Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: petrography

24 Petrography and Geochemistry of Basic Dokhan Volcanics from the Eastern Desert of Egypt and their Use as Aggregates in Concrete Mixes

Authors: Ahmed Khalil, Hatem M. El-Desoky

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the petrography and geochemistry of the Basic Dokhan Volcanics, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The basalts from Gabal Wassif, Atalla volcanics and Gabal Esh Mellaha were tested for use as aggregates in concrete mixes. The representative twelve samples were collected from areas. These samples were examined by using a petrographic microscope to evaluate sample texture, degree of alteration and the presence of volcanic glass in the matrix. The results obtained indicate that basalt can be used successfully for preparing concrete, but some attention should be paid to the choice of the suitable types of basalt. A general improvement in concrete mix properties has been found by using basalt aggregates in the mix.

Keywords: basic Dokhan volcanics, petrography, geochemistry, petrogenesis and concrete aggregates

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23 Behavior of Clay effect on Electrical Parameter of Reservoir Rock Using Global Hydraulic Elements (GHEs) Approach

Authors: Noreddin Mousa

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to estimate which type of clay minerals that more effect on saturation exponent using Global Hydraulic Elements (GHEs) approach to estimating the distribution of saturation exponent factor. Two wells and seven core samples have been selected from various (GHEs) for detailed study. There are many factors affecting saturation exponent such as wettability, grain pattern pressure of certain authigenic clays, which may promote oil wet characteristics of history of fluid displacement. The saturation exponent is related to the texture and affected by wettability and clay minerals. Capillary pressure (mercury injection) has been used to confirm GHEs which are selected to define rock types; the porous plate method is used to derive the saturation exponent in the laboratory. The petrography is very important in order to study the mineralogy and texture. In this study the results showing excellent relation between saturation exponent and the type of clay minerals which was observed that the Global Hydraulic Elements GHE-2 and GHE-5 which are containing Chlorite is more affect on saturation exponent comparing with the other GHE’s.

Keywords: GHEs, wettability, global hydraulic elements, petrography

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22 Carbonate Microfacies and Diagenesis of Klapanunggal Formation in Cileungsi District, Bogor Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Reghina Karyadi, Abdurrokhim, Lili Fauzielly

Abstract:

Administratively, the research area is located in Cileungsi District, Bogor Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. Geographically, it located at 106° 56’ 1,9392” - 107° 1’ 27,8112” East Longitude and 6° 32’ 29,3712” - 6° 27’ 5,6124” South Latitude. This research is being held as a purpose to observe microfacies and limestone diagenesis that happened in the study area. Dominantly, the area fulfills of various hills that formed by carbonate and sediment stones which folded and faulted. The method that using in this research is analysis the outcrop data and petrography by using red alizarin for differentiating of minerals type. Microfacies type and diagenesis processes can be known from petrography analysis results like rock texture, rock structure, porosity, type of grain and fossils. The result of research shows that carbonate rocks in the study area can be divided into 3 types microfasies, which is Reef Microfacies (SMF 7), Shallow Water Microfacies (SMF 9), and Textural Inversion Microfacies (SMF 10). Whereas diagenesis process that happened is microbial micritization, compaction, neomorphism, cementation and dissolution process.

Keywords: carbonate, limestone, microfacies, diagenesis

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21 Reconstructing the Trace of Mesozoic Subduction and Its Implication on Stratigraphy Correlation between Deep Marine Sediment and Granite: Case Study of Garba Complex, South Sumatera

Authors: Fadlan Atmaja Nursiwan, Ugi Kurnia Gusti

Abstract:

Garba Hill, located in Tekana Village, South Sumatera Province is comprised to South Sumatra Basin and classified as back arc basin. This area is entered as an active margin of Sundaland which experiences subduction several times since Mesozoic to recent time. The traces of Mesozoic subduction in the southern part of Sumatra island are exposed in Garba Hill area. The aim of this investigation is to study the tectonic changes in the first phase in Mesozoic era at the active margin of Sundaland which causes the rocks assemblage in Garba hill consist of continental and oceanic plate rocks which the correlation between those rocks show indistinct relation. This investigation is conducted by field observation in Tekana village and Lubar Village, Muara Dua, South Sumatra along with laboratory analysis included fossil and geochemistry analysis of radiolarian chert, petrography analysis of granite and basalt, and structural modelling. Fossil and geochemistry analysis of radiolarian chert and geochemistry of granite rocks shown the relation between the two rocks and Mesozoic subduction of Woyla terrane on western margin of Sundaland. Petrography analysis from granite and basalt depict the tectonic affinity of rocks. Moreover, structural analysis showed the changes of lineation direction from N-S to WNW-ESE.

Keywords: granite, mesozoic, radiolarian, subduction traces

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20 Characteristics of Pyroclastic and Igenous Rocks Mineralogy of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

Authors: Ridho Widyantama Putra, Endang Wiwik Dyah Hastuti

Abstract:

The study area is located in Lahat Regency, South Sumatra and is part of a 500 m – 2000 m elevated perbukitan barisan zone controlled by the main fault of Sumatra (Semangko Fault), administratively located on S4.08197 - E103.01403 and S4.16786 - E103.07700, the product of Semangko Fault in the form of normal fault flight trending north-southeast, composed of lithologic is a pyroclastic rock, volcanic rock and plutonic rock intrusion. On the Manna and Enggano sheets of volcanic quartenary products are located along perbukitan barisan zone. Petrology types of pyroclastic rocks encountered in the form of welded tuff, tuff lapilli, agglomerate, pyroclastic sandstone, pyroclastic claystone, and lava. Some pyroclastic material containing sulfide minerals (pyrite), the type of sedimentation flow with different grain size from ash to lapilli. The present of tuff lapilli covers almost 50% of the total research area, through observation petrography encountered minerals in the form of glass, quartz, palgioklas, and biotite. Lava in this area has been altered characterized by the presence of minerals such as chlorite and secondary biotite, this change is caused by the structure that develops in the hilly zone and is proved by the presence of secondary structures in the form of stocky and normal faults as well as the primary structure of columnar joint, From medial facies to distal facies, the division of facies is divided based on geomorphological observations and dominant types of lithology.

Keywords: tuff lapili, pyroclastic, mineral, petrography, volcanic, lava

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19 Modal Composition and Tectonic Provenance of the Sandstones of Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Christopher Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava

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Petrography of the sandstones of Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa have been investigated on composition, provenance and influence of weathering conditions. Petrographic studies based on quantitative analysis of the detrital minerals revealed that the sandstones are composed mostly of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The sandstones have an average framework composition of 24.3% quartz, 19.3% feldspar, 26.1% rock fragments, and 81.33% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. These sandstones are generally very fine to fine grained, moderate to well sorted, and subangular to subrounded in shape. In addition, they are compositionally immature and can be classified as feldspathic wacke and lithic wacke. The absence of major petrographically distinctive compositional variations in the sandstones perhaps indicate homogeneity of their source. As a result of this, it is inferred that the transportation distance from the source area was quite short and the main mechanism of transportation was by river systems to the basin. The QFL ternary diagrams revealed dissected and transitional arc provenance pointing to an active margin and uplifted basement preserving the signature of a recycled provenance. This is an indication that the sandstones were derived from a magmatic arc provenance. Since magmatic provenance includes transitional arc and dissected arc, it also shows that the source area of the Ecca sediments had a secondary sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks from a marginal belt that developed as a result of rifting. The weathering diagrams and semi-quantitative weathering index indicate that the Ecca sandstones are mostly from a plutonic source area, with climatic conditions ranging from arid to humid. The compositional immaturity of the sandstones is suggested to be due to weathering or recycling and low relief or short transport from the source area. The detrital modal compositions of these sandstones are related to back arc to island and continental margin arc. The origin and deposition of the Ecca sandstones are due to low-moderate weathering, recycling of pre-existing rocks, erosion and transportation of debris from the orogeny of the Cape Fold Belt.

Keywords: petrography, tectonic setting, provenance, Ecca Group, Karoo Basin

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18 Mineralogical Characterization and Petrographic Classification of the Soil of Casablanca City

Authors: I. Fahi, T. Remmal, F. El Kamel, B. Ayoub

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The treatment of the geotechnical database of the region of Casablanca was difficult to achieve due to the heterogeneity of the nomenclature of the lithological formations composing its soil. It appears necessary to harmonize the nomenclature of the facies and to produce cartographic documents useful for construction projects and studies before any investment program. To achieve this, more than 600 surveys made by the Public Laboratory for Testing and Studies (LPEE) in the agglomeration of Casablanca, were studied. Moreover, some local observations were made in different places of the metropolis. Each survey was the subject of a sheet containing lithological succession, macro and microscopic description of petrographic facies with photographic illustration, as well as measurements of geomechanical tests. In addition, an X-ray diffraction analysis was made in order to characterize the surficial formations of the region.

Keywords: Casablanca, guidebook, petrography, soil

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17 On Strengthening Program of Sixty Years Old Dome Using Carbon Fiber

Authors: Humayun R. H. Kabir

Abstract:

A reinforced concrete dome-built 60 years ago- of circular shape of diameter of 30 m was in distressed conditions due to adverse weathering effects, such as high temperature, wind, and poor maintenance. It was decided to restore the dome to its full strength for future use. A full material strength and durability check including petrography test were conducted. It was observed that the concrete strength was in acceptable range, while bars were corroded more than 40% to their original configurations. Widespread cracks were almost in every meter square. A strengthening program with filling the cracks by injection method, and carbon fiber layup and wrap was considered. Ultra Sound Pulse Velocity (UPV) test was conducted to observe crack depth. Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) test was conducted to observe internal bar conditions and internal cracks. Finally, a load test was conducted to certify the carbon fiber effectiveness, injection method procedure and overall behavior of dome.

Keywords: dome, strengthening program, carbon fiber, load test

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16 Mineralogy and Classification of Altered Host Rocks in the Zaghia Iron Oxide Deposit, East of Bafq, Central Iran

Authors: Azat Eslamizadeh, Neda Akbarian

Abstract:

The Zaghia Iron ore, in 15 km east of a town named Bafq, is located in Precambrian formation of Central Iran in form of a small local deposit. The Volcano-sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Cambrian age, belonging to Rizu series have spread through the region. Substantial portion of the deposit is covered by alluvial deposits. The rocks hosting the Zaghia iron ore have a main combination of rhyolitic tuffs along with clastic sediments, carbonate include sandstone, limestone, dolomite, conglomerate and is somewhat metamorphed causing them to have appeared as slate and phyllite. Moreover, carbonate rocks are in existence as skarn compound of marble bearing tremolite with mineralization of magnetite-hematite. The basic igneous rocks have dramatically altered into green rocks consist of actinolite-tremolite and chlorite along with amount of iron (magnetite + Martite). The youngest units of ore-bearing rocks in the area are found as dolerite - diabase dikes. The dikes are cutting the rhyolitic tuffs and carbonate rocks.

Keywords: Zaghia, iron ore deposite, mineralogy, petrography Bafq, Iran

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15 Recent Findings of Late Bronze Age Mining and Archaeometallurgy Activities in the Mountain Region of Colchis (Southern Lechkhumi, Georgia)

Authors: Rusudan Chagelishvili, Nino Sulava, Tamar Beridze, Nana Rezesidze, Nikoloz Tatuashvili

Abstract:

The South Caucasus is one of the most important centers of prehistoric metallurgy, known for its Colchian bronze culture. Modern Lechkhumi – historical Mountainous Colchis where the existence of prehistoric metallurgy is confirmed by the discovery of many artifacts is a part of this area. Studies focused on prehistoric smelting sites, related artifacts and ore deposits have been conducted during the last ten years in Lechkhumi. More than 20 prehistoric smelting sites and artifacts associated with metallurgical activities (ore roasting furnaces, slags, crucible, and tuyères fragments) have been identified so far. Within the framework of integrated studies was established that these sites were operating in 13-9 centuries B.C. and used for copper smelting. Palynological studies of slags revealed that chestnut (Castanea sativa) and hornbeam (Carpinus sp.) wood was used as smelting fuel. Geological exploration-analytical studies revealed that copper ore mining, processing and smelting sites were distributed close to each other. Despite recent complex data, the signs of prehistoric mines (trenches) haven’t been found in this part of the study area so far. Since 2018 the archaeological-geological exploration has been focused on the southern part of Lechkhumi and covered the areas of villages Okureshi and Opitara. Several copper smelting sites (Okureshi 1 and 2, Opitara 1), as well as a Colchian Bronze culture settlement, have been identified here. Three mine workings have been found in the narrow gorge of the river Rtkhmelebisgele in the vicinities of the village Opitara. In order to establish a link between the Opitara-Okureshi archaeometallurgical sites, Late Bronze Age settlement and mines, various scientific analytical methods - mineralized rock and slags petrography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) analysis have been applied. The careful examination of Opitara mine workings revealed that there is a striking difference between mine #1 on the right bank of the river and mine #2 and #3 on the left bank. The first one has all characteristic features of the Soviet period mine working (e. g. high portal with angular ribs and roof showing signs of blasting). In contrast, mines #2 and #3, which are located very close to each other, have round-shaped portals/entrances, low roofs and fairly smooth ribs and are filled with thick layers of river sediments and collapsed weathered rock mass. A thorough review of the publications related to prehistoric mine workings and revealed some striking similarities between mines #2 and #3 with their worldwide analogs. Apparently, the ore extraction from these mines was conducted by fire-setting applying primitive tools. It was also established that mines are cut in Jurassic mineralized volcanic rocks. Ore minerals (chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena) are related to calcite and quartz veins. The results obtained through the petrochemical and petrography studies of mineralized rock samples from Opitara mines and prehistoric slags are in complete correlation with each other, establishing the direct link between copper mining, and smelting within the study area. This work was supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (grant # FR-19-13022).

Keywords: archaeometallurgy, mountainous Colchis, mining, ore minerals

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14 Sedimentological Study of Bivalve Fossils Site Locality in Hong Hoi Formation in Lampang, Thailand

Authors: Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated, Weerapan Srichan

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Hong Hoi Formation is a Middle Triassic deep marine succession presented in outcrops throughout the Lampang Basin of northern Thailand. The primary goal of this research is to diagnose the paleoenvironment, petrographic compositions, and sedimentary sources of the Hong Hoi Formation in Ban Huat, Ngao District. The Triassic Hong Hoi Formation is chosen because the outcrops are continuous and fossils are greatly exposed and abundant. Depositional environment is reconstructed through sedimentological studies along with facies analysis. The Hong Hoi Formation is petrographically divided into two major facies, they are: sandstones with mudstone interbeds, and mudstones or shale with sandstone interbeds. Sandstone beds are lithic arenite and lithic greywacke, volcanic lithic fragments are dominated. Sedimentary structures, paleocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate that the formation deposited in a part of deep marine abyssal plain environment. The sedimentological and petrographic features suggest that during the deposition the Hong Hoi Formation received sediment supply from nearby volcanic arc. This suggested that the intensive volcanic activity within the Sukhothai Arc during the Middle Triassic is the main sediment source.

Keywords: Sukhothai zone, petrography, Hong Hoi formation, Lampang, Triassic

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13 Carbonate Crusts in Jordan: Records of Groundwater Flow, Carbon Fluxes, Tectonic Movement and Climate Change

Authors: Nizar Abu-Jaber

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Late Pleistocene and Holocene carbonate crusts in the south of Jordan were studied using a combination of field documentation, petrography, geochemical and isotopic techniques. These surficial crusts and vein deposits appear to have formed as a result of interaction between near-surface groundwater, surficial soil and sediments and rising carbon dioxide. Rising mantle CO2 dissolves in the water to create carbonic acid, which in turn dissolves the calcite in the soil in the sediments. When the pH rises later due to degassing, the carbonate crusts are left in the places where the water was flowing in veins, channels and interfaces between high and low permeability materials. The crusts have the potential for being important records of natural and human agencies on the landscape of the area. They reflect the isotopic composition of the waters in which they precipitated in, and also contain isotopic information about the aeolian calcium fluxes affecting the area (using strontium isotopes). Moreover, changing stream valley base levels can be identified and measured, which can help quantify the rates of tectonic movement. Finally, human activities such and channel construction and terrace building can be identified and traced temporally and spatially using these deposits.

Keywords: anthropogenic change, carbonate crusts, environmental change, Jordan

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12 Petrography and Mineral Chemical Study of Younger Quartzofeldspathic Bodies in Chakdara Granite Gneiss, Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Natasha Khan, Muhammad Arif

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The Chakdara granite gneiss is an extension of Swat granite gneisses. It is characterized by biotite bands and the occurrence of fluorite and blue beryl. Younger phases (quartzofeldspathic veins) occur within gneisses are characterized by various mineral phases that include beryl, biotite, phlogopite, annite, muscovite, ilmenite-pyrophanite, monazite, zircon, apatite, magnetite and minor amounts of sphene, rutile, and ulvöspinel. The present paper is an attempt to address the detailed mineral chemistry and genesis of minerals occurring in these younger phases. These quartzofeldspathic veins are assumed to be of hydrothermal origin on the basis of Th2O content in monazite, Zr/Hf ratio in zircon, REE enrichment, and Ce/Y ratio of allanite. Biotite in the present study is characterized by high F content. Muscovite is phengitic and contains very high amounts of Fe as compared to the normal muscovites. The Th2O content for monazite is low (0.81-1.56 wt. %) like those of hydrothermal origin. The Zr/Hf ratio in zircon is variable for different analyses but mostly falls in the range of ~ 41 and above. Allanite is generally unaltered and characterized by LREE enrichment. The properties of beryl and columbite in the present study show pegmatitic features.

Keywords: Beryl, Chakdarra granite gneiss, micas, quartzofeldspathic veins

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11 Sedimentology and Geochemistry of Carbonate Bearing-Argillites on the Southeastern Flank of Mount Cameroon, Likomba

Authors: Chongwain G. Mbzighaa, Christopher M. Agyingi, Josepha-Forba-Tendo

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Background and aim: Sedimentological, geochemical and petrographic studies were carried out on carbonate-bearing argillites outcropping at the southeastern flank of Mount Cameroon (Likomba) to determine the lithofacies and their associations, major element geochemistry and mineralogy. Methods: Major elements of the rocks were analyzed using XRF technique. Thermal analysis and thin section studies were carried out accompanied with the determination of insoluble components of the carbonates. Results: The carbonates are classed as biomicrites with siderite being the major carbonate mineral. Clay, quartz and pyrite constitute the major insoluble components of these rocks. Geochemical results depict a broad variation in their concentrations with silica and iron showing the highest concentrations and sodium and manganese with the least concentrations. Two factors were revealed with the following elemental associations, Fe2O3-MgO-Mn2O3 (72.56 %) and TiO2-SiO2-Al2O3-K2O (23.20%) indicating both Fe-enrichment, the subsequent formation of the siderite and the contribution of the sediments to the formation of these rocks. Conclusion: The rocks consist of cyclic iron-rich carbonates alternating with sideritic-shales and might have been formed as a result of variations in the sea conditions as well as variation in sediment influx resulting from transgression and regression sequences occurring in a shallow to slightly deep marine environments.

Keywords: sedimentology, geochemistry, petrography, iron carbonates, Likomba

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10 The Paleoenvironment and Paleoclimatological Variations during Aptian in North Central Tunisia

Authors: Houda Khaled, Frederic Boulvain, Fredj Chaabani

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This paper focuses on the sedimentological and mineralogical studies of Aptian series outcrops in the Serdj and Bellouta Mountain situated in north-central Tunisia. In the Serdj Mountain, the Aptian series is about 590 meters thick and it is defined by tow formations corresponding respectively to the Sidi Hamada formation (Barremian-Gragasian) and the Serdj formation (Middle Gragasian-Late Clansaysian). This later is consisting of five limestones sequences separated by marly levels limestones associated to some siltstones bed. The Bellouta section is especially composed of carbonate rocks and it is attributed to the Middle Gragasian - Late Clansaysian. These sections are studied in detail regarding lithology, micropaleontology, microfacies, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition in order to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimatological implications during Aptian. The following facies associations representing different ramp palaeoenvironments have been identified: mudstone-wackestone outer ramp facies; skeletal grainstone-packstone mid-ramp facies, packstone-grainstone inner-ramp facies which include a variety of organisms such as ooliths, rudists ostracods associated to athor bioclats. The coastal facies is especially defined by a mudstone -wackestone texture coastal rich with miliolidea and orbitolines. The magnetic susceptibility (Xin) of all samples was compared with the lithological and microfacies variation. The MS curves show that the high values are correlated with the distal facies and the low values are registred in the coastal environment. The X-ray diffractometer analysis show the presence of kaolinite and illite.

Keywords: Aptian, Serdj formation, mineralogy, petrography

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9 Identification of Clay Mineral for Determining Reservoir Maturity Levels Based on Petrographic Analysis, X-Ray Diffraction and Porosity Test on Penosogan Formation Karangsambung Sub-District Kebumen Regency Central Java

Authors: Ayu Dwi Hardiyanti, Bernardus Anggit Winahyu, I. Gusti Agung Ayu Sugita Sari, Lestari Sutra Simamora, I. Wayan Warmada

Abstract:

The Penosogan Formation sandstone, that has Middle Miosen age, has been deemed as a reservoir potential based on sample data from sandstone outcrop in Kebakalan and Kedawung villages, Karangsambung sub-district, Kebumen Regency, Central Java. This research employs the following analytical methods; petrography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and porosity test. Based on the presence of micritic sandstone, muddy micrite, and muddy sandstone, the Penosogan Formation sandstone has a fine-coarse granular size and middle-to-fine sorting. The composition of the sandstone is mostly made up of plagioclase, skeletal grain, and traces of micrite. The percentage of clay minerals based on petrographic analysis is 10% and appears to envelop grain, resulting enveloping grain which reduces the porosity of rocks. The porosity types as follows: interparticle, vuggy, channel, and shelter, with an equant form of cement. Moreover, the diagenesis process involves compaction, cementation, authigenic mineral growth, and dissolving due to feldspar alteration. The maturity of the reservoir can be seen through the X-ray diffraction analysis results, using ethylene glycol solution for clay minerals fraction transformed from smectite–illite. Porosity test analysis showed that the Penosogan Formation sandstones has a porosity value of 22% based on the Koeseomadinata classification, 1980. That shows high maturity is very influential for the quality of reservoirs sandstone of the Penosogan Formation.

Keywords: sandstone reservoir, Penosogan Formation, smectite, XRD

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8 Geological Mapping of Gabel Humr Akarim Area, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt: Constrain from Remote Sensing Data, Petrographic Description and Field Investigation

Authors: Doaa Hamdi, Ahmed Hashem

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The present study aims at integrating the ASTER data and Landsat 8 data to discriminate and map alteration and/or mineralization zones in addition to delineating different lithological units of Humr Akarim Granites area. The study area is located at 24º9' to 24º13' N and 34º1' to 34º2'45"E., covering a total exposed surface area of about 17 km². The area is characterized by rugged topography with low to moderate relief. Geologic fieldwork and petrographic investigations revealed that the basement complex of the study area is composed of metasediments, mafic dikes, older granitoids, and alkali-feldspar granites. Petrographic investigations revealed that the secondary minerals in the study area are mainly represented by chlorite, epidote, clay minerals and iron oxides. These minerals have specific spectral signatures in the region of visible near-infrared and short-wave infrared (0.4 to 2.5 µm). So that the ASTER imagery processing was concentrated on VNIR-SWIR spectrometric data in order to achieve the purposes of this study (geologic mapping of hydrothermal alteration zones and delineate possible radioactive potentialities). Mapping of hydrothermal alterations zones in addition to discriminating the lithological units in the study area are achieved through the utilization of some different image processing, including color band composites (CBC) and data transformation techniques such as band ratios (BR), band ratio codes (BRCs), principal component analysis(PCA), Crosta Technique and minimum noise fraction (MNF). The field verification and petrographic investigation confirm the results of ASTER imagery and Landsat 8 data, proposing a geological map (scale 1:50000).

Keywords: remote sensing, petrography, mineralization, alteration detection

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7 Genesis of Talc Bodies in Relation to the Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks around Wonu, Ibadan-Apomu Area, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Morenike Abimbola Adeleye, Anthony Temidayo Bolarinwa

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The genesis of talc bodies around Wonu, Ibadan-Apomu area, southwestern Nigeria, has been speculative due to inadequate compositional data on the talc and the mafic-ultramafic protoliths. Petrography, morphology, using scanning electron microscope, mineral chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and major, trace and rare-earth element compositions of the talc and the mafic-ultramafic in the area were undertaken with a view to determine the genesis of the talc bodies. Fine-grained amphibolite and lherzolite are the major mafic-ultramafic rocks in the study area. The amphibolite is fine-grained, composed of amphiboles, pyroxenes plagioclase, K-feldspar, ilmenite, magnetite, and garnet. The lherzolite and talc are composed of olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, and plagioclase. Alteration minerals include serpentine, amesite, talc, Cr-bearing clinochlore, and ferritchromite. Cr-spinel, pyrite, and magnetite are the accessory minerals present. Alteration of olivines, pyroxenes, and amphiboles to talc and chlinochlore; and spinel to ferritchchromite by hydrothermal (H₂O-CO₂-Cl-HF) fluids, provided by the granitic intrusions in the area, showed retrograde metasomatism of amphibolites to greenschist facies at 500-550ºC. This led to the formation of talc, amesite, anthophyllite, actinolite, and tremolite. The Al₂O₃-Fe₂O₃+TiO₂-MgO discrimination diagram suggests tholeiitic protolith for the amphibolite and komatitic protolith for the lherzolite. The lherzolite has flat rare-earth element patterns typical of komatiites and dunites. The Al₂O₃/TiO₂ ratios, Ce/Nb vs. Th/Nb, Cr-TiO₂, TiO₂ vs. Al₂O₃, and Nd vs. Nb discrimination diagrams indicated that the talcs are from two-parent sources: altered metacarbonates and tholeiitic basalts (amphibolites) to komatitic basalts (lherzolites).

Keywords: amphibolites, lherzolites, talc, komatiite

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6 Mineralogy and Fluid Inclusion Study of the Kebbouch South Pb-Zn Deposit, Northwest Tunisia

Authors: Imen Salhi, Salah Bouhlel, Bernrd Lehmann

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The Kebbouch South Pb-Zn deposit is located 20 km to the east of El Kef (NW) in the southeastern part of the Triassic diapir belt in the Tunisian Atlas. The deposit is composed of sulfide and non-sulfide zinc-lead ore bodies. The aim of this study is to provide petrographic results, mineralogy, as well as fluid inclusion data of the carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn Kebbouch South deposit. Mineralization forms two major ore types: (1) lenticular dolostones and clay breccias in the contact zone between Triassic and Upper Cretaceous strata;, it consists of small-scale lenticular, strata-or fault-controlled mineralization mainly composed of marcasite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, and (2) stratiform mineralization in the Bahloul Formation (Upper Cenomanian-Lower Turonian) consisting of framboidal and cubic pyrite, disseminated sphalerite and galena. Non-metalliferous and/or gangue minerals are represented by dolomite, calcite, celestite and quartz. Fluid inclusion petrography study has been carried out on calcite and celestite. Fluid inclusions hosted in celestite are less than 20 µm large and show two types of aqueous inclusions: monophase liquid aqueous inclusions (L), abundant and very small, generally less than 15 µm and liquid-rich two phase inclusions (L+V). The gas phase forms a mobile vapor bubble. Microthermometric analyses of (L+V) fluid inclusions for celestite indicate that the homogenization temperature ranges from 121 to 156°C, and final ice melting temperatures are in the range of – 19 to -9°C corresponding to salinities of 12 to 21 wt% NaCl eq. (L+V) fluid inclusions from calcite are frequently localized along the growth zones; their homogenization temperature ranges from 96 to 164°C with final ice melting temperatures between -16 and -7°C corresponding to salinities of 9 to 19 wt% NaCl eq. According to mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies, mineralization in the Pb – Zn Kebbouch South deposit formed between 96 to 164°C with salinities ranging from 9 to 21 wt% NaCl eq. A contribution of basinal brines in the ore formation of the kebbouch South Pb–Zn deposit is likely. The deposit is part of the family of MVT deposits associated with the salt diapir environment.

Keywords: fluid inclusion, Kebbouch South, mineralogy, MVT deposits, Pb-Zn

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5 Sedimentary, Diagenesis and Evaluation of High Quality Reservoir of Coarse Clastic Rocks in Nearshore Deep Waters in the Dongying Sag; Bohai Bay Basin

Authors: Kouassi Louis Kra

Abstract:

The nearshore deep-water gravity flow deposits in the Northern steep slope of Dongying depression, Bohai Bay basin, have been acknowledged as important reservoirs in the rift lacustrine basin. These deep strata term as coarse clastic sediment, deposit at the root of the slope have complex depositional processes and involve wide diagenetic events which made high-quality reservoir prediction to be complex. Based on the integrated study of seismic interpretation, sedimentary analysis, petrography, cores samples, wireline logging data, 3D seismic and lithological data, the reservoir formation mechanism deciphered. The Geoframe software was used to analyze 3-D seismic data to interpret the stratigraphy and build a sequence stratigraphic framework. Thin section identification, point counts were performed to assess the reservoir characteristics. The software PetroMod 1D of Schlumberger was utilized for the simulation of burial history. CL and SEM analysis were performed to reveal diagenesis sequences. Backscattered electron (BSE) images were recorded for definition of the textural relationships between diagenetic phases. The result showed that the nearshore steep slope deposits mainly consist of conglomerate, gravel sandstone, pebbly sandstone and fine sandstone interbedded with mudstone. The reservoir is characterized by low-porosity and ultra-low permeability. The diagenesis reactions include compaction, precipitation of calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, quartz cement and dissolution of feldspars and rock fragment. The main types of reservoir space are primary intergranular pores, residual intergranular pores, intergranular dissolved pores, intergranular dissolved pores, and fractures. There are three obvious anomalous high-porosity zones in the reservoir. Overpressure and early hydrocarbon filling are the main reason for abnormal secondary pores development. Sedimentary facies control the formation of high-quality reservoir, oil and gas filling preserves secondary pores from late carbonate cementation.

Keywords: Bohai Bay, Dongying Sag, deep strata, formation mechanism, high-quality reservoir

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4 Petrographic Properties of Sedimentary-Exhalative Type Ores of Filizchay Polymetallic Deposit

Authors: Samir Verdiyev, Fuad Huseynov, Islam Guliyev, Coşqun İsmayıl

Abstract:

The Filizchay polymetallic deposit is located on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range, northwest of Azerbaijan in the Balaken district. Filizchay is the largest polymetallic deposit in the region and the second-largest polymetallic deposit in Europe. The mineral deposits in the region are associated with two different geodynamic evolutions that began with the Mesozoic collision along the Eurasian continent and the formation of a magmatic arc after the collision and continued with subduction in the Cenozoic. The bedrocks associated with Filizchay mineralization are Early Jurassic aged. The stratigraphic sequence of the deposit is consisting of black metamorphic clay shales, sandstones, and ore layers. Shales, sandstones, and siltstones are encountered in the upper and middle sections of the ore body, while only shales are observed at the lowest ranges. The ore body is mainly layered by the geometric structure of the bedrock; folding can be observed in the ore layers along with the bedrock foliation, and just in few points indirect laying due to the metamorphism. This suggests that the Filizchay ore mineralization is syngenetic, which is proved by the mineralization by the bedrock. To determine the ore petrography properties of the Filizchay deposit, samples were collected from the region where the ore is concentrated, and a polished section was prepared. These collected samples were examined under the mineralogical microscope to reveal the paragenesis of the mineralization and to explain the relation of ore minerals to each other. In this study, macroscopically observed minerals and textures of these minerals were used in the cores revealed during drilling exploration made by AzerGold CJS company. As a result of all these studies, it has been determined that there are three main mineralization types in the Filizchay deposit: banded, massive, and veinlet ores. The mineralization is in the massive pyrite; furthermore, the basis of the ore-mass contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. The pyrite in some parts of the ore body transformed to pyrrhotite as a result of metamorphism. Pyrite-chalcopyrite, pyrite-sphalerite-galena, pyrite-pyrrhotite mineral assemblages were determined during microscopic studies of mineralization. The replacement texture is more developed in Filizchay ores. The banded polymetallic type mineralization and near bedrocks are cut by quartz-carbonate veins. The geotectonic position and lithological conditions of the Filizchay deposit, the texture, and interrelationship of the sulfide mineralization indicate that it is a sedimentary-exhalative type of Au-Cu-Ag-Zn-Pb polymetallic deposit that is genetically related to the massive sulfide deposits.

Keywords: Balaken, Filizchay, metamorphism, polymetallic mineralization

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3 Preliminary Study of the Hydrothermal Polymetallic Ore Deposit at the Karancs Mountain, North-East Hungary

Authors: Eszter Kulcsar, Agnes Takacs, Gabriella B. Kiss, Peter Prakfalvi

Abstract:

The Karancs Mountain is part of the Miocene Inner Carpathian Volcanic Belt and is located in N-NE Hungary, along the Hungarian-Slovakian border. The 14 Ma old andesitic-dacitic units are surrounded by Oligocene sedimentary units (sandstone, siltstone). The host rocks of the mineralisation are siliceous and/or argillaceous volcanic units, quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia, and strongly silicified vuggy rocks, found in the various altered volcanic units. The hydrothermal breccia consists of highly silicified vuggy quartz clasts in quartz matrix. The hydrothermal alteration of the host units shows structural control at the deeper levels. The main ore minerals are galena, pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite, hematite, magnetite, arsenopyrite, anglesite and argentite The mineralisation was first mentioned in 1944 and the first exploration took place between 1961 and 1962 in the area. The first ore geological studies were performed between 1984-1985. The exploration programme was limited only to surface sampling; no drilling programme was performed. Petrographical and preliminary fluid inclusion studies were performed on calcite samples from a galena-bearing vein. Despite the early discovery of the mineralisation, no detailed description is available, thus its size, characteristics, and origin have remained unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the mineralisation, describe the characteristics in detail and to test the possible gold content of the various quartz veins and breccias. Finally, we also investigate the potential relation of the hydrothermal mineralisation to the surrounding similar mineralisations with similar ages (e.g. W-Mátra Mountains in Hungary, Banska Bystrica, Banska Stiavnica in Slovakia) in order to place the mineralisation within the volcanic-hydrothermal evolution of the Miocene Inner Carpathian Belt. As first steps, the study includes field mapping, traditional petrological and ore microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis; SEM-EDS and EMPA studies on ore minerals, to obtain mineral chemical information. Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometry and micro-Raman-spectroscopy studies are also planned on quartz-hosted inclusions to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the ore-forming fluid.

Keywords: epithermal, Karancs Mountain, Hungary, Miocene Inner Carpathian volcanic belt, polimetallic ore deposit

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2 Recognition of a Thinly Bedded Distal Turbidite: A Case Study from a Proterozoic Delta System, Chaossa Formation, Simla Group, Western Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Priyanka Mazumdar, Ananya Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

A lot of progress has been achieved in the research of turbidites during the last decades. However, their relationship to delta systems still deserves further attention. This paper addresses example of fine grained turbidite from a pro-deltaic deposit of a Proterozoic mixed energy delta system exposed along Chaossa-Baliana river section of the Chaossa Formation of the Simla Basin. Lithostratigraphic analysis of the Chaossa Formation reveals three major facies associations (prodelta deposit-FA1, delta slope deposit-FA2 and delta front deposit-FA3) based on lithofacies types, petrography and sedimentary structures. Detailed process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analysis of the study area have led to identification of more than150 m thick coarsening-upwards deltaic successions composed of fine grained turbidites overlain by delta slope deposits. Erosional features are locally common at the base of turbidite beds and still more widespread at the top. The complete sequence has eight sub-divisions that are here termed T1 to T8. The basal subdivision (T1) comprises a massive graded unit with a sharp, scoured base, internal parallel-lamination and cross-lamination. The overlying sequence shows textural and compositional grading through alternating silt and mud laminae (T2). T2 is overlying by T3 which is characterized by climbing ripple and cross lamination. Parallel laminae are the predominant facies attributes of T4 which caps the T3 unit. T5 has a loaded scour base and is mainly characterized laminated silt. The topmost three divisions, graded mud (T6), ungraded mud (T7) and laminated mud (T8). The proposed sequence is analogous to the Bouma (1962) structural scheme for sandy turbidites. Repetition of partial sequences represents deposition from different stages of evolution of a large, muddy, turbidity flow. Detailed facies analysis of the study area reveals that the sediments of the turbidites developed during normal regression at the stage of stable or marginally rising sea level. Thin-bedded turbidites were deposited predominantly by turbidity currents in the relatively shallower part of the Simla basin. The fine-grained turbidites are developed by resedimentation of delta-front sands and slumping of upper pro-delta muds.

Keywords: turbidites, prodelta, proterozoic, Simla Basin, Bouma sequence

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1 Petrograpgy and Major Elements Chemistry of Granitic rocks of the Nagar Parkar Igneous Complex, Tharparkar, Sindh

Authors: Amanullah Lagharil, Majid Ali Laghari, M. Qasim, Jan. M., Asif Khan, M. Hassan Agheem

Abstract:

The Nagar Parkar area in southeastern Sindh is a part of the Thar Desert adjacent to the Runn of Kutchh, and covers 480 km2. It contains exposures of a variety of igneous rocks referred to as the Nagar Parkar Igneous Complex. The complex comprises rocks belonging to at least six phases of magmatism, from oldest to youngest: 1) amphibolitic basement rocks, 2) riebeckite-aegirine grey granite, 3) biotite-hornblende pink granite, 4) acid dykes, 5) rhyolite “plugs”, and basic dykes (Jan et al., 1997). The last three of these are not significant in volume. Radiometric dates are lacking but the grey and pink granites are petrographically comparable to the Siwana and Jalore plutons, respectively, emplaced in the Malani volcanic series. Based on these similarities and proximity, the phase 2 to 6 bodies in the Nagar Parkar may belong to the Late Proterozoic (720–745 Ma) Malani magmatism that covers large areas in western Rajasthan. Khan et al. (2007) have reported a 745 ±30 – 755 ±22 Ma U-Th-Pb age on monazite from the pink granite. The grey granite is essentially composed of perthitic feldspar (microperthite, mesoperthite), quartz, small amount of plagioclase and, characteristically, sodic minerals such as riebeckite and aegirine. A few samples lack aegirine. Fe-Ti oxide and minute, well-developed crystals of zircon occur in almost all the studied samples. Tourmaline, fluorite, apatite and rutile occur in only some samples and astrophyllite is rare. Allanite, sphene and leucoxene occur as minor accessories along with local epidote. The pink granite is mostly leucocratic, but locally rich in biotite (up to 7 %). It is essentially made up of microperthite and quartz, with local microcline, and minor plagioclase (albite-oligoclase). Some rocks contain sufficient oligoclase and can be called adamellite or quartz mozonite. Biotite and hornblende are main accessory minerals along with iron oxide, but in a few samples are without hornblende. Fayalitic olivine, zircon, sphene, apatite, tourmaline, fluorite, allanite and cassiterite occur as sporadic accessory minerals. Epidote, carbonate, sericite and muscovite are produced due to the alteration of feldspar. This work concerns the major element geochemistry and comparison of the principal granitic rocks of Nagar Parkar. According to the scheme of De La Roche et al. (1980), majority of the grey and pink granites classify as alkali granite, 20 % as granite and 10 % as granodiorite. When evaluated on the basis of Shand's indices (after Maniar and Piccoli, 1989), the grey and pink granites span all three fields (peralkaline, metaluminous and peraluminous). Of the analysed grey granites, 67 % classify as peralkaline, 20 % as peraluminous and 10 % as metaluminous, while 50 % of pink granites classify as peralkaline, 30 % metaluminous and 20 % peraluminous.

Keywords: petrography, nagar parker, granites, geological sciences

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