Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: metaheuristics

22 Association Rules Mining Task Using Metaheuristics: Review

Authors: Abir Derouiche, Abdesslem Layeb


Association Rule Mining (ARM) is one of the most popular data mining tasks and it is widely used in various areas. The search for association rules is an NP-complete problem that is why metaheuristics have been widely used to solve it. The present paper presents the ARM as an optimization problem and surveys the proposed approaches in the literature based on metaheuristics.

Keywords: Optimization, Metaheuristics, Data Mining, Association rules Mining

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21 Reducing the Computational Overhead of Metaheuristics Parameterization with Exploratory Landscape Analysis

Authors: Iannick Gagnon, Alain April


The performance of a metaheuristic on a given problem class depends on the class itself and the choice of parameters. Parameter tuning is the most time-consuming phase of the optimization process after the main calculations and it often nullifies the speed advantage of metaheuristics over traditional optimization algorithms. Several off-the-shelf parameter tuning algorithms are available, but when the objective function is expensive to evaluate, these can be prohibitively expensive to use. This paper presents a surrogate-like method for finding adequate parameters using fitness landscape analysis on simple benchmark functions and real-world objective functions. The result is a simple compound similarity metric based on the empirical correlation coefficient and a measure of convexity. It is then used to find the best benchmark functions to serve as surrogates. The near-optimal parameter set is then found using fractional factorial design. The real-world problem of NACA airfoil lift coefficient maximization is used as a preliminary proof of concept. The overall aim of this research is to reduce the computational overhead of metaheuristics parameterization.

Keywords: metaheuristics, stochastic optimization, particle swarm optimization, exploratory landscape analysis

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20 SMART: Solution Methods with Ants Running by Types

Authors: Nicolas Zufferey


Ant algorithms are well-known metaheuristics which have been widely used since two decades. In most of the literature, an ant is a constructive heuristic able to build a solution from scratch. However, other types of ant algorithms have recently emerged: the discussion is thus not limited by the common framework of the constructive ant algorithms. Generally, at each generation of an ant algorithm, each ant builds a solution step by step by adding an element to it. Each choice is based on the greedy force (also called the visibility, the short term profit or the heuristic information) and the trail system (central memory which collects historical information of the search process). Usually, all the ants of the population have the same characteristics and behaviors. In contrast in this paper, a new type of ant metaheuristic is proposed, namely SMART (for Solution Methods with Ants Running by Types). It relies on the use of different population of ants, where each population has its own personality.

Keywords: ant algorithms, evolutionary procedures, metaheuristics, optimization, population-based methods

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19 Hydraulic Characteristics of Mine Tailings by Metaheuristics Approach

Authors: Akhila Vasudev, Himanshu Kaushik, Tadikonda Venkata Bharat


A large number of mine tailings are produced every year as part of the extraction process of phosphates, gold, copper, and other materials. Mine tailings are high in water content and have very slow dewatering behavior. The efficient design of tailings dam and economical disposal of these slurries requires the knowledge of tailings consolidation behavior. The large-strain consolidation theory closely predicts the self-weight consolidation of these slurries as the theory considers the conservation of mass and momentum conservation and considers the hydraulic conductivity as a function of void ratio. Classical laboratory techniques, such as settling column test, seepage consolidation test, etc., are expensive and time-consuming for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity variation with void ratio. Inverse estimation of the constitutive relationships from the measured settlement versus time curves is explored. In this work, inverse analysis based on metaheuristics techniques will be explored for predicting the hydraulic conductivity parameters for mine tailings from the base excess pore water pressure dissipation curve and the initial conditions of the mine tailings. The proposed inverse model uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which is based on the social behavior of animals searching for food sources. The finite-difference numerical solution of the forward analytical model is integrated with the PSO algorithm to solve the inverse problem. The method is tested on synthetic data of base excess pore pressure dissipation curves generated using the finite difference method. The effectiveness of the method is verified using base excess pore pressure dissipation curve obtained from a settling column experiment and further ensured through comparison with available predicted hydraulic conductivity parameters.

Keywords: base excess pore pressure, hydraulic conductivity, large strain consolidation, mine tailings

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18 Metaheuristics to Solve Tasks Scheduling

Authors: Rachid Ziteuni, Selt Omar


In this paper, we propose a new polynomial metaheuristic elaboration (tabu search) for solving scheduling problems. This method allows us to solve the scheduling problem of n tasks on m identical parallel machines with unavailability periods. This problem is NP-complete in the strong sens and finding an optimal solution appears unlikely. Note that all data in this problem are integer and deterministic. The performance criterion to optimize in this problem which we denote Pm/N-c/summs of (wjCj) is the weighted sum of the end dates of tasks.

Keywords: scheduling, parallel identical machines, unavailability periods, metaheuristic, tabu search

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17 Optimization of Robot Motion Planning Using Biogeography Based Optimization (Bbo)

Authors: Jaber Nikpouri, Arsalan Amralizadeh


In robotics manipulators, the trajectory should be optimum, thus the torque of the robot can be minimized in order to save power. This paper includes an optimal path planning scheme for a robotic manipulator. Recently, techniques based on metaheuristics of natural computing, mainly evolutionary algorithms (EA), have been successfully applied to a large number of robotic applications. In this paper, the improved BBO algorithm is used to minimize the objective function in the presence of different obstacles. The simulation represents that the proposed optimal path planning method has satisfactory performance.

Keywords: biogeography-based optimization, path planning, obstacle detection, robotic manipulator

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16 Symbiotic Organism Search (SOS) for Solving the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

Authors: Eki Ruskartina, Vincent F. Yu, Budi Santosa, A. A. N. Perwira Redi


This paper introduces symbiotic organism search (SOS) for solving capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). SOS is a new approach in metaheuristics fields and never been used to solve discrete problems. A sophisticated decoding method to deal with a discrete problem setting in CVRP is applied using the basic symbiotic organism search (SOS) framework. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated on a set of benchmark instances and compared results with best known solution. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm can produce good solution as a preliminary testing. These results indicated that the proposed SOS can be applied as an alternative to solve the capacitated vehicle routing problem.

Keywords: symbiotic organism search, capacitated vehicle routing problem, metaheuristic

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15 An Optimal Steganalysis Based Approach for Embedding Information in Image Cover Media with Security

Authors: Ahlem Fatnassi, Hamza Gharsellaoui, Sadok Bouamama


This paper deals with the study of interest in the fields of Steganography and Steganalysis. Steganography involves hiding information in a cover media to obtain the stego media in such a way that the cover media is perceived not to have any embedded message for its unintended recipients. Steganalysis is the mechanism of detecting the presence of hidden information in the stego media and it can lead to the prevention of disastrous security incidents. In this paper, we provide a critical review of the steganalysis algorithms available to analyze the characteristics of an image stego media against the corresponding cover media and understand the process of embedding the information and its detection. We anticipate that this paper can also give a clear picture of the current trends in steganography so that we can develop and improvise appropriate steganalysis algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, heuristics and metaheuristics algorithms, embedded systems, low-power consumption, steganalysis heuristic approach

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14 Elitist Self-Adaptive Step-Size Search in Optimum Sizing of Steel Structures

Authors: Oğuzhan Hasançebi, Saeid Kazemzadeh Azad


This paper covers application of an elitist selfadaptive
step-size search (ESASS) to optimum design of steel
skeletal structures. In the ESASS two approaches are considered for
improving the convergence accuracy as well as the computational
efficiency of the original technique namely the so called selfadaptive
step-size search (SASS). Firstly, an additional randomness
is incorporated into the sampling step of the technique to preserve
exploration capability of the algorithm during the optimization.
Moreover, an adaptive sampling scheme is introduced to improve the
quality of final solutions. Secondly, computational efficiency of the
technique is accelerated via avoiding unnecessary analyses during the
optimization process using an upper bound strategy. The numerical
results demonstrate the usefulness of the ESASS in the sizing
optimization problems of steel truss and frame structures.

Keywords: structural design optimization, optimal sizing, metaheuristics, self-adaptive step-size search, steel trusses, steel frames

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13 A Parallel Implementation of Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm within CUDA Architecture

Authors: Selcuk Aslan, Dervis Karaboga, Celal Ozturk


Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is one of the most successful swarm intelligence based metaheuristics. It has been applied to a number of constrained or unconstrained numerical and combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we presented a parallelized version of ABC algorithm by adapting employed and onlooker bee phases to the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform which is a graphical processing unit (GPU) programming environment by NVIDIA. The execution speed and obtained results of the proposed approach and sequential version of ABC algorithm are compared on functions that are typically used as benchmarks for optimization algorithms. Tests on standard benchmark functions with different colony size and number of parameters showed that proposed parallelization approach for ABC algorithm decreases the execution time consumed by the employed and onlooker bee phases in total and achieved similar or better quality of the results compared to the standard sequential implementation of the ABC algorithm.

Keywords: Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, GPU computing, swarm intelligence, parallelization

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12 An Improved Approach Based on MAS Architecture and Heuristic Algorithm for Systematic Maintenance

Authors: Abdelhadi Adel, Kadri Ouahab


This paper proposes an improved approach based on MAS Architecture and Heuristic Algorithm for systematic maintenance to minimize makespan. We have implemented a problem-solving approach for optimizing the processing time, methods based on metaheuristics. The proposed approach is inspired by the behavior of the human body. This hybridization is between a multi-agent system and inspirations of the human body, especially genetics. The effectiveness of our approach has been demonstrated repeatedly in this paper. To solve such a complex problem, we proposed an approach which we have used advanced operators such as uniform crossover set and single point mutation. The proposed approach is applied to three preventive maintenance policies. These policies are intended to maximize the availability or to maintain a minimum level of reliability during the production chain. The results show that our algorithm outperforms existing algorithms. We assumed that the machines might be unavailable periodically during the production scheduling.

Keywords: multi-agent systems, emergence, genetic algorithm, makespan, systematic maintenance, scheduling, hybrid flow shop scheduling

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11 A Metaheuristic Approach for the Pollution-Routing Problem

Authors: P. Parthiban, Sonu Rajak, R. Dhanalakshmi


This paper presents an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approach, combined with a Speed Optimization Algorithm (SOA) to solve the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) with environmental considerations, which is well known as Pollution-Routing Problem (PRP). It consists of routing a number of vehicles to serve a set of customers, and determining fuel consumption, driver wages and their speed on each route segment, while respecting the capacity constraints and time windows. Since VRP is NP-hard problem, so PRP also a NP-hard problem, which requires metaheuristics to solve this type of problems. The proposed solution method consists of two stages. Stage one is to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window (VRPTW) using ACO and in the second stage, a SOA is run on the resulting VRPTW solution. Given a vehicle route, the SOA consists of finding the optimal speed on each arc of the route to minimize an objective function comprising fuel consumption costs and driver wages. The proposed algorithm tested on benchmark problem, the preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm can provide good solutions within reasonable computational time.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, CO2 emissions, speed optimization, vehicle routing

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10 Hybridized Simulated Annealing with Chemical Reaction Optimization for Solving to Sequence Alignment Problem

Authors: Ernesto Linan, Linda Cruz, Lucero Becerra


In this paper, a new hybridized algorithm based on Chemical Reaction Optimization and Simulated Annealing is proposed to solve the alignment sequence Problem. The Chemical Reaction Optimization is a population-based meta-heuristic algorithm based on the principles of a chemical reaction. Simulated Annealing is applied to solve a large number of combinatorial optimization problems of general-purpose. In this paper, we propose hybridization between Chemical Reaction Optimization algorithm and Simulated Annealing in order to solve the Sequence Alignment Problem. An initial population of molecules is defined at beginning of the proposed algorithm, where each molecule represents a sequence alignment problem. In order to simulate inter-molecule collisions, the process of Chemical Reaction is placed inside the Metropolis Cycle at certain values of temperature. Inside this cycle, change of molecules is done due to collisions; some molecules are accepted by applying Boltzmann probability. The results with the hybrid scheme are better than the results obtained separately.

Keywords: chemical reaction optimization, sequence alignment problem, simulated annealing algorithm, metaheuristics

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9 An Efficient Hybrid Approach Based on Multi-Agent System and Emergence Method for the Integration of Systematic Preventive Maintenance Policies

Authors: Abdelhadi Adel, Kadri Ouahab


This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm for the integration of systematic preventive maintenance policies in hybrid flow shop scheduling to minimize makespan. We have implemented a problem-solving approach for optimizing the processing time, methods based on metaheuristics. The proposed approach is inspired by the behavior of the human body. This hybridization is between a multi-agent system and inspirations of the human body, especially genetics. The effectiveness of our approach has been demonstrated repeatedly in this paper. To solve such a complex problem, we proposed an approach which we have used advanced operators such as uniform crossover set and single point mutation. The proposed approach is applied to three preventive maintenance policies. These policies are intended to maximize the availability or to maintain a minimum level of reliability during the production chain. The results show that our algorithm outperforms existing algorithms. We assumed that the machines might be unavailable periodically during the production scheduling.

Keywords: multi-agent systems, emergence, genetic algorithm, makespan, systematic maintenance, scheduling, hybrid flow shop scheduling

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8 Solving Process Planning, Weighted Apparent Tardiness Cost Dispatching, and Weighted Processing plus Weight Due-Date Assignment Simultaneously Using a Hybrid Search

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Caner Erden, Abdullah Hulusi Kokcam, Mumtaz Ipek


Process planning, scheduling, and due date assignment are three important manufacturing functions which are studied independently in literature. There are hundreds of works on IPPS and SWDDA problems but a few works on IPPSDDA problem. Integrating these three functions is very crucial due to the high relationship between them. Since the scheduling problem is in the NP-Hard problem class without any integration, an integrated problem is even harder to solve. This study focuses on the integration of these functions. Sum of weighted tardiness, earliness, and due date related costs are used as a penalty function. Random search and hybrid metaheuristics are used to solve the integrated problem. Marginal improvement in random search is very high in the early iterations and reduces enormously in later iterations. At that point directed search contribute to marginal improvement more than random search. In this study, random and genetic search methods are combined to find better solutions. Results show that overall performance becomes better as the integration level increases.

Keywords: process planning, genetic algorithm, hybrid search, random search, weighted due-date assignment, weighted scheduling

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7 Gariep Dam Basin Management for Satisfying Ecological Flow Requirements

Authors: Dimeji Abe, Nonso Okoye, Gideon Ikpimi, Prince Idemudia


Multi-reservoir optimization operation has been a critical issue for river basin management. Water, as a scarce resource, is in high demand and the problems associated with the reservoir as its storage facility are enormous. The complexity in balancing the supply and demand of this prime resource has created the need to examine the best way to solve the problem using optimization techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the multi-objective meta-heuristic algorithm for the operation of Gariep Dam for satisfying ecological flow requirements. This study uses an evolutionary algorithm called backtrack search algorithm (BSA) to determine the best way to optimise the dam operations of hydropower production, flood control, and water supply without affecting the environmental flow requirement for the survival of aquatic bodies and sustain life downstream of the dam. To achieve this objective, the operations of the dam that corresponds to different tradeoffs between the objectives are optimized. The results indicate the best model from the algorithm that satisfies all the objectives without any constraint violation. It is expected that hydropower generation will be improved and more water will be available for ecological flow requirements with the use of the algorithm. This algorithm also provides farmers with more irrigation water as well to improve their business.

Keywords: BSA evolutionary algorithm, metaheuristics, optimization, river basin management

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6 Parallel Gripper Modelling and Design Optimization Using Multi-Objective Grey Wolf Optimizer

Authors: Golak Bihari Mahanta, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, B. B. V. L. Deepak, Amruta Rout, Gunji Balamurali


Robots are widely used in the manufacturing industry for rapid production with higher accuracy and precision. With the help of End-of-Arm Tools (EOATs), robots are interacting with the environment. Robotic grippers are such EOATs which help to grasp the object in an automation system for improving the efficiency. As the robotic gripper directly influence the quality of the product due to the contact between the gripper surface and the object to be grasped, it is necessary to design and optimize the gripper mechanism configuration. In this study, geometric and kinematic modeling of the parallel gripper is proposed. Grey wolf optimizer algorithm is introduced for solving the proposed multiobjective gripper optimization problem. Two objective functions developed from the geometric and kinematic modeling along with several nonlinear constraints of the proposed gripper mechanism is used to optimize the design variables of the systems. Finally, the proposed methodology compared with a previously proposed method such as Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm, NSGA II, MODE and it was seen that the proposed method is more efficient compared to the earlier proposed methodology.

Keywords: gripper optimization, metaheuristics, , teaching learning based algorithm, multi-objective optimization, optimal gripper design

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5 A Hybrid Algorithm Based on Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure and Chemical Reaction Optimization for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Hard Time Windows

Authors: Imen Boudali, Marwa Ragmoun


The Vehicle Routing Problem with Hard Time Windows (VRPHTW) is a basic distribution management problem that models many real-world problems. The objective of the problem is to deliver a set of customers with known demands on minimum-cost vehicle routes while satisfying vehicle capacity and hard time windows for customers. In this paper, we propose to deal with our optimization problem by using a new hybrid stochastic algorithm based on two metaheuristics: Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) and Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP). The first method is inspired by the natural process of chemical reactions enabling the transformation of unstable substances with excessive energy to stable ones. During this process, the molecules interact with each other through a series of elementary reactions to reach minimum energy for their existence. This property is embedded in CRO to solve the VRPHTW. In order to enhance the population diversity throughout the search process, we integrated the GRASP in our method. Simulation results on the base of Solomon’s benchmark instances show the very satisfactory performances of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Benchmark Problems, Combinatorial Optimization, Vehicle Routing Problem with Hard Time Windows, Meta-heuristics, Hybridization, GRASP, CRO

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4 A Bi-Objective Model to Optimize the Total Time and Idle Probability for Facility Location Problem Behaving as M/M/1/K Queues

Authors: Amirhossein Chambari


This article proposes a bi-objective model for the facility location problem subject to congestion (overcrowding). Motivated by implementations to locate servers in internet mirror sites, communication networks, one-server-systems, so on. This model consider for situations in which immobile (or fixed) service facilities are congested (or queued) by stochastic demand to behave as M/M/1/K queues. We consider for this problem two simultaneous perspectives; (1) Customers (desire to limit times of accessing and waiting for service) and (2) Service provider (desire to limit average facility idle-time). A bi-objective model is setup for facility location problem with two objective functions; (1) Minimizing sum of expected total traveling and waiting time (customers) and (2) Minimizing the average facility idle-time percentage (service provider). The proposed model belongs to the class of mixed-integer nonlinear programming models and the class of NP-hard problems. In addition, to solve the model, controlled elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms (Controlled NSGA-II) and controlled elitist non-dominated ranking genetic algorithms (NRGA-I) are proposed. Furthermore, the two proposed metaheuristics algorithms are evaluated by establishing standard multiobjective metrics. Finally, the results are analyzed and some conclusions are given.

Keywords: bi-objective, facility location, queueing, controlled NSGA-II, NRGA-I

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3 A Multidimensional Genetic Algorithm Applicable for Our VRP Variant Dealing with the Problems of Infrastructure Defaults SVRDP-CMTW: “Safety Vehicle Routing Diagnosis Problem with Control and Modified Time Windows”

Authors: Ben Mansour Mouin, Elloumi Abdelkarim


We will discuss the problem of routing a fleet of different vehicles from a central depot to different types of infrastructure-defaults with dynamic maintenance requests, modified time windows, and control of default maintained. For this reason, we propose a modified metaheuristicto to solve our mathematical model. SVRDP-CMTW is a variant VRP of an optimal vehicle plan that facilitates the maintenance task of different types of infrastructure-defaults. This task will be monitored after the maintenance, based on its priorities, the degree of danger associated with each default, and the neighborhood at the black-spots. We will present, in this paper, a multidimensional genetic algorithm “MGA” by detailing its characteristics, proposed mechanisms, and roles in our work. The coding of this algorithm represents the necessary parameters that characterize each infrastructure-default with the objective of minimizing a combination of cost, distance and maintenance times while satisfying the priority levels of the most urgent defaults. The developed algorithm will allow the dynamic integration of newly detected defaults at the execution time. This result will be displayed in our programmed interactive system at the routing time. This multidimensional genetic algorithm replaces N genetic algorithm to solve P different type problems of infrastructure defaults (instead of N algorithm for P problem we can solve in one multidimensional algorithm simultaneously who can solve all these problemsatonce).

Keywords: mathematical model, VRP, multidimensional genetic algorithm, metaheuristics

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2 Multimodal Optimization of Density-Based Clustering Using Collective Animal Behavior Algorithm

Authors: Kristian Bautista, Ruben A. Idoy


A bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the theory of collective animal behavior (CAB) was integrated to density-based clustering modeled as multimodal optimization problem. The algorithm was tested on synthetic, Iris, Glass, Pima and Thyroid data sets in order to measure its effectiveness relative to CDE-based Clustering algorithm. Upon preliminary testing, it was found out that one of the parameter settings used was ineffective in performing clustering when applied to the algorithm prompting the researcher to do an investigation. It was revealed that fine tuning distance δ3 that determines the extent to which a given data point will be clustered helped improve the quality of cluster output. Even though the modification of distance δ3 significantly improved the solution quality and cluster output of the algorithm, results suggest that there is no difference between the population mean of the solutions obtained using the original and modified parameter setting for all data sets. This implies that using either the original or modified parameter setting will not have any effect towards obtaining the best global and local animal positions. Results also suggest that CDE-based clustering algorithm is better than CAB-density clustering algorithm for all data sets. Nevertheless, CAB-density clustering algorithm is still a good clustering algorithm because it has correctly identified the number of classes of some data sets more frequently in a thirty trial run with a much smaller standard deviation, a potential in clustering high dimensional data sets. Thus, the researcher recommends further investigation in the post-processing stage of the algorithm.

Keywords: clustering, metaheuristics, collective animal behavior algorithm, density-based clustering, multimodal optimization

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1 Fiber Stiffness Detection of GFRP Using Combined ABAQUS and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Gyu-Dong Kim, Wuk-Jae Yoo, Sang-Youl Lee


Composite structures offer numerous advantages over conventional structural systems in the form of higher specific stiffness and strength, lower life-cycle costs, and benefits such as easy installation and improved safety. Recently, there has been a considerable increase in the use of composites in engineering applications and as wraps for seismic upgrading and repairs. However, these composites deteriorate with time because of outdated materials, excessive use, repetitive loading, climatic conditions, manufacturing errors, and deficiencies in inspection methods. In particular, damaged fibers in a composite result in significant degradation of structural performance. In order to reduce the failure probability of composites in service, techniques to assess the condition of the composites to prevent continual growth of fiber damage are required. Condition assessment technology and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have provided various solutions for the safety of structures by means of detecting damage or defects from static or dynamic responses induced by external loading. A variety of techniques based on detecting the changes in static or dynamic behavior of isotropic structures has been developed in the last two decades. These methods, based on analytical approaches, are limited in their capabilities in dealing with complex systems, primarily because of their limitations in handling different loading and boundary conditions. Recently, investigators have introduced direct search methods based on metaheuristics techniques and artificial intelligence, such as genetic algorithms (GA), simulated annealing (SA) methods, and neural networks (NN), and have promisingly applied these methods to the field of structural identification. Among them, GAs attract our attention because they do not require a considerable amount of data in advance in dealing with complex problems and can make a global solution search possible as opposed to classical gradient-based optimization techniques. In this study, we propose an alternative damage-detection technique that can determine the degraded stiffness distribution of vibrating laminated composites made of Glass Fiber-reinforced Polymer (GFRP). The proposed method uses a modified form of the bivariate Gaussian distribution function to detect degraded stiffness characteristics. In addition, this study presents a method to detect the fiber property variation of laminated composite plates from the micromechanical point of view. The finite element model is used to study free vibrations of laminated composite plates for fiber stiffness degradation. In order to solve the inverse problem using the combined method, this study uses only first mode shapes in a structure for the measured frequency data. In particular, this study focuses on the effect of the interaction among various parameters, such as fiber angles, layup sequences, and damage distributions, on fiber-stiffness damage detection.

Keywords: stiffness detection, fiber damage, genetic algorithm, layup sequences

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