Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: amphiphilic

39 Micelles Made of Pseudo-Proteins for Solubilization of Hydrophobic Biologicals

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, David Tugushi, Vladimir P. Torchilin, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Hydrophobic / hydrophilically modified functional polymers are of high interest in modern biomedicine due to their ability to solubilize water-insoluble / poorly soluble (hydrophobic) drugs. Among the many approaches that are being developed in this direction, one of the most effective methods is the use of polymeric micelles (PMs) (micelles formed by amphiphilic block-copolymers) for solubilization of hydrophobic biologicals. For therapeutic purposes, PMs are required to be stable and biodegradable, although quite a few amphiphilic block-copolymers are described capable of forming stable micelles with good solubilization properties. For obtaining micelle-forming block-copolymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives are desirable to use as hydrophilic shell because it represents the most popular biocompatible hydrophilic block and various hydrophobic blocks (polymers) can be attached to it. Although the construction of the hydrophobic core, due to the complex requirements and micelles structure development, is the very actual and the main problem for nanobioengineers. Considering the above, our research goal was obtaining biodegradable micelles for the solubilization of hydrophobic drugs and biologicals. For this purpose, we used biodegradable polymers– pseudo-proteins (PPs)(synthesized with naturally occurring amino acids and other non-toxic building blocks, such as fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids) as hydrophobic core since these polymers showed reasonable biodegradation rates and excellent biocompatibility. In the present study, we used the hydrophobic amino acid – L-phenylalanine (MW 4000-8000Da) instead of L-leucine. Amino-PEG (MW 2000Da) was used as hydrophilic fragments for constructing the suitable micelles. The molecular weight of PP (the hydrophobic core of micelle) was regulated by variation of used monomers ratios. Micelles were obtained by dissolving of synthesized amphiphilic polymer in water. The micelle-forming property was tested using dynamic light scattering (Malvern zetasizer NanoZSZEN3600). The study showed that obtaining amphiphilic block-copolymer form stable neutral micelles 100 ± 7 nm in size at 10mg/mL concentration, which is considered as an optimal range for pharmaceutical micelles. The obtained preliminary data allow us to conclude that the obtained micelles are suitable for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs and biologicals.

Keywords: amino acid – L-phenylalanine, pseudo-proteins, amphiphilic block-copolymers, biodegradable micelles

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
38 Chemical Sensing Properties of Self-Assembled Film Based on an Amphiphilic Ambipolar Triple-Decker (Phthalocyaninato) (Porphyrinato) Europium Semiconductor

Authors: Kiran Abdullah, Yanli Chen

Abstract:

An amphiphilic mixed (phthalocyaninato) (porphyrinato) europium triple-decker complex Eu₂(Pc)₂(TPyP) has been synthesized and characterized. Introducing electron-withdrawing pyridyl substituents onto the meso-position of porphyrin ring in the triple-decker to ensure the sufficient hydrophilicity and suitable HOMO and LUMO energy levels and thus successfully realize amphiphilic ambipolar organic semiconductor. Importantly, high sensitive, reproducible p-type and n-type responses towards NH₃ andNO₂ respectively, based on the self-assembled film of the Eu₂(Pc)₂(TPyP) fabricated by a simple solution-based Quasi–Langmuir–Shäfer (QLS) method, have been first revealed. The good conductivity and crystallinity for the QLS film of Eu₂(Pc)₂(TPyP) render it excellent sensing property. This complex is sensitive to both electron-donating NH₃ gas in 5–30 ppm range and electron-accepting NO₂ gas 400–900 ppb range. Due to uniform nano particles there exist effective intermolecular interaction between triple decker molecules. This is the best result of Phthalocyanine–based chemical sensors at room temperature. Furthermore, the responses of the QLS film are all linearly correlated to both NH₃ and NO₂ with excellent sensitivity of 0.04% ppm⁻¹ and 31.9 % ppm⁻¹, respectively, indicating the great potential of semiconducting tetrapyrrole rare earth triple-decker compounds in the field of chemical sensors.

Keywords: ambipolar semiconductor, gas sensing, mixed (phthalocyaninato) (porphyrinato) rare earth complex, Self-assemblies

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
37 Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Amphiphilic Polymers and Micelles as Drug Delivery Systems: Synthesis and Study

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Vladimir P. Torchilin, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Nanotherapy is an actual newest mode of treatment numerous diseases using nanoparticles (NPs) loading with different pharmaceuticals. NPs of biodegradable polymeric micelles (PMs) are gaining increased attention for their numerous and attractive abilities to be used in a variety of applications in the various fields of medicine. The present paper deals with the synthesis of a class of biodegradable micelle-forming polymers, namely ABA triblock-copolymer in which A-blocks represent amino-poly(ethylene glycol) (H2N-PEG) and B-block is biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amide) constituted of α-amino acid – L-phenylalanine. The obtained copolymer formed micelles of 70±4 nm size at 10 mg/mL concentration.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable poly (ester amide), amphiphilic triblock-copolymer, micelles

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
36 Effect of Asymmetric Amphiphilic Dicationic Ionic Liquids as Oil Spill Dispersants in Red Sea

Authors: Raghda El-Nagara, Maher I. Nessim, Carmen E. Elshafee, Renee I. Abdallah, Yasser M. Moustafa

Abstract:

Three asymmetric dicationic ionic liquids (ADILs), 1-(2-(1-dodecyl-2-methyl-1H-imidazolium-3-yl)ethyl)-3-methyl pyridinium bromide (IL₁), 1-(6-(1-dodecyl-2-methyl-1H-imidazolium-3-yl)hexyl)-3-methyl pyridinium bromide (IL₂) and 1-(10-(1-dodecyl-2-methyl-1H-imidazolium-3-yl)decyl)-3-methyl pyridinium bromide (IL₃) were synthesized with yield of 83.54, 84.12 & 83.05% respectively. They were elucidated via conventional tools of analysis (elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR). The thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the three ADILs possessed high thermal stability (up to 500ᵒC). Their critical micelle concentration (CMC) was investigated and exhibited values of 5.5-1*10⁻³ Mol./L. They were evaluated as oil spill dispersants were at different temperatures (10, 30 & 50ᵒC) with different concentrations (750, 1500, 2000, 3000 ppm). Data reveals that the efficiency is ranked as follows: IL₂ > IL₁ > IL₃, which showed high dispersion efficiency reached to 63% with the concentration of 1500 ppm.

Keywords: ionic liquids, amphiphilic, oil spill dispersants, dicationic, efficiency test

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
35 Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Carrier for Etoposide

Authors: Akhtar Aman, Abida Raza, Shumaila Bashir, Javaid Irfan, Andreas G. Schätzlein, Ijeoma F Uchegbeu

Abstract:

Development of efficient delivery system for hydrophobic drugs remains a major concern in chemotherapy. The objective of the current study was to develop polymeric drug-delivery system for etoposide from amphiphilic derivatives of glycol chitosan, capable to improve the pharmacokinetics and to reduce the adverse effects of etoposide due to various organic solvents used in commercial formulations for solubilisation of etoposide. As a promising carrier, amphiphilic derivatives of glycol chitosan were synthesized by chemical grafting of palmitic acid N-hydroxy succinimide and quaternisation to glycol chitosan backbone. To this end a 7.9 kDa glycol chitosan was modified by palmitoylation and quaternisation into 13 kDa. Nano sized micelles prepared from this amphiphilic polymer had the capability to encapsulate up to 3 mg/ml etoposide. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that GCPQ based etoposide formulation transformed the biodistribution pattern. AUC 0.5-24 hr showed statistically significant difference in ETP-GCPQ vs. commercial preparation in liver (25 vs 70, p<0.001), spleen (27 vs. 36, P<0.05), lungs (42 vs. 136, p<0.001), kidneys (25 vs. 30, p<0.05) and brain (19 vs. 9,p<0.001). Using the hydrophobic fluorescent dye Nile red, we showed that micelles efficiently delivered their payload to MCF7 and A2780 cancer cells in-vitro and to A431 xenograft tumor in-vivo, suggesting these systems could deliver hydrophobic anti- cancer drugs such as etoposide to tumors. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the GCPQ micelles transformed the biodistribution pattern and increased etoposide concentration in the brain significantly compared to free drug after intravenous administration. GCPQ based formulations not only reduced side effects associated with current available formulations but also increased their transport through the biological barriers, thus making it a good delivery system.

Keywords: glycol chitosan, Nile red, micelles, etoposide, A431 xenografts

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
34 Synthesis of Star Compounds Bearing a Porphyrin Core and Cholic Acid Units by Using Click Chemistry: Study of the Optical Properties and Aggregation

Authors: Edgar Aguilar-Ortíz, Nicolas Lévaray, Mireille Vonlanthen, Eric G. Morales-Espinoza, Ernesto Rivera, Xiao Xia Zhu

Abstract:

Four new star compounds bearing a porphyrin core and cholic acid units, (TPPh(Zn) tetra-CA, TPPh(2H) tetra-CA, TPPh(Zn) octa-CA and TPPh(2H) octa-CA), have been synthesized using the Click Chemistry approach, which consist on azide-alkyne couplings. These novel functionalized porphyrins were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and their structure was confirmed by MALDI-TOF. The optical properties of these compounds were studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. On the other hand, order to evaluate the amphiphilic properties of the cholic acid units combined with the optical response of the porphyrin core, we performed absorption and fluorescence studies in function of the polarity of the environment. It was found that as soon as we increase the polarity of the solvent, the Zn-metallated porphyrins, (TPPh(Zn) tetra-CA and TPPh(Zn) octa-CA), are able to form J aggregates, whereas the free-base porphyrins, TPPh(2H) tetra-CA and TPPh(2H) octa-CA, behaved differently.

Keywords: aggregates, amphiphilic, cholic acid, click-chemistry, porphyrin

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
33 Charged Amphiphilic Polypeptide Based Micelle Hydrogel Composite for Dual Drug Release

Authors: Monika Patel, Kazuaki Matsumura

Abstract:

Synthetic hydrogels, with their unique properties such as porosity, strength, and swelling in aqueous environment, are being used in many fields from food additives to regenerative medicines, from diagnostic and pharmaceuticals to drug delivery systems (DDS). But, hydrogels also have some limitations in terms of homogeneity of drug distribution and quantity of loaded drugs. As an alternate, polymeric micelles are extensively used as DDS. With the ease of self-assembly, and distinct stability they remarkably improve the solubility of hydrophobic drugs. However, presently, combinational therapy is the need of time and so are systems which are capable of releasing more than one drug. And it is one of the major challenges towards DDS to control the release of each drug independently, which simple DDS cannot meet. In this work, we present an amphiphilic polypeptide based micelle hydrogel composite to study the dual drug release for wound healing purposes using Amphotericin B (AmpB) and Curcumin as model drugs. Firstly, two differently charged amphiphilic polypeptide chains were prepared namely, poly L-Lysine-b-poly phenyl alanine (PLL-PPA) and poly Glutamic acid-b-poly phenyl alanine (PGA-PPA) through ring opening polymerization of amino acid N-carboxyanhydride. These polymers readily self-assemble to form micelles with hydrophobic PPA block as core and hydrophilic PLL/PGA as shell with an average diameter of about 280nm. The thus formed micelles were loaded with the model drugs. The PLL-PPA micelle was loaded with curcumin and PGA-PPA was loaded with AmpB by dialysis method. Drug loaded micelles showed a slight increase in the mean diameter and were fairly stable in solution and lyophilized forms. For forming the micelles hydrogel composite, the drug loaded micelles were dissolved and were cross linked using genipin. Genipin uses the free –NH2 groups in the PLL-PPA micelles to form a hydrogel network with free PGA-PPA micelles trapped in between the 3D scaffold formed. Different composites were tested by changing the weight ratios of the both micelles and were seen to alter its resulting surface charge from positive to negative with increase in PGA-PPA ratio. The composites with high surface charge showed a burst release of drug in initial phase, were as the composites with relatively low net charge showed a sustained release. Thus the resultant surface charge of the composite can be tuned to tune its drug release profile. Also, while studying the degree of cross linking among the PLL-PPA particles for effect on dual drug release, it was seen that as the degree of crosslinking increases, an increase in the tendency to burst release the drug (AmpB) is seen in PGA-PPA particle, were as on the contrary the PLL-PPA particles showed a slower release of Curcumin with increasing the cross linking density. Thus, two different pharmacokinetic profile of drugs were seen by changing the cross linking degree. In conclusion, a unique charged amphiphilic polypeptide based micelle hydrogel composite for dual drug delivery. This composite can be finely tuned on the basis of need of drug release profiles by changing simple parameters such as composition, cross linking and pH.

Keywords: amphiphilic polypeptide, dual drug release, micelle hydrogel composite, tunable DDS

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
32 Phospholipid Cationic and Zwitterionic Compounds as Potential Non-Toxic Antifouling Agents: A Study of Biofilm Formation Assessed by Micro-titer Assays with Marine Bacteria and Eco-toxicological Effect on Marine Microalgae

Authors: D. Malouch, M. Berchel, C. Dreanno, S. Stachowski-Haberkorn, P-A. Jaffres

Abstract:

Biofouling is a complex natural phenomenon that involves biological, physical and chemical properties related to the environment, the submerged surface and the living organisms involved. Bio-colonization of artificial structures can cause various economic and environmental impacts. The increase in costs associated with the over-consumption of fuel from biocolonized vessels has been widely studied. Measurement drifts from submerged sensors, as well as obstructions in heat exchangers, and deterioration of offshore structures are major difficulties that industries are dealing with. Therefore, surfaces that inhibit biocolonization are required in different areas (water treatment, marine paints, etc.) and many efforts have been devoted to produce efficient and eco-compatible antifouling agents. The different steps of surface fouling are widely described in literature. Studying the biofilm and its stages provides a better understanding of how to elaborate more efficient antifouling strategies. Several approaches are currently applied, such as the use of biocide anti-fouling paint (mainly with copper derivatives) and super-hydrophobic coatings. While these two processes are proving to be the most effective, they are not entirely satisfactory, especially in a context of a changing legislation. Nowadays, the challenge is to prevent biofouling with non-biocide compounds, offering a cost effective solution, but with no toxic effects on marine organisms. Since the micro-fouling phase plays an important role in the regulation of the following steps of biofilm formation, it is desired to reduce or delate biofouling of a given surface by inhibiting the micro-fouling at its early stages. In our recent works, we reported that some amphiphilic compounds exhibited bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties at a concentration that did not affect mammalian eukaryotic cells. These remarkable properties invited us to assess this type of bio-inspired phospholipids to prevent the colonization of surfaces by marine bacteria. Of note, other studies reported that amphiphilic compounds interacted with bacteria leading to a reduction of their development. An amphiphilic compound is a molecule consisting of a hydrophobic domain and a polar head (ionic or non-ionic). These compounds appear to have interesting antifouling properties: some ionic compounds have shown antimicrobial activity, and zwitterions can reduce nonspecific adsorption of proteins. Herein, we investigate the potential of amphiphilic compounds as inhibitors of bacterial growth and marine biofilm formation. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of four synthetic phospholipids that features a cationic charge or a zwitterionic polar-head group to prevent microfouling with marine bacteria. Toxicity of these compounds was also studied in order to identify the most promising compounds that inhibit biofilm development and show low cytotoxicity on two links representative of coastal marine food webs: phytoplankton and oyster larvae.

Keywords: amphiphilic phospholipids, biofilm, marine fouling, non-toxique assays

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
31 Amphiphilic Compounds as Potential Non-Toxic Antifouling Agents: A Study of Biofilm Formation Assessed by Micro-titer Assays with Marine Bacteria and Eco-toxicological Effect on Marine Algae

Authors: D. Malouch, M. Berchel, C. Dreanno, S. Stachowski-Haberkorn, P-A. Jaffres

Abstract:

Biofilm is a predominant lifestyle chosen by bacteria. Whether it is developed on an immerged surface or a mobile biofilm known as flocs, the bacteria within this form of life show properties different from its planktonic ones. Within the biofilm, the self-formed matrix of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) offers hydration, resources capture, enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents, and allows cell-communication. Biofouling is a complex natural phenomenon that involves biological, physical and chemical properties related to the environment, the submerged surface and the living organisms involved. Bio-colonization of artificial structures can cause various economic and environmental impacts. The increase in costs associated with the over-consumption of fuel from biocolonized vessels has been widely studied. Measurement drifts from submerged sensors, as well as obstructions in heat exchangers, and deterioration of offshore structures are major difficulties that industries are dealing with. Therefore, surfaces that inhibit biocolonization are required in different areas (water treatment, marine paints, etc.) and many efforts have been devoted to produce efficient and eco-compatible antifouling agents. The different steps of surface fouling are widely described in literature. Studying the biofilm and its stages provides a better understanding of how to elaborate more efficient antifouling strategies. Several approaches are currently applied, such as the use of biocide anti-fouling paint6 (mainly with copper derivatives) and super-hydrophobic coatings. While these two processes are proving to be the most effective, they are not entirely satisfactory, especially in a context of a changing legislation. Nowadays, the challenge is to prevent biofouling with non-biocide compounds, offering a cost effective solution, but with no toxic effects on marine organisms. Since the micro-fouling phase plays an important role in the regulation of the following steps of biofilm formation7, it is desired to reduce or delate biofouling of a given surface by inhibiting the micro fouling at its early stages. In our recent works, we reported that some amphiphilic compounds exhibited bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties at a concentration that did not affect eukaryotic cells. These remarkable properties invited us to assess this type of bio-inspired phospholipids9 to prevent the colonization of surfaces by marine bacteria. Of note, other studies reported that amphiphilic compounds interacted with bacteria leading to a reduction of their development. An amphiphilic compound is a molecule consisting of a hydrophobic domain and a polar head (ionic or non-ionic). These compounds appear to have interesting antifouling properties: some ionic compounds have shown antimicrobial activity, and zwitterions can reduce nonspecific adsorption of proteins. Herein, we investigate the potential of amphiphilic compounds as inhibitors of bacterial growth and marine biofilm formation. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of four synthetic phospholipids that features a cationic charge (BSV36, KLN47) or a zwitterionic polar-head group (SL386, MB2871) to prevent microfouling with marine bacteria. We also study the toxicity of these compounds in order to identify the most promising compound that must feature high anti-adhesive properties and a low cytotoxicity on two links representative of coastal marine food webs: phytoplankton and oyster larvae.

Keywords: amphiphilic phospholipids, bacterial biofilm, marine microfouling, non-toxic antifouling

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
30 Electrospun Nanofibers from Amphiphlic Block Copolymers and Their Graphene Nanocomposites

Authors: Hussein M. Etmimi, Peter E. Mallon

Abstract:

Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to draw very fine fibers (typically on the micro or nano scale) from a liquid or molten precursor. Over the years, this method has become a widely used and a successful technique to process polymer materials and their composites into nanofibers. The main focus of this work is to study the electrospinning of multi-phase amphiphilic copolymers and their nanocomposites, which contain graphene as the nanofiller material. In such amphiphilic materials, the constituents segments are incompatible and thus the solid state morphology will be determined by the composition of the various constituents as well as the method of preparation. In this study, amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(dimethyl siloxane) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PDMS-b-PMMA) with well-defined structures were synthesized and the solution electrospinning of these materials and their properties were investigated. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used to obtain the controlled block copolymers with relatively high molar masses and narrow dispersity. First, PDMS macroinitiators with different chain length of 1000, 5000 and 10000 g/mol were synthesized by the reaction of monocarbinol terminated PDMS with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide initiator. The obtained macroinitiators were used for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate monomer to obtain the desired block copolymers using the ATRP process. Graphene oxide (GO) of different loading was then added to the copolymer solution and the resultant nanocomposites were successfully electrospun into nanofibers. The electrospinning was achieved using dimethylformamide/chloroform mixture (60:40 vl%) as electrospinning solution medium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the successful formation of the electrospun fibers with dimensions in the nanometer range. X-ray diffraction indicated that the GO nanosheets were of an exfoliated structure, irrespective of the filler loading. Thermogravimetric analysis also showed that the thermal stability of the nanofibers was improved in the presence of GO, which was not a function of the filler loading. Differential scanning calorimetry also showed that the mechanical properties (measured as glass transition temperature) of the nanofibers was improved significantly in the presence of GO, which was a function of the filler loading.

Keywords: elctrospinning, graphene oxide, nanofibers, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
29 Polymersomes in Drug Delivery: A Comparative Review with Liposomes and Micelles

Authors: Salma E. Ahmed

Abstract:

Since the mid 50’s, enormous attention has been paid towards nanocarriers and their applications in drug and gene delivery. Among these vesicles, liposomes and micelles have been heavily investigated due to their many advantages over other types. Liposomes, for instance, are mostly distinguished by their ability to encapsulate hydrophobic, hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs. Micelles, on the other hand, are self-assembled shells of lipids, amphiphilic or oppositely charged block copolymers that, once exposed to aqueous media, can entrap hydrophobic agents, and possess prolonged circulation in the bloodstream. Both carriers are considered compatible and biodegradable. Nevertheless, they have limited stabilities, chemical versatilities, and drug encapsulation efficiencies. In order to overcome these downsides, strategies for optimizing a novel drug delivery system that has the architecture of liposomes and polymeric characteristics of micelles have been evolved. Polymersomes are vehicles with fluidic cores and hydrophobic shells that are protected and isolated from the aqueous media by the hydrated hydrophilic brushes which give the carrier its distinctive polymeric bilayer shape. Similar to liposomes, this merit enables the carrier to encapsulate a wide range of agents, despite their affinities and solubilities in water. Adding to this, the high molecular weight of the amphiphiles that build the body of the polymersomes increases their colloidal and chemical stabilities and reduces the permeability of the polymeric membranes, which makes the vesicles more protective to the encapsulated drug. These carriers can also be modified in ways that make them responsive when targeted or triggered, by manipulating their composition and attaching moieties and conjugates to the body of the carriers. These appealing characteristics, in addition to the ease of synthesis, gave the polymersomes greater potentials in the area of drug delivery. Thus, their design and characterization, in comparison with liposomes and micelles, are briefly reviewed in this work.

Keywords: controlled release, liposomes, micelles, polymersomes, targeting

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
28 Impact of Electric Field on the Optical Properties of Hydrophilic Quantum Dots

Authors: Valentina V. Goftman, Vladislav A. Pankratov, Alexey V. Markin, Tangi Aubert, Zeger Hens, Sarah De Saeger, Irina Yu. Goryacheva

Abstract:

The most important requirements for biochemical applicability of quantum dots (QDs) are: 1) the surface cap should render intact or improved optical properties; 2) mono-dispersion and good stability in aqueous phase in a wide range of pH and ionic strength values; 3) presence of functional groups, available for bioconjugation; 4) minimal impact from the environment on the QDs’ properties and, vice versa, minimal influence of the QDs’ components on the environment; and 5) stability against chemical/biochemical/physical influence. The latter is especially important for in vitro and in vivo applications. For example, some physical intracellular delivery strategies (e.g., electroporation) imply a rapid high-voltage electric field impulse in order to temporarily generate hydrophilic pores in the cell plasma membrane, necessary for the passive transportation of QDs into the cell. In this regard, it is interesting to investigate how different capping layers, which can provide high stability and sufficient fluorescent properties of QDs in a water solution, behave under these abnormal conditions. In this contribution, hydrophobic core-shell CdSe/CdS/CdZnS/ZnS QDs (λem=600 nm), produced by means of the Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique, were transferred to a water solution using two of the most commonly used methods: (i) encapsulation in an amphiphilic brush polymer based on poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAO) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains and (ii) silica covering. Polymer encapsulation preserves the initial ligands on the QDs’ surface owing to the hydrophobic attraction between the hydrophobic groups of the amphiphilic molecules and the surface hydrophobic groups of the QDs. This covering process allows maintaining the initial fluorescent properties, but it leads to a considerable increase of the QDs’ size. However, covering with a silica shell, by means of the reverse microemulsion method, allows maintaining both size and fluorescent properties of the initial QDs. The obtained water solutions of polymer covered and silica-coated QDs in three different concentrations were exposed to a low-voltage electric field for a short time and the fluorescent properties were investigated. It is shown that the PMAO-PEG polymer acquires some additional charges in the presence of the electric field, which causes repulsion between the polymer and the QDs’ surface. This process destroys the homogeneity of the whole amphiphilic shell and it dramatically decreases the fluorescent properties (dropping to 10% from its initial value) because of the direct contact of the QDs with the strongly oxidative environment (water). In contrast, a silica shell possesses dielectric properties which allow retaining 90% of its initial fluorescence intensity, even after a longer electric impact. Thus, silica shells are clearly a preferable covering for bio-application of QDs, because – besides the high uniform morphology, controlled size and biocompatibility – it allows protecting QDs from oxidation, even under the influence of an electric field.

Keywords: electric field, polymer coating, quantum dots, silica covering, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
27 Upconversion Nanoparticle-Mediated Carbon Monoxide Prodrug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Yaw Opoku-Damoah, Run Zhang, Hang Thu Ta, Zhi Ping Xu

Abstract:

Gas therapy is still at an early stage of research and development. Even though most gasotransmitters have proven their therapeutic potential, their handling, delivery, and controlled release have been extremely challenging. This research work employs a versatile nanosystem that is capable of delivering a gasotransmitter in the form of a photo-responsive carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM) for targeted cancer therapy. The therapeutic action was mediated by upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) designed to transfer bio-friendly low energy near-infrared (NIR) light to ultraviolet (UV) light capable of triggering carbon monoxide (CO) from a water-soluble amphiphilic manganese carbonyl complex CORM incorporated into a carefully designed lipid drug delivery system. Herein, gaseous CO that plays a role as a gasotransmitter with cytotoxic and homeostatic properties was investigated to instigate cellular apoptosis. After successfully synthesizing the drug delivery system, the ability of the system to encapsulate and mediate the sustained release of CO after light excitation was demonstrated. CO fluorescence probe (COFP) was successfully employed to determine the in vitro drug release profile upon NIR light irradiation. The uptake of nanoparticles enhanced by folates and its receptor interaction was also studied for cellular uptake purposes. The anticancer potential of the final lipid nanoparticle Lipid/UCNPs/CORM/FA (LUCF) was also determined by cell viability assay. Intracellular CO release and a subsequent therapeutic action involving ROS production, mitochondrial damage, and CO production was also evaluated. In all, this current project aims to use in vitro studies to determine the potency and efficiency of a NIR-mediated CORM prodrug delivery system.

Keywords: carbon monoxide-releasing molecule, upconversion nanoparticles, site-specific delivery, amphiphilic manganese carbonyl complex, prodrug delivery system.

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
26 Polymeric Micelles Based on Block Copolymer α-Tocopherol Succinate-g-Carboxymethyl Chitosan for Tamoxifen Delivery

Authors: Sunil K. Jena, Sanjaya K. Samal, Mahesh Chand, Abhay T. Sangamwar

Abstract:

Tamoxifen (TMX) and its analogues are approved as a first line therapy for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive tumors. However, clinical development of TMX has been hampered by its low bioavailability and severe hepatotoxicity. Herein, we attempt to design a new drug delivery vehicle that could enhance the pharmacokinetic performance of TMX. Initially, high-molecular weight carboxymethyl chitosan was hydrolyzed to low-molecular weight carboxymethyl chitosan (LMW CMC) with hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid. Amphiphilic block copolymers of LMW CMC were synthesized via amidation reaction between the carboxyl group of α-tocopherol succinate (TS) and an amine group of LMW CMC. These amphiphilic block copolymers were self-assembled to nanosize core-shell-structural micelles in the aqueous medium. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) decreased with the increasing substitution of TS on LMW CMC, which ranged from 1.58 × 10-6 to 7.94 × 10-8 g/mL. Maximum TMX loading up to 8.08 ± 0.98% was achieved with Cmc-TS4.5 (TMX/Cmc-TS4.5 with 1:8 weight ratio). Both blank and TMX-loaded polymeric micelles (TMX-PM) of Cmc-TS4.5 exhibits spherical shape with the particle size below 200 nm. TMX-PM has been found to be stable in the gastrointestinal conditions and released only 44.5% of the total drug content by the first 72 h in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), pH 1.2. However, the presence of pepsin does not significantly increased the TMX release in SGF, pH 1.2, released only about 46.2% by the first 72 h suggesting its inability to cleave the peptide bond. In contrast, the release of TMX from TMX-PM4.5 in SIF, pH 6.8 (without pancreatin) was slow and sustained, released only about 10.43% of the total drug content within the first 30 min and nearly about 12.41% by the first 72 h. The presence of pancreatin in SIF, pH 6.8 led to an improvement in drug release. About 28.09% of incorporated TMX was released in the presence of pancreatin in 72 h. A cytotoxicity study demonstrated that TMX-PM exhibited time-delayed cytotoxicity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Pharmacokinetic studies on Sprague-Dawley rats revealed a remarkable increase in oral bioavailability (1.87-fold) with significant (p < 0.0001) enhancement in AUC0-72 h, t1/2 and MRT of TMX-PM4.5 than that of TMX-suspension. Thus, the results suggested that CMC-TS micelles are a promising carrier for TMX delivery.

Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan, d-α-tocopherol succinate, pharmacokinetic, polymeric micelles, tamoxifen

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
25 Development of Novel Amphiphilic Block Copolymer of Renewable ε-Decalactone for Drug Delivery Application

Authors: Deepak Kakde, Steve Howdle, Derek Irvine, Cameron Alexander

Abstract:

The poor aqueous solubility is one of the major obstacles in the formulation development of many drugs. Around 70% of drugs are poorly soluble in aqueous media. In the last few decades, micelles have emerged as one of the major tools for solubilization of hydrophobic drugs. Micelles are nanosized structures (10-100nm) obtained by self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules into the water. The hydrophobic part of the micelle forms core which is surrounded by a hydrophilic outer shell called corona. These core-shell structures have been used as a drug delivery vehicle for many years. Although, the utility of micelles have been reduced due to the lack of sustainable materials. In the present study, a novel methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-decalactone) (mPEG-b-PεDL) copolymer was synthesized by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of renewable ε-decalactone (ε-DL) monomers on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) initiator using 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) as a organocatalyst. All the reactions were conducted in bulk to avoid the use of toxic organic solvents. The copolymer was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The mPEG-b-PεDL block copolymeric micelles containing indomethacin (IND) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and evaluated as drug delivery vehicle. The size of the micelles was less than 40nm with narrow polydispersity pattern. TEM image showed uniform distribution of spherical micelles defined by clear surface boundary. The indomethacin loading was 7.4% for copolymer with molecular weight of 13000 and drug/polymer weight ratio of 4/50. The higher drug/polymer ratio decreased the drug loading. The drug release study in PBS (pH7.4) showed a sustained release of drug over a period of 24hr. In conclusion, we have developed a new sustainable polymeric material for IND delivery by combining the green synthetic approach with the use of renewable monomer for sustainable development of polymeric nanomedicine.

Keywords: dopolymer, ε-decalactone, indomethacin, micelles

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
24 Green-Synthesized β-Cyclodextrin Membranes for Humidity Sensors

Authors: Zeineb Baatout, Safa Teka, Nejmeddine Jaballah, Nawfel Sakly, Xiaonan Sun, Mustapha Majdoub

Abstract:

Currently, the economic interests linked to the development of bio-based materials make biomass one of the most interesting areas for science development. We are interested in the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), one of the popular bio-sourced macromolecule, produced from the starch via enzymatic conversion. It is a cyclic oligosaccharide formed by the association of seven glucose units. It presents a rigid conical and amphiphilic structure with hydrophilic exterior, allowing it to be water-soluble. It has also a hydrophobic interior enabling the formation of inclusion complexes, which support its application for the elaboration of electrochemical and optical sensors. Nevertheless, the solubility of β-CD in water makes its use as sensitive layer limit and difficult due to their instability in aqueous media. To overcome this limitation, we chose to precede by modification of the hydroxyl groups to obtain hydrophobic derivatives which lead to water-stable sensing layers. Hence, a series of benzylated β-CDs were synthesized in basic aqueous media in one pot. This work reports the synthesis of a new family of substituted amphiphilic β-CDs using a green methodology. The obtained β-CDs showed different degree of substitution (DS) between 0.85 and 2.03. These organic macromolecular materials were soluble in common organic volatile solvents, and their structures were investigated by NMR, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF spectroscopies. Thermal analysis showed a correlation between the thermal properties of these derivatives and the benzylation degree. The surface properties of the thin films based on the benzylated β-CDs were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These organic materials were investigated as sensitive layers, deposited on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gravimetric transducer, for humidity sensor at room temperature. The results showed that the performances of the prepared sensors are greatly influenced by the benzylation degree of β-CD. The partially modified β-CD (DS=1) shows linear response with best sensitivity, good reproducibility, low hysteresis, fast response time (15s) and recovery time (17s) at higher relative humidity levels (RH) between 11% and 98% in room temperature.

Keywords: β-cyclodextrin, green synthesis, humidity sensor, quartz crystal microbalance

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
23 Diselenide-Linked Redox Stimuli-Responsive Methoxy Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-b-Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Micelles for the Delivery of Doxorubicin in Cancer Cells

Authors: Yihenew Simegniew Birhan, Hsieh Chih Tsai

Abstract:

The recent advancements in synthetic chemistry and nanotechnology fostered the development of different nanocarriers for enhanced intracellular delivery of pharmaceutical agents to tumor cells. Polymeric micelles (PMs), characterized by small size, appreciable drug loading capacity (DLC), better accumulation in tumor tissue via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and the ability to avoid detection and subsequent clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) system, are convenient to improve the poor solubility, slow absorption and non-selective biodistribution of payloads embedded in their hydrophobic cores and hence, enhance the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, redox-responsive polymeric micelles have gained significant attention for the delivery and controlled release of anticancer drugs in tumor cells. In this study, we synthesized redox-responsive diselenide bond containing amphiphilic polymer, Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ from mPEG-PLGA, and 3,3'-diselanediyldipropanoic acid (DSeDPA) using DCC/DMAP as coupling agents. The successful synthesis of the copolymers was verified by different spectroscopic techniques. Above the critical micelle concentration, the amphiphilic copolymer, Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂, self-assembled into stable micelles. The DLS data indicated that the hydrodynamic diameter of the micelles (123.9 ± 0.85 nm) was suitable for extravasation into the tumor cells through the EPR effect. The drug loading content (DLC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX-loaded micelles were found to be 6.61 wt% and 54.9%, respectively. The DOX-loaded micelles showed initial burst release accompanied by sustained release trend where 73.94% and 69.54% of encapsulated DOX was released upon treatment with 6mM GSH and 0.1% H₂O₂, respectively. The biocompatible nature of Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ copolymer was confirmed by the cell viability study. In addition, the DOX-loaded micelles exhibited significant inhibition against HeLa cells (44.46%), at a maximum dose of 7.5 µg/mL. The fluorescent microscope images of HeLa cells treated with 3 µg/mL (equivalent DOX concentration) revealed efficient internalization and accumulation of DOX-loaded Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ micelles in the cytosol of cancer cells. In conclusion, the intelligent, biocompatible, and the redox stimuli-responsive behavior of Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ copolymer marked the potential applications of diselenide-linked mPEG-PLGA micelles for the delivery and on-demand release of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells.

Keywords: anticancer drug delivery, diselenide bond, polymeric micelles, redox-responsive

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
22 Modified Polysaccharide as Emulsifier in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

Authors: Tatiana Marques Pessanha, Aurora Perez-Gramatges, Regina Sandra Veiga Nascimento

Abstract:

Emulsions are commonly used in applications involving oil/water dispersions, where handling of interfaces becomes a crucial aspect. The use of emulsion technology has greatly evolved in the last decades to suit the most diverse uses, ranging from cosmetic products and biomedical adjuvants to complex industrial fluids. The stability of these emulsions is influenced by factors such as the amount of oil, size of droplets and emulsifiers used. While commercial surfactants are typically used as emulsifiers to reduce interfacial tension, and therefore increase emulsion stability, these organic amphiphilic compounds are often toxic and expensive. A suitable alternative for emulsifiers can be obtained from the chemical modification of polysaccharides. Our group has been working on modification of polysaccharides to be used as additives in a variety of fluid formulations. In particular, we have obtained promising results using chitosan, a natural and biodegradable polymer that can be easily modified due to the presence of amine groups in its chemical structure. In this way, it is possible to increase both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, which renders a water-soluble, amphiphilic polymer that can behave as an emulsifier. The aim of this work was the synthesis of chitosan derivatives structurally modified to act as surfactants in stable oil-in-water. The synthesis of chitosan derivatives occurred in two steps, the first being the hydrophobic modification with the insertion of long hydrocarbon chains, while the second step consisted in the cationization of the amino groups. All products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbon magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to evaluate the cationization and hydrofobization degrees. These modified polysaccharides were used to formulate oil-in water (O:W) emulsions with different oil/water ratios (i.e 25:75, 35:65, 60:40) using mineral paraffinic oil. The formulations were characterized according to the type of emulsion, density and rheology measurements, as well as emulsion stability at high temperatures. All emulsion formulations were stable for at least 30 days, at room temperature (25°C), and in the case of the high oil content emulsion (60:40), the formulation was also stable at temperatures up to 100°C. Emulsion density was in the range of 0.90-0.87 s.g. The rheological study showed a viscoelastic behaviour in all formulations at room temperature, which is in agreement with the high stability showed by the emulsions, since the polymer acts not only reducing interfacial tension, but also forming an elastic membrane at the oil/water interface that guarantees its integrity. The results obtained in this work are a strong evidence of the possibility of using chemically modified polysaccharides as environmentally friendly alternatives to commercial surfactants in the stabilization of oil-in water formulations.

Keywords: emulsion, polymer, polysaccharide, stability, chemical modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
21 Numerical Investigation of the Boundary Conditions at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces in the Presence of Surfactants

Authors: Bamikole J. Adeyemi, Prashant Jadhawar, Lateef Akanji

Abstract:

Liquid-liquid interfacial flow is an important process that has applications across many spheres. One such applications are residual oil mobilization, where crude oil and low salinity water are emulsified due to lowered interfacial tension under the condition of low shear rates. The amphiphilic components (asphaltenes and resins) in crude oil are considered to assemble at the interface between the two immiscible liquids. To justify emulsification, drag and snap-off suppression as the main effects of low salinity water, mobilization of residual oil is visualized as thickening and slip of the wetting phase at the brine/crude oil interface which results in the squeezing and drag of the non-wetting phase to the pressure sinks. Meanwhile, defining the boundary conditions for such a system can be very challenging since the interfacial dynamics do not only depend on interfacial tension but also the flow rate. Hence, understanding the flow boundary condition at the brine/crude oil interface is an important step towards defining the influence of low salinity water composition on residual oil mobilization. This work presents a numerical evaluation of three slip boundary conditions that may apply at liquid-liquid interfaces. A mathematical model was developed to describe the evolution of a viscoelastic interfacial thin liquid film. The base model is developed by the asymptotic expansion of the full Navier-Stokes equations for fluid motion due to gradients of surface tension. This model was upscaled to describe the dynamics of the film surface deformation. Subsequently, Jeffrey’s model was integrated into the formulations to account for viscoelastic stress within a long wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations. To study the fluid response to a prescribed disturbance, a linear stability analysis (LSA) was performed. The dispersion relation and the corresponding characteristic equation for the growth rate were obtained. Three slip (slip, 1; locking, -1; and no-slip, 0) boundary conditions were examined using the resulted characteristic equation. Also, the dynamics of the evolved interfacial thin liquid film were numerically evaluated by considering the influence of the boundary conditions. The linear stability analysis shows that the boundary conditions of such systems are greatly impacted by the presence of amphiphilic molecules when three different values of interfacial tension were tested. The results for slip and locking conditions are consistent with the fundamental solution representation of the diffusion equation where there is film decay. The interfacial films at both boundary conditions respond to exposure time in a similar manner with increasing growth rate which resulted in the formation of more droplets with time. Contrarily, no-slip boundary condition yielded an unbounded growth and it is not affected by interfacial tension.

Keywords: boundary conditions, liquid-liquid interfaces, low salinity water, residual oil mobilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
20 Effect of Non-Ionic Surfactants on in vitro Release of Ketorolactromethamine

Authors: Ajay Aggarwal, Kamal Saroha, Sanju Nanda

Abstract:

Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers of amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Entrapment efficiency was found to be higher in case of niosome prepared with span60 than niosome prepared with tween. The amount of release was found to be in order of Span20>Tween60>Tween20>Span60. As the concentration of surfactant is increased in vitro release was increased due to high entrapment. The stability study of optimized batch revealed that particle size was increased after 3months on increasing the temperature. On the other hand entrapment efficiency was decreased on increasing the temperature.

Keywords: niosomes, vesicles, span, tween, in vitro release

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
19 Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Hollow Silica Particle through DODAB Vesicle Templating

Authors: Eun Ju Park, Wendy Rusli, He Tao, Alexander M. Van Herk, Sanggu Kim

Abstract:

Hollow micro-/nano- structured materials have proven to be promising in wide range of applications, such as catalysis, drug delivery and controlled release, biotechnology, and personal and consumer care. Hollow sphere structures can be obtained through various templating approaches; colloid templates, emulsion templates, multi-surfactant templates, and single crystal templates. Vesicles are generally the self-directed assemblies of amphiphilic molecules including cationic, anionic, and cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions. The directed silica capsule formations were performed at the surface of dioctadecyldimethylammoniumbromide(DODAB) bilayer vesicles as soft template. The size of DODAB bilayer vesicles could be tuned by extrusion of a preheated dispersion of DODAB. The synthesized hollow silica particles were characterized by conventional TEM, cryo-TEM and SEM to determine the morphology and structure of particles and dynamic light scattering (DLS) method to measure the particle size and particle size distribution.

Keywords: characterization, DODAB, hollow silica particle, synthesis, vesicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
18 Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms

Authors: Sandrine Dourdain, Cesar Lopez, Tamir Sukhbaatar, Guilhem Arrachart, Stephane Pellet-Rostaing

Abstract:

A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.

Keywords: solvent extraction in Ionic liquid, aggregation, Ionic liquids structure, SAXS, SANS

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
17 An Alternative Nano Design Strategy by Neutralized AMPS and Soy Bean Lecithin to Form Nanoparticles

Authors: Esra Cansever Mutlu, Muge Sennaroglu Bostan, Fatemeh Bahadori, Ebru Toksoy Oner, Mehmet S. Eroglu

Abstract:

Paclitaxel is used in treatment of different cancer types mainly breast, ovarian, lung and Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is poorly soluble in water; therefore, currently used formulations tremendously show side-effects and high toxicity. Encapsulation of the drug in a nano drug carrier which causes both reducing side effects and increasing drug activity is a desired new approach for the nano-medicine to target the site of cancer. In this study, synthesis of a novel nano paclitaxel formulation made of a new amphiphilic monomer was followed by the investigation of its pharmacological properties. UV radical polymerization was carried out by using the monomer Lecithin-2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane (L-AMPS) and the drug-spacer, to obtain sterically high stabilized, biocompatible and biodegradable phospholipid nanoparticles, in which the drug paclitaxel (Pxl) was encapsulated (NanoPxl). Particles showed high drug loading capacity (68%) and also hydrodynamic size less than 200 nm with slight negative surface charge. The drug release profile was obtained and in vitro cytotoxicity test was performed on MCF-7 cell line. Consequently, these data indicated that paclitaxel loaded Lecithin-AMPS/PCL-MAC nanoparticles can be considered as a new, safe and effective nanocarrier for the treatment of breast cancer.

Keywords: paclitaxel, nanoparticle, drug delivery, L-AMPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
16 Study of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Biodegradation and the Role of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica in This Process

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Petroleum hydrocarbons are serious problems and global pollutants in the environment due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistent organic pollutant properties. One of the approaches to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is to use biosurfactant. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biomolecules produced as metabolic by-products from microorganisms they received considerable attention in the field of environmental remediation processes such as bioremediation. Biosurfactants have been considered as a desirable alternative to synthetic surfactants in various applications particularly in the environmental field. In comparison with their synthetic counterparts, biosurfactants have been reported to be less toxic, biodegradable and persistent. In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a HPLC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons, biosurfactants, biodegradation, lagoon marchika, emulsification index

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
15 Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biological compounds consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by a variety of yeast, bacteria and filamentous fungi. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity, and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). The use of biosurfactants has also been proposed for various industrial applications, such as in food additives, cosmetics, detergent formulations and in combinations with enzymes for wastewater treatment. In this study, we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains: Mannheimia haemolytica, Burkholderia cepacia and Serratia ficaria were collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: biosurfactants, Mannheimia haemolytica, biodegradability, Burkholderia cepacia, Serratia ficaria

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
14 Deciphering Suitability of Rhamnolipids as Emulsifying Agent for Hydrophobic Pollutants

Authors: Asif Jamal, Samia Sakindar, Ramla Rehman

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic surface active compounds obtained from natural resources such as plants and microorganisms. Because of their diverse physicochemical characteristics biosurfactant are replacing synthetic compounds in various commercial applications. In present study, a strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from crude oil contaminated soil as efficient biosurfactant producers. The biosurfactant production was analyzed as a function of surface tension reduction, oil spreading capacity, emulsification index and hemolysis assay. This bacterial strain showed excellent emulsion activity of EI24 85%, surface tension reduction up to 28.6 mNm-1 and 7.0 mm oil displacement zone. Physicochemical and biological properties of extracted rhamnolipid were also investigated in current study. The chemical composition of product from strain PSS was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results revealed that extracted biosurfactant was rhamnolipid type in nature having RL-1 and RL-2 homologues. The surface behavior of rhamnolipid in aqueous phase was investigated varying extreme pH, temperature, salt conditions and with various hydrocarbons. The results indicated that biosurfactant produced by strain PSS Which showed stability during high temperature up to 121 C, salt concentrations up to 20% and pH range between (4—14). The emulsification activity with different hydrocarbons was also remarkable. It was concluded that rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by strain PSS has excellent potential as emulsifying/remediation agent for broad range of hydrophobic pollutants.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, bioremediation, rhamnolipid, surfactants

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
13 Unveiling the Self-Assembly Behavior and Salt-Induced Morphological Transition of Double PEG-Tailed Unconventional Amphiphiles

Authors: Rita Ghosh, Joykrishna Dey

Abstract:

PEG-based amphiphiles are of tremendous importance for its widespread applications in pharmaceutics, household purposes, and drug delivery. Previously, a number of single PEG-tailed amphiphiles having significant applications have been reported from our group. Therefore, it was of immense interest to explore the properties and application potential of PEG-based double tailed amphiphiles. Herein, for the first time, two novel double PEG-tailed amphiphiles having different PEG chain lengths have been developed. The self-assembly behavior of the newly developed amphiphiles in aqueous buffer (pH 7.0) was thoroughly investigated at 25 oC by a number of techniques including, 1H-NMR, and steady-state and time-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Despite having two polar PEG chains both molecules were found to have strong tendency to self-assemble in aqueous buffered solution above a very low concentration. Surprisingly, the amphiphiles were shown to form stable vesicles spontaneously at room temperature without any external stimuli. The results of calorimetric measurements showed that the vesicle formation is driven by the hydrophobic effect (positive entropy change) of the system, which is associated with the helix-to-random coil transition of the PEG chain. The spectroscopic data confirmed that the bilayer membrane of the vesicles is constituted by the PEG chains of the amphiphilic molecule. Interestingly, the vesicles were also found to exhibit structural transitions upon addition of salts in solution. These properties of the vesicles enable them as potential candidate for drug delivery.

Keywords: double-tailed amphiphiles, fluorescence, microscopy, PEG, vesicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
12 Thermodynamics of Water Condensation on an Aqueous Organic-Coated Aerosol Aging via Chemical Mechanism

Authors: Yuri S. Djikaev

Abstract:

A large subset of aqueous aerosols can be initially (immediately upon formation) coated with various organic amphiphilic compounds whereof the hydrophilic moieties are attached to the aqueous aerosol core while the hydrophobic moieties are exposed to the air thus forming a hydrophobic coating thereupon. We study the thermodynamics of water condensation on such an aerosol whereof the hydrophobic organic coating is being concomitantly processed by chemical reactions with atmospheric reactive species. Such processing (chemical aging) enables the initially inert aerosol to serve as a nucleating center for water condensation. The most probable pathway of such aging involves atmospheric hydroxyl radicals that abstract hydrogen atoms from hydrophobic moieties of surface organics (first step), the resulting radicals being quickly oxidized by ubiquitous atmospheric oxygen molecules to produce surface-bound peroxyl radicals (second step). Taking these two reactions into account, we derive an expression for the free energy of formation of an aqueous droplet on an organic-coated aerosol. The model is illustrated by numerical calculations. The results suggest that the formation of aqueous cloud droplets on such aerosols is most likely to occur via Kohler activation rather than via nucleation. The model allows one to determine the threshold parameters necessary for their Kohler activation. Numerical results also corroborate previous suggestions that one can neglect some details of aerosol chemical composition in investigating aerosol effects on climate.

Keywords: aqueous aerosols, organic coating, chemical aging, cloud condensation nuclei, Kohler activation, cloud droplets

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
11 Surface Modified Polyamidoamine Dendrimer with Gallic Acid Overcomes Drug Resistance in Colon Cancer Cells HCT-116

Authors: Khushbu Priyadarshi, Chandramani Pathak

Abstract:

Cancer cells can develop resistance to conventional therapies especially chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to chemotherapy is another challenge in cancer therapeutics. Therefore, it is important to address this issue. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural plant compound that exhibits various biological properties including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial. Despite of the wide spectrum biological properties GA has cytotoxic response and low bioavailability. To overcome this problem, GA was conjugated with the Polyamidoamine(PAMAM) dendrimer for improving the bioavailability and efficient delivery in drug-resistant HCT-116 Colon Cancer cells. Gallic acid was covalently linked to 4.0 G PAMAM dendrimer. PAMAM dendrimer is well established nanocarrier but has cytotoxicity due to presence of amphiphilic nature of amino group. In our study we have modified surface of PAMAM dendrimer with Gallic acid and examine their anti-proliferative effects in drug-resistant HCT-116 cells. Further, drug-resistant colon cancer cells were established and thereafter treated with different concentration of PAMAM-GA to examine their anti-proliferative potential. Our results show that PAMAM-GA conjugate induces apoptotic cell death in HCT-116 and drug-resistant cells observed by Annexin-PI staining. In addition, it also shows that multidrug-resistant drug transporter P-gp protein expression was downregulated with increasing the concentration of GA conjugate. After that we also observed the significant difference in Rh123 efflux and accumulation in drug sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, our study suggests that conjugation of anti-cancer agents with PAMAM could improve drug resistant property and cytotoxic response to treatment of cancer.

Keywords: drug resistance, gallic acid, PAMAM dendrimer, P-glycoprotein

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
10 The Hydrotrope-Mediated, Low-Temperature, Aqueous Dissolution of Maize Starch

Authors: Jeroen Vinkx, Jan A. Delcour, Bart Goderis

Abstract:

Complete aqueous dissolution of starch is notoriously difficult. A high-temperature autoclaving process is necessary, followed by cooling the solution below its boiling point. The cooled solution is inherently unstable over time. Gelation and retrogradation processes, along with aggregation-induced by undissolved starch remnants, result in starch precipitation. We recently observed the spontaneous gelatinization of native maize starch (MS) in aqueous sodium salicylate (NaSal) solutions at room temperature. A hydrotropic mode of solubilization is hypothesized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM) of starch dispersions in NaSal solution were used to demonstrate the room temperature gelatinization of MS at different concentrations of MS and NaSal. The DSC gelatinization peak shifts to lower temperatures, and the gelatinization enthalpy decreases with increasing NaSal concentration. POM images confirm the same trend through the disappearance of the ‘Maltese cross’ interference pattern of starch granules. The minimal NaSal concentration to induce complete room temperature dissolution of MS was found to be around 15-20 wt%. The MS content of the dispersion has little influence on the amount of NaSal needed to dissolve it. The effect of the NaSal solution on the MS molecular weight was checked with HPSEC. It is speculated that, because of its amphiphilic character, NaSal enhances the solubility of MS in water by association with the more hydrophobic MS moieties, much like urea, which has also been used to enhance starch dissolution in alkaline aqueous media. As such small molecules do not tend to form micelles in water, they are called hydrotropes rather than surfactants. A minimal hydrotrope concentration (MHC) is necessary for the hydrotropes to structure themselves in water, resulting in a higher solubility of MS. This is the case for the system MS/NaSal/H₂O. Further investigations into the putative hydrotropic dissolution mechanism are necessary.

Keywords: hydrotrope, dissolution, maize starch, sodium salicylate, gelatinization

Procedia PDF Downloads 34