (b*) values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. Protein and ash values of noodles ranged between 15.14 and 21.82%; 1.62 and 2.50%, respectively, and the highest values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. As a result of sensory evaluation, noodles containing chickpea flour and guar gum were rated with higher taste, odor, appearance and texture scores compared to other noodle samples.

Keywords: noodle, legume, soy, chickpea, common bean, gum

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16 A Fuzzy-Rough Feature Selection Based on Binary Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

Authors: Javad Rahimipour Anaraki, Saeed Samet, Mahdi Eftekhari, Chang Wook Ahn

Abstract:

Feature selection and attribute reduction are crucial problems, and widely used techniques in the field of machine learning, data mining and pattern recognition to overcome the well-known phenomenon of the Curse of Dimensionality. This paper presents a feature selection method that efficiently carries out attribute reduction, thereby selecting the most informative features of a dataset. It consists of two components: 1) a measure for feature subset evaluation, and 2) a search strategy. For the evaluation measure, we have employed the fuzzy-rough dependency degree (FRFDD) of the lower approximation-based fuzzy-rough feature selection (L-FRFS) due to its effectiveness in feature selection. As for the search strategy, a modified version of a binary shuffled frog leaping algorithm is proposed (B-SFLA). The proposed feature selection method is obtained by hybridizing the B-SFLA with the FRDD. Nine classifiers have been employed to compare the proposed approach with several existing methods over twenty two datasets, including nine high dimensional and large ones, from the UCI repository. The experimental results demonstrate that the B-SFLA approach significantly outperforms other metaheuristic methods in terms of the number of selected features and the classification accuracy.

Keywords: binary shuffled frog leaping algorithm, feature selection, fuzzy-rough set, minimal reduct

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15 A Longitudinal Survey Study of Izmir Commuter Rail System (IZBAN)

Authors: Samet Sen, Yalcin Alver

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Before Izmir Commuter Rail System (IZBAN), most of the respondents along the railway were making their trips by city buses, minibuses or private cars. After IZBAN was put into service, some people changed their previous trip behaviors and they started travelling by IZBAN. Therefore a big travel demand in IZBAN occurred. In this study, the characteristics of passengers and their trip behaviors are found out based on the longitudinal data conducted via two wave trip surveys. Just after one year from IZBAN's opening, the first wave of the surveys was carried out among 539 passengers at six stations during morning peak hours between 07.00 am-09.30 am. The second wave was carried out among 669 passengers at the same six stations two years after the first wave during the same morning peak hours. As a result of this study, the respondents' socio-economic specifications, the distribution of trips by region, the impact of IZBAN on transport modes, the changes in travel time and travel cost and satisfaction data were obtained. These data enabled to compare two waves and explain the changes in socio-economic factors and trip behaviors. In both waves, 10 % of the respondents stopped driving their own cars and they started to take IZBAN. This is an important development in solving traffic problems. More public transportation means less traffic congestion.

Keywords: commuter rail system, comparative study, longitudinal survey, public transportation

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14 An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry

Authors: Gizem Arslan Özgen, Kutay Yücetürk, Metin Tanoğlu, Engin Aktaş

Abstract:

Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).

Keywords: composite propeller shaft, hybridization, epoxy matrix, static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling strength, fundamental natural bending frequency.

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13 Sociodemographic Approach to Juveniles Directed to Delinquent Behaviour in Zonguldak

Authors: Riza Yilmaz, Samet Kiyak, Sezin Nur Yilmaz, Yasemin Yilmaz

Abstract:

Child delinquency has been increasing in our country as well as in many countries of the world. Child intelligence, abilities, family's social environment and life conditions are the factors which affect the child delinquency. The reports of 73 cases ages of 12-15 which were sent to the University of Bulent Ecevit, School of Medicine, Forensic Medicine Department between January 2011-September 2015, in order to evaluate medically, children pushed to crime by the judicial authorities are examined in terms of age, gender, educational background, place of residence, reasons for being sent, whether it’s a repeating crime or not, type of intelligence test, results revealed by forensic medicine and department of mental and neurological disorders. When children pushed to crime examined in terms of their crimes, the most common type of crime was identified as theft (n = 24). The crimes with 19 physical attacks and 12 sexual abuse were seen. Following that other 12 crimes were determined as damage to property, hemp crop, insult, incitement to crime, forgery of private documents, illegal excavation, threatening, involuntary manslaughter. The alleged crimes in 6 cases were more than one. The children pushed to crime are one of the major social problems of many countries. In this sense, it is not only the responsibility of government agencies to protect children pushed to crime, also, the civil society organizations should take place in this struggle.

Keywords: delinquent behaviour, forensic medicine, crime, punishment

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12 The Effect of Advertising on Brand Choices of Z Generation Children and Their Social Media Consumption Habits

Authors: Hüseyin Altubaş, Hasret Aktaş, A. Mücahid Zengin

Abstract:

Children determine the direction of the power of consumption. They affect the decisions of their parents but they also reached to a significant purchasing power themselves. Children, who are turning interactive behavior to normal behavior are becoming the decision makers in a company’s survival. Companies that analyze this effective target audience can communicate successfully with children. Children, who are interactive individuals, are closer to advertising. They are almost talking better with advertising. They are not afraid to express their likings, as well as their dislikes. Children have an interactive lifestyle and they were exposed to the vast changes in technology after year 2000. They do not know a life without internet, they spend mobile life in internet. This Z generation is the new determinants of brands. Z generation finds it appropriate to be brand ambassadors and they completely changed traditional media and traditional consumer behavior. These children live social reality with virtual reality and they feed brands differently. Brands that interact with Z generation are affected by this feeding positively, while brands that keep interaction in traditional levels are affected negatively. In this research we examine the communication, advertising and brand behaviors of Z generation. We especially analyze this generation’s interaction with social media brands and their interactive attitudes.

Keywords: social media, Z generation, children, advertising, brand choice

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11 Reliability-based Condition Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines using SHM data

Authors: Caglayan Hizal, Hasan Emre Demirci, Engin Aktas, Alper Sezer

Abstract:

Offshore wind turbines consist of a long slender tower with a heavy fixed mass on the top of the tower (nacelle), together with a heavy rotating mass (blades and hub). They are always subjected to environmental loads including wind and wave loads in their service life. This study presents a three-stage methodology for reliability-based condition assessment of offshore wind-turbines against the seismic, wave and wind induced effects considering the soil-structure interaction. In this context, failure criterions are considered as serviceability limits of a monopile supporting an Offshore Wind Turbine: (a) allowable horizontal displacement at pile head should not exceed 0.2 m, (b) rotations at pile head should not exceed 0.5°. A Bayesian system identification framework is adapted to the classical reliability analysis procedure. Using this framework, a reliability assessment can be directly implemented to the updated finite element model without performing time-consuming methods. For numerical verification, simulation data of the finite model of a real offshore wind-turbine structure is investigated using the three-stage methodology.

Keywords: Offshore wind turbines, SHM, reliability assessment, soil-structure interaction

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10 Blockchain Technology Applications in Patient Tracking Systems Regarding Privacy-Preserving Concerns and COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Farbod Behnaminia, Saeed Samet

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has paralyzed many lives until a vaccine has been available, which caused the so-called “new normal”. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 is an infectious disease. It can cause significant illness or death in anyone. Governments and health officials tried to impose rules and regulations to avoid and slow down transmission. Therefore, software engineers worldwide developed applications to trace and track patients’ movements and notify others, mainly using Bluetooth. In this way, everyone could be informed whether they came in close contact with someone who has COVID-19 and takes proper safety precautions. Because most of the applications use technologies that can potentially reveal the user’s identity and location, researchers have debated privacy preservation and how to improve user privacy during such pandemics. Thanks to the distributed ledger technology (DLT), there have been some proposed methods to develop privacy-preserving patient tracking systems in the last two years. As an instance of the DLT, blockchain is like a decentralized peer-to-peer database that maintains a record of transactions. Transactions are immutable, transparent, and anonymous in this system. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the literature by looking for papers in the relevant field and dividing them into pre- and post-pandemic systems. Additionally, we discussed the many uses of blockchain technology in pandemic control. We found that two major obstacles facing blockchain implementation across many healthcare systems are scalability and privacy. The Polkadot platform is presented, along with a review of its efficacy in tackling current concerns. A more scalable healthcare system is achievable in the near future using Polkadot as well as a much more privacy-preserving environment.

Keywords: blockchain, electronic record management, EHR, privacy-preserving, patient tracking, COVID-19, trust and confidence, Polkadot

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9 Microbiota Effect with Cytokine in Hl and NHL Patient Group

Authors: Ekin Ece Gürer, Tarık Onur Tiryaki, Sevgi Kalayoğlu Beşışık, Fatma Savran Oğuz, Uğur Sezerman, Fatma Erdem, Gülşen Günel, Dürdane Serap Kuruca, Zerrin Aktaş, Oral Öncül

Abstract:

Aim: Chemotherapytreatment in HodgkinLymphomaandNon-HodgkinLymphoma (NHL) diseasescausesgastrointestinalepithelialdamage, disruptstheintestinalmicrobiotabalanceandcausesdysbiosis. Inourstudy, it wasaimedtoshowtheeffect of thedamagecausedbychemotherapy on themicrobiotaandtheeffect of thechangingmicrobiota flora on thecourse of thedisease. Materials And Methods: Seven adult HL and seven adult HL patients to be treatedwithchemotherapywereincluded in the study. Stoolsamplesweretakentwice, beforechemotherapytreatmentandafterthe 3th course of treatment. SamplesweresequencedusingNextGenerationSequencing (NGS) methodafternucleicacidisolation. OTU tableswerepreparedusing NCBI blastnversion 2.0.12 accordingtothe NCBI general 16S bacterialtaxonomyreferencedated 10.08.2021. Thegenerated OTU tableswerecalculatedwith R Statistical Computer Language version 4.04 (readr, phyloseq, microbiome, vegan, descrand ggplot2 packages) to calculate Alpha diversityandtheirgraphicswerecreated. Statistical analyzeswerealsoperformedusing R Statistical Computer Language version 4.0.4 and studio IDE 1.4 (tidyverse, readr, xlsxand ggplot2 packages). Expression of IL-12 and IL-17 cytokineswasperformedbyrtPCRtwice, beforeandaftertreatment. Results: InHL patients, a significantdecreasewasobserved in themicrobiota flora of Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 genus (p:0.036) andUndefined Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 species (p:0.036) comparedtopre-treatment. When the post-treatment of HL patientswerecomparedwithhealthycontrols, a significantdecreasewasfound in themicrobiota of Prevotella_7 genus (p:0.049) andButyricimonas (p:0.006) in the post-treatmentmicrobiota of HL patients. InNHL patients, a significantdecreasewasobserved in themicrobiota flora of Coprococccus_3 genus (p:0.015) andUndefined Ruminoclostridium_5 (p:0.046) speciescomparedtopre-treatment. When post-treatment of NHL patientswerecomparedwithhealthycontrols, a significantabundance in theBacilliclass (p:0.029) and a significantdecrease in theUndefinedAlistipesspecies (p:0.047) wereobserved in the post-treatmentmicrobiota of NHL patients. While a decreasewasobserved in IL-12 cytokineexpressionuntilbeforetreatment, an increase in IL-17 cytokineexpressionwasdetected. Discussion: Intestinal flora monitoringafterchemotherapytreatmentshowsthat it can be a guide in thetreatment of thedisease. It is thoughtthatincreasingthediversity of commensalbacteria can alsopositivelyaffecttheprognosis of thedisease.

Keywords: hodgkin lymphoma, non-hodgkin, microbiota, cytokines

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8 The Evaluation of the Re-Construction Project Hamamönü, Ankara in Turkey as a Case from Socio-Cultural Perspective

Authors: Tuğçe Kök, Gözen Güner Aktaş, Nur Ayalp

Abstract:

In a global world, Social and cultural sustainability are subjects which have gained significant importance in recent years. The concept of sustainability was included in the document of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) by World Charter for Nature, adopted in 1982 for the first time. However, merged with urban sustainability a new phenomenon has emerged. Sustainability is an essential fact, This fact is discussed via the socio-cultural field of sustainability. Together with central government and local authorities, conservation activities have been intensified on the protection of values on an area scale. Today, local authorities play an important role in the urban historic site rehabilitation and re-construction of traditional houses projects in Ankara, Turkey. Many conservative acts have occurred after 1980’s. To give a remarkable example about the conservation implementations of traditional Turkish houses is ‘Hamamönü, Ankara Re-Construction Project which is one of the historical parts that has suffered from deterioration and unplanned urban development. In this region, preexisting but unused historic fibre of the site has been revised and according to result of this case-study, the relationship between users and re-construction were discussed. Most of the houses were re-constructed in order to build a new tourist attraction area. This study discusses the socio-cultural relations between the new built environment and the visitors, from the point of cultural sustainability. This study questions the transmission of cultural stimulations. A case study was conducted to discuss the perception of cultural aspects of the visitors in the site. The relationship between the real cultural identities and existent ones after the re-constructed project, Which has been transmitted through the visitors and the users of those spaces will be discussed. The aim of the study is to analyze the relation between the cultural identities, which have been tried to be protected with the re-construction project and the users. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the implementations of Altındağ Municipality in Hamamönü and examine the socio-cultural sustainability with the user responses. After the assessment of implementation under socio-cultural sustainability, some proposals for the future of Hamamönü were introduced.

Keywords: social sustainability, cultural sustainability, Hamamönü, Turkey, re-construction

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7 The Communicational Behaviors of the Nurses Towards 'Crying Patient'

Authors: Hacer Kobya Bulut, Kıymet Yeşilçiçek Çalık, Birsel Canan Demirbağ, Hacer Erdöl, Songül Aktaş

Abstract:

Introduction: As an expression of an emotion which always exists in life, crying is regarded as one of the problematic behaviors of patients by nurses. Towards such patients, nurses may exhibit emotional and behavioral reactions such as feeling helpless, anger, indifferent, defense, and opposition. However crying either meets a need, reduces the tension to cope with problems or helps patient to gain strength. Therefore, nurses must accept that crying is a normal mechanism that reduces emotional tension and should approach a crying patient accordingly. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the communicational behaviors of the nurses towards ‘crying patient’. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with the nurses working at a university hospital in a city in the Eastern Black Sea in June-September 2015. The entire universe was tried to be reached without sampling. 90% of the population was reached and the study was completed with 309 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire which was prepared reviewing the literature by researchers. Data were evaluated in SPSS analysis program using percentages, numbers and chi-square test with the 95% confidence interval and p <0.05significance level. Findings: The findings showed that the average age of nurses was 31.52 ± 7.96, work experience was 10:09 ± 7.69 and only 22.7% had training about ‘approach to crying patient’ during their education. 97.1% of the nurses often faced with crying patients in their professional lives, 62.8% stated that they faced crying women patients. When they see crying patients, 84.8% of the nurses ‘do not want the patient to cry’, 80.9% wonder ‘why they are crying’, % 79.6 ‘feel uneasiness’,% 79.3 ‘feel sorry’ and 41.4% ‘ feel helpless’. The question ‘Why do you think the patient is crying?’ was answered by 93.5% nurses as ‘they are suffering’, by 86.1% ‘they are helpless’, 80.9% ‘they are sad’, 79.6% ‘they need help’, 54.4% ‘because they feel inadequate,’ and 44.7% ‘they fail to control their crying behavior. ‘How do you approach to your patient when she/he is crying?’ question was answered by 82.5% of nurses as ‘I would console’, 77.3% as ‘I would ask the reason’, 63.1% as ‘I would try to stop her from crying’ all of which are actually inappropriate nursing approaches. However, 92.2% of the nurses stated that ‘I do not judge the crying patient’, ‘87.1% said ‘I allocate time to crying patients’ and 85.8% said ‘ I ask patient whether they want to cry alone’. The study showed that educational background and work experience of the nurses affected the appropriate approach to crying patients (P <0.05). Conclusion: As a result of the study, it was found out that nurses do not want patients to cry, so they exhibit inappropriate approach such as consoling the patients and they have difficulty in approaching crying patients.

Keywords: approach to patient, communication, crying patient, nurse, Turkey

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6 The Effect of Empathy Training Given to Midwives on Mothers’ Satisfaction with Midwives and Their Birth Perception

Authors: Songul Aktas, Turkan Pasinlioglu, Kiymet Yesilcicek Calik

Abstract:

Introduction: Emphatic approach during labor increases both quality of care and birth satisfaction of mothers. Besides; maternal satisfaction statements and expressions about midwives who assist labor contribute to a positive birth perception and wish to give vaginal delivery again. Aim: The study aimed at investigating the effect of empathy training given to midwives on mothers’ satisfaction with midwives and their birth perception. Material/Method: This experimental study was undertaken between February 2013 and January 2014 at a public hospital in Trabzon Province. The population of the study was composed of mothers who gave vaginal delivery and the sample was composed of 222 mothers determined with power analyzes. Ethical approval and written informed consents were obtained. Mothers who were assisted by midwives during 1st, 2nd and 3rd phases of delivery and first two postpartum hours were included. Empathy training given to midwives included didactic narration, creative drama, psychodrama techniques and lasted 32 hours. The data were collected before the empathy training (BET), right after empathy training (RAET) and 8 weeks later after birth (8WLAB). Mothers were homogenous in terms of socio-demographic, obstetric characteristics. Data were collected with a questionnaire and were analyzed with Chi-square tests. Findings: Rate of mother’s satisfaction with midwives was 36.5% in BET, 81.1% in RAET and 75.7% in 8WLAB. Key mother’s satisfaction with midwives were as follows: 27.6% of mothers told that midwives were “smiling-kind” in BET, 39.6% of them in RAET and 33.7% of them in 8WLAB; 31% of mothers told that midwives were “understanding” in BET, 38.2% of them in RAET and 33.7% of them in 8WLAB; 15.7% of mothers told that midwives were “reassuring” in BET, 44.9% of them in RAET and 39.3% of them in 8WLAB;19.5% of mothers told that midwives were “encouraging and motivating” in BET, 39.8% of them in RAET and 19.8% of mothers told that midwives were “informative” in BET, 45.6% of them in RAET and 35.1% of them in 8WLAB (p<0.05). Key mother’s dissatisfaction with midwives were as follows: 55.3% of mothers told that midwives were “poorly-informed” in BET, 17% of them in RAET and 27.7% of them in 8WLAB; 56.9% of mothers told that midwives were “poorly-listening” in BET, 17.6% of them in RAET and 25.5% of them in 8WLAB; 53.2% of mothers told that midwives were “judgmental-embarrassing” in BET, 17% of them in RAET and 29.8% of them in 8WLAB; 56.2% of mothers told that midwives had “fierce facial expressions” in BET, 15.6% of them in RAET and 28.1% of them in 8WLAB. Rates of mothers’ perception that labor was “easy” were 8.1% in BET, 21.6% in RAET and 13.5% in 8WLAB and rates of mothers’ perception that labor was “very difficult and tiring” were 41.9% in BET, 5.4% in RAET and 13.5% in 8WLAB (p<0.05). Conclusion: The effect of empathy training given to midwives upon statements that described mothers’ satisfaction with midwives and their birth perception was positive. Note: This study was financially funded by TUBİTAK project with number 113S672.

Keywords: empathy training, labor perception, mother’s satisfaction with midwife, vaginal delivery

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5 Structural Health Monitoring-Integrated Structural Reliability Based Decision Making

Authors: Caglayan Hizal, Kutay Yuceturk, Ertugrul Turker Uzun, Hasan Ceylan, Engin Aktas, Gursoy Turan

Abstract:

Monitoring concepts for structural systems have been investigated by researchers for decades since such tools are quite convenient to determine intervention planning of structures. Despite the considerable development in this regard, the efficient use of monitoring data in reliability assessment, and prediction models are still in need of improvement in their efficiency. More specifically, reliability-based seismic risk assessment of engineering structures may play a crucial role in the post-earthquake decision-making process for the structures. After an earthquake, professionals could identify heavily damaged structures based on visual observations. Among these, it is hard to identify the ones with minimum signs of damages, even if they would experience considerable structural degradation. Besides, visual observations are open to human interpretations, which make the decision process controversial, and thus, less reliable. In this context, when a continuous monitoring system has been previously installed on the corresponding structure, this decision process might be completed rapidly and with higher confidence by means of the observed data. At this stage, the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) procedure has an important role since it can make it possible to estimate the system reliability based on a recursively updated mathematical model. Therefore, integrating an SHM procedure into the reliability assessment process comes forward as an important challenge due to the arising uncertainties for the updated model in case of the environmental, material and earthquake induced changes. In this context, this study presents a case study on SHM-integrated reliability assessment of the continuously monitored progressively damaged systems. The objective of this study is to get instant feedback on the current state of the structure after an extreme event, such as earthquakes, by involving the observed data rather than the visual inspections. Thus, the decision-making process after such an event can be carried out on a rational basis. In the near future, this can give wing to the design of self-reported structures which can warn about its current situation after an extreme event.

Keywords: condition assessment, vibration-based SHM, reliability analysis, seismic risk assessment

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4 The Paradox of Design Aesthetics and the Sustainable Design

Authors: Asena Demirci, Gozen Guner Aktaş, Nur Ayalp

Abstract:

Nature provides a living space for humans, also in contrast it is destroyed by humans for their personal needs and ambitions. For decreasing these damages against nature, solutions are started to generate and to develop. Moreover, precautions are implemented. After 1960s, especially when the ozone layer got harmed and got thinner by toxic substances coming from man made structures, environmental problems which effected human’s activities of daily living. Thus, this subject about environmental solutions and precautions is becoming a priority issue for scientists. Most of the environmental problems are caused by buildings and factories which are built without any concerns about protecting nature. This situation creates awareness about environmental issues and also the terms like sustainability, Renewable energy show up in building, Construction and architecture sectors to provide environmental protection. In this perspective, the design disciplines also should be respectful to nature and the sustainability. Designs which involve the features like sustainability, renewability and being ecologic have specialties to be less detrimental to the environment rather than the designs which do not involve. Furthermore, these designs produce their own energy for consuming, So they do not use the natural resources. They do not contain harmful substances and they are made of recyclable materials. Thus, they are becoming environmentally friendly structures. There is a common concern among designers about the issue of sustainable design. They believe that the idea of sustainability inhibits the creativity. All works of design resemble each other from the point of aesthetics and technological matters. In addition, there is a concern about design ethics which aesthetic designs cannot be accepted as a priority. For these reasons, there are few designs included the features of being eco-friendly and well-designed and also had design concerns around the world. Despite the other design disciplines, The concept of sustainability is getting more important each day in interior architecture and interior design. As it is known that human being spends 90 % of his life in interior spaces, The importance of that concept in interior spaces is obvious. Aesthetic is another vital concern in interior space design also. Most of the time sustainable materials and sustainable interior design applications conflicts with personal aesthetic parameters. This study aims to discuss the great paradox between the design aesthetic and the sustainable design. Does the sustainable approach in interior design disturbs the design aesthetic? This is one of the most popular questions that have been discussed for a while. With this paper this question will be evaluated with a case study which analyzes the aesthetic perceptions and preferences of the users and designers in sustainable interior spaces.

Keywords: aesthetics, interior design, sustainable design, sustainability

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3 The Awareness of Sustainability Concerns in Design Studio Education Process: A Case from TOBB ETU University, Interior Architecture Department in Turkey

Authors: Pelin Atav, Gözen Güner Aktaş, Nur Ayalp

Abstract:

Today’s world has started to develop design process within an interdisciplinary working environment. There is an aim of creating the most permanent design for the future. While satisfying people’s needs, environment and people relationships should be considered. When this relationship was considered for the future, the sustainability term comes to mind. The term Sustainability has been adapted very well by designer and architects. It is also one of the main and significant parts of the design process. As the education process cultivates the future professionals, the awareness of those concepts in the education process has a vital importance. The question is stated as thus: Are the 3rd and 4th year design studio students, familiar and sensitive to the concept of sustainability in the TOBB ETU University Interior Design Studio. Design studios and the instructors should be taken into consideration while this sustainability term is taught. The term "Sustainability" can not be learned without making any application in the actual real world. While students make this study, They can have the chance to search the topic of sustainability step by step. Due to having various extent, sustainability term becomes quite a comprehensive issue. In order not to create negative consequences, designers and architects work by adapting this term. In terms of material, construction process, lighting, building service, furniture, systems that are used, energy consumption issues that are considered and creating positive drawbacks for the future are aimed. This research is aimed at how university education shapes designer’s works in terms of sustainability. By giving a project that is a main interest in the field of sustainability, students are expected to reach well-thought-of results and analysis. Project process were conducted with instructor and student studies together. According to critics from their instructors, students try to product well- designed results. TOBB University was choosen as a research area situated in Ankara in Turkey. Third and fourth class (interior designer/architect department) students who are from the Faculty of Fine Arts Design and Architecture are the subject group selected for this study. Aim of this study is demonstrating sustainability as a term having application in design studio. Thus, awareness of sustainability terms will be evaluated and its development process in the university education will be observed. Consequently, results that are expected is how sustainability term is conducted in project and for the sustainability term awareness in design studios and their projects have been sufficient or not.

Keywords: design education, design process, interior design studios, sustainability

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2 Biochemical Effects of Low Dose Dimethyl Sulfoxide on HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

Authors: Esra Sengul, R. G. Aktas, M. E. Sitar, H. Isan

Abstract:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hepatocellular tumor commonly found on the surface of the chronic liver. HepG2 is the most commonly used cell type in HCC studies. The main proteins remaining in the blood serum after separation of plasma fibrinogen are albumin and globulin. The fact that the albumin showed hepatocellular damage and reflect the synthesis capacity of the liver was the main reason for our use. Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) is an albumin-like structural embryonic globulin found in the embryonic cortex, cord blood, and fetal liver. It has been used as a marker in the follow-up of tumor growth in various malign tumors and in the efficacy of surgical-medical treatments, so it is a good protein to look at with albumins. We have seen the morphological changes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on HepG2 and decided to investigate its biochemical effects. We examined the effects of DMSO, which is used in cell cultures, on albumin, AFP and total protein at low doses. Material Method: Cell Culture: Medium was prepared in cell culture using Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Media (DMEM), Fetal Bovine Serum Dulbecco's (FBS), Phosphate Buffered Saline and trypsin maintained at -20 ° C. Fixation of Cells: HepG2 cells, which have been appropriately developed at the end of the first week, were fixed with acetone. We stored our cells in PBS at + 4 ° C until the fixation was completed. Area Calculation: The areas of the cells are calculated in the ImageJ (IJ). Microscope examination: The examination was performed with a Zeiss Inverted Microscope. Daytime photographs were taken at 40x, 100x 200x and 400x. Biochemical Tests: Protein (Total): Serum sample was analyzed by a spectrophotometric method in autoanalyzer. Albumin: Serum sample was analyzed by a spectrophotometric method in autoanalyzer. Alpha-fetoprotein: Serum sample was analyzed by ECLIA method. Results: When liver cancer cells were cultured in medium with 1% DMSO for 4 weeks, a significant difference was observed when compared with the control group. As a result, we have seen that DMSO can be used as an important agent in the treatment of liver cancer. Cell areas were reduced in the DMSO group compared to the control group and the confluency ratio increased. The ability to form spheroids was also significantly higher in the DMSO group. Alpha-fetoprotein was lower than the values of an ordinary liver cancer patient and the total protein amount increased to the reference range of the normal individual. Because the albumin sample was below the specimen value, the numerical results could not be obtained on biochemical examinations. We interpret all these results as making DMSO a caretaking aid. Since each one was not enough alone we used 3 parameters and the results were positive when we refer to the values of a normal healthy individual in parallel. We hope to extend the study further by adding new parameters and genetic analyzes, by increasing the number of samples, and by using DMSO as an adjunct agent in the treatment of liver cancer.

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2, dimethyl sulfoxide, cell culture, ELISA

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