Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Palestine

46 Identifying the Sacred in International Relations: A Religion-Based Analysis on Intimacy between Indonesia and Palestine

Authors: Andi Triswoyo


The sacred has been a dominant influence in the human lives. International relations, as the mirror of the human relations in a whole, reflected such cases. Inter-state relations has been predominantly how the sacred played the main roles of. The relations between Indonesia and Palestine could be shot as the sacred-analyzed case of inter-state relations. The intimacy of them could be analyzed comfortably in IR normal perspective, such as realism, liberalism, and Marxism. Hopefully, Religion perspective would make better explanation how Indonesia-Palestine relations had so worth. This paper will use some narrative-explanatory stage to elaborate that cases. Moreover, the sacred can give such alternative analyses to interpret how international relations occurred in this time regard of the rise a new theory of International Relations.

Keywords: the sacred, international relations, Indonesia, Palestine

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45 Diplomatic Public Relations Techniques for Official Recognition of Palestine State in Europe

Authors: Bilgehan Gultekin, Tuba Gultekin


Diplomatic public relations gives an ideal concept for recognition of palestine state in all over the europe. The first step of official recognition is approval of palestine state in international political organisations such as United Nations and Nato. So, diplomatic public relations provides a recognition process in communication scale. One of the aims of the study titled “Diplomatic Public Relations Techniques for Recognition of Palestine State in Europe” is to present some communication projects on diplomatic way. The study also aims at showing communication process at diplomatic level. The most important level of such kind of diplomacy is society based diplomacy. Moreover,The study provides a wider perspective that gives some creative diplomatic communication strategies for attracting society. To persuade the public for official recognition also is key element of this process. The study also finds new communication routes including persuasion techniques for society. All creative projects are supporting parts in original persuasive process of official recognition of Palestine.

Keywords: diplomatic public relations, diplomatic communication strategies, diplomatic communication, public relations

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44 Teaching Prosthetic and Orthotics in Palestine: Between Reality and Challenges

Authors: Ahmad Dawabsheh


The science of prosthetics is a renewable science that serves all humanity, regardless of gender, religion and race, and its causes are many: wars, conflicts, traffic accidents, and others. The researcher believes that there are challenges facing the specialization, including that society views a negative view of the amputee, especially if it is a female. This research aims to focus on the reality of teaching prosthetics in Palestine, especially in the Arab American University, as it is the only major. As well as the challenges facing this major: financial, human, academic, laboratories, and others. The researcher used the descriptive and analytical approach, which is the closest approach to studying the subject. The researcher believes that there is a failure on the part of the state and the Ministry of Health in this matter. In addition to the lack of societal culture, as well as the large quantities of prosthetic fittings.

Keywords: prothetics, orthotics, Arab American University, Palestine

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43 Palestine Smart Tourism Augmented Reality Mobile Application

Authors: Murad Al-Rajab, Sherin Hazboun, Azhar Al-Hamamreh, Nirmeen Odeh, Siham Halaseh


Tourism is considered an important sector for most countries, while maintaining good tourism attractions can promote national economic development. The State of Palestine is historically considered a wealthy country full of many archaeological places. In the city of Bethlehem, for example, the Church of the Nativity is the most important touristic site, but it does not have enough technology development to attract tourists. In this paper, we propose a smart mobile application named “Pal-STAR” (Palestine Smart Tourist Augmented Reality) as an innovative solution which targets tourists and assists them to make a visit inside the Church of the Nativity. The application will use augmented reality and feature a virtual tourist guide showing views of the church while providing historical information in a smart, easy, effective and user-friendly way. The proposed application is compatible with multiple mobile platforms and is considered user friendly. The findings show that this application will improve the practice of the tourism sector in the Holy Land, it will also increase the number of tourists visiting the Church of the Nativity and it will facilitate access to historical data that have been difficult to obtain using traditional tourism guidance. The value that tourism adds to a country cannot be denied, and the more technological advances are incorporated in this sector, the better the country’s tourism sector can be served. Palestine’s economy is heavily dependent on tourism in many of its main cities, despite several limitations, and technological development is needed to enable this sector to flourish. The proposed mobile application would definitely have a good impact on the development of the tourism sector by creating an Augmented Reality environment for tourists inside the church, helping them to navigate and learn about holy places in a non-traditional way, using a virtual tourist guide.

Keywords: smartphones, tourism, tourists guide, augmented reality, Palestine

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
42 Israel versus Palestine: Politological and Depth-Psychological Aspects

Authors: Harald Haas, Andrea Plaschke


Many of the contemporary major conflicts on this earth could not be solved so far, they either are perpetuated, or they are reflated again and again. Efforts of purely political conflict management or -resolution aim merely at the symptoms of conflict, not its roots. These roots are, in almost every case, also psychological ones. Thus, this contribution aims to shed light on the roots of one of the best known and longest-lasting conflicts: the Palestinian-Israeli one. Methodologies used were the compilation of existing scientific resources, field research in Palestine and Israel, as well as tests conducted with the Adult Attachment Projective in Palestine and Israel. Findings show that the majority of Palestinian, as well as Israeli test participants, show a disorganised attachment pattern which, in connection with the assumption of collective traumatization, seem to be a major obstacle to a lasting and peaceful conflict-resolution between these two peoples. There appears to be no short-term solution for this conflict, especially not within the range of usual Western legislative periods. Both sides ought to be provided with a kind of 'safe haven' over a long period of time, accompanied by a framework of various arrangements of coping with trauma, building lasting and secure relationships, as well as raising and educating present and future generations of Palestinians and Israelis for peace and co-operation with each other.

Keywords: conflict-management, trauma, political psychology, attachment theory

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41 Non-Revenue Water Management in Palestine

Authors: Samah Jawad Jabari


Water is the most important and valuable resource not only for human life but also for all living things on the planet. The water supply utilities should fulfill the water requirement quantitatively and qualitatively. Drinking water systems are exposed to both natural (hurricanes and flood) and manmade hazards (risks) that are common in Palestine. Non-Revenue Water (NRW) is a manmade risk which remains a major concern in Palestine, as the NRW levels are estimated to be at a high level. In this research, Hebron city water distribution network was taken as a case study to estimate and audit the NRW levels. The research also investigated the state of the existing water distribution system in the study area by investigating the water losses and obtained more information on NRW prevention and management practices. Data and information have been collected from the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) and Hebron Municipality (HM) archive. In addition to that, a questionnaire has been designed and administered by the researcher in order to collect the necessary data for water auditing. The questionnaire also assessed the views of stakeholder in PWA and HM (staff) on the current status of the NRW in the Hebron water distribution system. The important result obtained by this research shows that NRW in Hebron city was high and in excess of 30%. The main factors that contribute to NRW were the inaccuracies in billing volumes, unauthorized consumption, and the method of estimating consumptions through faulty meters. Policy for NRW reduction is available in Palestine; however, it is clear that the number of qualified staff available to carry out the activities related to leak detection is low, and that there is a lack of appropriate technologies to reduce water losses and undertake sufficient system maintenance, which needs to be improved to enhance the performance of the network and decrease the level of NRW losses.

Keywords: non-revenue water, water auditing, leak detection, water meters

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40 To Improve or Not to Improve Reflections from Jerash Urban Improvement Project, Jordan

Authors: Dina Dahood Dabash


Palestine Refugee Camps have never been settings that can be overlooked; they even became (as physical settings) a cornerstone topic of negotiations whenever Palestinian matters are on the table (specifically in Jordan). Consequently, maintaining the familiar face of the camp with its dilapidated shelters and narrow streets that rarely allowed its residents to extinguish a fire or evacuate a building safely has become a fundamental method to protect the “right of the return” from the perspective of various stakeholders. When the Infrastructure and Camp Improvement Programme (ICIP) was established in 2007 as an additional UNRWA program, some concerns were raised around the newly established section, mainly due to its direct impact on the “image” of the camp through a provision of a relatively nonconventional service that differs from what the Agency used to provide in the past seventy years. By presenting the Urban Improvement Project in Jerash camp (UIP) -Jordan, this paper aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion around enduring the improvement of Palestine refugee camps “programmatically” in UNRWA or not. The UIP as a co-product by UNRWA and the camp’s community within one of the most vulnerable refugee camps in Jordan offers a remarkable opportunity to excerpt lessons that can contribute to the strategic shaping of the ICIP. The paper concludes with five mine uptakes mainly related to community engagement, power structures and UNRWA's role in camps.

Keywords: camp improvement program, Jerash camp, Palestine refugee camps, UNRWA.

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39 Factors Affecting Time Performance in Building Construction Projects

Authors: Ibraheem A. K. Mahameed


The aim of this study is to identify the risks affecting time performance of building construction projects in the West Bank in Palestine from contractors’ viewpoint. 38 risks that might affect time performance of building construction projects were defined through a detailed literature review. These risks have been classified into 6 groups: project, managerial, consultant, financial, external, and construction items. A questionnaire survey was performed to rank the considered risks in terms of severity and frequency. The analysis of the survey indicated that the top five risks affecting time performance of building construction projects in Palestine are: award project to the lowest price, political situation, poor communication and coordination between construction parties, change orders, and financial status of contractor.

Keywords: delay, time performance, construction, building

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38 Occurrence and Fate of EDCs in Wastewater and Aquatic Environments in the West Bank of Palestine

Authors: Wa`d Odeh, Alon Tal, Alfred Abed Rabbo, Nader Al Khatib, Shai Arnon


The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in raw sewage and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been increasingly studied in the last few decades. Higher risks are said to characterize situations where raw sewage streams are found to be flowing, or where partial and inadequate wastewater treatment exists. Such conditions are prevalent in the West Bank area of Palestine. To our knowledge, no previous data concerning the occurrence and fate of EDCs in the aquatic environment has ever been systematically evaluated in the region. Hence, the main objective of this study was to identify the occurrence and concentrations of major EDCs in raw sewage, wastewater effluents produced by treatment plants and in the receiving environments, including streams and groundwater in the West Bank, Palestine. Water samples were collected and analyzed for four times during the years of 2013 and 2014. Two large-scale conventional activated sludge WWTPs, two wastewater watercourses, one naturally perennial stream, and five groundwater locations close to wastewater sources were sampled and analyzed by GC/MS following EPA methods (525.2). Five EDCs (estriol, estrone, testosterone, bisphenol A, and octylphenol) were detected in trace concentrations (ng/l) in wastewater streams and at inputs to WWTPs. WWTPs were not able to achieve complete removal of all EDCs, and EDCs were still found in the effluents. In this regard, the most significant environmental estrogenic impact was due to estrone concentrations. Nevertheless, no EDCs were detected in groundwater. Yet, in order for effluents to be reused, significant improvement in treatment infrastructure should be a top priority for environmental managers in the region.

Keywords: endocrine disrupting compounds, raw sewage streams, conventional activated sludge WWTPs, WWTPs effluents

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37 Water Demand Modelling Using Artificial Neural Network in Ramallah

Authors: F. Massri, M. Shkarneh, B. Almassri


Water scarcity and increasing water demand especially for residential use are major challenges facing Palestine. The need to accurately forecast water consumption is useful for the planning and management of this natural resource. The main objective of this paper is to (i) study the major factors influencing the water consumption in Palestine, (ii) understand the general pattern of Household water consumption, (iii) assess the possible changes in household water consumption and suggest appropriate remedies and (iv) develop prediction model based on the Artificial Neural Network to the water consumption in Palestinian cities. The paper is organized in four parts. The first part includes literature review of household water consumption studies. The second part concerns data collection methodology, conceptual frame work for the household water consumption surveys, survey descriptions and data processing methods. The third part presents descriptive statistics, multiple regression and analysis of the water consumption in the two Palestinian cities. The final part develops the use of Artificial Neural Network for modeling the water consumption in Palestinian cities.

Keywords: water management, demand forecasting, consumption, ANN, Ramallah

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36 Exploring Teachers’ Professional Identity in the Context of the Current Political Conflict in Palestine

Authors: Bihan Qaimari


In many areas of the world there are political conflicts the consequences of which have an inevitable impact on the educational system. Palestine is one such country where the experience of political conflict, going back over many years, has had a devastating effect on the development and maintenance of a stable educational environment for children and their teachers. Up to now there have been few studies that have focussed on the effects of living and working in a war zone on the professional identity of teachers. The aim of this study is to explore how the formation of Palestinian teachers’ professional identity is affected by their experience of the current political conflict its impact on the school social culture. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of the impact of political violence on the formation of the professional identity of Palestinian teachers, a qualitative multiple case-study approach was adopted which draws on sociocultural theories of identity formation. An initial study was first conducted in six schools and this was followed by an in-depth study of teachers working in three further primary schools. Data sources included participant observation, a research diary, semi-structured group and individual interviews. Grounded theory, constant-comparative methods, and discourse analysis procedures were used to interpret the data. The findings suggest that the Palestinian primary school teachers negotiate multiple conflicting identities through their every day experiences of political conflict and the schools’ social culture. This tension is formed as a result of the historical cultural meaning that teachers construct about themselves and within the current unstable and unsettling conditions that exist in their country. In addition, the data indicate that the geographical location of the schools in relation of their proximity to the events of the political conflict also had an influence on the degree of tension inherent in teachers’ professional identity. The study makes significant theoretical, practical, and methodical contributions to the study of the formation of teachers’ professional identity in countries affected by political conflict.

Keywords: identity, political conflict, Palestine, teacher's professional identity

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35 Mental Health and Psychosocial Needs of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon and Syria

Authors: Cosette Maiky


Background: In the context of the Syrian crisis, the past few years have witnessed an exponential growth in the number of refugee mental health studies, which have essentially focused either on the affected Syrian population and/or host communities. However, the Palestinian communities in the region did not receive sufficient that much of attention. Aim: The study aimed at identifying trends and patterns of mental health and and psychosocial conditions among Palestinian refugees in the context of the Syrian crisis, including the recognition of gaps in appropriate services. Methods: The research model comprised a systematic documentary review, a mapping of available contextual analyses, a quantitative survey, focus group discussions as well as key informant interviews (with relevant stakeholders and beneficiaries). Findings: Content analysis revealed multiple effects of transgenerational transmission of trauma among Palestinian refugees in the context of the Syrian crisis, which showed to be neither linear nor one-dimensional occurrence. In addition to highlights on exposure to traumatic events and psychological sequelae, the review outlines the most prevailing coping mechanisms and essential protective factors. Conclusion: Away from a trauma-centered or symptom-focused exercise, practitioners may take account of the present study to better focus research and intervention methodologies.

Keywords: Palestine refugees, Syria crisis, psychosocial, mental health

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34 Multilingual and Ideological Graffiti in Palestine

Authors: Olivia Martina Dalla Torre


The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse some urban writings that emerge in politically disputed areas, namely the Occupied Palestinian Territories, and more specifically in Deheishe refugee camp. These graffiti are visible on the walls of houses, all around the camp, and they convey messages of protest but also of hope or claim about the complex political situation in the occupied territories. These graffiti can be then interpreted as political and politicized semiotic resources. In this paper, after having introduced the political situation of the Palestinian Territories in a historical perspective, we will question a specific dimension of these writings, i.e., their multilingual and ideological aspect. To do this, we will focus on ethnographic fieldwork on Deheishe refugee camp and we will draw on the theoretical framework of the critical communication studies which assert that language practices are not neutral and that they need to be understood through the lens of the historical context of production, crossing space and time. By analysing the relationship between the discursive constructions of the messages and the languages used, we will point out some of the possible reasons and functions of the presence of these multilingual discursive productions. We will show that if, on the one hand, these graffiti confirm the huge presence of Western actors in the region, on the other hand, they attest the presence of an international movement against the Israeli occupation and against other struggles as well. Concluding, we will argue that multilingualism certainly represents a diversification of the linguistic landscape and that it gives a transnational and political dimension to the graffiti.

Keywords: communication, graffiti, multilingualism, Palestine, transnationalism

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33 Beliefs about the God of the Other in Intergroup Conflict: Experimental Results from Israel and Palestine

Authors: Crystal Shackleford, Michael Pasek, Allon Vishkin, Jeremy Ginges


In the Middle East, conflict is often viewed as religiously motivated. In this context, an important question is how we think the religion of the other drives their behavior. If people see conflicts as religious, they may expect the belief of the other to motivate intergroup bias. Beliefs about the motivations of the other impact how we engage with them. Conflict may result if actors believe the other’s religion promotes parochialism. To examine how actors on the ground in Israel-Palestine think about the God of the other as it relates to the other’s behavior towards them, we ran two studies in winter 2019 with an online sample of Jewish Israelis and fieldwork with Palestinians in the West Bank. We asked participants to predict the behavior of an outgroup member participating in an economic game task, dividing the money between themselves and another person, who is either an ingroup or outgroup member. Our experimental manipulation asks participants to predict the behavior of the other when the other is thinking of their God. Both Israelis and Palestinians believed outgroup members would show in-group favoritism, and that group members would give more to their in-group when thinking of their God. We also found that participants thought outgroup members would give more to their own ingroup when thinking of God. In other words, Palestinians predicted that Israelis would give more to fellow Israelis when thinking of God, but also more to Palestinians. Our results suggest that religious belief is seen to promote universal moral reasoning, even in a context with over 70 years of intense conflict. More broadly, this challenges the narrative that religion necessarily motivates intractable conflict.

Keywords: conflict, psychology, religion, meta-cognition, morality

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32 Floating Populations, Rooted Networks Tracing the Evolution of Russeifa City in Relation to Marka Refugee Camp

Authors: Dina Dahood Dabash


Refugee camps are habitually defined as receptive sites, transient spaces of exile and nondescript depoliticized places of exception. However, such arguments form partial sides of reality, especially in countries that are geopolitically challenged and rely immensely on international aid. In Jordan, the dynamics brought with the floating population of refugees (Palestinian amongst others) have resulted in spatial after-effects that cannot be easily overlooked. For instance, Palestine refugee camps have turned by time into socioeconomic centers of gravity and cores of spatial evolution. Yet, such a position is not instantaneous. Amongst various reasons, it can be related, according to this paper, to a distinctive institutional climate that has been co-produced by the refugees, host community and the state. This paper aims to investigate the evolution of urban and spatial regulations in Jordan between 1948 and 1995, more specifically, state regulations, community regulations and refugee-self-regulation that all dynamically interacted that period. The paper aims to unpack the relations between refugee camps and their environs to further explore the agency of such floating populations in establishing rooted networks that extended the time and place boundaries. The paper’s argument stems from the fact that the spatial configuration of urban systems is not only an outcome of a historical evolutionary process but is also a result of interactions between the actors. The research operationalizes Marka camp in Jordan as a case study. Marka Camp is one of the six "emergency" camps erected in 1968 to shelter 15,000 Palestine refugees and displaced persons who left the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Nowadays, camp shelters more than 50,000 refugees in the same area of land. The camp is located in Russeifa, a city in Zarqa Governorate in Jordan. Together with Amman and Zarqa, Russeifa is part of a larger metropolitan area that acts as a home to more than half of Jordan’s businesses. The paper aspires to further understand the post-conflict strategies which were historically applied in Jordan and can be employed to handle more recent geopolitical challenges such as the Syrian refugee crisis. Methodological framework: The paper traces the evolution of the refugee-camp regulating norms in Jordan, parallel with the horizontal and vertical evolution of the Marka camp and its surroundings. Consequently, the main methods employed are historical and mental tracing, Interviews, in addition to using available Aerial and archival photos of the Marka camp and its surrounding.

Keywords: forced migration, Palestine refugee camps, spatial agency, urban regulations

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31 Spectra of Mahmoud Darwish: Argumentative Approach in the Poem "Identity Card"

Authors: Haitham Sarhan


The experience of Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry represents one of the leading Arabic creative experiences because of its cultural specificity which is linked to the question of Palestine and its people. The poet Mahmoud Darwish does not stop there, but also reaches out to the whole of the cosmic and openness of the universal human experience. His poetry is rooted in a creative period, and was able to surpass its time. Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry contains diverse metaphors and worlds of genres, which overextends from direct romance to the lattice resistance and further stretches to the imaginary world and to the grand narratives. The poem "Identity Card" was published in his collections "Olive Leaves" and was issued in 1963. This collection highlighted the poems which included a revolutionary position, and formed a 'manifesto' and the statement of the Palestinian resistance, which represented the league of poets of Palestine. This poem has contributed along with other poems in creating a flame of resistance and increased it in the hearts of the Palestinian people. It also exercised considerable influence in the Arab world through what has been wrought from emotional responses and revolutionary impact which still remains. Moreover, this poem has succeeded with other resistance poems and postmodern poets like Nizar Qabbani in bringing modern poetry and culturally transmitted it among the Arab peoples and the masses. In spite of the fact that the poet Mahmoud Darwish exceeded this poem creatively through his other great works, "Identity Card" still has a great effect on peoples past memory’s and present. This need to hear this poem in Mahmoud Darwish’s poetic readings reflects peoples frustration and anger. It is safe to say that it is enticing people to this present day. This revolutionary poem had and still has a magical effect on Arab world.

Keywords: Arab contemporary poetry, identity, memory, argumentation

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30 A Social Network Analysis of the Palestinian Feminist Network Tal3at

Authors: Maath M. Musleh


This research aims to study recent trends in the Palestinian feminist movement through the case study of Tal3at. The study uses social network analysis as its primary method to analyze Twitter data. It attempts to interpret results through the lens of network theories and Parson’s AGIL paradigm. The study reveals major structural weaknesses in the Tal3at network. Our findings suggest that the movement will decline soon as sentiments of alienation amongst Palestinian women increases. These findings were validated by a couple of central actors in the network. This study contributes an SNA approach to the understanding of the understudied Palestinian feminism.

Keywords: feminism, Palestine, social network analysis, Tal3at

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29 The Illegal Architecture of Apartheid in Palestine

Authors: Hala Barakat


Architecture plays a crucial role in the colonization and organization of spaces, as well as the preservation of cultures and history. As a result of 70 years of occupation, Palestinian land, culture, and history are endangered today. The government of Israel has used architecture to strangulate Palestinians out and seize their land. The occupation has managed to fragment the West Bank and cause sensible scars on the landscape by creating obstacles, barriers, watchtowers, checkpoints, walls, apartheid roads, border devices, and illegal settlements to unjustly claim land from its indigenous population. The apartheid architecture has divided the Palestinian social and urban fabric into pieces, similarly to the Bantustans. The architectural techniques and methods used by the occupation are evidence of prejudice, and while the illegal settlements remain to be condemned by the United Nations, little is being done to officially end this apartheid. Illegal settlements range in scale from individual units to established cities and house more than 60,000 Israeli settlers that immigrated from all over Europe and the United States. Often architecture by Israel is being directed towards expressing ideologies and serving as evidence of its political agenda. More than 78% of what was granted to Palestine after the development of the Green Line in 1948 is under Israeli occupation today. This project aims to map the illegal architecture as a criticism of governmental agendas in the West Bank and Historic Palestinian land. The paper will also discuss the resistance to the newly developed plan for the last Arab village in Jerusalem, Lifta. The illegal architecture has isolated Palestinians from each other and installed obstacles to control their movement. The architecture of occupation has no ethical or humane logic but rather entirely political, administrative, and it should not be left for the silenced architecture to tell the story. Architecture is not being used as a connecting device but rather a way to implement political injustice and spatial oppression. By narrating stories of the architecture of occupation, we can highlight the spatial injustice of the complex apartheid infrastructure. The Israeli government has managed to intoxicate architecture to serve as a divider between cultural groups, allowing the unlawful and unethical architecture to define its culture and values. As architects and designers, the roles we play in the development of illegal settlements must align with the spatial ethics we practice. Most importantly, our profession is not performing architecturally when we design a house with a particular roof color to ensure it would not be mistaken with a Palestinian house and be attacked accidentally.

Keywords: apartheid, illegal architecture, occupation, politics

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28 Factors Affecting Harvested Rain Water Quality and Quantity in Yatta Area, Palestine

Authors: Nibal Al-Batsh, Issam Al-Khatib, Subha Ghannam


Yatta is the study area for this research, located 9 km south of Hebron City in the West Bank in Palestine. It has been connected to a water network since 1974 serving nearly 85% of the households. The water network is old and inadequate to meet the needs of the population. The water supply made available to the area is also very limited, estimated to be around 20 l/c.d. Residents are thus forced to rely on water vendors which supply water with a lower quality compared to municipal water while being 400% more expensive. As a cheaper and more reliable alternative, rainwater harvesting is a common practice in the area, with the majority of the households owning at least one cistern. Rainwater harvesting is of great socio-economic importance in areas where water sources are scarce or polluted. The quality of harvested rainwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the Yatta area was assessed throughout a year long period. A total of 100 water samples were collected from (50 rainfed cisterns) with an average capacity of 69 m3, adjacent to cement-roof catchment with an average area of 145 m2. Samples were analyzed for a number of parameters including: pH, Alkalinity, Hardness, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), NO3, NH4, chloride and salinity. Microbiological contents such as Total Coliforms (TC) and Fecal Coliforms (FC) bacteria were also analyzed. Results showed that most of the rainwater samples were within WHO and EPA guidelines set for chemical parameters while revealing biological contamination. The pH values of mixed water ranged from 6.9 to 8.74 with a mean value of 7.6. collected Rainwater had lower pH values than mixed water ranging from 7.00 to 7.57 with a mean of 7.21. Rainwater also had lower average values of conductivity (389.11 µScm-1) compared to that of mixed water (463.74 µScm-1) thus indicating lower values of salinity (0.75%). The largest TDS value measured in rainwater was 316 mg/l with a mean of 199.86 mg /l. As far as microbiological quality is concerned, TC and FC were detected in 99%, 52% of collected rainwater samples, respectively. The research also addressed the impact of different socio-economic attributes on rainwater harvesting using information collected through a survey from the area. Results indicated that the majority of homeowners have the primary knowledge necessary to collect and store water in cisterns. Most of the respondents clean both the cisterns and the catchment areas. However, the research also arrives at a conclusion that cleaning is not done in a proper manner. Results show that cisterns with an operating capacity of 69 m3 would provide sufficient water to get through the dry summer months. However, the catchment area must exceed 146 m2 to produce sufficient water to fill a cistern of this size in a year receiving average precipitation.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting, runoff coefficient, water quality, microbiological contamination

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27 The Second Column of Origen’s Hexapla and the Transcription of BGDKPT Consonants: A Confrontation with Transliterated Hebrew Names in Greek Documents

Authors: Isabella Maurizio


This research analyses the pronunciation of Hebrew consonants 'bgdkpt' in II- III C. E. in Palestine, through the confrontation of two kinds of data: the fragments of transliteration of Old Testament in the Greek alphabet, from the second column of Origen’s synopsis, called Hexapla, and Hebrew names transliterated in Greek documents, especially epigraphs. Origen is a very important author, not only for his bgdkpt theological and exegetic works: the Hexapla, synoptic six columns for a critical edition of Septuaginta, has a relevant role in attempting to reconstruct the pronunciation of Hebrew language before Masoretic punctuation. For this reason, at the beginning, it is important to analyze the column in order to study phonetic and linguistic phenomena. Among the most problematic data, there is the evidence from bgdkpt consonants, always represented as Greek aspirated graphemes. This transcription raised the question if their pronunciation was the only spirant, and consequently, the double one, that is, the stop/spirant contrast, was introduced by Masoretes. However, the phonetic and linguistic examination of the column alone is not enough to establish a real pronunciation of language: this paper is significant because a confrontation between the second column’s transliteration and Hebrew names found in Greek documents epigraphic ones mainly, is achieved. Palestine in II - III was a bilingual country: Greek and Aramaic language lived together, the first one like the official language, the second one as the principal mean of communication between people. For this reason, Hebrew names are often found in Greek documents of the same geographical area: a deep examination of bgdkpt’s transliteration can help to understand better which the real pronunciation of these consonants was, or at least it allows to evidence a phonetic tendency. As a consequence, the research considers the contemporary documents to Origen and the previous ones: the first ones testify a specific stadium of pronunciation, the second ones reflect phonemes’ evolution. Alexandrian documents are also examined: Origen was from there, and the influence of Greek language, spoken in his native country, must be considered. The epigraphs have another implication: they are totally free from morphological criteria, probably used by Origen in his column, because of their popular origin. Thus, a confrontation between the hexaplaric transliteration and Hebrew names is absolutely required, in Hexapla’s studies: first of all, it can be the second clue of a pronunciation already noted in the column; then because, for documents’ specific nature, it has more probabilities to be real, reflecting a daily use of language. The examination of data shows a general tendency to employ the aspirated graphemes for bgdkpt consonants’ transliteration. This probably means that they were closer to Greek aspirated consonants rather than to the plosive ones. The exceptions are linked to a particular status of the name, i.e. its history and origin. In this way, this paper gives its contribution to onomastic studies, too: indeed, the research may contribute to verify the diffusion and the treatment of Jewish names in Hellenized world and in the koinè language.

Keywords: bgdkpt consonants, Greek epigraphs, Jewish names, origen's Hexapla

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26 Evaluating Bus System as a Transportation Mode in Gaza Strip–Palestine Using GIS

Authors: Mohammed Alokshiya, Alaeddinne D. Eljamassi


This study discusses the condition of bus service in Gaza Strip through testing certain hypotheses assuming that public is not satisfied with bus system in Gaza. This testing is proceeded using questionnaire. The study also includes the evaluation of ten bus stops in Gaza city as a case study using GIS, and suggests a design case study for the bus system in the university zone in Gaza city. The research indicates that there is a general dissatisfaction with bus system in Gaza Strip, with respect to buses in service, drivers and bus stops. The study also gives a design for a bus stop and its frequency in university zone in Gaza city. Finally, the researcher recommends that more interest should be given to bus system, through actual procedures such as insuring the suitability of bus for transferring passengers before updating bus license, decreasing taxes of importing new buses, and holding awareness raising sessions for bus drivers.

Keywords: public transport, bus system, public satisfaction, bus stop locating

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25 Influencers of E-Learning Readiness among Palestinian Secondary School Teachers: An Explorative Study

Authors: Fuad A. A. Trayek, Tunku Badariah Tunku Ahmad, Mohamad Sahari Nordin, Mohammed AM Dwikat


This paper reports on the results of an exploratory factor analysis procedure applied on the e-learning readiness data obtained from a survey of four hundred and seventy-nine (N = 479) teachers from secondary schools in Nablus, Palestine. The data were drawn from a 23-item Likert questionnaire measuring e-learning readiness based on Chapnick's conception of the construct. Principal axis factoring (PAF) with Promax rotation applied on the data extracted four distinct factors supporting four of Chapnick's e-learning readiness dimensions, namely technological readiness, psychological readiness, infrastructure readiness and equipment readiness. Together these four dimensions explained 56% of the variance. These findings provide further support for the construct validity of the items and for the existence of these four factors that measure e-learning readiness.

Keywords: e-learning, e-learning readiness, technological readiness, psychological readiness, principal axis factoring

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24 Understanding Loc Trade in Kashmir: References of Global Episodes in Arena of Economy and Confidence Building Measure

Authors: Aarushi Baloria, Joshina Jamwal


The paper attempts to understand the genesis of the Kashmir conflict, the LoC trade, and the various challenges which impede LoC trade. The paper further understands how this trade assists in mitigating tension between the countries and act as a conference building measure (CBM). The paper discusses later on the positive aspects of LoC trade with the help of statistical data like increase in state's economy along with negatives like smuggling of arms, drugs, swapping and interchanging of Hawala money and other unconstitutional activities like terrorism that took place on trade points across LoC. Moreover, the paper also mentioned in the international context; the episodes of Ireland of Europe, Palestine of Middle East, Uganda of Africa not only as transaction step but also as a peace channel between the fragmented parts. Thus, the paper, in a nutshell, reflects how the trade across LoC benefited in various psychological, economic, and political reasons, and it is worth taking risk, taking its overall positive things into consideration.

Keywords: drugs, economy, international, peace, psychological, trade

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23 Assessment of Compost Usage Quality and Quality for Agricultural Use: A Case Study of Hebron District, Palestine

Authors: Mohammed A. A. Sarhan, Issam A. Al-Khatib


Complying with the technical specifications of compost production is of high importance not only for environmental protection but also for increasing the productivity and promotion of compost use by farmers in agriculture. This study focuses on the compost quality of the Palestinian market and farmers’ attitudes toward agricultural use of compost. The quality is assessed through selection of 20 compost samples of different suppliers and producers and lab testing for quality parameters, while the farmers’ attitudes to compost use for agriculture are evaluated through survey questionnaire of 321 farmers in the Hebron area. The results showed that the compost in the Palestinian markets is of medium quality due to partial or non-compliance with the quality standards and guidelines. The Palestinian farmers showed a positive attitude since 91.2% of them have the desire to use compost in agriculture. The results also showed that knowledge of difference between compost and chemical fertilizers, perception of compost benefits and previously experiencing problems in compost use, are significant factors affecting the farmers’ attitude toward the use of compost as an organic fertilizer.

Keywords: attitude, compost, compost quality, organic fertilizer, manure

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22 The Experience of the Prosthetics Program in Palestine Arab American University as Model

Authors: Ahmad Dawabsheh


The prosthetics program is an international program, found in honorable respectable universities. This program like other programs was found to serve several reasons, The most important reason is humanity, humanity free of conflict, religion, race, or war, but rather focuses on the humanitarian issue. This is what encouraged me to study this topic to help people, especially the poor in the world. The researcher will distribute a questionnaire to the faculty members and students of the department to measure the knowledge and importance of this program from the practical and theoretical sides of the local community. The researcher used the analytical method to study the subject. The research will attempt to answer the questions: What is the student's knowledge of this program? How important is this program to society?. The research aims to know the Palestinian society's need for this program. The research also aims to know the extent of students' knowledge of recent developments and new innovations in prosthetics around the world. What does the university offer to students in addition to theoretical courses?

Keywords: prosthetics, Arab American University, analytical method, questionnair

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21 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

Authors: Anas M. Fares


Reinforced concrete shear walls are the most frequently used forms of lateral resisting structural elements. These walls may take many forms due to their functions and locations in the building. In Palestine, the most lateral resisting forces construction forms is the cantilever shear walls system. It is thus of prime importance to study the rigidity of these walls. The virtual work theorem is used to derive the total lateral deflection of cantilever shear walls due to flexural and shear deformation. The case of neglecting the shear deformation in the walls is also studied, and it is found that the wall height to length aspect ratio (H/B) plays a major role in calculating the lateral deflection and the rigidity of such walls. When the H/B is more than or equal to 3.7, the shear deformation may be neglected from the calculation of the lateral deflection. Moreover, the walls with the same material properties, same lateral load value, and same aspect ratio, shall have the same of both the lateral deflection and the rigidity. Finally, an equation to calculate the total rigidity and total deflection of such walls is derived by using the virtual work theorem for a cantilever beam.

Keywords: cantilever shear walls, flexural deformation, lateral deflection, lateral loads, reinforced concrete shear walls, rigidity, shear deformation, virtual work theorem

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20 Groundwater Pollution Models for Hebron/Palestine

Authors: Hassan Jebreen


These models of a conservative pollutant in groundwater do not include representation of processes in soils and in the unsaturated zone, or biogeochemical processes in groundwater, These demonstration models can be used as the basis for more detailed simulations of the impacts of pollution sources at a local scale, but such studies should address processes related to specific pollutant species, and should consider local hydrogeology in more detail, particularly in relation to possible impacts on shallow systems which are likely to respond more quickly to changes in pollutant inputs. The results have demonstrated the interaction between groundwater flow fields and pollution sources in abstraction areas, and help to emphasise that wadi development is one of the key elements of water resources planning. The quality of groundwater in the Hebron area indicates a gradual increase in chloride and nitrate with time. Since the aquifers in Hebron districts are highly vulnerable due to their karstic nature, continued disposal of untreated domestic and industrial wastewater into the wadi will lead to unacceptably poor water quality in drinking water, which may ultimately require expensive treatment if significant health problems are to be avoided. Improvements are required in wastewater treatment at the municipal and domestic levels, the latter requiring increased public awareness of the issues, as well as improved understanding of the hydrogeological behaviour of the aquifers.

Keywords: groundwater, models, pollutants, wadis, hebron

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19 The Ancient Port of Gaza 'Anthedon' and Relationship with Mediterranean Basin Ports

Authors: Ayman Hassouna


Gaza was famous in the history of trade, because it lies at the end of overland trade route, then the goods transferred by Gazzian merchants to different places around the Mediterranean, so it is described as ‘Mediterranean port of Arabs’, but Gaza is not located directly at the sea shore, so it is fortified by two ports: the first is Anthedon, and second is Maiomas. It is possible to dig in Anthedon but it is too difficult to do that in Maiomas because the site is full of modern buildings. Archaeological excavations at Anthedon's port provided us much archaeological and historical information about cooperation between Anthedon's port and different places at the Mediterranean basin. This research speaks about the roots of Anthedon's name, and it is related with other names in Greek land, by use different dictionaries language, and produce historical introduction were covering the ages beginning from the Iron Age to Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods. Then the study reviewed the most important architectural discoveries in the site, and highlighted the relationship with the civilizations' ports of the Mediterranean basin by studying number of artefacts pottery were imported from different places as Cyprus, Greece, Italy, North Africa, Carthage and Tripoli workshops. On the other hand, the archaeologists discovered some of local pottery made in Gaza at different sites on the Mediterranean basin which confirms the relationship of Gaza merchants with those areas. At the end of this study, there are some conclusions and recommendations about the site.

Keywords: ancient port of Gaza, pottery typology, Mediterranean basin ports, Palestine archaeology

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18 Solvent Effects on Anticancer Activities of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Jawad Alzeer


Natural products are well recognized as sources of drugs in several human ailments. To investigate the impact of variable extraction techniques on the cytotoxic effects of medicinal plant extracts, 5 well-known medicinal plants from Palestine were extracted with 90% ethanol, 80% methanol, acetone, coconut water, apple vinegar, grape vinegar or 5% acetic acid. The resulting extracts were screened for cytotoxic activities against three different cancer cell lines (B16F10, MCF-7, and HeLa) using a standard resazurin-based cytotoxicity assay and Nile Blue A as the positive control. Highly variable toxicities and tissue sensitivity were observed, depending upon the solvent used for extraction. Acetone consistently gave lower extraction yields but higher cytotoxicity, whereas other solvent systems gave much higher extraction yields with lower cytotoxicity. Interestingly, coconut water was found to offer a potential alternative to classical organic solvents; it gave consistently highest extraction yields, and in the case of S. officinalis L., highly toxic extracts towards MCF-7 cells derived from human breast cancer. These results demonstrate how the cytotoxicity of plant extracts can be inversely proportional to the yield, and that solvent selection plays an important role in both factors.

Keywords: plant extract, natural products, anti cancer drug, cytotoxicity

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17 Estimating Air Particulate Matter 10 Using Satellite Data and Analyzing Its Annual Temporal Pattern over Gaza Strip, Palestine

Authors: ِAbdallah A. A. Shaheen


Gaza Strip faces economic and political issues such as conflict, siege and urbanization; all these have led to an increase in the air pollution over Gaza Strip. In this study, Particulate matter 10 (PM10) concentration over Gaza Strip has been estimated by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, based on a multispectral algorithm. Simultaneously, in-situ measurements for the corresponding particulate are acquired for selected time period. Landsat and ground data for eleven years are used to develop the algorithm while four years data (2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014) have been used to validate the results of algorithm. The developed algorithm gives highest regression, R coefficient value i.e. 0.86; RMSE value as 9.71 µg/m³; P values as 0. Average validation of algorithm show that calculated PM10 strongly correlates with measured PM10, indicating high efficiency of algorithm for the mapping of PM10 concentration during the years 2000 to 2014. Overall results show increase in minimum, maximum and average yearly PM10 concentrations, also presents similar trend over urban area. The rate of urbanization has been evaluated by supervised classification of the Landsat image. Urban sprawl from year 2000 to 2014 results in a high concentration of PM10 in the study area.

Keywords: PM10, landsat, atmospheric reflectance, Gaza strip, urbanization

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