Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: D. R. Héctor

33 Collation between the Architecture of the Churches and Housing from Antiquity to the Present Day

Authors: Shaloom Mbambu Kabeya, Léonard Kabeya Mukeba


Churches, cathedrals and castles beaten from antiquity to modern times were relevant from that time to the present day, and preserved as cultural heritage. Our predecessors as François 1er1, Michelangelo2, and Giotto3 left us traces. Gustave Eiffel4, Hector Guimard5 did not decrease their time to show modernization (evolution) in architecture. Plagiarism is a brake on architectural development, construction works of spirits is necessary architecture. This work explains the relationship between ancient and modern architecture. It also shows the power of mathematics in modern architecture.

Keywords: Materials, heritage, architectural modernization, mathematical architecture

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32 A Metaheuristic for the Layout and Scheduling Problem in a Job Shop Environment

Authors: Hernández Eva Selene, Reyna Mary Carmen, Rivera Héctor, Barragán Irving


We propose an approach that jointly addresses the layout of a facility and the scheduling of a sequence of jobs. In real production, these two problems are interrelated. However, they are treated separately in the literature. Our approach is an extension of the job shop problem with transportation delay, where the location of the machines is selected among possible sites. The model minimizes the makespan, using the short processing times rule with two algorithms; the first one considers all the permutations for the location of machines, and the second only a heuristic to select some specific permutations that reduces computational time. Some instances are proved and compared with literature.

Keywords: metaheuristic, layout problem, job shop scheduling problem, concurrent scheduling and layout problem

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31 Knowledge Management: Why is So Difficult? From “A Good Idea” to Organizational Contribute

Authors: Lisandro Blas, Héctor Tamanini


From earliest 90 to now, no many companies or organization can “really” implement a knowledge management (KM) system that works (no only viewed from a measurement model, but in this continuity). Which are the reasons of that? Some of the reason maybe could be embedded in how KM is demanded (usefulness, priority, experts, a definition of KM) vs the importance and resources that the organizations afford (budget, responsible of a specific area of KM, intangibility). Many organizations “claim” the importance of Knowledge Management but thhese demands are not reflecting these claims in their future actions. With another’s tools or managements ideas the organizations put the economics and human resources to work. Why it´s not occur in KM? This paper tray to explain some of this reasons and tray to deal with this situations through a survey done in 2011 for a IAPG (Argentinean Institute from Oil & Gas) Congress.

Keywords: knowledge management into organizations, new perspectives, failure in implementation, claim

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30 Forecasting the Volatility of Geophysical Time Series with Stochastic Volatility Models

Authors: Maria C. Mariani, Md Al Masum Bhuiyan, Osei K. Tweneboah, Hector G. Huizar


This work is devoted to the study of modeling geophysical time series. A stochastic technique with time-varying parameters is used to forecast the volatility of data arising in geophysics. In this study, the volatility is defined as a logarithmic first-order autoregressive process. We observe that the inclusion of log-volatility into the time-varying parameter estimation significantly improves forecasting which is facilitated via maximum likelihood estimation. This allows us to conclude that the estimation algorithm for the corresponding one-step-ahead suggested volatility (with ±2 standard prediction errors) is very feasible since it possesses good convergence properties.

Keywords: maximum likelihood estimation, Augmented Dickey Fuller test, stochastic volatility model, geophysical time series

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29 Solar Cell Using Chemical Bath Deposited PbS:Bi3+ Films as Electron Collecting Layer

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Oscar Portillo Moreno


Chemical bath deposited PbS:Bi3+ as an electron collection layer is introduced between the silicon wafer and the Ag electrode the performance of the PbS heterojunction thin film solar thin film solar cells with 1 cm2 active area. We employed Bi-doping to transform it into an n-type semiconductor. The experimental results reveal that the cell response parameters depend critically on the deposition procedures in terms of bath temperature, deposition time. The device achieves an open-circuit voltage of 0.4 V. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: Thin Films, Solar Cell, Pbs, Bi doping

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28 Performance Assessment in a Voice Coil Motor for Maximizing the Energy Harvesting with Gait Motions

Authors: Hector A. Tinoco, Cesar Garcia-Diaz, Olga L. Ocampo-Lopez


In this study, an experimental approach is established to assess the performance of different beams coupled to a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) with the aim to maximize mechanically the energy harvesting in the inductive transducer that is included on it. The VCM is extracted from a recycled hard disk drive (HDD) and it is adapted for carrying out experimental tests of energy harvesting. Two individuals were selected for walking with the VCM-beam device as well as to evaluate the performance varying two parameters in the beam; length of the beams and a mass addition. Results show that the energy harvesting is maximized with specific beams; however, the harvesting efficiency is improved when a mass is added to the end of the beams.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, hard disk drive, energy harvester, voice coil motor, gait motions

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27 Enterprise Harmonic Fusion as National Sustainability

Authors: L. R. Valencia Pérez, J. M. Peña Aguilar, Valencia Pérez, Héctor Fernando, Lamadrid A. Alberto, Vivanco V. Martín


Cosmology is a discipline commonly linked to philosophy. In this work, we show cosmology, from a perspective that can provide some proposals to help develop SMB in Mexico. We start from the belief that, in a complex world, the solutions to problems must nurture from different approaches. In order to be able to do this, we need to change our point of reference and use theoretical proposals and methodologies that came from other disciplines; in this case, we will try to show that between philosophy and administration exist dialogs that need to be incentivized. The work is structured in three parts. In the first one, we create a description of cosmology and how it could be applied to business. In the second, we show some of the most common problems that the SMB suffer from and in the third, we present a proposal of how cosmology can help improve the development. Finally, we concluded that better understanding of real needs, integration of knowledge at large scale and using information technologies within the cosmology framework presentment could make a difference.

Keywords: Financial Management, triple helix, harmonic fusion, national sustainability

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26 Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Monovalent Cation Doping PbS Thin Films

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Oscar Portillo Moreno


Nanocrystalline Li-doped PbS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The goal of this work is to study the modification of the optoelectronic and structural properties of Lithium incorporation. The increase of Li doping in PbS thin films leads to an increase of band gap in the range of 1.4-2.3, consequently, quantum size effect becomes pronounced in the Li-doped PbS films, which lead to a significant enhancement in the optical band gap. Doping shows influence in the film growth and results in a reduction of crystallite size from 30 to 14 nm. The refractive index was calculated and a relationship with dielectric constant was investigated. The dc conductivities of Li-doped and undoped samples were measured in the temperature range 290-340K, the conductivity increase with increase of Lithium content in the PbS films.

Keywords: Doping, Quantum Confinement, Pbs, optical band gap

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25 Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles

Authors: B. Z. Manuel, H. D. Esmeralda, H. S. Felipe, D. R. Héctor, D. de la Torre Sebastián, R. L. Diego


Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.

Keywords: Intermetallics, aluminum matrix composites, spark plasma sintering, nanocrystalline

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24 Fractional Integration in the West African Economic and Monetary Union

Authors: Hector Carcel Luis Alberiko Gil-Alana


This paper examines the time series behavior of three variables (GDP, Price level of Consumption and Population) in the eight countries that belong to the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), which are Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo. The reason for carrying out this study lies in the considerable heterogeneity that can be perceived in the data from these countries. We conduct a long memory and fractional integration modeling framework and we also identify potential breaks in the data. The aim of the study is to perceive up to which degree the eight West African countries that belong to the same monetary union follow the same economic patterns of stability. Testing for mean reversion, we only found strong evidence of it in the case of Senegal for the Price level of Consumption, and in the cases of Benin, Burkina Faso and Senegal for GDP.

Keywords: Monetary Union, West Africa, fractional integration, economic patterns

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23 Learning through Gaming with Mobile Devices

Authors: Luis Rodrigo Valencia Pérez, Juan Manuel Peña Aguilar, Adelina Morita Alexander, Alberto Lamadrid Alvarez, Héctor Fernando Valencia Pérez


Financial education is among the areas of opportunity in the Spanish-speaking from an early age to high school, through mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets using ludic and fun applications like interactive games, children can learn money management and investment through time, thereby fostering the habit of saving and/or sound management of cash and family business resources, having interaction with an uncontrolled environment such as the involvement of other players in the external decisions of the environment in which the game is play. The application proposed in Phase 1 (design and development) was designed in multi-user environments, under methodologies of hybrid programming for any platform on the market and designed under CMMI standards that allow for quality production over time, following up on these improvements counting with continuous user feedback and usage statistics.

Keywords: Children, multiuser, mobile educational games, ludic games, design and software development

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22 Colombia Fossil Fuel Policies and Their Impact on Urban Air Quality

Authors: Ruth Catacolí, Hector Garcia


Colombia Urban Areas shows a decreasing of their air quality, no matter the actions developed by the Government facing the mitigation of pressure factors related with air pollution. Examples of these actions were the fossil fuel quality improvement policies (FFQI). This study evaluated the impact of three FFQI in the air quality of Bogotá during the period 1990 - 2006: The phase-out of lead in the gasoline; the sulfur reduction in diesel oil consumed in Bogotá and the oxygenation of gasoline through the addition of ethanol. The results indicate that only the policy of phase-out of lead in gasoline has been effective, showing dropping of lead oxides concentration in the air. Some stakeholders believe that the FFQI evaluated in the study are environmental policies, but no one of these policies has been supported by an environmental impact assessment that shows specific benefits in air quality. The research includes some fuel policy elements to achieve positive impact on the air quality in the urban centers of Colombia.

Keywords: Air quality management, Urban Air Quality, fuel quality, policy assessment

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21 Structural Performance of a Bridge Pier on Dubious Deep Foundation

Authors: Víctor Cecilio, Roberto Gómez, J. Alberto Escobar, Héctor Guerrero


The study of the structural behavior of a support/pier of an elevated viaduct in Mexico City is presented. Detection of foundation piles with uncertain integrity prompted the review of possible situations that could jeopardy the structural safety of the pier. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the structural conditions of the support, taking into account the type of anomaly reported and the depth at which it is located, the position of the pile with uncertain integrity in the foundation system, the stratigraphy of the surrounding soil and the geometry and structural characteristics of the pier. To carry out the above, dynamic analysis, spectral modal, and step-by-step, with elastic and inelastic material models, were performed. Results were evaluated in accordance with the standards used for the design of the original structural project and with the Construction Regulations for Mexico’s Federal District (RCDF-2017, 2017). Comments on the response of the analyzed models are issued, and the conclusions are presented from a structural point of view.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, bridge pier, inelastic models, dubious foundation

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20 Structural and Optical Properties of Pr3+ Doped ZnO and PVA:Zn98Pr2O Nanocomposites Free Standing Film

Authors: Pandiyarajan Thangaraj, Mangalaraja Ramalinga Viswanathan, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Héctor D. Mansilla, José Ruiz, David Contreras


We report a systematic study of structural and optical properties of Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures and PVA:Zn98Pr2O polymer matrix nanocomposites free standing films are performed. These particles are synthesized through simple wet chemical route and solution casting technique at room temperature, respectively. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction method, confirms that the prepared pure ZnO and Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures are in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the microstrain is increased upon doping. TEM analysis reveals that the prepared materials are in the sheet-like nature. Absorption spectra show free excitonic absorption band at 370 nm and red shift for the Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures. The PVA:Zn98Pr2O composite film exhibits both free excitonic and PVA absorption bands at 282 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectral studies confirm the presence of A1 (TO) and E1 (TO) modes of Zn-O bond vibration and the formation of polymer composite materials.

Keywords: Polymer Nanocomposites, Optical Properties, Pr doped ZnO, free standing film

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19 Classify Land Use/Cover Change and Its Impact on Soil Erosion Using GIS from 2005 to 2015 in Nzhelele Valley Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Blessing Mavhuru, Nthaduleni Nethengwe, Hector Chikoore, Onyango Beneah Daniel Odhiambo


The main objective of this study was to classify land use/cover and how it has changed in Nzhelele Valley Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study aimed to identify and analyse the types of land use/cover in the years 2005, 2010, and 2015 with a view to assess the impact on soil erosion over time. Using GIS, the changes within land use/cover were assessed through the classification of satellite images. The study area was classified into four major land cover/use classes, which are vegetation, gravel road, built up land and agricultural fields. Over the period 2005-2015 the resultant land use/cover demonstrated (i) a significant increase (12%) for vegetation cover, (ii) a significant decrease in agriculture (16%) land use/cover, (iii) increase in built-up land (1%), as well as (iv) an increase in gravel roads (3%). This study envisages assisting policy makers in decision making on land use management for Nzhelele Valley.

Keywords: Change, Land Use, soil erosion, Land Cover

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18 D6tions: A Serious Game to Learn Software Engineering Process and Design

Authors: Hector G. Perez-Gonzalez, Miriam Vazquez-Escalante, Sandra E. Nava-Muñoz, 
 Francisco E. Martinez-Perez, Alberto S. Nunez-Varela


The software engineering teaching process has been the subject of many studies. To improve this process, researchers have proposed merely illustrative techniques in the classroom, such as topic presentations and dynamics between students on one side or attempts to involve students in real projects with companies and institutions to bring them to a real software development problem on the other hand. Simulators and serious games have been used as auxiliary tools to introduce students to topics that are too abstract when these are presented in the traditional way. Most of these tools cover a limited area of the huge software engineering scope. To address this problem, we have developed D6tions, an educational serious game that simulates the software engineering process and is designed to experiment the different stages a software engineer (playing roles as project leader or as a developer or designer) goes through, while participating in a software project. We describe previous approaches to this problem, how D6tions was designed, its rules, directions, and the results we obtained of the use of this game involving undergraduate students playing the game.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Serious Games, Software Engineering Education, software engineering teaching process

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17 Optimizing Resource Allocation and Indoor Location Using Bluetooth Low Energy

Authors: Néstor Álvarez-Díaz, Pino Caballero-Gil, Héctor Reboso-Morales, Francisco Martín-Fernández


The recent tendency of "Internet of Things" (IoT) has developed in the last years, causing the emergence of innovative communication methods among multiple devices. The appearance of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has allowed a push to IoT in relation to smartphones. In this moment, a set of new applications related to several topics like entertainment and advertisement has begun to be developed but not much has been done till now to take advantage of the potential that these technologies can offer on many business areas and in everyday tasks. In the present work, the application of BLE technology and smartphones is proposed on some business areas related to the optimization of resource allocation in huge facilities like airports. An indoor location system has been developed through triangulation methods with the use of BLE beacons. The described system can be used to locate all employees inside the building in such a way that any task can be automatically assigned to a group of employees. It should be noted that this system cannot only be used to link needs with employees according to distances, but it also takes into account other factors like occupation level or category. In addition, it has been endowed with a security system to manage business and personnel sensitive data. The efficiency of communications is another essential characteristic that has been taken into account in this work.

Keywords: smartphones, bluetooth low energy, indoor location, resource assignment

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16 Calculation of Orbital Elements for Sending Interplanetary Probes

Authors: Jorge Lus Nisperuza Toledo, Juan Pablo Rubio Ospina, Daniel Santiago Umana, Hector Alejandro Alvarez


This work develops and implements computational codes to calculate the optimal launch trajectories for sending a probe from the earth to different planets of the Solar system, making use of trajectories of the Hohmann and No-Hohmann type and gravitational assistance in intermediate steps. Specifically, the orbital elements, the graphs and the dynamic simulations of the trajectories for sending a probe from the Earth towards the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are obtained. A detailed study was made of the state vectors of the position and orbital velocity of the considered planets in order to determine the optimal trajectories of the probe. For this purpose, computer codes were developed and implemented to obtain the orbital elements of the Mariner 10 (Mercury), Magellan (Venus), Mars Global Surveyor (Mars) and Voyager 1 (Jupiter and Saturn) missions, as an exercise in corroborating the algorithms. This exercise gives validity to computational codes, allowing to find the orbital elements and the simulations of trajectories of three future interplanetary missions with specific launch windows.

Keywords: orbital elements, gravitational assistance, Hohmann’s trajectories, interplanetary mission

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15 A Simulation-Optimization Approach to Control Production, Subcontracting and Maintenance Decisions for a Deteriorating Production System

Authors: Héctor Rivera-Gómez, Eva Selene Hernández-Gress, Oscar Montaño-Arango, Jose Ramon Corona-Armenta


This research studies the joint production, maintenance and subcontracting control policy for an unreliable deteriorating manufacturing system. Production activities are controlled by a derivation of the Hedging Point Policy, and given that the system is subject to deterioration, it reduces progressively its capacity to satisfy product demand. Multiple deterioration effects are considered, reflected mainly in the quality of the parts produced and the reliability of the machine. Subcontracting is available as support to satisfy product demand; also overhaul maintenance can be conducted to reduce the effects of deterioration. The main objective of the research is to determine simultaneously the production, maintenance and subcontracting rate which minimize the total incurred cost. A stochastic dynamic programming model is developed and solved through a simulation-based approach composed of statistical analysis and optimization with the response surface methodology. The obtained results highlight the strong interactions between production, deterioration and quality which justify the development of an integrated model. A numerical example and a sensitivity analysis are presented to validate our results.

Keywords: Simulation, Production Planning, Optimal Control, deterioration, subcontracting

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14 Cancer and Disability: A Psychosocial Approach in Puerto Rican Women as Cancer Survivors

Authors: Hector Jose Velazquez-Gonzalez, Norma Maldonado-Santiago, Laura Pietri-Gomez


Cancer is one of the first cause of death in the world, most of them are women. In Puerto Rico, there is a permanent controversy on the conceptuation of what really involves a disability, also in when a chronic illness, like cancer, should be considered a disability. The aim of the research was to identify functional limitation in 50 women survivors of cancer. In turn, to know the meanings that 6 women attributed to cancer with a focus on functionality. We conducted a mix method research based on surveys and narratives. We administered the World Health Organization Disability Assessment, version 2.0, which obtained a Cronbach’s alpha of .949 on the general scale, and from .773 to .956 on the six domains. The domain that obtained the highest average was social participation (M= 33.89, SD= 20.434), but it was not significant in the disability percentage. Also, there was no significance in the disability percentage in the other five domains. In a matter of meanings, we conduct a semistructured interview to 6 participants. All of them do not refer to cancer as a disability, either they do not know that in Puerto Rico cancer is considered as a disability by the law. However, participants agree that cancer at the time of treatment and subsequent to it, has significant effects on functional limitations (fatigue, pain, cognitive limitations, and weakness, among others. Psychooncologic practice should encourage the constant assessment of the functionality to identify the needs that emerge from oncological diagnosis. So that psychosocial intervention could be considered as critical in cancer treatment to promote a better quality of life and well-being in a person with cancer.

Keywords: Cancer, Disability, Puerto Rico, psychosocial approach

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13 Elaboration and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Edible Films Made from Chitosan and Spray Dried Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez


It was necessary to establish which formulation is suitable for the preservation of aquaculture products, that why edible films were made. These were to a characterization in order to meet their morphology physicochemical and mechanical properties, optical. Six Formulations of chitosan and propolis ethanolic extract encapsulated were developed because of their activity against pathogens and due to their properties, which allows the creation waterproof polymer networks against gasses, vapor, and physical damage. In the six Formulations, the concentration of comparison material (1% w/v, 2% pv) and the bioactive concentrations (0.5% w/v, 1% w/v, 1.5% pv) were changed and the results obtained were compared with statistical and multivariate analysis methods. It was observed that the matrices showed a mayor impermeability and thickness control samples and the samples reported in the literature. Also, these films showed a notorious uniformity of the films and a bigger resistance to the physical damage compared with other edible films made of other biopolymers. However the action of some compounds had a negative effect on the mechanical properties and changed drastically the optical properties, the bioactive has an effect on Polymer Matrix and it was determined that the films with 2% w / v of chitosan and 1.5% w/v encapsulated, exhibited the best properties and suffered to a lesser extent the negative impact of immiscible substances.

Keywords: Physical characterization, Mechanical Properties, Optical Properties, chitosan, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), edible films, ethanolic extract of propolis

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12 Impact of Edible Coatings Made of Chitosan and Spray Dried Propolis in the Shell Life of White Cachama (Piaractus brachypomus)

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez


There is a need to preserve aquaculture matrices due to their high nutritional value, and its broad consumption, one of those species is the white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus), this fish is located in the rivers of eastern Colombia, and the previously mentioned species needs more study. Therefore, in a paper the effects of an alternative method of preservation of shell life were investigated, the method used is the application of an edible coating made from chitosan and ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) encapsulated in maltodextrin. The coating was applied by immersion, and after that, we investigated the post mortem quality changes of the fish performing physicochemical and microbiological analysis. pH, volatile bases, test thiobarbituric acid and peroxide value were tested; finally, we studied the effect of the coating on mesophilic strains, coliforms and other microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. Finally, we concluded that the coating prolongs the shelf life because it acts as a barrier to oxygen and moisture, the bioactive compounds trap free radicals and the coatings changes the metabolism and cause the cell lysis of the microorganisms. It was determined that the concentration of malonaldehyde, the volatile basic nitrogen content and pH are the variables that distinguish more clearly between the samples with the treatment and the control samples.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, lipid oxidation, peroxide value, sensorial analysis, texture profile analysis (TPA), thiobarbituric acid assay (TBA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N)

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11 Building Atmospheric Moisture Diagnostics: Environmental Monitoring and Data Collection

Authors: Paula Lopez-Arce, Hector Altamirano, Dimitrios Rovas, James Berry, Bryan Hindle, Steven Hodgson


Efficient mould remediation and accurate moisture diagnostics leading to condensation and mould growth in dwellings are largely untapped. Number of factors are contributing to the rising trend of excessive moisture in homes mainly linked with modern living, increased levels of occupation and rising fuel costs, as well as making homes more energy efficient. Environmental monitoring by means of data collection though loggers sensors and survey forms has been performed in a range of buildings from different UK regions. Air and surface temperature and relative humidity values of residential areas affected by condensation and/or mould issues were recorded. Additional measurements were taken through different trials changing type, location, and position of loggers. In some instances, IR thermal images and ventilation rates have also been acquired. Results have been interpreted together with environmental key parameters by processing and connecting data from loggers and survey questionnaires, both in buildings with and without moisture issues. Monitoring exercises carried out during Winter and Spring time show the importance of developing and following accurate protocols for guidance to obtain consistent, repeatable and comparable results and to improve the performance of environmental monitoring. A model and a protocol are being developed to build a diagnostic tool with the goal of performing a simple but precise residential atmospheric moisture diagnostics to distinguish the cause entailing condensation and mould generation, i.e., ventilation, insulation or heating systems issue. This research shows the relevance of monitoring and processing environmental data to assign moisture risk levels and determine the origin of condensation or mould when dealing with a building atmospheric moisture excess.

Keywords: Protocols, Environmental Monitoring, Atmospheric Moisture, mould

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10 Structural Properties of Surface Modified PVA: Zn97Pr3O Polymer Nanocomposite Free Standing Films

Authors: Pandiyarajan Thangaraj, Mangalaraja Ramalinga Viswanathan, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Héctor D. Mansilla, José Ruiz


Rare earth ions doped semiconductor nanostructures gained much attention due to their novel physical and chemical properties which lead to potential applications in laser technology as inexpensive luminescent materials. Doping of rare earth ions into ZnO semiconductor alter its electronic structure and emission properties. Surface modification (polymer covering) is one of the simplest techniques to modify the emission characteristics of host materials. The present work reports the synthesis and structural properties of PVA:Zn97Pr3O polymer nanocomposite free standing films. To prepare Pr3+ doped ZnO nanostructures and PVA:Zn97Pr3O polymer nanocomposite free standing films, the colloidal chemical and solution casting techniques were adopted, respectively. The formation of PVA:Zn97Pr3O films were confirmed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. XRD measurements confirm the prepared materials are crystalline having hexagonal wurtzite structure. Polymer composite film exhibits the diffraction peaks of both PVA and ZnO structures. TEM images reveal the pure and Pr3+ doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit sheet like morphology. Optical absorption spectra show free excitonic absorption band of ZnO at 370 nm and, the PVA:Zn97Pr3O polymer film shows absorption bands at ~282 and 368 nm and these arise due to the presence of carbonyl containing structures connected to the PVA polymeric chains, mainly at the ends and free excitonic absorption of ZnO nanostructures, respectively. Transmission spectrum of as prepared film shows 57 to 69% of transparency in the visible and near IR region. FTIR spectral studies confirm the presence of A1 (TO) and E1 (TO) modes of Zn-O bond vibration and the formation of polymer composite materials.

Keywords: Surface modification, Polymer composites, Structural characterization, rare earth doped ZnO

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9 The Effects of Mountain Biking as Psychomotor Instrument in Physical Education: Balance’s Evaluation

Authors: Péricles Maia Andrade, Temístocles Damasceno Silva, Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro


The school physical education is going through several changes over the years, and diversification of its content from specific interests is one of the reasons for these changes, soon, the formality in education do not have to stay out, but needs to open up the possibilities offered by the world, so the Mountain Bike, an adventure sport, offers several opportunities for intervention Its application in the school allows diverse interventions in front of the psychomotor development, besides opening possibilities for other contents, respecting the previous experiences of the students in their common environment. The choice of theme was due to affinity with the practice and experience of the Mountain Bike at different levels. Both competitive as recreational, professional standard and amateur, focus as principle the bases of the Cycling, coupled with the inclusion in the Centre for Studies in Management of Sport and Leisure and of the Southwest Bahia State University and the preview of the modality's potential to help the children’s psychomotor development. The goal of this research was to demonstrate like a pilot project the effects of the Mountain Bike as psychomotor instrument in physical education at one of the psychomotor valences, Balance, evaluating Immobility, Static Balance and Dynamic Balance. The methodology used Fonseca’s Psychomotor Battery in 10 students (n=10) of a brazilian public primary’s school, with ages between 9 and 11 years old to use the Mountain Biking contents. The balance’s skills dichotomized in Regular and Good. Regarding the variable Immobility, in the initial test, regardless of gender, 70% (n = 7) were considered Regular. After four months of activity, the Good profile, which had only 30% (n = 3) of the sample, evolved to 60% (n = 6). As in Static and Dynamic Balance there was an increase of 30% (n = 3) and 50% (n = 5) respectively for Good. Between genders, female evolution was better for Good in Immobility and in Static Equilibrium. Already the male evolution was better observed in the Dynamic Equilibrium, with 66.7% (n = 4) for Good. Respecting the particularities of the motor development, an indication of the positive effects of the MTB for the evolution in the balance perceived, necessitating studies with greater sampling.

Keywords: Education, Balance, psychomotricity, mountain biking

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8 Spray Drying and Physico-Chemical Microbiological Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez


The propolis are substances obtained from the beehive have an action against pathogens, prooxidant substances and free radicals because of its polyphenols content, this has motivated the use of these compounds in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to their organoleptic properties and their ability to react with other compounds, their application has been limited; therefore, the objective of this research was to propose a mechanism to protect propolis and mitigate side effects granted by its components. To achieve the stated purpose ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from three samples from Santander were obtained and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were evaluated in order to choose the extract with the biggest potential. Subsequently mixtures of the extract with maltodextrin were prepared by spray drying varying concentration and temperature, finally the yield, the physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of the products were measured. It was concluded that Socorro propolis was the best for the production of microencapsulated due to their activity against pathogenic strains, for its large percentage of DPPH radical inactivation and for its high phenolic content. In spray drying, the concentration of bioactive had a greater impact than temperature and the conditions set allowed a good performance and the production of particles with high antioxidant potential and little chance of proliferation of microorganisms. Also, it was concluded that the best conditions that allowed us to obtain the best particles were obtained after drying a mixture 1:2 ( EEP: Maltodextrin), besides the concentration is the most important variable in the spray drying process, at the end we obtained particles of different sizes and shape and the uniformity of the surface depend on the temperature. After watching the previously mentioned microparticles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) it was concluded that most of the particles produced during the spray dry process had a spherical shape and presented agglomerations due to the moisture content of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP), the morphology of the microparticles contributed to the stability of the final product and reduce the loss of total phenolic content.

Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy, encapsulation, propolis, spray drying, maltodextrin

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7 Use of Telephone Counselling in Employee Assistance Program

Authors: Andy S.K. Cheng, Samuel Leung, Cindy Kwok, Hector Tsang


Background: Telephone counselling is one of the essential interventions that can be found in most of the Employee Assistance Programs (EAP). The purposes of this study were to (1) explore the trend of the telephone counselling from 2003-2016 in Hong Kong; (2) explore which EAP issue requires more follow-up; and 3) examine the relationship between the EAP issues and demographic data such as gender and job ranking. Method: Date of EAP services usage was collected from EAP providers in Hong Kong during 2003-2016. EAP issues were categorized into two domains, namely workplace issues and personal issues. Each domain has 12 sub-categories. Two hypotheses were formulated in this study (1) there was a gender difference in EAP issues and the follow-up hours; and (2) there was a significant difference between job ranking, EAP issues and follow-up hours. Results: A total of eight hundred and ninety-three valid cases were identified for analysis. Of them, three hundred and forty-three cases sought for follow-up. The duration of follow-up by hours was calculated for each of the follow-up cases. The results of the study shows that the top three workplace issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) workload, (2) supervisor-subordinate relationship; and (3) team member’s relationship. On the other hand, the top three personal issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) parenting/parent-child relationship, (2) family care, and (3) marital relationship. Two-way ANOVA was performed to compare the total follow-up hours (excluding first intake) between gender and EAP issues. There was no statistical significance for gender (p =.891), but a statistically significant main effect for EAP issues (p <.001) was found. Post-hoc analysis (Tukey’s test) showed that total follow-up hour in personal issues was statistically significant higher than that in handling workplace issues (p <.001). However, there was no statistically significant interaction effect between gender and EAP issues (p=.879) and between job ranking and EAP issues (p=.843). Conclusion: Telephone counselling is a very common intervention in addressing EAP issues arising from workplace and personal level in Hong Kong. It was frequently used to handle interpersonal relationships and the service usage was independent of gender and job ranking.

Keywords: interpersonal relationships, employee assistance program, follow-up time, telephone counselling

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6 The Impact of Insomnia on the Academic Performance of Mexican Medical Students: Gender Perspective

Authors: Paulina Ojeda, Damaris Estrella, Hector Rubio


Insomnia is a disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep or both. It negatively affects the life quality of people, it hinders the concentration, attention, memory, motor skills, among other abilities that complicate work or learning. Some studies show that women are more susceptible to insomnia. Medicine curricula usually involve a great deal of theoretical and memory content, especially in the early years of the course. The way to accredit a university course is to demonstrate the level of competence or acquired knowledge. In Mexico the most widely used form of measurement is written exams, with numerical scales results. The prevalence of sleep disorders in university students is usually high, so it is important to know if insomnia has an effect on school performance in men and women. A cross-sectional study was designed that included a probabilistic sample of 118 regular students from the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Mexico. All on legally age. The project was authorized by the School of Medicine and all the ethical implications of the case were monitored. Participants completed anonymously the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, AUDIT test, epidemiological and clinical data. Academic performance was assessed by the average number of official grades earned on written exams, as well as the number of approved or non-approved courses. These data were obtained officially through the corresponding school authorities. Students with at least one unapproved course or average less than 70 were considered to be poor performers. With all courses approved and average between 70-79 as regular performance and with an average of 80 or higher as a good performance. Statistical analysis: t-Student, difference of proportions and ANOVA. 65 men with a mean age of 19.15 ± 1.60 years and 53 women of 18.98 ± 1.23 years, were included. 96% of the women and 78.46% of the men sleep in the family home. 16.98% of women and 18.46% of men consume tobacco. Most students consume caffeinated beverages. 3.7% of the women and 10.76% of the men complete criteria of harmful consumption of alcohol. 98.11% of the women and 90.76% of the men are perceived with poor sleep quality. Insomnia was present in 73% of women and 66% of men. Women had higher levels of moderate insomnia (p=0.02) compared to men and only one woman had severe insomnia. 50.94% of the women and 44.61% of the men had poor academic performance. 18.86% of women and 27% of men performed well. Only in the group of women we found a significant association between poor performance with mild (p= 0.0035) and moderate (p=0.031) insomnia. The medical students reported poor sleep quality and insomnia. In women, levels of insomnia were associated with poor academic performance.

Keywords: Sex, Sleep, University, scholar-average

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5 Culture Medium Design Based on Whey for the Growth and Bacteriocin Production of Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus

Authors: Carolina Gutierrez-Cortes, Hector Suarez, Gustavo Buitrago


Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a competitive strategy for substrate and habitat. Those peptides have a potential use as food biopreservatives due to their antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, avoiding the use of additives that can be harmful to consumers. The industrial production of bacteriocins is currently expensive; one of the options to be competitive is the development of economic culture media, for example, with the use of agro-industrial wastes such as whey. This study evaluated the growth and production of bacteriocins from four strains: Pediococcus pentosaceus 63, Pediococcus pentosaceus 145, Pediococcus pentosaceus 146 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 147 isolated from ‘minas cheese’ (artisanal cheese made from raw milk in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) in order to select a strain with growth at high rates and higher antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes 104 after incubation on the culture medium designed with whey and other components. The media used were: MRS broth, modified MRS broth (using different sources of carbon and nitrogen and different amounts of micronutrients) and a culture medium designed by a factorial design using whey and other components. The final biomass concentrations of the four strains in MRS broth after 24 hours of incubation were very similar 9.25, 9.33, 9.25 and 9.22 (log CFU/mL) for P. pentosaceus 63, P. pentosaceus 145, P. pentosaceus 146 and P. pentosaceus 147 respectively. In the same assays, antimicrobial activity of 3200 AU/mL for the first three and of 12800 AU/mL for P. pentosaceus 147 were obtained. Culture of P. pentosaceus 63 on modified MRS broth, showed the effect of some sources of carbon on the activity of bacteriocin, obtaining 12800 AU/mL with dextrose and 25600 AU/mL with maltose. Cultures of P. pentosaceus 145, 146 and 147 with these same sugars presented activity of 12800 AU/mL. It was observed that the modified MRS medium using whey increased the antimicrobial activity of the strains at 16000, 6400, 16000 and 19200 AU/mL for each strain respectively, keeping the biomass at values close to 9 log units. About nitrogen sources, it was observed that the combination of peptone (10 g /L), meat extract (10 g/L) and yeast extract (5 g/L) promoted the highest activity (12800 AU/mL), and in all cases MgSO4, MnSO4, K2HPO4 and ammonium citrate at low concentrations adversely affected bacteriocin production. Because P. pentosaceus 147 showed the highest antimicrobial activity in the presence of whey, it was used to evaluate the culture medium (peptone (10 g/L), meat extract (8 g/L), yeast extract (2 g/L), Tween® 80 (1 g/L), ammonium citrate (2 g/L), sodium acetate (5 g/L), MgSO4 (0.2 g/L), MnSO4 (0.04 g/L)). With the designed medium added with whey, 9.34 log units of biomass concentration and 19200 AU/mL were achieved for P. pentosaceus 147. The above suggest that the new medium promotes the antimicrobial activity of P. pentosaceus 147 allowing the use of an economic medium using whey.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, whey, bacteriocins, pediococcus

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4 Harsh Discipline and Later Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Two Contexts

Authors: Olga Santesteban, Glorisa Canino, Hector R. Bird, Cristiane S. Duarte


Objective: To address whether harsh discipline is associated with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in Puerto Rican children over time. Background: Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies report that rates of DBD vary by gender, age and other demographics, being more frequent among boys, later in life and among those who live in urban areas. Also, the literature supports the direct, positive association between harsh discipline and externalizing behaviors. Nevertheless, scholars have underscored the important role of race and ethnicity in understanding discipline effects on children. The impact of harsh discipline in a Puerto Rican population remains to be studied. Methods: Sample: This is a secondary analysis of the Boricua Youth Study which assessed yearly (3 times) Puerto Rican children aged 5-15 in two different sites: San Juan (Puerto Rico) and the South Bronx (NY), N=2951. Participants that did not have scores of harsh discipline in the 3 waves were excluded for this analysis (N=2091). Main Measures: a) Harsh Discipline (Parent report) was measured using 6 items from the “Parental Discipline Scale” that measures various forms of punishment, including physical and verbal abuse, and withholding affection; b) Disruptive Behavior Disorder (Parent report): Parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV) was used to asses children’s conduct disorders; c) Demographic factors: Child gender, child age, family income, marital status; d) Parental factors: parental psychopathology, parental monitoring, familism, parent support; e) Children characteristics: Controlling for any diagnostic at wave 1 (internalizing or externalizing). Data Analysis: Logistic regression was carried out relating the likelihood of DBD to harsh discipline along waves controlling for potential confounders as demographics, child and parent characteristics. Results: There were no significant differences in harsh discipline by site in wave 1 and wave 2 but there was a significant difference in wave 3. Also, there were no significant differences in DBD by site in wave 1 and wave 2 but there was a significant difference in wave 3. There was a significant difference of discipline by gender and age in all the waves. We calculated unadjusted (OR) and adjusted (AOD) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) showing the relation between harsh discipline at wave 1 and the presence of child disruptive behavior disorder at wave 3 for both South Bronx and Puerto Rico. There was an association between harsh discipline and the likelihood of having DBD in The Bronx (AOR=1.76; 95%CI=1.13-2.74, p.013) and in Puerto Rico (AOR=2.17; 95%CI=1.28-3.67, p.004) having controlled for demographic, parental and individual factors. Conclusions: Context may be an important differential factor shaping the potential risk of harsh discipline toward DBD for Puerto Rican children.

Keywords: disruptive behavior disorders, harsh discipline, puerto rican, psychological education

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