Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: intermetallics

16 Characterization of Thixoformed AlSi12 Alloy with the Addition of Trace Amounts of Silver

Authors: Nursen Saklakoglu, Adnan Turker


The main objective of this study is to reveal the effect of the Thixoforming process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AlSi12 alloy with trace amounts of silver. It is concluded that Thixoforming has an important effect on the morphology of intermetallics and Si formation, as well as globular α-Al morphology. The intermetallics have been fractured during thixoforming. It is believed that the fine distribution of the intermetallics is one mechanism for the improved mechanical properties of Thixoformed alloys. The discrete Si particles have been observed during both isothermal heating to the semi-solid range and Thixoforming, also have an important effect on mechanical properties. The Thixoforming process has a greater effect on hardness than the addition of Ag does.

Keywords: AlSi alloys, intermetallic phases, mechanical properties trace element, silver, thixoforming

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15 Elastic and Thermal Behaviour of LaX (X= Cd, Hg) Intermetallics: A DFT Study

Authors: Gitanjali Pagare, Hansa Devi, S. P. Sanyal


Full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method has been employed within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local spin density approximation (LSDA) as the exchange correlation potential to investigate elastic properties of LaX (X = Cd and Hg) in their B2-type (CsCl) crystal structure. The calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and pressure derivative of bulk modulus (B') agree well with the available experimental results. The second order elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) have been calculated. The ductility or brittleness of these intermetallic compounds is predicted by using Pugh’s rule B/GH and Cauchy’s pressure (C12-C44). The calculated results indicate that LaHg is the ductile whereas LaCd is brittle in nature.

Keywords: ductility/brittleness, elastic constants, equation of states, FP-LAPW method, intermetallics

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14 Characterization of Sintered Fe-Cr-Mn Powder Mixtures Containing Intermetallics

Authors: A. Yonetken, A. Erol, M. Cakmakkaya


Intermetallic materials are among advanced technology materials that have outstanding mechanical and physical properties for high temperature applications. Especially creep resistance, low density and high hardness properties stand out in such intermetallics. The microstructure, mechanical properties of %88Ni-%10Cr and %2Mn powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 900-1300°C temperature. A composite consisting of ternary additions, a metallic phase, Fe ,Cr and Mn have been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were investigated to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for composition %88Ni-%10Cr and %2Mn at 1300°C suggest that the best properties as 138,80HV and 6,269/cm3 density were obtained at 1300°C.

Keywords: composite, high temperature, intermetallic, sintering

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13 Size, Shape, and Compositional Effects on the Order-Disorder Phase Transitions in Au-Cu and Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, and Ni) Nanocluster Alloys

Authors: Forrest Kaatz, Adhemar Bultheel


Au-Cu and Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, and Ni) nanocluster alloys are currently being investigated worldwide by many researchers for their interesting catalytic and nanophase properties. The low-temperature behavior of the phase diagrams is not well understood for alloys with nanometer sizes and shapes. These systems have similar bulk phase diagrams with the L12 (Au3Cu, Pt3M, AuCu3, and PtM3) structurally ordered intermetallics and the L10 structure for the AuCu and PtM intermetallics. We consider three models for low temperature ordering in the phase diagrams of Au–Cu and Pt–M nanocluster alloys. These models are valid for sizes ~ 5 nm and approach bulk values for sizes ~ 20 nm. We study the phase transition in nanoclusters with cubic, octahedral, and cuboctahedral shapes, covering the compositions of interest. These models are based on studying the melting temperatures in nanoclusters using the regular solution, mixing model for alloys. Experimentally, it is extremely challenging to determine thermodynamic data on nano–sized alloys. Reasonable agreement is found between these models and recent experimental data on nanometer clusters in the Au–Cu and Pt–M nanophase systems. From our data, experiments on nanocubes about 5 nm in size, of stoichiometric AuCu and PtM composition, could help differentiate between the models. Some available evidence indicates that ordered intermetallic nanoclusters have better catalytic properties than disordered ones. We conclude with a discussion of physical mechanisms whereby ordering could improve the catalytic properties of nanocluster alloys.

Keywords: catalytic reactions, gold nanoalloys, phase transitions, platinum nanoalloys

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12 Combined Synchrotron Radiography and Diffraction for in Situ Study of Reactive Infiltration of Aluminum into Iron Porous Preform

Authors: S. Djaziri, F. Sket, A. Hynowska, S. Milenkovic


The use of Fe-Al based intermetallics as an alternative to Cr/Ni based stainless steels is very promising for industrial applications that use critical raw materials parts under extreme conditions. However, the development of advanced Fe-Al based intermetallics with appropriate mechanical properties presents several challenges that involve appropriate processing and microstructure control. A processing strategy is being developed which aims at producing a net-shape porous Fe-based preform that is infiltrated with molten Al or Al-alloy. In the present work, porous Fe-based preforms produced by two different methods (selective laser melting (SLM) and Kochanek-process (KE)) are studied during infiltration with molten aluminum. In the objective to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the formation of Fe-Al intermetallic phases during infiltration, an in-house furnace has been designed for in situ observation of infiltration at synchrotron facilities combining x-ray radiography (XR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated, and information about the melt flow front propagation has been obtained. In addition, reactive infiltration has been achieved where a bi-phased intermetallic layer has been identified to be formed between the solid Fe and liquid Al. In particular, a tongue-like Fe₂Al₅ phase adhering to the Fe and a needle-like Fe₄Al₁₃ phase adhering to the Al were observed. The growth of the intermetallic compound was found to be dependent on the temperature gradient present along the preform as well as on the reaction time which will be discussed in view of the different obtained results.

Keywords: combined synchrotron radiography and diffraction, Fe-Al intermetallic compounds, in-situ molten Al infiltration, porous solid Fe preforms

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11 Intermetallic Phases in the Fusion Weld of CP Ti to Stainless Steel

Authors: Juzar Vohra, Ravish Malhotra, Tim Pasang, Mana Azizi, Yuan Tao, Masami Mizutani


In this paper, dissimilar welding of titanium to stainless steels is reported. Laser Beam Welding (LBW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) were employed to join CPTi to SS304. The welds were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). FeTi, Ti2Cr and Fe2Ti dendrites are formed along with beta phase titanium matrix. The hardness values of these phases are high which makes them brittle and leading to cracking along the weld pool. However, it is believed that cracking, hence, fracturing of this weld joint is largely due to the difference in thermal properties of the two alloys.

Keywords: dissimilar metals, fusion welding, intermetallics, brittle

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10 Production of Chromium Matrix Composite Reinforced by WC by Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Ahmet Yonetken, Ayhan Erol


Intermetallic materials advanced technology materials that have outstanding mechanical and physical properties for high temperature applications. Especially creep resistance, low density and high hardness properties stand out in such intermetallics. The microstructure, mechanical properties of %80Cr-%10Ti and %10WC powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 1000-1400°C temperature. A composite consisting of ternary additions, a metallic phase, Ti,Cr and WC have been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were investigated to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for composition %80Cr-%10Ti and %10WC at 1400°C suggest that the best properties as 292HV and 5,34g/cm3 density were obtained at 1400°C.

Keywords: ceramic-metal, composites, powder metallurgy, sintering

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9 Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles

Authors: B. Z. Manuel, H. D. Esmeralda, H. S. Felipe, D. R. Héctor, D. de la Torre Sebastián, R. L. Diego


Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, intermetallics, spark plasma sintering, nanocrystalline

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8 Development of AA2024 Matrix Composites Reinforced with Micro Yttrium through Cold Compaction with Superior Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. H. S. Vidyasagar, D. B. Karunakar


In this present work, five different composite samples with AA2024 as matrix and varying amounts of yttrium (0.1-0.5 wt.%) as reinforcement are developed through cold compaction. The microstructures of the developed composite samples revealed that the yttrium reinforcement caused grain refinement up to 0.3 wt.% and beyond which the refinement is not effective. The microstructure revealed Al2Cu precipitation which strengthened the composite up to 0.3 wt.% yttrium reinforcement. Upon further increase in yttrium reinforcement, the intermetallics and the precipitation coarsen and their corresponding strengthening effect decreases. The mechanical characterization revealed that the composite sample reinforced with 0.3 wt.% yttrium showed highest mechanical properties like 82 HV of hardness, 276 MPa Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), 229 MPa Yield Strength (YS) and an elongation (EL) of 18.9% respectively. However, the relative density of the developed composites decreased with the increase in yttrium reinforcement.

Keywords: mechanical properties, AA 2024 matrix, yttrium reinforcement, cold compaction, precipitation

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7 Effects of Fourth Alloying Additive on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Ag-Cu Alloy

Authors: Ugur Buyuk, Sevda Engin


Among the various alloy systems being considered as lead-free solder candidates, Sn-Ag-Cu alloys have been recognized as the most promising because of their excellent reliability and compatibility with current components. Thus, Sn-Ag-Cu alloys have recently attracted considerable attention and have been proposed by the Japanese, the EU and the US consortiums to replace conventional Sn-Pb eutectic solder. However, many problems or unknown characteristics of the Sn-Ag-Cu alloy system such as the best composition, the large undercooling in solidification, and the formation of large intermetallics still exist. It is expected that the addition of some solidification nuclei for Sn-Ag-Cu alloys will refine the solidification microstructure and will suppress undercooling.In the present work, the effects of the fourth elements, i.e., Zn, Ni, Bi, In and Co, on microstructural and mechanical properties of Sn-3.5Ag-0.9Cu lead-free solder were investigated. Sn-3.5Ag-0.9Cu-0.5X (X= Zn, Ni, Bi, In, Co (wt.)) alloys were prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient and growth rates by using a Bridgman type directional solidification furnace. The microstructure, microhardness and ultimate tensile strength of alloys were measured. The effects of fourth elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–Ag-Cu eutectic alloys were investigated. The results obtained in the present work were compared with the previous experimental results.

Keywords: lead-free solders, microhardness, microstructure, tensile strength

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6 Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Obtained by FSW of Similar and Dissimilar Non-Ferrous Alloys Used in Aerospace and Automobile Industry

Authors: Ajay Sidana, Kulbir Singh Sandhu, Balwinder Singh Sidhu


Joining of dissimilar non-ferrous alloys like aluminium and magnesium alloys becomes important in various automobile and aerospace applications due to their low density and good corrosion resistance. Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining process, successfully welds difficult to weld similar and dissimilar aluminum and magnesium alloys. Two tool rotation speeds were selected by keeping the transverse speed constant to weld similar and dissimilar alloys. Similar(Al to Al) and Dissimilar(Al to Mg) weld joints were obtained by FSW. SEM scans revealed that higher tool rotation fragments the coarse grains of base material into fine grains in the weld zone. Also, there are less welding defects in weld joints obtained with higher tool rotation speed. The material of dissimilar alloys was mixed with each other forming recrystallised new intermetallics. There was decrease in hardness of similar weld joint however there is significant increase in hardness of weld zone in case of dissimilar weld joints due to stirring action of tool and formation of inter metallics. Tensile tests revealed that there was decrease in percentage elongation in both similar and dissimilar weld joints.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, friction stir welding, microstructure, mechanical properties

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5 Reentrant Spin-Glass State Formation in Polycrystalline Er₂NiSi₃

Authors: Santanu Pakhira, Chandan Mazumdar, R. Ranganathan, Maxim Avdeev


Magnetically frustrated systems are of great interest and one of the most adorable topics for the researcher of condensed matter physics, due to their various interesting properties, viz. ground state degeneracy, finite entropy at zero temperature, lowering of ordering temperature, etc. Ternary intermetallics with the composition RE₂TX₃ (RE = rare-earth element, T= d electron transition metal and X= p electron element) crystallize in hexagonal AlB₂ type crystal structure (space group P6/mmm). In a hexagonal crystal structure with the antiferromagnetic interaction between the moments, the center moment is geometrically frustrated. Magnetic frustration along with disorder arrangements of non-magnetic ions are the building blocks for metastable spin-glass ground state formation for most of the compounds of this stoichiometry. The newly synthesized compound Er₂NiSi₃ compound forms in single phase in AlB₂ type structure with space group P6/mmm. The compound orders antiferromagnetically below 5.4 K and spin freezing of the frustrated magnetic moments occurs below 3 K for the compound. The compound shows magnetic relaxation behavior and magnetic memory effect below its freezing temperature. Neutron diffraction patterns for temperatures below the spin freezing temperature have been analyzed using FULLPROF software package. Diffuse magnetic scattering at low temperatures yields spin glass state formation for the compound.

Keywords: antiferromagnetism, magnetic frustration, spin-glass, neutron diffraction

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4 Structural Evolution of Electrodeposited Ni Coating on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy during Heat Treatment

Authors: M. Abdoos, A. Amadeh, M. Adabi


In recent decades, the use of titanium and its alloys due to their high mechanical properties, light weight and their corrosion resistance has increased in military and industry applications. However, the poor surface properties can limit their widely usage. Many researches were carried out to improve their surface properties. The most effective technique is based on solid-state diffusion of elements that can form intermetallic compounds with the substrate. In the present work, inter-diffusion of nickel and titanium and formation of Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds in nickel-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy have been studied. Initially, nickel was electrodeposited on the alloy using Watts bath at a current density of 20 mA/cm2 for 1 hour. The coated specimens were then heat treated in a tubular furnace under argon atmosphere at different temperatures near Ti β-transus to maximize the diffusion rate for various durations in order to improve the surface properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effect of temperature and time on the thickness of diffusion layer and characteristics of intermetallic phases was studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and microhardness test. The results showed that a multilayer structure was formed after heat treatment: an outer layer of remaining nickel, an area of intermetallic layers with different compositions and solid solution of Ni-Ti. Three intermetallic layers was detected by EDS analysis, namely an outer layer with about 75 at.% Ni (Ni3Ti), an intermediate layer with 50 at.% Ni (NiTi) and finally an inner layer with 36 at.% Ni (NiTi2). It was also observed that the increase in time or temperature led to the formation of thicker intermetallic layers. Meanwhile, the microhardness of heat treated samples increased with formation of Ni-Ti intermetallics; however, its value depended on heat treatment parameters.

Keywords: heat treatment, microhardness, Ni coating, Ti-6Al-4V

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3 Effects of Fe Addition and Process Parameters on the Wear and Corrosion Characteristics of Icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Olawale S. Fatoba, Stephen A. Akinlabi, Esther T. Akinlabi, Rezvan Gharehbaghi


The performance of material surface under wear and corrosion environments cannot be fulfilled by the conventional surface modifications and coatings. Therefore, different industrial sectors need an alternative technique for enhanced surface properties. Titanium and its alloys possess poor tribological properties which limit their use in certain industries. This paper focuses on the effect of hybrid coatings Al-Cu-Fe on a grade five titanium alloy using laser metal deposition (LMD) process. Icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe as quasicrystals is a relatively new class of materials which exhibit unusual atomic structure and useful physical and chemical properties. A 3kW continuous wave ytterbium laser system (YLS) attached to a KUKA robot which controls the movement of the cladding process was utilized for the fabrication of the coatings. The titanium cladded surfaces were investigated for its hardness, corrosion and tribological behaviour at different laser processing conditions. The samples were cut to corrosion coupons, and immersed into 3.65% NaCl solution at 28oC using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Linear Polarization (LP) techniques. The cross-sectional view of the samples was analysed. It was found that the geometrical properties of the deposits such as width, height and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of each sample remarkably increased with increasing laser power due to the laser-material interaction. It was observed that there are higher number of aluminum and titanium presented in the formation of the composite. The indentation testing reveals that for both scanning speed of 0.8 m/min and 1m/min, the mean hardness value decreases with increasing laser power. The low coefficient of friction, excellent wear resistance and high microhardness were attributed to the formation of hard intermetallic compounds (TiCu, Ti2Cu, Ti3Al, Al3Ti) produced through the in situ metallurgical reactions during the LMD process. The load-bearing capability of the substrate was improved due to the excellent wear resistance of the coatings. The cladded layer showed a uniform crack free surface due to optimized laser process parameters which led to the refinement of the coatings.

Keywords: Al-Cu-Fe coating, corrosion, intermetallics, laser metal deposition, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, wear resistance

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2 Tensile and Fracture Properties of Cast and Forged Composite Synthesized by Addition of in-situ Generated Al3Ti-Al2O3 Particles to Magnesium

Authors: H. M. Nanjundaswamy, S. K. Nath, S. Ray


TiO2 particles have been added in molten aluminium to result in aluminium based cast Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite, which has been added then to molten magnesium to synthesize magnesium based cast Mg-Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite. The nominal compositions in terms of Mg, Al, and TiO2 contents in the magnesium based composites are Mg-9Al-0.6TiO2, Mg-9Al-0.8TiO2, Mg-9Al-1.0TiO2 and Mg-9Al-1.2TiO2 designated respectively as MA6T, MA8T, MA10T and MA12T. The microstructure of the cast magnesium based composite shows grayish rods of intermetallics Al3Ti, inherited from aluminium based composite but these rods, on hot forging, breaks into smaller lengths decreasing the average aspect ratio (length to diameter) from 7.5 to 3.0. There are also cavities in between the broken segments of rods. β-phase in cast microstructure, Mg17Al12, dissolves during heating prior to forging and re-precipitates as relatively finer particles on cooling. The amount of β-phase also decreases on forging as segregation is removed. In both the cast and forged composite, the Brinell hardness increases rapidly with increasing addition of TiO2 but the hardness is higher in forged composites by about 80 BHN. With addition of higher level of TiO2 in magnesium based cast composite, yield strength decreases progressively but there is marginal increase in yield strength over that of the cast Mg-9 wt. pct. Al, designated as MA alloy. But the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) in the cast composites decreases with the increasing particle content indicating possibly an early initiation of crack in the brittle inter-dendritic region and their easy propagation through the interfaces of the particles. In forged composites, there is a significant improvement in both yield strength and UTS with increasing TiO2 addition and also, over those observed in their cast counterpart, but at higher addition it decreases. It may also be noted that as in forged MA alloy, incomplete recovery of forging strain increases the strength of the matrix in the composites and the ductility decreases both in the forged alloy and the composites. Initiation fracture toughness, JIC, decreases drastically in cast composites compared to that in MA alloy due to the presence of intermetallic Al3Ti and Al2O3 particles in the composite. There is drastic reduction of JIC on forging both in the alloy and the composites, possibly due to incomplete recovery of forging strain in both as well as breaking of Al3Ti rods and the voids between the broken segments of Al3Ti rods in composites. The ratio of tearing modulus to elastic modulus in cast composites show higher ratio, which increases with the increasing TiO2 addition. The ratio decreases comparatively more on forging of cast MA alloy than those in forged composites.

Keywords: composite, fracture toughness, forging, tensile properties

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1 In-situ Formation of Particle Reinforced Aluminium Matrix Composites by Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Fe2O3/AlSi12 Powder Mixture Using Consecutive Laser Melting+Remelting Strategy

Authors: Qimin Shi, Yi Sun, Constantinus Politis, Shoufeng Yang


In-situ preparation of particle reinforced Aluminium matrix composites (PRAMCs) by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing is a promising strategy to strengthen traditional Al-based alloys. The laser-driven thermite reaction can be a practical mechanism to in-situ synthesise PRAMCs. However, the introduction of elements oxygen by adding Fe₂O₃ makes the powder mixture highly sensitive to form porosity and Al₂O₃ film during LPBF, bringing challenges to the production of dense and good-quality Al-based materials. Therefore, this work develops an LPBF processing strategy combined with consecutive high-energy laser melting scanning and low-energy laser remelting scanning to prepare dense PRAMCs from a Fe₂O₃/AlSi12 powder mixture. The powder mixture is made up of 5 wt% Fe₂O₃ and the remainder AlSi12 powder. A comparatively low-content addition of Fe₂O₃ aims to avoid the excess loss of material ductility due to the crack initiation starting from ceramic particle clusters, thus achieving balanced strength and ductility. A high relative density (98.2 ± 0.55 %) was successfully obtained by optimizing laser melting (Emelting) and laser remelting surface energy density (Eremelting) to Emelting = 35 J/mm2 and Eremelting = 5 J/mm2. Results further reveal the necessity of increasing Smelting to improve metal liquid’s spreading/wetting by breaking up the Al₂O₃ films surrounding the molten pools; however, the high-energy laser melting produced much porosity, including H₂-, O₂- and keyhole-induced pores. The subsequent low-energy laser remelting could close the resulting internal pores, backfill open gaps and smoothen solidified surfaces. As a result, the material was densified by repeating laser melting and laser remelting processes layer by layer. Although with two-times laser scanning, the microstructure still shows fine cellular Si networks with Al grains inside (grain size 370 nm) and in-situ nano-precipitates (Al₂O₃, Si, and Al-Fe(-Si) intermetallics). Finally, the fine microstructure, nano-structured dispersion strengthening, and high-level densification strengthened the prepared in-situ PRAMCs, reaching yield strength of 426 ± 4 MPa and tensile strength of 473 ± 6 MPa. Furthermore, the results can expect to provide valuable information to process other powder mixtures with severe porosity/oxide-film formation potential, considering the evidenced contribution of laser melting/remelting strategy to densify material and obtain good mechanical properties during LPBF.

Keywords: densification, laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), mechanical properties, metal matrix composites (MMCs), micro structures

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