Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15517

Search results for: high altitude

15517 The Comparison of Movement and Physical Fitness in Secondary Male Students in Altitude and Coastal Areas

Authors: Esmaeil Zabihi, Seyed Hossein Alavi


The purpose of this study is a comparison of movement and physical fitness in athlete's male students in altitude and sea-level. The samples consist of 450 subjects in altitude and sea-level in Iran in years of 2013 which were selected randomly from the population. We investigated the effect of high altitude on the tests activity profile of youth high altitude and sea level residents. Methods 450 Sea Level (Mahmood Abad) and 450 Altitude-resident (Shahre-Kord) athlete students tests of physical fitness near sea level (-5 m) and in Altitude (2100 m). This study is Descriptive Research (causal-comparative research). The tests of physical fitness include pull-ups test, sit-ups test, agility test(4 9), 45 sprint test, 1600 m running, long jump, and flexibility test. For determining of different between the physical fitness of altitude and sea-level students was used t-test (P ≤ 0.05). The result of this study show that there is no significant difference between the average of pull-ups test, flexibility, 45 sprints, and agility (4 9) test of students in sea-level and altitude. But there is a significant difference between the average of sit-ups, 1600 m running and long jump in altitude. The students of altitude have higher power rather than sea-level. But the students of sea-level have stronger abdominal muscles and cardio-respiratory endurance rather than altitude. High altitude reduces the distance covered by youth athlete students during tests. Neither acclimatisation nor lifelong residence at high altitude protects against detrimental effects of altitude on tests activity profile.

Keywords: physical fitness, sea level, altitude areas, AAHPERD test

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15516 Cerebral Venous Thrombosis at High Altitude: A Rare Presentation by Sub-Arachnoid Hemorrhage

Authors: Eman G. Alayad, Mazen G. Aleyad, Mohammed Alshahrani, Ibrahim Alnaami


Introduction: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare type of cerebrovascular disease that can occur at any age. Patients with CVT commonly present with headache, focal neurological deficit, decreased level of consciousness and seizures. Many etiologic risk factors have been reported for CVT, high altitude and oral contraceptive pill some of them. Case Presentation: A 37-year-old woman living in Abha city in the southeastern area of Saudi Arabia. (about 10,000 feet-3000 m) over the sea. complaining acute onset of severe diffuse headache and generalized tonic clonic convulsions. Followed by loss of consciousness. She was on contraceptive pills for the last 3 years. No significant Medical or surgical history. Brain CT revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage, with MRI findings showing thrombosis in transvers sinus. There was no vascular malformations such as aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), or dural arteriovenous fistula. A CVT with subarachnoid hemorrhage was our final diagnosis based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. Discussion: Patients with CVT had evidence of cortical SAH by 10 of 233, others found 3% of SAH was caused by CVT, indicating that the presence of cortical SAH without involvement of the basal cisterns may provide an early sign of underlying CVT. However, what is more interesting in this case, is the relationship of high altitude with CVT and SAH, which previously undescribed. Conclusion: High-altitude climbing per se was described as a risk factor for the development of CVT, though its occurrence was probably rare. Whether it is primary in etiology due to high altitude induced hypercoagulable state of unknown origin or due to cerebrovascular disturbances there is a need for further investigation especially at this unusual presentation of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Keywords: cerebral venous thrombosis, high-altitude, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke

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15515 Impact of Yogic Exercise on Cardiovascular Function on Selected College Students of High Altitude

Authors: Benu Gupta


The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of yogic exercise on cardiovascular exercises on selected college students of high altitude. The research was conducted on college students of high altitude in Shimla for their cardiovascular function [Blood Pressure (BP), VO2 Max (TLC) and Pulse Rate (PR)] in respect to yogic exercise. Total 139 students were randomly selected from Himachal University colleges in Shimla. The study was conducted in three phases. The subjects were identified in the first phase of research program then further in next phase they were physiologically tested, and yogic exercise battery was operated in different time frame. The entire subjects were treated with three months yogic exercise. The entire lot of students were again evaluated physiologically [(Cardiovascular measurement: Blood Pressure (BP), VO2 Max (TLC) and Pulse Rate (PR)] with standard equipments. The statistical analyses of the variance (PR, BP (SBP & DBP) and TLC) were done. The result reveals that there was a significant difference in TLC; whereas there was no significant difference in PR. For BP statistical analysis suggests no significant difference were formed. Result showed that the BP of the participants were more inclined towards normal standard BP i.e. 120-80 mmHg.

Keywords: cardiovascular function, college students, high altitude, yogic exercise

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15514 Instrumentation for Engine Start Cycle Characterization at Cold Weather High Altitude Condition

Authors: Amit Kumar Gupta, Rohit Vashistha, G. P. Ravishankar, Mahesh P. Padwale


A cold soaked gas turbine engine have known starting problems in high altitude and low temperature conditions. The high altitude results in lower ambient temperature, pressure, and density. Soaking at low temperature leads to higher oil viscosity, increasing the engine starter system torque requirement. Also, low temperature soaks results in a cold compressor rotor and casing. Since the thermal mass of rotor is higher than casing, casing expands faster, thereby, increasing the blade-casing tip clearance. The low pressure flow over the compressor blade coupled with the secondary flow through the compressor tip clearance during start result in stall inception. The present study discusses engine instrumentation required for capturing the stall inception event. The engine fan exit and combustion chamber were instrumented with dynamic pressure probes to capture the pressure characteristic and clamp-on current meter on primary igniter cable to capture ignition event during start cycle. The experiment was carried out at 10500 Ft. pressure altitude and -15°C ambient temperature. The high pressure compressor stall events were recorded during the starts.

Keywords: compressor inlet, dynamic pressure probe, engine start cycle, flight test instrumentation

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15513 Design and Optimization of a Mini High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Multi-Role Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Vishaal Subramanian, Annuatha Vinod Kumar, Santosh Kumar Budankayala, M. Senthil Kumar


This paper discusses the aerodynamic and structural design, simulation and optimization of a mini-High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV. The applications of this mini HALE UAV vary from aerial topological surveys, quick first aid supply, emergency medical blood transport, search and relief activates to border patrol, surveillance and estimation of forest fire progression. Although classified as a mini UAV according to UVS International, our design is an amalgamation of the features of ‘mini’ and ‘HALE’ categories, combining the light weight of the ‘mini’ and the high altitude ceiling and endurance of the HALE. Designed with the idea of implementation in India, it is in strict compliance with the UAS rules proposed by the office of the Director General of Civil Aviation. The plane can be completely automated or have partial override control and is equipped with an Infra-Red camera and a multi coloured camera with on-board storage or live telemetry, GPS system with Geo Fencing and fail safe measures. An additional of 1.5 kg payload can be attached to three major hard points on the aircraft and can comprise of delicate equipment or releasable payloads. The paper details the design, optimization process and the simulations performed using various software such as Design Foil, XFLR5, Solidworks and Ansys.

Keywords: aircraft, endurance, HALE, high altitude, long range, UAV, unmanned aerial vehicle

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15512 A Statistical Analysis on Relationship between Temperature Variations with Latitude and Altitude regarding Total Amount of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Iran

Authors: Masoumeh Moghbel


Nowadays, carbon dioxide which is produced by human activities is considered as the main effective factor in the global warming occurrence. Regarding to the role of CO2 and its ability in trapping the heat, the main objective of this research is study the effect of atmospheric CO2 (which is recorded in Manaloa) on variations of temperature parameters (daily mean temperature, minimum temperature and maximum temperature) in 5 meteorological stations in Iran which were selected according to the latitude and altitude in 40 years statistical period. Firstly, the trend of temperature parameters was studied by Regression and none-graphical Man-Kendal methods. Then, relation between temperature variations and CO2 were studied by Correlation technique. Also, the impact of CO2 amount on temperature in different atmospheric levels (850 and 500 hpa) was analyzed. The results illustrated that correlation coefficient between temperature variations and CO2 in low latitudes and high altitudes is more significant rather than other regions. it is important to note that altitude as the one of the main geographic factor has limitation in affecting the temperature variations, so that correlation coefficient between these two parameters in 850 hpa (r=0.86) is more significant than 500 hpa (r = 0.62).

Keywords: altitude, atmospheric carbon dioxide, latitude, temperature variations

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15511 Effect of Low to Moderate Altitude on Football Performance: An Analysis of Thirteen Seasons in the South African Premier Soccer League

Authors: Khatija Bahdur, Duane Dell’Oca


There is limited information on how altitude impacts performance in a team sport. Most altitude research in football has been conducted at high elevation ( > 2500m), resulting in a chasm of understanding whether low to moderate altitude affects performance. The South African Premier Soccer League (PSL) fixtures entail matches played at altitudes from sea level to 1700m above mean sea level. Despite coaches highlighting the effect of altitude on performance outcomes in matches, further research is needed to establish whether altitude does impact match results. Greater insight into if and how altitude impacts performance in the PSL will assist coaches in deciding if and how to incorporate altitude in their planning. The purpose of this study is to fill in this gap through the use of a retrospective analysis of PSL matches. This quantitative study is based on a descriptive analysis of 181 PSL matches involving one team based at sea-level, taking place over a period of thirteen seasons. The following data were obtained: altitude at which the match was played, match result, the timing of goals, and timing of substitutions. The altitude was classified in 2 ways: inland ( > 500m) and coastal ( < 500m) and also further subdivided into narrower categories ( < 500m, 500-1000m, 1000-1300m; 1300-1500m, > 1500m). The analysis included a 2-sample t-test to determine differences in total goals scored and timing of goals for inland and coastal matches and the chi-square test to identify the significance of altitude on match results. The level of significance was set at the alpha level of 0.05. Match results are significantly affected by the altitude and level of altitude within inland teams most likely to win when playing at inland venues (p=0.000). The proportion of draws was slightly higher at the coast. At altitudes between 500-1000m, 1300-1500m, and 1500-1700m, a greater percentage of matches were won by coastal teams as opposed to draws. The timing of goals varied based on the team’s base altitude and the match elevation. The most significant differences were between 36-40 minutes (p=0.023), 41-45 minutes (p=0.000) and 50-65 minutes (p=0.000). When breaking down inland team’s matches to different altitude categories, greater differences were highlighted. Inland teams scored more goals per minute between 10-20 minute (p=0.009), 41-45 minutes (p=0.003) and 50-65 minutes (p=0.015). The total number of goals scored per match at different altitudes by a) inland teams (p=0.000), b) coastal teams (p=0.006). Coastal teams made significantly more substitutions when playing at altitude (p=0.034), although there were no significant differences when comparing the different altitude categories. The timing of all three changes, however, did vary significantly at the different altitudes. There were no significant differences in timing or number of substitutions for inland teams. Match results and timing of goals are influenced by altitude, with differences between the level of altitude also playing a role. The trends indicate that inland teams win more matches when playing at altitude against coastal teams, and they score more goals just prior to half-time and in the first quarter of the second half.

Keywords: coastal teams, inland teams, timing of goals, results, substitutions

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15510 Effects of Different Load on Physiological, Hematological, Biochemical, Cytokines Indices of Zanskar Ponies at High Altitude

Authors: Prince Vivek, Vijay Kumar Bharti, Deepak Kumar, Rohit Kumar, Kapil Nehra, Dhananjay Singh, Om Prakash Chaurasia, Bhuvnesh Kumar


High altitude native people still rely heavily on animal transport for logistic support at eastern and northern Himalayas regions. The prevalent mountainous terrains and rugged region are not suitable for the motorized vehicle to use in logistic transport. Therefore, people required high endurance pack animals for load carrying and riding. So far to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been taken to evaluate the effect of loads on the physiology of ponies in high altitude region. So, in this view, we evaluated variation in physiological, hematological, biochemical, and cytokines indices of Zanskar ponies during load carrying at high altitude. Total twelve (12) of Zanskar ponies, mare, age 4-6 years selected for this study, Feed was offered at 2% of body weight, and water ad libitum. Ponies were divided into three groups; group-A (without load), group-B (60 kg), and group-C (80 kg) of backpack loads. The track was very narrow and slippery with gravel, uneven with a rocky surface and has a steep gradient of 4 km uphill at altitude 3291 to 3500m. When we evaluate these parameters, it is understood that the heart rate, pulse rate, and respiration rate was significantly increased in 80 kg group among the three groups. The hematology parameters viz. hemoglobin significantly increased in 80 kg group on 1st day after load carrying among the three groups which was followed by control and 60 kg whereas, PCV, lymphocytes, monocytes percentage significantly increased however, ESR and eosinophil % significantly decreased in 80 kg group after load carrying on 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. In biochemical parameters viz. LA, LDH, TP, hexokinase (HK), cortisol (CORT), T3, GPx, FRAP and IL-6 significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. The ALT, ALB, GLB, UR, and UA significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 7th day before and after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. The CRT, AST, and CK-MB were significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 1st and 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. It has been concluded that, heart rate, respiration rate, hematological indices like PCV, lymphocytes, monocytes, Hb and ESR, biochemical indices like lactic acid, LDH, TP, HK, CORT, T3, ALT, AST and CRT, ALB, GLB, UR, UA, GPx, FRAP and IL-6 are important biomarkers to assess effect of load on animal physiology and endurance. Further, this result has revealed the strong correlation of change in biomarkers level with performance in ponies during load carry. Hence, these parameters might be used for the performance of endurance of Zanskar ponies in the high mountain region.

Keywords: biochemical, endurance, high altitude, load, ponies

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15509 Farmer-Participatory Variety Trials for Tomato and Chili Pepper in East Java

Authors: Hanik Anggraeni, Evy Latifah, Putu Bagus, Joko Mariyono


This study is to test the adaptation capacity of several selected lines and varieties of chili and tomato in farmers’ lands. Five improved lines and varieties of tomato and chili were selected based on the best performance in previous trials. Two participating farmers managed the trials. Agronomic aspects were used as performance indicators. The results show that several improved lines of tomato and chili performed better than others. However, the performance was dependent on the altitude and season. Lines performed better and high altitude could not do the same in low altitude, and vice versa. This is the same case as different season. Farmers were expected to select the best lines according to the locations.

Keywords: variety trials, tomato and chili, participatory farmers, East Java

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15508 Analysis of Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) Planning Using High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS)

Authors: Yosika Dian Komala, Uke Kurniawan Usman, Yuyun Siti Rohmah


The enable technology fills up needs of high-speed data service is Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS). UMTS has a data rate up to 2Mbps.UMTS terrestrial system has a coverage area about 1-2km. High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) can be built by a macro cell that is able to serve the wider area. Design method of UMTS using HAPS is planning base on coverage and capacity. The planning method is simulated with 2.8.1 Atoll’s software. Determination of radius of the cell based on the coverage uses free space loss propagation model. While the capacity planning to determine the average cell through put is available with the Offered Bit Quantity (OBQ).

Keywords: UMTS, HAPS, coverage planning, capacity planning, signal level, Ec/Io, overlapping zone, throughput

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15507 Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Assessing Endurance Related Traits in a Native Pony Breed of Zanskar at High Altitude

Authors: Prince Vivek, Vijay K. Bharti, Manishi Mukesh, Ankita Sharma, Om Prakash Chaurasia, Bhuvnesh Kumar


High performance of endurance in equid requires adaptive changes involving physio-biochemical, and molecular responses in an attempt to regain homeostasis. We hypothesized that the identification of the suitable reference genes might be considered for assessing of endurance related traits in pony at high altitude and may ensure for individuals struggling to potent endurance trait in ponies at high altitude. A total of 12 mares of ponies, Zanskar breed, were divided into three groups, group-A (without load), group-B, (60 Kg) and group-C (80 Kg) on backpack loads were subjected to a load carry protocol, on a steep climb of 4 km uphill, and of gravel, uneven rocky surface track at an altitude of 3292 m to 3500 m (endpoint). Blood was collected before and immediately after the load carry on sodium heparin anticoagulant, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell was separated for total RNA isolation and thereafter cDNA synthesis. Real time-PCR reactions were carried out to evaluate the mRNAs expression profile of a panel of putative internal control genes (ICGs), related to different functional classes, namely glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β₂ microglobulin (β₂M), β-actin (ACTB), ribosomal protein 18 (RS18), hypoxanthine-guanine phosophoribosyltransferase (HPRT), ubiquitin B (UBB), ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), transferrin receptor protein (TFRC), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) for normalizing the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data of native pony’s. Three different algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software, were used to evaluate the stability of reference genes. The result showed that GAPDH was best stable gene and stability value for the best combination of two genes was observed TFRC and β₂M. In conclusion, the geometric mean of GAPDH, TFRC and β₂M might be used for accurate normalization of transcriptional data for assessing endurance related traits in Zanskar ponies during load carrying.

Keywords: endurance exercise, ubiquitin B (UBB), β₂ microglobulin (β₂M), high altitude, Zanskar ponies, reference gene

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15506 Quadrotor in Horizontal Motion Control and Maneuverability

Authors: Ali Oveysi Sarabi


In this paper, controller design for the attitude and altitude dynamics of an outdoor quadrotor, which is constructed with low cost actuators and drivers, is aimed. Before designing the controller, the quadrotor is modeled mathematically in Matlab-Simulink environment. To control attitude dynamics, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based controllers are designed, simulated and applied to the system. Two different proportional-integral-derivative action (PID) controllers are designed to control yaw and altitude dynamics. During the implementation of the designed controllers, different test setups are used. Designed controllers are implemented and tuned on the real system using xPC Target. Tests show that these basic control structures are successful to control the attitude and altitude dynamics.

Keywords: helicopter balance, flight dynamics, autonomous landing, control robotics

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15505 Study on Construction of 3D Topography by UAV-Based Images

Authors: Yun-Yao Chi, Chieh-Kai Tsai, Dai-Ling Li


In this paper, a method of fast 3D topography modeling using the high-resolution camera images is studied based on the characteristics of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry and the need of three dimensional (3D) urban landscape modeling. Firstly, the existing high-resolution digital camera with special design of overlap images is designed by reconstructing and analyzing the auto-flying paths of UAVs, which improves the self-calibration function to achieve the high precision imaging by software, and further increased the resolution of the imaging system. Secondly, several-angle images including vertical images and oblique images gotten by the UAV system are used for the detail measure of urban land surfaces and the texture extraction. Finally, the aerial photography and 3D topography construction are both developed in campus of Chang-Jung University and in Guerin district area in Tainan, Taiwan, provide authentication model for construction of 3D topography based on combined UAV-based camera images from system. The results demonstrated that the UAV system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry can be used in the construction of 3D topography production, and the technology solution in this paper offers a new, fast, and technical plan for the 3D expression of the city landscape, fine modeling and visualization.

Keywords: 3D, topography, UAV, images

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15504 Embodiment Design of an Azimuth-Altitude Solar Tracker

Authors: M. Culman, O. Lengerke


To provide an efficient solar generation system, the embodiment design of a two axis solar tracker for an array of photovoltaic (PV) panels destiny to supply the power demand on off-the-grid areas was developed. Photovoltaic cells have high costs in relation to t low efficiency; and while a lot of research and investment has been made to increases its efficiency a few points, there is a profitable solution that increases by 30-40% the annual power production: two axis solar trackers. A solar tracker is a device that supports a load in a perpendicular position toward the sun during daylight. Mounted on solar trackers, the solar panels remain perpendicular to the incoming sunlight at day and seasons so the maximum amount of energy is outputted. Through a preview research done it was justified why the generation of solar energy through photovoltaic panels mounted on dual axis structures is an attractive solution to bring electricity to remote off-the-grid areas. The work results are the embodiment design of an azimuth-altitude solar tracker to guide an array of photovoltaic panels based on a specific design methodology. The designed solar tracker is mounted on a pedestal that uses two slewing drives‚ with a nominal torque of 1950 Nm‚ to move a solar array that provides 3720 W from 12 PV panels.

Keywords: azimuth-altitude sun tracker, dual-axis solar tracker, photovoltaic system, solar energy, stand-alone power system

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15503 Evaluation of Polyphenolics Compounds in Cold Brewed Indian Tea

Authors: Chandrima Das, Sirshendu Chatterjee


Tea (Camellia sinensis) is known as nature's low calorie wonder drink. Since ancient times hot consumptions of tea is very much popular. We have observed that many heat sensitive secondary metabolites which get destroyed on heating, moreover by people, who are permanently live at higher altitude or the members of high altitude expedition team, are deprived of various tea brewing facilities like electricity, fuel, etc. and the hence cold decoction of tea might be a good alternative. In this backdrop present study aims at the analysis of antioxidants like polyphenols, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity as well as the l-theanine concentration of different types of cold brewed teas like black, green, white and oolong and compared with its hot decoction. Further, we also analysed in details about the bioactive components by using HPLC followed by green synthesis of nanoparticles. The study highlighted that the difference between the concentration of antioxidant in cold and hot brewed tea is insignificant and hence intake of cold decoction will be beneficial to health.

Keywords: antioxidants, flavanoid, polyphenols, HPLC, nanoparticles

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15502 The Antioxidant Activity of Grape Chkhaveri and Its Wine Cultivated in West Georgia (Adjaria)

Authors: Maia Kharadze, Indira Djaparidze, Maia Vanidze, Aleko Kalandia


Modern scientific world studies chemical components and antioxidant activity of different kinds of vines according to their breed purity and location. To our knowledge, this kind of research has not been conducted in Georgia yet. The object of our research was to study Chkhaveri vine, which is included in the oldest varieties of the Black Sea basin vine. We have studied different-altitude Chkaveri grapes, juice, and wine (half dry rose-colored produced with European technologies) and their technical markers, qualitative and quantitive composition of their biologically active compounds and their antioxidant activity. We were determining the amount of phenols using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, Flavonoids, Catechins and Anthocyanins using Spectral method and antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Several compounds were identified using –HPLC-UV-Vis, UPLC-MS methods. Six samples of Chkhaveri species– 5, 300, 360, 380, 400, 780 meter altitudes were taken and analyzed. The sample taken from 360 m altitude is distinguished by its cluster mass (383.6 grams) and high amount of sugar (20.1%). The sample taken from the five-meter altitude is distinguished by having high acidity (0.95%). Unlike other grapes varieties, such concentration of sugar and relatively low levels of citric acid ultimately leads to Chkhaveri wine individuality. Biologically active compounds of Chkhaveri were researched in 2014, 2015, 2016. The amount of total phenols in samples of 2016 fruit varies from 976.7 to 1767.0 mg/kg. Amount of Anthocians is 721.2-1630.2 mg/kg, and the amount of Flavanoids varies from 300.6 to 825.5 mg/kg. Relatively high amount of anthocyanins was found in the Chkhaveri at 780-meter altitude - 1630.2 mg/kg. Accordingly, the amount of Phenols and Flavanoids is high- 1767.9 mg/kg and 825.5 mg/kg. These characteristics are low in samples gathered from 5 meters above sea level, Anthocyanins-721.2 mg/ kg, total Phenols-976.7 mg/ kg, and Flavanoids-300.6 mg/kg. The highest amount of bioactive compounds can be found in the Chkhaveri samples of high altitudes because with rising height environment becomes harsh, the plant has to develop a better immune system using Phenolic compounds. The technology that is used for the production of wine also plays a huge role in the composition of the final product. Optimal techniques of maceration and ageing were worked out. While squeezing Chkhaveri, there are no anthocyanins in the juice. However, the amount of Anthocyanins rises during maceration. After the fermentation of dregs, the amount of anthocyanins is 55%, 521.3 gm/l, total Phenols 80% 1057.7 mg/l and Flavanoids 23.5 mg/l. Antioxidant activity of samples was also determined using the effect of 50% inhibition of the samples. All samples have high antioxidant activity. For instance, in samples at 780 meters above the sea-level antioxidant activity was 53.5%. It is relatively high compared to the sample at 5 m above sea-level with the antioxidant activity of 30.5%. Thus, there is a correlation between the amount Anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. The designated project has been fulfilled by financial support of the Georgia National Science Foundation (Grant AP/96/13, Grant 216816), Any idea in this publication is possessed by the author and may not represent the opinion of the Georgia National Science Foundation.

Keywords: antioxidants, bioactive content, wine, chkhaveri

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15501 High Altitude Glacier Surface Mapping in Dhauliganga Basin of Himalayan Environment Using Remote Sensing Technique

Authors: Aayushi Pandey, Manoj Kumar Pandey, Ashutosh Tiwari, Kireet Kumar


Glaciers play an important role in climate change and are sensitive phenomena of global climate change scenario. Glaciers in Himalayas are unique as they are predominantly valley type and are located in tropical, high altitude regions. These glaciers are often covered with debris which greatly affects ablation rate of glaciers and work as a sensitive indicator of glacier health. The aim of this study is to map high altitude Glacier surface with a focus on glacial lake and debris estimation using different techniques in Nagling glacier of dhauliganga basin in Himalayan region. Different Image Classification techniques i.e. thresholding on different band ratios and supervised classification using maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) have been used on high resolution sentinel 2A level 1c satellite imagery of 14 October 2017.Here Near Infrared (NIR)/Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) ratio image was used to extract the glaciated classes (Snow, Ice, Ice Mixed Debris) from other non-glaciated terrain classes. SWIR/BLUE Ratio Image was used to map valley rock and Debris while Green/NIR ratio image was found most suitable for mapping Glacial Lake. Accuracy assessment was performed using high resolution (3 meters) Planetscope Imagery using 60 stratified random points. The overall accuracy of MLC was 85 % while the accuracy of Band Ratios was 96.66 %. According to Band Ratio technique total areal extent of glaciated classes (Snow, Ice ,IMD) in Nagling glacier was 10.70 km2 nearly 38.07% of study area comprising of 30.87 % Snow covered area, 3.93% Ice and 3.27 % IMD covered area. Non-glaciated classes (vegetation, glacial lake, debris and valley rock) covered 61.93 % of the total area out of which valley rock is dominant with 33.83% coverage followed by debris covering 27.7 % of the area in nagling glacier. Glacial lake and Debris were accurately mapped using Band ratio technique Hence, Band Ratio approach appears to be useful for the mapping of debris covered glacier in Himalayan Region.

Keywords: band ratio, Dhauliganga basin, glacier mapping, Himalayan region, maximum likelihood classifier (MLC), Sentinel-2 satellite image

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15500 Mobility-Aware Relay Selection in Two Hop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Network

Authors: Tayyaba Hussain, Sobia Jangsher, Saqib Ali, Saqib Ejaz


Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAV’s) have gained great popularity due to their remoteness, ease of deployment and high maneuverability in different applications like real-time surveillance, image capturing, weather atmospheric studies, disaster site monitoring and mapping. These applications can involve a real-time communication with the ground station. However, altitude and mobility possess a few challenges for the communication. UAV’s at high altitude usually require more transmit power. One possible solution can be with the use of multi hops (UAV’s acting as relays) and exploiting the mobility pattern of the UAV’s. In this paper, we studied a relay (UAV’s acting as relays) selection for a reliable transmission to a destination UAV. We exploit the mobility information of the UAV’s to propose a Mobility-Aware Relay Selection (MARS) algorithm with the objective of giving improved data rates. The results are compared with Non Mobility-Aware relay selection scheme and optimal values. Numerical results show that our proposed MARS algorithm gives 6% better achievable data rates for the mobile UAV’s as compared with Non MobilityAware relay selection scheme. On average a decrease of 20.2% in data rate is achieved with MARS as compared with SDP solver in Yalmip.

Keywords: mobility aware, relay selection, time division multiple acess, unmanned aerial vehicle

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15499 Assessment of Impact of Urbanization in High Mountain Urban Watersheds

Authors: D. M. Rey, V. Delgado, J. Zambrano Nájera


Increases in urbanization during XX century, has produced changes in natural dynamics of the basins, which has resulted in increases in runoff volumes, peak flows and flow velocities, that in turn increases flood risk. Higher runoff volumes decrease sewerage networks hydraulic capacity and can cause its failure. This in turn generates increasingly recurrent floods causing mobility problems and general economic detriment in the cities. In Latin America, especially Colombia, this is a major problem because urban population at late XX century was more than 70% is in urban areas increasing approximately in 790% in 1940-1990 period. Besides, high slopes product of Andean topography and high precipitation typical of tropical climates increases velocities and volumes even more, causing stopping of cities during storms. Thus, it becomes very important to know hydrological behavior of Andean Urban Watersheds. This research aims to determine the impact of urbanization in high sloped urban watersheds in its hydrology. To this end, it will be used as study area experimental urban watershed named Palogrande-San Luis watershed, located in the city of Manizales, Colombia. Manizales is a city in central western Colombia, located in Colombian Central Mountain Range (part of Los Andes Mountains) with an abrupt topography (average altitude is 2.153 m). The climate in Manizales is quite uniform, but due to its high altitude it presents high precipitations (1.545 mm/year average) with high humidity (83% average). It was applied HEC-HMS Hydrologic model on the watershed. The inputs to the model were derived from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) theme layers of the Instituto de Estudios Ambientales –IDEA of Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales (Institute of Environmental Studies) and aerial photography taken for the research in conjunction with available literature and look up tables. Rainfall data from a network of 4 rain gages and historical stream flow data were used to calibrate and validate runoff depth using the hydrologic model. Manual calibration was made, and the simulation results show that the model selected is able to characterize the runoff response of the watershed due to land use for urbanization in high mountain watersheds.

Keywords: Andean watersheds modelling, high mountain urban hydrology, urban planning, hydrologic modelling

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15498 Grouping Pattern, Habitat Assessment and Overlap Analysis of Five Ungulates Species in Different Altitudinal Gradients of Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Kaleem Ahmed, Jamal A. Khan


Grouping patterns, habitat use, and overlap studies were conducted on five sympatric ungulate species sambar (Cervus unicolor), chital (Axis axis), muntjac (Muntiacus muntjac), goral (Nemorhaedus goral), and serow (Capricornis sumatraensis) in the Dabka watershed area within Indian West Himalayan range. Data on age, sex composition, group size, and various ecological and topographical factors governing the presence/absence of species within the study area were collected using a 250 km of a trail walk, 95 permanent circular plots of 10 m radius, and 3 vantage points with 58 scannings. The highest mean group size was recorded for chital (6.35 ± 0.50), followed by sambar (1.35 ± 0.10), goral (1.25 ±0.63), muntjac (1.12 ± 0.05), and serow (1.00 ± 0.00). Grouping pattern significantly varied among sympatric species (F = 85.10, df. = 6, P = 0.000). The highest mean pellet group density (/ha ± SE) was recorded for sambar (41.56 ± 3.51), followed by goral (23.31 ± 3.45), chital (19.21 ± 3.51), muntjac (7.43 ± 1.21), and serow (1.02 ± 0.10). Two-way variance analysis showed a significant difference in the density of the pellet group of all ungulate species across different study area habitats (F = 6.38, df = 4, P = 0.027). The availability-utilization (AU) analysis reveals that goral was mostly sighted in steep slopes, preferred > 2100 m altitudinal range with low shrub understory, avoided dense forest, and relatively more southern aspects were used. Chital had used a wide range of tree and shrub coverings with a preference towards moderate cover range (26-50%), preferred areas with low slope category ( < 25), avoided areas of high altitude > 900 m. Sambar avoided less tree cover (0-25), preferred slope category (26-500), altitudes between 1600-2100 m, and preferred dense forest with northern aspects. Muntjac used all elevation ranges in the study area with a preference towards the dense forest and northern aspects. Serow preferred high tree cover > 75%, avoided low shrub cover (0-25%), preferred high shrub cover 51-75%, utilized higher elevation > 2100 m, avoided low elevation range and northern aspects. All species occupied similar habitat types, forest or scrub, except for the goral, which preferred open spaces. Between muntjac and sambar, the highest overlap was found (65%), and there was no overlap between chital and serow, chital and goral. Aspect, slope, altitude, and vegetation characteristics were found to be important factors for the overlap of ungulate sympatric species. One major reason for their ecological separation at the fine-scale level is the differential use of altitude by ungulates in the present study. This is confirmed by the avoidance by chital of altitudes > 900 m and serow of < 2100 m.

Keywords: altitude, grouping pattern, Himalayas, overlap, ungulates

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15497 Diversity and Distribution of Butterflies (Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera) along with Altitudinal Gradient and Vegetation Types at Lahoul Valley, Trans-Himalaya Region, India

Authors: Saveena Bogtapa, Jagbir Singh Kirti


Himalaya is one of the most fascinating ranges in the world. In India, it comprises 18 percent of the land area. Lahoul valley which is a part of Trans-Himalaya region is well known for its unique, diverse flora and fauna. It lies in the North-Eastern corner of the state Himachal Pradesh where its altitude ranges between 2500m to 5000m. Vegetation of this region is dry-temperate to alpine type. The diversity of the area is very less, rare, unique and highly endemic. But today, as a lot of environmental degradation has taken place in this hot spot of biodiversity because of frequent developmental and commercial activities which lead to the diversity of this area comes under a real threat. Therefore, as part of the research, butterflies which are known for their attractiveness as well as usefulness to the ecosystem, are used for the study. The diversity of butterflies of a particular area not only provides a healthy environment but also serves as the first step of conservation to the biodiversity. Their distribution in different habitats and altitude type helps us to understand the species richness and abundance in an area. Moreover, different environmental parameters which affect the butterfly community has also recorded. Hence, the present study documents the butterfly diversity in an unexplored habitat and altitude types at Lahoul valley. The valley has been surveyed along with altitudinal gradients (from 2500m to 4500m) and in various habitats like agriculture land, grassland, scrubland, riverine and in different types of forests. Very rare species of butterflies have been explored, and these will be discussed along with different parameters during the presentation.

Keywords: butterflies, diversity, Lahoul valley, altitude, vegetation

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15496 Topographic Mapping of Farmland by Integration of Multiple Sensors on Board Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial System

Authors: Mengmeng Du, Noboru Noguchi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Noriko Kobayashi


This paper introduced a topographic mapping system with time-saving and simplicity advantages based on integration of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Post Processing Kinematic Global Positioning System (PPK GPS) data. This topographic mapping system used a low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a platform to conduct land survey in a low-cost, efficient, and totally autonomous manner. An experiment in a small-scale sugarcane farmland was conducted in Queensland, Australia. Subsequently, we synchronized LiDAR distance measurements that were corrected by using attitude information from gyroscope with PPK GPS coordinates for generation of precision topographic maps, which could be further utilized for such applications like precise land leveling and drainage management. The results indicated that LiDAR distance measurements and PPK GPS altitude reached good accuracy of less than 0.015 m.

Keywords: land survey, light detection and ranging, post processing kinematic global positioning system, precision agriculture, topographic map, unmanned aerial vehicle

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15495 Agro-Climatic Analysis in the Northern Areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Zia Ullah, Ruh Ullah


A research study was conceded in four locations (Swat, Dir, Kakul and Balakot) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, to find agro-climatic classes by using aridity index, Growing Degree Days of wheat and maize, crop growth index and Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall by using long term climatic data (1970-2010). The climatic data used for research was acquired from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) Islamabad, Agriculture Research Institute, Weather Station Peshawar and Tarnab Peshawar. Agro-climatic classes of each location were determined using three criteria mean temperature of the coldest month, mean temperature of the warmest month and aridity index. The agro-climatic classes of Dir, Swat, Kakul and Balakot were classified as Humid, Cold and very Warm (H-K-VW). Average aridity index of wheat for Dir, Swat, Kakul, and Balakot was 2.23, 2.67, 1.94 and 2.34 and for Maize was 1.31, 1.26, 1.97, and 2.83 respectively. The overall and decade-wise trend of GDD of Wheat and Maize was declined in Swat and Kakul while increased in Dir and Balakot.The average maximum CGI (1.26) and (0.73) of Wheat and Maize was observed for Balakot and Dir, while the minimum (1.09) and (0.62) was observed for Swat and Kakul. Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall shows that the trend has increased in Swat while decreased in Dir, Kakul and Balakot. From the relation between rainfalls with altitude showed that there was an increasing trend between rainfalls with altitude. The maximum average rainfall was in Swat (2703mm) on altitude 2000m while the minimum average rainfall was observed in Kakul (1410mm) on altitude of 1255m.

Keywords: agro-climatic zones, aridity index, GDD, rainfall

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15494 Nutritional Potential and Traditional Uses of High Altitude Wild Edible Plants in Eastern Himalayas, India

Authors: Hui Tag, Jambey Tsering, Pallabi Kalita Hui, Baikuntha Jyoti Gogoi, Vijay Veer


The food security issues and its relevance in High Mountain regions of the world have been often neglected. Wild edible plants have been playing a major role in livelihood security among the tribal Communities of East Himalayan Region of the world since time immemorial. The Eastern Himalayan Region of India is one of the mega diverse regions of world and rated as top 12th Global Biodiversity Hotspots by IUCN and recognized as one of the 200 significant eco-regions of the Globe. The region supports one of the world’s richest alpine floras and about one-third of them are endemic to the region. There are at least 7,500 flowering plants, 700 orchids, 58 bamboo species, 64 citrus species, 28 conifers, 500 mosses, 700 ferns and 728 lichens. The region is the home of more than three hundred different ethnic communities having diverse knowledge on traditional uses of flora and fauna as food, medicine and beverages. Monpa, Memba and Khamba are among the local communities residing in high altitude region of Eastern Himalaya with rich traditional knowledge related to utilization of wild edible plants. The Monpas, Memba and Khamba are the followers Mahayana sect of Himalayan Buddhism and they are mostly agrarian by primary occupation and also heavily relaying on wild edible plants for their livelihood security during famine since millennia. In the present study, we have reported traditional uses of 40 wild edible plant species and out of which 6 species were analysed at biochemical level for nutrients contents and free radical scavenging activities. The results have shown significant free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity and nutritional potential of the selected 6 wild edible plants used by the local communities of Eastern Himalayan Region of India.

Keywords: East Himalaya, local community, wild edible plants, nutrition, food security

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15493 Numerical Study of Flow Characteristics and Performance of 14-X B Inlet with Blunted Cowl-Lip

Authors: Sergio N. P. Laitón, Paulo G. P. Toro, João F. Martos


A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the flow characteristics and performance of the 14-X B inlet with blunted cowl-lip. The Brazilian aerospace hypersonic vehicle 14-X B is a technology demonstrator of a hypersonic air-breathing propulsion system, based on supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet). It is designed for Earth's atmospheric flight at Mach number of 6 and an altitude of 30 km. Currently, it is under development in the aerothermodynamics and hypersonic Professor Henry T. Nagamatsu laboratory at Advanced Studies Institute (IEAv). Numerical simulations were conducted at nominal freestream Mach number and altitude for two cowl-lip blunting radius and several angles of attack close to horizontal flight. The results show that the shock interference behavior on the blunted cowl-lip change with the angle of attack and blunted radius. The type VI or V together with III shock interferences are more likely to occur simultaneously at small negative angles of attack. When the inlet operates in positive angles of attack higher to 1, no shock interference occurs, only the bow shock conditions. The results indicate a high air pressure at beginning of the combustor and higher pressure recovery with 2 mm radius and positives angles of attack.

Keywords: blunted cowl-lip, hypersonic inlet, inlet unstart, shock interference

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15492 Analysis of Storm Flood in Typical Sewer Networks in High Mountain Watersheds of Colombia Based on SWMM

Authors: J. C. Hoyos, J. Zambrano Nájera


Increasing urbanization has led to changes in the natural dynamics of watersheds, causing problems such as increases in volumes of runoff, peak flow rates, and flow rates so that the risk of storm flooding increases. Sewerage networks designed 30 – 40 years ago don’t account for these increases in flow volumes and velocities. Besides, Andean cities with high slopes worsen the problem because velocities are even higher not allowing sewerage network work and causing cities less resilient to landscape changes and climatic change. In Latin America, especially Colombia, this is a major problem because urban population at late XX century was more than 70% is in urban areas increasing approximately in 790% in 1940-1990 period. Thus, it becomes very important to study how changes in hydrological behavior affect hydraulic capacity of sewerage networks in Andean Urban Watersheds. This research aims to determine the impact of urbanization in high-sloped urban watersheds in its hydrology. To this end it will be used as study area experimental urban watershed named Palogrande-San Luis watershed, located in the city of Manizales, Colombia. Manizales is a city in central western Colombia, located in Colombian Central Mountain Range (part of Los Andes Mountains) with an abrupt topography (average altitude is 2.153 m). The climate in Manizales is quite uniform, but due to its high altitude it presents high precipitations (1.545 mm/year average) with high humidity (83% average). Behavior of the current sewerage network will be reviewed by the hydraulic model SWMM (Storm Water Management Model). Based on SWMM the hydrological response of urban watershed selected will be evaluated under the design storm with different frequencies in the region, such as drainage effect and water-logging, overland flow on roads, etc. Cartographic information was obtained from a Geographic Information System (GIS) thematic maps of the Institute of Environmental Studies of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia and the utility Aguas de Manizales S.A. Rainfall and streamflow data is obtained from 4 rain gages and 1 stream gages. This information will allow determining critical issues on drainage systems design in urban watershed with very high slopes, and which practices will be discarded o recommended.

Keywords: land cover changes, storm sewer system, urban hydrology, urban planning

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15491 Optimum Flight Altitude

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Anmol Taploo


As per current scenario, commercial aircrafts have been very well functioning with higher efficiency, but there is something that affects it. Every aircraft runs with the combustion produced by mixture of fuel and air. For example: A flight to travel from Mumbai to Kolkata it takes 2h: 30 min and from Kolkata to Mumbai it takes 2h: 45 min. It happens due to head and tail wind. Due to head wind air craft travels faster than its usual velocity and it takes 2h: 30 min to reach to Kolkata, while it takes 2h;45min vis versa. This lag in time is caused due to head wind that increases the drag and reduces the relative velocity of the plane. So in order to reduce this wastage of fuel there is an optimal flight altitude at which the head and tail wind action is reduced compared to the present scenario.

Keywords: drag, head wind, tail wind, aircraft

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15490 Increases in Serum Erythropoietin Hormone in Recreational Breath-Hold Divers Following a Series of Repeated Apnoeas: Apnoea beyond Freediving

Authors: Antonis Elia, Theo Loizou, Gladys Onambele-Pearson, Matthew Barlow, Georgina Stebbings


Hypoxic conditions have been reported to enhance red blood cell production in both acclimatised low-landers and altitude adapted populations. This process is mediated by the erythropoietin hormone, which is released predominantly by the hypoxic kidney. A higher haemoglobin concentration was previously reported in elite breath-hold divers when compared to elite-skiers and untrained individuals. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether apnoea induced hypoxia could induce a significant increase in serum erythropoietin concentration in recreational breath-hold divers which would provide an explanation to the higher haemoglobin levels observed in elite breath-hold divers. Identifying whether apnoea induced hypoxia induces a significant increase in serum erythropoietin might suggest that apnoea can be used as an alternative acclimatisation method to high altitude exposure. Seven healthy, recreational male breath-hold divers performed two sets of five 180 second breath-holds with a ten-minute supine rest between each set and a two-minute seated rest between each apnoea. During each breath-hold, participant’s heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation levels were recorded every subsequent 10 seconds until the end of the 180 second breath-hold. After each 180 second breath-hold a capillary blood sample was collected from the finger to identify circulating haemoglobin levels. Following completion of the apnoeic protocol, three blood samples were collected at 30, 90 and 180 minutes to measure circulating erythropoietin levels. A significant interaction between erythropoietin and time was observed (F(3,18)= 4.72, p < 0.001), with significant increases in erythropoietin evident at 30 (t(6)= -5.035, p < 0.0590 (t(6)= -6.162, p < 0.05) and 180 (t(6)= - 7.232, p < 0.001) minutes post the last apnoea when compared to baseline. Corresponding average increases when compared to baseline were 16% at 30, 23% at 90 and 40% at 180 minutes post the last apnoea. A significant interaction between haemoglobin and time was observed (F(78,84)= 20.814, p < 0.001), with significant increases in haemoglobin evident at the fifth (t(29)= -1.124, p < 0.001), ninth (t(29)= -1.357, p < 0.001) and tenth (t(29)= -1.211, p < 0.05) apnoeas when compared to baseline. A significant interaction between peripheral oxygen saturation and time was observed (F(10,60)= 408.23, p < 0.001). The present study demonstrates that a series of ten 180 second breath-holds is sufficient to induce a significant increase in the circulating erythropoietin concentration of recreational breath hold divers. These observations may suggest that apnoea induced hypoxia may be used as an alternative acclimatisation method to high altitude exposure.

Keywords: apnoea, breath-holding, diving reflex, erythropoietin, haemoglobin

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15489 Coordinative Remote Sensing Observation Technology for a High Altitude Barrier Lake

Authors: Zhang Xin


Barrier lakes are lakes formed by storing water in valleys, river valleys or riverbeds after being blocked by landslide, earthquake, debris flow, and other factors. They have great potential safety hazards. When the water is stored to a certain extent, it may burst in case of strong earthquake or rainstorm, and the lake water overflows, resulting in large-scale flood disasters. In order to ensure the safety of people's lives and property in the downstream, it is very necessary to monitor the barrier lake. However, it is very difficult and time-consuming to manually monitor the barrier lake in high altitude areas due to the harsh climate and steep terrain. With the development of earth observation technology, remote sensing monitoring has become one of the main ways to obtain observation data. Compared with a single satellite, multi-satellite remote sensing cooperative observation has more advantages; its spatial coverage is extensive, observation time is continuous, imaging types and bands are abundant, it can monitor and respond quickly to emergencies, and complete complex monitoring tasks. Monitoring with multi-temporal and multi-platform remote sensing satellites can obtain a variety of observation data in time, acquire key information such as water level and water storage capacity of the barrier lake, scientifically judge the situation of the barrier lake and reasonably predict its future development trend. In this study, The Sarez Lake, which formed on February 18, 1911, in the central part of the Pamir as a result of blockage of the Murgab River valley by a landslide triggered by a strong earthquake with magnitude of 7.4 and intensity of 9, is selected as the research area. Since the formation of Lake Sarez, it has aroused widespread international concern about its safety. At present, the use of mechanical methods in the international analysis of the safety of Lake Sarez is more common, and remote sensing methods are seldom used. This study combines remote sensing data with field observation data, and uses the 'space-air-ground' joint observation technology to study the changes in water level and water storage capacity of Lake Sarez in recent decades, and evaluate its safety. The situation of the collapse is simulated, and the future development trend of Lake Sarez is predicted. The results show that: 1) in recent decades, the water level of Lake Sarez has not changed much and remained at a stable level; 2) unless there is a strong earthquake or heavy rain, it is less likely that the Lake Sarez will be broken under normal conditions, 3) lake Sarez will remain stable in the future, but it is necessary to establish an early warning system in the Lake Sarez area for remote sensing of the area, 4) the coordinative remote sensing observation technology is feasible for the high altitude barrier lake of Sarez.

Keywords: coordinative observation, disaster, remote sensing, geographic information system, GIS

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15488 Numerical Investigation of Supertall Buildings and Using Aerodynamic Characteristics to Create New Wind Power Sources

Authors: Mohammad A. Masoumi, Mohammad Zare, Soroush Sabouki


This study investigates the aerodynamic characteristics of supertall buildings to evaluate wind turbine installation at high altitudes. Most recent studies have investigated supertall buildings at a horizontal plane, while a vertical plan could be as important, especially to install wind turbines. A typical square-plan building with a height of 500 m is investigated numerically at horizontal and vertical plans to evaluate wind power generation potentials. The results show good agreement with experimental data and past studies. Then four new geometries are proposed to improvise regions at high altitudes to install wind turbines. Evaluating the simulations shows two regions with high power density, which have the possibility to install wind turbines. Results show that improvised regions to install wind turbines at high altitudes contain significant power density while higher power density is found behind buildings in a far distance. In addition, power density fluctuations behind buildings are investigated, which show decreasing fluctuations by reaching 50 m altitude while altitudes lower than 20 m have the most fluctuations.

Keywords: wind power, supertall building, power density, aerodynamic characteristics, wind turbine mobile, quality assurance, testing, applications

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