Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Faten H. Fahmy

24 Intelligent Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine for Smart Grid

Authors: Amal A. Hassan, Faten H. Fahmy, Abd El-Shafy A. Nafeh, Hosam K. M. Youssef

Abstract:

Due to the growing penetration of wind energy into the power grid, it is very important to study its interactions with the power system and to provide good control technique in order to deliver high quality power. In this paper, an intelligent control methodology is proposed for optimizing the controllers’ parameters of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine generation system (WTGS). The genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are employed and compared for the parameters adaptive tuning of the proposed proportional integral (PI) multiple controllers of the back to back converters of the DFIG based WTGS. For this purpose, the dynamic model of WTGS with DFIG and its associated controllers is presented. Furthermore, the simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK and SIMPOWERSYSTEM toolbox to illustrate the performance of the optimized controllers. Finally, this work is validated to 33-bus test radial system to show the interaction between wind distributed generation (DG) systems and the distribution network.

Keywords: DFIG wind turine, intelligent control, distributed generation, particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm

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23 Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of a PV/Wind/ Battery Hybrid Energy Conversion

Authors: Doaa M. Atia, Faten H. Fahmy, Ninet M. A. El-Rahman, Hassan T. Dorra

Abstract:

In this paper, the optimum design for renewable energy system powered an aquaculture pond was determined. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software program, which is developed by U.S National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is used for analyzing the feasibility of the stand-alone and hybrid system in this study. HOMER program determines whether renewable energy resources satisfy hourly electric demand or not. The program calculates energy balance for every 8760 hours in a year to simulate operation of the system. This optimization compares the demand for the electrical energy for each hour of the year with the energy supplied by the system for that hour and calculates the relevant energy flow for each component in the model. The essential principle is to minimize the total system cost while HOMER ensures control of the system. Moreover the feasibility analysis of the energy system is also studied. Wind speed, solar irradiance, interest rate and capacity shortage are the parameters which are taken into consideration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best choice in this study, yielding lower net present cost. Thus, it provides higher system performance than PV or wind stand-alone systems.

Keywords: wind stand-alone system, photovoltaic stand-alone system, hybrid system, optimum system sizing, feasibility, cost analysis

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22 Waiting Time Reduction in a Government Hospital Emergency Department: A Case Study on AlAdan Hospital, Kuwait

Authors: Bashayer AlRobayaan, Munira Saad, Alaa AlBawab, Fatma AlHamad, Sara AlAwadhi, Sherif Fahmy

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of long waiting times in government hospitals emergency departments (ED). It aims at finding feasible and simple ways of reducing waiting times that do not require a lot of resources and/or expenses. AlAdan Hospital in Kuwait was chosen to be understudy to further understand and capture the problem.

Keywords: healthcare, hospital, Kuwait, waiting times, emergency department

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21 Reduced Complexity Iterative Solution For I/Q Imbalance Problem in DVB-T2 Systems

Authors: Karim S. Hassan, Hisham M. Hamed, Yassmine A. Fahmy, Ahmed F. Shalash

Abstract:

The mismatch between in-phase and quadrature signals in Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, such as DVB-T2, results in a severe degradation in performance. Several general solutions have been proposed in the past, but these are largely computationally intensive, leading to complex implementations. In this paper, we propose a relatively simple iterative solution, which provides good results in relatively few iterations, using fixed precision arithmetic. An additional advantage is that complex digital blocks, such as dividers and square root, are not required. Thus, the proposed solution may be implemented in relatively simple hardware.

Keywords: OFDM, DVB-T2, I/Q imbalance, I/Q mismatch, iterative method, fixed point, reduced complexity

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20 Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) Pods as a Local Alternative to Feed Poultry

Authors: Abdulrahman Al-Soqeer, Osamah Fahmy

Abstract:

This research was aimed to investigate the possibility of using Prosopis juliflora pods as a fodder source for poultry. The study have shown that the inclusion of ground Prosopis pods in a broiler diet added some positive effects on broiler performance such as improving carcasses weight and reducing the weights of the inedible parts. The obtained results encourage repeating the experiment with an increased percentage of Prosopis supplementation in the broiler diets, using some treatments on the Prosopis pods to reduce the undesirable effects of the antinutritional factors in the pods and to increase the percentage of the essential amino acids present in the pods (lysine, methionine, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylealanine) up to the limits recommended for broilers by NRC 1990.

Keywords: amino acids, arginine, broilers, lysine, methionine

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19 Long Wavelength GaInNAs Based Hot Electron Light Emission VCSOAs

Authors: Faten Adel Ismael Chaqmaqchee

Abstract:

Optical, electrical and optical-electrical characterisations of surface light emitting VCSOAs devices are reported. The hot electron light emitting and lasing in semiconductor hetero-structure vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (HELLISH VCSOA) device is a surface emitter based on longitudinal injection of electron and hole pairs in their respective channels. Ga0.35In0.65N0.02As0.08/GaAs was used as an active material for operation in the 1.3 μm window of the optical communications. The device has undoped Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) and the current is injected longitudinally, directly into the active layers and does not involve DBRs. Therefore, problems associated with refractive index contrast and current injection through the DBR layers, which are common with the doped DBRs in conventional VCSOAs, are avoided. The highest gain of around 4 dB is obtained for the 1300 nm wavelength operation.

Keywords: HELLISH, VCSOA, GaInNAs, luminescence, gain

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18 A Computer-Aided System for Detection and Classification of Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Abdel Hadi N. Ebraheim, Eman Azomi, Nefisa A. Fahmy

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This paper designs and implements a computer-aided system (CAS) to help detect and diagnose liver cirrhosis in patients with Chronic Hepatitis C. Our system reduces the required features (tests) the patient is asked to do to tests to their minimal best most informative subset of tests, with a diagnostic accuracy above 99%, and hence saving both time and costs. We use the Support Vector Machine (SVM) with cross-validation, a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP), and a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) that employs a base of radial functions for functional approximation, as classifiers. Our system is tested on 199 subjects, of them 99 Chronic Hepatitis C.The subjects were selected from among the outpatient clinic in National Herpetology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (NHTMRI).

Keywords: liver cirrhosis, artificial neural network, support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron, classification, accuracy

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17 Ensemble-Based SVM Classification Approach for miRNA Prediction

Authors: Sondos M. Hammad, Sherin M. ElGokhy, Mahmoud M. Fahmy, Elsayed A. Sallam

Abstract:

In this paper, an ensemble-based Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach is proposed. It is used for miRNA prediction. Three problems, commonly associated with previous approaches, are alleviated. These problems arise due to impose assumptions on the secondary structural of premiRNA, imbalance between the numbers of the laboratory checked miRNAs and the pseudo-hairpins, and finally using a training data set that does not consider all the varieties of samples in different species. We aggregate the predicted outputs of three well-known SVM classifiers; namely, Triplet-SVM, Virgo and Mirident, weighted by their variant features without any structural assumptions. An additional SVM layer is used in aggregating the final output. The proposed approach is trained and then tested with balanced data sets. The results of the proposed approach outperform the three base classifiers. Improved values for the metrics of 88.88% f-score, 92.73% accuracy, 90.64% precision, 96.64% specificity, 87.2% sensitivity, and the area under the ROC curve is 0.91 are achieved.

Keywords: MiRNAs, SVM classification, ensemble algorithm, assumption problem, imbalance data

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16 Design and Sensitivity Analysis of Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Collector

Authors: H. M. Farghally, N. M. Ahmed, H. T. El-Madany, D. M. Atia, F. H. Fahmy

Abstract:

Energy is required in almost every aspect of human activities and development of any nation in this world. Increasing fossil fuel price, energy security and climate change have important bearings on sustainable development of any nation. The renewable energy technology is considered one of the drastic approaches taken over the world to reduce the energy problem. The preservation of vegetables by freezing is one of the most important methods of retaining quality in agricultural products over long-term storage periods. Freezing factories show high demand of energy for both heat and electricity; the hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) systems could be used in order to meet this requirement. This paper presents PV/T system design for freezing factory. Also, the complete mathematical modeling and Matlab Simulink of PV/T collector is introduced. The sensitivity analysis for the manufacturing parameters of PV/T collector is carried out to study their effect on the thermal and electrical efficiency.

Keywords: renewable energy, hybrid PV/T system, sensitivity analysis, ecological sciences

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15 High Frequency Memristor-Based BFSK and 8QAM Demodulators

Authors: Nahla Elazab, Mohamed Aboudina, Ghada Ibrahim, Hossam Fahmy, Ahmed Khalil

Abstract:

This paper presents the developed memristor based demodulators for eight circular Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) operating at relatively high frequency. In our implementations, the experimental-based ‘nonlinear’ dopant drift model is adopted along with the proposed circuits providing incorporation of all known non-idealities of practically realized memristor and gaining high operation frequency. The suggested designs leverage the distinctive characteristics of the memristor device, definitely, its changeable average memristance versus the frequency, phase and amplitude of the periodic excitation input. The proposed demodulators feature small integration area, low power consumption, and easy implementation. Moreover, the proposed QAM demodulator precludes the requirement for the carrier recovery circuits. In doing so, the designs were validated by transient simulations using the nonlinear dopant drift memristor model. The simulations results show high agreement with the theory presented.

Keywords: BFSK, demodulator, high frequency memristor applications, memristor based analog circuits, nonlinear dopant drift model, QAM

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14 Study of the Effect of Sewing on Non Woven Textile Waste at Dry and Composite Scales

Authors: Wafa Baccouch, Adel Ghith, Xavier Legrand, Faten Fayala

Abstract:

Textile waste recycling has become a necessity considering the augmentation of the amount of waste generated each year and the ecological problems that landfilling and burning can cause. Textile waste can be recycled into many different forms according to its composition and its final utilization. Using this waste as reinforcement to composite panels is a new recycling area that is being studied. Compared to virgin fabrics, recycled ones present the disadvantage of having lower structural characteristics, when they are eco-friendly and with low cost. The objective of this work is transforming textile waste into composite material with good characteristic and low price. In this study, we used sewing as a method to improve the characteristics of the recycled textile waste in order to use it as reinforcement to composite material. Textile non-woven waste was afforded by a local textile recycling industry. Performances tests were evaluated using tensile testing machine and based on the testing direction for both reinforcements and composite panels; machine and transverse direction. Tensile tests were conducted on sewed and non sewed fabrics, and then they were used as reinforcements to composite panels via epoxy resin infusion method. Rule of mixtures is used to predict composite characteristics and then compared to experimental ones.

Keywords: composite material, epoxy resin, non woven waste, recycling, sewing, textile

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13 Sustainable Campus Assessment Tool: Case Study of Engineering Faculty, Alexandria University

Authors: Faten Fares

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, the world today faces difficult environmental, financial, and social challenges. In order to change people’s lifestyle to be more sustainable, one must change people’s culture then spaces by focusing on education. Further, the higher education has a key role to play in the move toward a more sustainable world. In the overall analysis, the true sustainable university will make a significant effect. Since the sustainable campus is not only a green built environment, which aims at energy efficiency, water efficiency, waste management, and conserving resources but also it is how to implement green built environment. This implementation takes place while engaging the campus stakeholders (students, academic staff, assistants, workers, and administrators) through educating for sustainability. The main purpose of the research is to develop a tool to assess the sustainable campus and to be a framework for achieving more sustainable campuses. In the case study, the data were analyzed to know existing efforts and capabilities then measure the sustainability performance using the proposal framework at Alexandria University Engineering Campus. Finally, the findings of the research explain that campus is partially adherence with the proposal tool and need to be more sustainable in a formally implemented.

Keywords: sustainability, higher education, sustainable campus, sustainability teaching and research, campus participation culture, environmental improvement

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12 Study of the Efficacy of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Alone or Combined with Praziquantel as Chemotherapy for Mice Schistosomiasis mansoni

Authors: Alyaa Ahmed Farid, Aida Ismail, Ibrahim Rabia, Azza Fahmy, Azza El Amir

Abstract:

This study was designed for assessment of 3 types of Cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) fluromethylketone (FMK), vinyl sulfone (VS) and sodium nitro prussid (SNP), to define which of them is the best? The experiments aimed to define the protective power of each inhibitor alone or combined with PZQ for curing S. mansoni infection in mice. In vitro, treated S. mansoni adult worms recorded a mortality rate after 1 hr of exposure to 500 ppm of FMK, VS and SNP as 75, 70 and 60%, while, treated cercaria recorded 75, 60 and 50%, respectively. FMK+PZQ treatment recorded the maximum reduction in worm burden (97.2% at 5 wk PI). VS treatment alone or combined with PZQ increases IgM, total IgG, IgG2 and IgG4 levels. In EM study of worm tegument, while only detachment of spines was observed in PZQ treated group, the completely implanted spines were reported in the degenerated tegument of adult worms in all groups treated with CPIs. Treatment with VS+PZQ increased Igs levels but, its effect was different on worm reduction. So, it is not enough to eliminate the infection and FMK+PZQ considered the antischistosomicidal drug of choice.

Keywords: praziquantel, fluromethylketone, vinyl sulfone, worm burden, immunoglobulin pattern

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11 Effect of Manual Progressive Ischemic Pressure versus Post Isometric Facilitation in the Treatment of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points in Mechanical Neck Pain

Authors: Mohamed M. Diab, Fahmy E. Mohamed, Alaa Balbaa

Abstract:

Background: Myofascial pain syndrome a common type of non-articular musculoskeletal pain, is a condition associated with regional pain and muscle tenderness characterized by the presence of hypersensitive nodules. Objectives: the purpose of this study is to compare between the effects of manual progressive ischemic pressure versus the effect of post isometric facilitation in the treatment of Rhomboid latent myofascial trigger points. Methods: six patients had participated in this study. Patients divided into two groups. Group A treated by manual progressive ischemic pressure and traditional physical therapy program. Group B treated by post isometric facilitation and traditional physical therapy program. Treatment program was for 6 sessions over two week’s period. Result: Statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in post treatment from pretreatment in pain severity (VAS) in myofascial trigger points with Rhomboid muscles) and Pain pressure threshold (PPT) for tenderness at both groups (A,B). Conclusion: ischemic pressure technique appear to be no more effective than post isometric facilitation in treatment of rhomboids latent myofacial trigger point.

Keywords: Rhmoiboid trigger point, myofacila trigger point, ischemic pressure, post isometric facilitation

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10 Factors Affecting on Mid-Career Training for Arab Journalists, United Arab Emirates Case Study

Authors: Maha Abdulmajeed, Nagwa Fahmy

Abstract:

Improving journalism practice in the UAE requires a clear understanding of the mid-career training environment; what Arab journalists’ think about the professional training available to them, what training needs they have and still not achieved, and what factors they think it could help to improve the mid-career training outcomes. This research paper examines the validity and effectiveness of mid-career professional journalistic training in the UAE. The research focuses on Arab journalists’ perceptions and attitudes towards professional training, and the state of journalistic training courses available to them, in comparison to modern trends of professional training. The two main objectives of this paper are to examine how different factors affect the effectiveness of the mid-career training offered to Arab Journalists in UAE, whether they are institutional factories, socio-economic factors, personal factors, etc. Then, to suggest a practical roadmap to improve the mid-career journalism training in the UAE. The research methodology combines qualitative and quantitative approaches. As researchers conduct in-depth interviews with a sample of Arab journalists in the UAE, Media outlets in UAE encompass private and governmental entities, with media products in Arabic and/or English, online and/or offline as well. Besides, content analysis will be applied to the available online and offline journalistic training courses offered to Arab journalists’ in UAE along the past three years. Research outcomes are expected to be helpful and practical to improve professional training in the UAE and to determine comprehensive and concrete criteria to provide up-to-date professional training, and to evaluate its validity. Results and research outcomes can help to better understand the current status of mid-career journalistic training in the UAE, to evaluate it based on studying both; the targeted trainees and the up-to-date journalistic training trends.

Keywords: Arab journalists, Arab journalism culture, journalism practice, journalism and technology

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9 Protective Effect of Rosemary Extract against Toxicity Induced by Egyptian Naja haje Venom

Authors: Walaa H. Salama, Azza M. Abdel-Aty, Afaf S. Fahmy

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Background: Egyptian Cobra; Naja haje (Elapidae) is one of most common snakes, widely distributed in Egypt and its envenomation causes multi-organ failure leading to rapid death. Thus, Different medicinal plants showed a protective effect against venom toxicity and may complement the conventional antivenom therapy. Aim: The present study was designed to assess both the antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of rosemary leaves and evaluate the neutralizing ability of the extract against hepatotoxicity induced by Naja haje venom. Methods: The total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of the methanolic rosemary extract were estimated by DPPH and ABTS Scavenging methods. In addition, the rosemary extract were assessed for anti-venom properties under in vitro and in vivo standard assays. Results: The rosemary extract had high total phenolic and flavonoid content as 12 ± 2 g of gallic acid equivalent per 100 gram of dry weight (g GAE/100g dw) and 5.5 ± 0.8 g of catechin equivalent per 100 grams of dry weight (g CE/100g dw), respectively. In addition, the rosemary extract showed high antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, The rosemary extract were inhibited in vitro the enzymatic activities of phospholipase A₂, L-amino acid oxidase, and hyaluronidase of the venom in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, indirect hemolytic activity, hepatotoxicity induced by venom were completely neutralized as shown by histological studies. Conclusion: The phenolic compounds of rosemary extract with potential antioxidant activity may be considered as a promising candidate for future therapeutics in snakebite therapy.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, neutralization, phospholipase A₂ enzyme, snake venom

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8 Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Efficacy of Salsola inermis Extract against N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats

Authors: Ahlam H. Mahmoud, Samir F. Zohny, Ibrahim H. Boraia, Faten S. Bayoumic, Eman Eissa

Abstract:

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is known to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, we aimed to assess the Salsola inermis extract as a novel chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DNE)/phenobarbital (PB)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: group1 rats were served as normal controls; group 2 rats were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 20 weeks; group 3 rats were subjected to two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen (initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis was performed by a single intraperitoneal injection of DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, 2 weeks later, the carcinogenic effect was promoted by supplementation of rats with 0.05% PB for 16 weeks); group 4 rats were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract 2 weeks prior to the injection of DEN, the daily injection of S. inermis extract was then continued for 18 weeks along with two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen (chemoprevention group); and group 5 rats were subjected to the two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen, and then, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract for 4 weeks (treatment group). The activities of serum liver enzymes and levels of total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, α-fetoprotein, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in serum were decreased in chemopreventive and treated rats compared with DEN/PB-administered rats. Interestingly, the serum levels of total protein and albumin were normalized in chemopreventive and treated rats. Moreover, the majority of chemopreventive and treated rats showed an almost normal histological pattern of liver. In conclusion, S. inermis extract possessed chemopreventive and therapeutic activities against hepatocarcinogenesis in rats partially through the inhibition of VEGF and sICAM-1.

Keywords: Salsola inermis extract, hepatocarcinogenesis, α–fetoprotein, VEGF, sICAM-1

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7 Design and Synthesis of Some Pyrimidine Derivatives as Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Ibrahim M. Labouta, Gina N. Tageldin, Salwa M. Fahmy, Hayam M. Ashour, Mounir A. Khalil, Tamer M. Ibrahim, Nefertiti A. El-Nikhely

Abstract:

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling transduction. It regulates B cell proliferation, development and survival. Since BTK is widely expressed in many B cell leukaemias and lymphomas, targeting BTK by small molecules inhibitors became an attractive idea as new treatment modalities for B cell mediated hematologic malignancies. Ibrutinib is the 1st generation BTK inhibitor, approved by FDA for treatment of relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It binds irreversibly to the unique cysteine (Cys481) within the ATP-binding pocket of BTK. Besides ibrutinib, many irreversible covalent BTK inhibitors comprising pyrimidine nucleus such as spebrutinib (phase IIb) showed high selectivity and potency when compared to it. In this study, the designed compounds were based on 5-cyano-2-methylsulfanyl pyrimidine core and decorated with electrophilic warheads which are essential for the optimal activity for targeted covalent inhibition (TCI). However, modifications at pyrimidine C4 or C6 were made by introduction of substituted amines which are provided to behave differently. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their anticancer activity in leukemia cell lines (e.g. THP-1). Results showed that, some derivatives exhibited antiproliferative activity with IC50 ranged from 5-50 μM, The in vitro enzymatic inhibitory assay for these compounds against BTK is still under investigation. Nevertheless, we could conclude from the initial biological screening that, the synthesized 4 or 6-subsitituted aminopyrimidines represent promising and novel antileukemic agents. Meanwhile, further studies are still needed to attribute this activity through targeting BTK enzyme and inhibition of BCR signaling pathway.

Keywords: BTK inhibitors, hematologic malignancies, structure based drug design (SBDD), targeted covalent inhibitors (TCI)

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6 Development of Interaction Diagram for Eccentrically Loaded Reinforced Concrete Sandwich Walls with Different Design Parameters

Authors: May Haggag, Ezzat Fahmy, Mohamed Abdel-Mooty, Sherif Safar

Abstract:

Sandwich sections have a very complex nature due to variability of behavior of different materials within the section. Cracking, crushing and yielding capacity of constituent materials enforces high complexity of the section. Furthermore, slippage between the different layers adds to the section complex behavior. Conventional methods implemented in current industrial guidelines do not account for the above complexities. Thus, a throughout study is needed to understand the true behavior of the sandwich panels thus, increase the ability to use them effectively and efficiently. The purpose of this paper is to conduct numerical investigation using ANSYS software for the structural behavior of sandwich wall section under eccentric loading. Sandwich walls studied herein are composed of two RC faces, a foam core and linking shear connectors. Faces are modeled using solid elements and reinforcement together with connectors are modeled using link elements. The analysis conducted herein is nonlinear static analysis incorporating material nonlinearity, crashing and crushing of concrete and yielding of steel. The model is validated by comparing it to test results in literature. After validation, the model is used to establish extensive parametric analysis to investigate the effect of three key parameters on the axial force bending moment interaction diagram of the walls. These parameters are the concrete compressive strength, face thickness and number of shear connectors. Furthermore, the results of the parametric study are used to predict a coefficient that links the interaction diagram of a solid wall to that of a sandwich wall. The equation is predicted using the parametric study data and regression analysis. The predicted α was used to construct the interaction diagram of the investigated wall and the results were compared with ANSYS results and showed good agreement.

Keywords: sandwich walls, interaction diagrams, numerical modeling, eccentricity, reinforced concrete

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5 Survey-Based Pilot Investigation to Establish Meaningful Education Links in the Gambia

Authors: Miriam Fahmy, Shalini Fernando

Abstract:

Educational links between teaching hospitals and universities can provide visits with great impact for both sides. As a visitor, one is responsible for the content, respecting current practice while offering guidance from a completely different perspective. There is little documented guidance for establishing links with universities in developing countries and providing meaningful teaching and exchange programmes. An initial contact retrieved one response with regards to written curriculum. The otolaryngology department from a Swansea teaching hospital visited a university in the Gambia. A consultant and clinical fellow visited with medical students to deliver lectures, clinical skills and informal teaching such as bedside and small group teaching. Students who had participated in teaching provided by the visiting university were asked to give feedback. This information was collated and used to evaluate the impact, and to guide future visits, including thinking of establishing a curriculum tailored to the West Africa region. The students felt they gained the most from informal sessions such as bedside teaching and felt that more practical experience on real patients and pathology would be most beneficial to them. Given that internet is poor, they also suggested a video library for their reference. Many of them look forward to visiting Swansea and are interested in the differences in practice and technologies. The findings are limited to little previous literature and student feedback. Student feedback sparked further questions and careful contemplation. There is great scope for introducing a range of teaching resources but it is important to avoid assumptions and imposition of a western curriculum and education system, a larger sample is needed with input from lecturers and curriculum writers in leading universities. In conclusion, more literature and guidance needs to be established for future visitors contemplating an educational link.

Keywords: education, impact, West Africa, university links

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4 Vitex agnus-castus Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidants Characters and Anti-Tumor Effect in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Model

Authors: Abeer Y. Ibrahim, Faten M. Ibrahim, Samah A. El-Newary, Saber F. Hendawy

Abstract:

Objective: Appreciation of in-vitro anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characters of Vitex agnus-castus berries alcoholic extract and fractions, as well as in-vivo antitumor ability of alcoholic extract and chloroform fraction against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma is the aim of this study. Material and methods: Antioxidant properties of crude alcoholic extract of vitex berries as well as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were evaluated, in-vitro assessments, as compared with standard materials, l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and butylated hydroxyl toluene(BHT). The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibition assays. Moreover, in-vivo antitumor effect of vitex berries alcoholic and chloroform extracts were evaluated using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model. Data were presented as mean±SE, and data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test. Results and conclusion: Berries crude extract showed potent antioxidant activity followed with its fractions ethyl acetate and chloroform as compared with standard (V.C and BHT). Ethyl acetate fraction showed good reduction capability, metal ion chelation, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging and superoxide anion scavenging. Meanwhile, chloroform fraction produced the highest free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. In respectable of lipid peroxidation inhibition, crude alcoholic extract and its fractions cleared weak inhibition in comparing with standard materials. Anti-inflammatory activity of V. agnus-castus berries chloroform fraction of vitex was best COX-2 inhibitor (IC₅₀, 135.41 µg/ ml) as compared to vitex alcoholic extract or ethyl acetate fraction with weak inhibitory effect on COX-1 (IC50, 778.432 µg/ ml), where the lowest effect on COX-1 was recorded with alcoholic extract. Alcoholic extract and its fractions showed weak COX-1 inhibition activity, whereas COX-2 was inhibited (100%), compared with celecoxib drug (72% at 1000ppm). The crude alcoholic and chloroform extracts of V. agnus-castus barries significantly reduced the viable Ehrlich cell count and increased nonviable count with amelioration of all hematological parameters. This amelioration was reflected on increasing median survival time and significant increase (P < 0.05) in lifespan.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Vitex agnus-castus

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3 Neuroprotection against N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Optic Nerve and Retinal Degeneration Changes by Philanthotoxin-343 to Alleviate Visual Impairments Involve Reduced Nitrosative Stress

Authors: Izuddin Fahmy Abu, Mohamad Haiqal Nizar Mohamad, Muhammad Fattah Fazel, Renu Agarwal, Igor Iezhitsa, Nor Salmah Bakar, Henrik Franzyk, Ian Mellor

Abstract:

Glaucoma is the global leading cause of irreversible blindness. Currently, the available treatment strategy only involves lowering intraocular pressure (IOP); however, the condition often progresses despite lowered or normal IOP in some patients. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) excitotoxicity often occurs in neurodegeneration-related glaucoma; thus it is a relevant target to develop a therapy based on neuroprotection approach. This study investigated the effects of Philanthotoxin-343 (PhTX-343), an NMDAR antagonist, on the neuroprotection of NMDA-induced glaucoma to alleviate visual impairments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided: Groups 1 (control) and 2 (glaucoma) were intravitreally injected with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and NMDA (160nM), respectively, while group 3 was pre-treated with PhTX-343 (160nM) 24 hours prior to NMDA injection. Seven days post-treatments, rats were subjected to visual behavior assessments and subsequently euthanized to harvest their retina and optic nerve tissues for histological analysis and determination of nitrosative stress level using 3-nitrotyrosine ELISA. Visual behavior assessments via open field, object, and color recognition tests demonstrated poor visual performance in glaucoma rats indicated by high exploratory behavior. PhTX-343 pre-treatment appeared to preserve visual abilities as all test results were significantly improved (p < 0.05). H&E staining of the retina showed a marked reduction of ganglion cell layer thickness in the glaucoma group; in contrast, PhTX-343 significantly increased the number by 1.28-folds (p < 0.05). PhTX-343 also increased the number of cell nuclei/100μm2 within inner retina by 1.82-folds compared to the glaucoma group (p < 0.05). Toluidine blue staining of optic nerve tissues showed that PhTX-343 reduced the degeneration changes compared to the glaucoma group which exhibited vacuolation overall sections. PhTX-343 also decreased retinal 3- nitrotyrosine concentration by 1.74-folds compared to the glaucoma group (p < 0.05). All results in PhTX-343 group were comparable to control (p > 0.05). We conclude that PhTX-343 protects against NMDA-induced changes and visual impairments in the rat model by reducing nitrosative stress levels.

Keywords: excitotoxicity, glaucoma, nitrosative stress , NMDA receptor , N-methyl-D-aspartate , philanthotoxin, visual behaviour

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2 Investigating the Correlation between Job Satisfaction, Autonomy, and Self-Efficacy among School Nurses in Bahrain: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: Faten Hasani

Abstract:

Background: Hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and health centres are the traditional places where nurses work, but nurses have recently started working in new areas such as government and private schools, and they play a critical role in better health outcomes in the education setting. In order to better understand these roles, this study aimed to investigate the factors affecting job satisfaction and the relationship between job satisfaction, autonomy, and self-efficacy amongst school nurses in Bahrain. Materials and Methods: This study used a mixed-method approach involving an exploratory sequential design with a survey and subsequent one-on-one interviews. A total of 142 school nurses in Bahrain were surveyed and data were collected using structured psychometric tools to measure job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and autonomy. Demographic characteristics of participants (gender, age, nursing specialty, professional development, appointing authority, and workload/population served) were also collected to allow for further analysis. The data were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Twenty-seven school nurses were subsequently recruited for interviews using a purposeful sampling procedure. The data were subjected to thematic analysis using Burnard’s (1991) framework. Results: Results from the surveys were indicative of a general high level of job satisfaction among school nurses in Bahrain. The areas which contributed most strongly to this satisfaction, by way of statistical significance, were perceptions of the standard of care provided, professional support nurses received, the manageability of assigned workloads and personal satisfaction. The data further illustrate that job autonomy has an independent and positive relationship with job satisfaction, suggesting that job autonomy causes a subsequent increase in job satisfaction. Self-efficacy, on the other hand, correlates with job satisfaction but was statistically significant. The qualitative results found a unanimous consensus amongst school nurses that they face challenges in executing their roles. Herzberg’s two-factor theory was used to demonstrate the hygiene and motivation factors related to Bahraini school nurses’ job satisfaction. In this regard, significant issues emerged in relation to training, standardisation of role descriptions and regulation, and the need to promote health work environments. Conclusion and Recommendations: While the findings indicate that school nurses in Bahrain are satisfied with their jobs there are a number of areas which need to be addressed to ensure that the role continues to realise its potential presently and into the future. The findings suggest that training and education needs, regulatory professional bodies, and healthy and productive work environments are three important factors that affect the job satisfaction of school nurses in Bahrain. The study recommends a clear definition of school nurses’ roles to ensure a productive and healthy working environment and also shows a need to implement appraisal modalities that will enable career growth, including remuneration and reward, thus facilitating job satisfaction and ensuring positive outcomes.

Keywords: school nurses, job satisfaction, autonomy, self-efficacy

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1 Implementation of Cord- Blood Derived Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Two Experimental Models: Carbon Tetrachloride and S. Mansoni Induced Liver Fibrosis

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Zeinab A. Demerdash, Hanan G. El-Baz, Salwa M. Hassan, Faten M. Salah, Wafaa Mansour, Olfat Hammam

Abstract:

Cord blood (CB) derived Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSCs) with their multipotentiality hold great promise in liver regeneration. This work aims at evaluation of the therapeutic potentiality of USSCs in two experimental models of chronic liver injury induced either by S. mansoni infection in balb/c mice or CCL4 injection in hamsters. Isolation, propagation, and characterization of USSCs from CB samples were performed. USSCs were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and hepatocyte-like cells. Cells of the third passage were transplanted in two models of liver fibrosis: (1) Twenty hamsters were induced to liver fibrosis by repeated i. p. injection of 100 μl CCl4 /hamster for 8 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis and treated with i.h. injection of 3x106 USSCs (USSCs transplanted group), 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis (pathological control group), and 10 hamsters with healthy livers (normal control group). (2) Murine chronics S.mansoni model: twenty mice were induced to liver fibrosis with S. mansoni ceracariae (60 cercariae/ mouse) using the tail immersion method and left for 12 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 mice with liver fibrosis were transplanted with i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs (USSCs transplanted group). Other 2 groups were designed as in hamsters model. Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after USSCs transplantation, and their liver sections were examined for detection of human hepatocyte-like cells by immunohistochemistry staining. Moreover, liver sections were examined for fibrosis level, and fibrotic indices were calculated. Sera of sacrificed animals were tested for liver functions. CB USSCs, with fibroblast-like morphology, expressed high levels of CD44, CD90, CD73 and CD105 and were negative for CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. USSCs showed high expression of transcripts for Oct4 and Sox2 and were in vitro differentiated into osteoblasts, adipocytes. In both animal models, in vitro induced hepatocyte-like cells were confirmed by cytoplasmic expression of glycogen, alpha-fetoprotein, and cytokeratin18. Livers of USSCs transplanted group showed engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as proved by cytoplasmic expression of human alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratin18, and OV6. In addition, livers of this group showed less fibrosis than the pathological control group. Liver functions in the form of serum AST & ALT level and serum total bilirubin level were significantly lowered in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the fibrotic index was significantly lower (p< 0.001) in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group. In addition liver sections, of i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs of mice, stained with either H&E or sirius red showed diminished granuloma size and a relative decrease in hepatic fibrosis. Our experimental liver fibrosis models transplanted with CB-USSCs showed liver engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as well as signs of liver regeneration in the form of improvement in liver function assays and fibrosis level. These data provide hope that human CB- derived USSCs are introduced as multipotent stem cells with great potentiality in regenerative medicine & strengthens the concept of cellular therapy for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

Keywords: cord blood, liver fibrosis, stem cells, transplantation

Procedia PDF Downloads 207