Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Bitcoin

31 Analyzing the Effects of Adding Bitcoin to Portfolio

Authors: Shashwat Gangwal

Abstract:

This paper analyses the effect of adding Bitcoin, to the portfolio (stocks, bonds, Baltic index, MXEF, gold, real estate and crude oil) of an international investor by using daily data available from 2nd of July, 2010 to 2nd of August, 2016. We conclude that adding Bitcoin to portfolio, over the course of the considered period, always yielded a higher Sharpe ratio. This means that Bitcoin’s returns offset its high volatility. This paper, recognizing the fact that Bitcoin is a relatively new asset class, gives the readers a basic idea about the working of the virtual currency, the increasing number developments in the financial industry revolving around it, its unique features and the detailed look into its continuously growing acceptance across different fronts (Banks, Merchants and Countries) globally. We also construct optimal portfolios to reflect the highly lucrative and largely unexplored opportunities associated with investment in Bitcoin.

Keywords: bitcoin, financial instruments, portfolio management, risk adjusted return

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30 A Regulatory Analysis on Legal Problems of BitCoin

Authors: Fady Tawakol

Abstract:

BitCoin is a decentralized cryptocurrency that can be used without the need of traditional central banks to accomplish any e-commerce trade. The use of such currency could facilitate new economic interactions and linkages. However, without effective and efficient regulations, cryptocurrency transactions are mostly used by criminals to commit crimes such as money laundering, theft, and blackmailing. And because law is one step behind technological developments, this paper discusses the importance of regulations and supervision for the BitCoin-system, to provide unified regulatory solutions for our digital future in the Middle East. It will provide a detailed analysis of the legal nature of BitCoin along with, its regulation with respect to criminal and civil law.

Keywords: BitCoin, financial protection, crypto currency, money laundering

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29 Evaluating the Effects of a Positive Bitcoin Shock on the U.S Economy: A TVP-FAVAR Model with Stochastic Volatility

Authors: Olfa Kaabia, Ilyes Abid, Khaled Guesmi

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This pioneer paper studies whether and how Bitcoin shocks are transmitted to the U.S economy. We employ a new methodology: TVP FAVAR model with stochastic volatility. We use a large dataset of 111 major U.S variables from 1959:m1 to 2016:m12. The results show that Bitcoin shocks significantly impact the U.S. economy. This significant impact is pronounced in a volatile and increasing U.S economy. The Bitcoin has a positive relationship on the U.S real activity, and a negative one on U.S prices and interest rates. Effects on the Monetary Policy exist via the inter-est rates and the Money, Credit and Finance transmission channels.

Keywords: bitcoin, US economy, FAVAR models, stochastic volatility

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28 The Impact of Bitcoin on Stock Market Performance

Authors: Oliver Takawira, Thembi Hope

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This study will analyse the relationship between Bitcoin price movements and the Johannesburg stock exchange (JSE). The aim is to determine whether Bitcoin price movements affect the stock market performance. As crypto currencies continue to gain prominence as a safe asset during periods of economic distress, this raises the question of whether Bitcoin’s prosperity could affect investment in the stock market. To identify the existence of a short run and long run linear relationship, the study will apply the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) bounds test and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) after testing the data for unit roots and cointegration using the Augmented Dicker Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP). The Non-Linear Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) will then be used to check if there is a non-linear relationship between bitcoin prices and stock market prices.

Keywords: bitcoin, stock market, interest rates, ARDL

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27 Economic Characteristics of Bitcoin: "An Analytical Study"

Authors: Abdelhalem Shahen

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The world is now experiencing a digital revolution and greatly accelerated technological developments, in addition to the transition from the economy in its traditional form to the digital economy, which has resulted in the emergence of new tools that are appropriate to those developments, and from this, this paper attempts to explore the economic characteristics of the bitcoin currency that circulated recently. Due to the many advantages that distinguish it from money in its traditional forms, which have a range of economic effects. The study found that Bitcoin is among the technological innovations, which contain a set of characteristics that are worth studying, those that make it the focus of attention, such as the digital currency, the peer-to-peer property, Lower and Faster Transaction Costs, transparency, decentralized control, privacy, and Double-Spending, as well as security and Cryptographic, and finally mining.

Keywords: Digital Economics, Digital Currencies, Bitcoin, Features of Bitcoin

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26 Evaluation of Security and Performance of Master Node Protocol in the Bitcoin Peer-To-Peer Network

Authors: Muntadher Sallal, Gareth Owenson, Mo Adda, Safa Shubbar

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Bitcoin is a digital currency based on a peer-to-peer network to propagate and verify transactions. Bitcoin is gaining wider adoption than any previous crypto-currency. However, the mechanism of peers randomly choosing logical neighbors without any knowledge about underlying physical topology can cause a delay overhead in information propagation, which makes the system vulnerable to double-spend attacks. Aiming at alleviating the propagation delay problem, this paper introduces proximity-aware extensions to the current Bitcoin protocol, named Master Node Based Clustering (MNBC). The ultimate purpose of the proposed protocol, that are based on how clusters are formulated and how nodes can define their membership, is to improve the information propagation delay in the Bitcoin network. In MNBC protocol, physical internet connectivity increases, as well as the number of hops between nodes, decreases through assigning nodes to be responsible for maintaining clusters based on physical internet proximity. We show, through simulations, that the proposed protocol defines better clustering structures that optimize the performance of the transaction propagation over the Bitcoin protocol. The evaluation of partition attacks in the MNBC protocol, as well as the Bitcoin network, was done in this paper. Evaluation results prove that even though the Bitcoin network is more resistant against the partitioning attack than the MNBC protocol, more resources are needed to be spent to split the network in the MNBC protocol, especially with a higher number of nodes.

Keywords: Bitcoin network, propagation delay, clustering, scalability

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25 Analysis and Forecasting of Bitcoin Price Using Exogenous Data

Authors: J-C. Leneveu, A. Chereau, L. Mansart, T. Mesbah, M. Wyka

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Extracting and interpreting information from Big Data represent a stake for years to come in several sectors such as finance. Currently, numerous methods are used (such as Technical Analysis) to try to understand and to anticipate market behavior, with mixed results because it still seems impossible to exactly predict a financial trend. The increase of available data on Internet and their diversity represent a great opportunity for the financial world. Indeed, it is possible, along with these standard financial data, to focus on exogenous data to take into account more macroeconomic factors. Coupling the interpretation of these data with standard methods could allow obtaining more precise trend predictions. In this paper, in order to observe the influence of exogenous data price independent of other usual effects occurring in classical markets, behaviors of Bitcoin users are introduced in a model reconstituting Bitcoin value, which is elaborated and tested for prediction purposes.

Keywords: big data, bitcoin, data mining, social network, financial trends, exogenous data, global economy, behavioral finance

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24 The Analysis of the Blockchain Technology and Challenges Hampering Its Adoption

Authors: Sthembile Mthethwa

Abstract:

With the rise in the usage of internet in the past decades, this presented an opportunity for users to transact with each other over the use of internet. Cryptocurrencies have been introduced, which allows users to transact with each other without the involvement of a third party i.e. the bank. These systems are widely known as cryptocurrencies or digital currencies and the first system to be introduced was Bitcoin which has been receiving a lot of attention. Bitcoin introduced a new technology known as the blockchain technology. In the past years, blockchain has been getting attention; whereby new applications are introduced that utilize blockchain. Yet, most people are still hesitant about the adoption of blockchain and the adoption of cryptocurrencies at large. Some people still do not understand the technology. Thus, it leads to the slow adoption of this technology. In this paper, a review of the blockchain is provided, whereby the different types of blockchain are discussed in details. Details of the things that contribute to the hindrance of the process of adoption are discussed.

Keywords: bitcoin, blockchain, cryptocurrency, payment system

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23 Islamic Equity Markets Response to Volatility of Bitcoin

Authors: Zakaria S. G. Hegazy, Walid M. A. Ahmed

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This paper examines the dependence structure of Islamic stock markets on Bitcoin’s realized volatility components in bear, normal, and bull market periods. A quantile regression approach is employed, after adjusting raw returns with respect to a broad set of relevant global factors and accounting for structural breaks in the data. The results reveal that upside volatility tends to exert negative influences on Islamic developed-market returns more in bear than in bull market conditions, while downside volatility positively affects returns during bear and bull conditions. For emerging markets, we find that the upside (downside) component exerts lagged negative (positive) effects on returns in bear (all) market regimes. By and large, the dependence structures turn out to be asymmetric. Our evidence provides essential implications for investors.

Keywords: cryptocurrency markets, bitcoin, realized volatility measures, asymmetry, quantile regression

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22 Appropriation of Cryptocurrencies as a Payment Method by South African Retailers

Authors: Neliswa Dyosi

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Purpose - Using an integrated Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework and the model of technology appropriation (MTA) as a theoretical lens, this interpretive qualitative study seeks to understand and explain the factors that influence the appropriation, non-appropriation, and disappropriation of bitcoin as a payment method by South African retailers. Design/methodology/approach –The study adopts the interpretivist philosophical paradigm. Multiple case studies will be adopted as a research strategy. For data collection, the study follows a qualitative approach. Qualitative data will be collected from the six retailers in various industries. Semi-structured interviews and documents will be used as the data collection techniques. Purposive and snowballing sampling techniques will be used to identify participants within the organizations. Data will be analyzed using thematic analysis. Originality/value - Using the deduction approach, the study seeks to provide a descriptive and explanatory contribution to theory. The study contributes to theory development by integrating the MTA and TOE frameworks as a means to understand technology adoption behaviors of organizations, in this case, retailers. This is also the first study that looks at an integrated approach of the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework and the MTA framework to understand the adoption and use of a payment method. South Africa is ranked amongst the top ten countries in the world on cryptocurrency adoption. There is, however, still a dearth of literature on the current state of adoption and usage of bitcoin as a payment method in South Africa. The study will contribute to the existing literature as bitcoin cryptocurrency is gaining popularity as an alternative payment method across the globe.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, payment methods, blockchain, appropriation, online retailers, TOE framework, disappropriation, non-appropriation

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21 Money Laundering and Governance in Cryptocurrencies: The Double-Edged Sword of Blockchain Technology

Authors: Jiaqi Yan, Yani Shi

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With the growing popularity of bitcoin transactions, criminals have exploited the bitcoin like cryptocurrencies, and cybercriminals such as money laundering have thrived. Unlike traditional currencies, the Internet-based virtual currencies can be used anonymously via the blockchain technology underpinning. In this paper, we analyze the double-edged sword features of blockchain technology in the context of money laundering. In particular, the traceability feature of blockchain-based system facilitates a level of governance, while the decentralization feature of blockchain-based system may bring governing difficulties. Based on the analysis, we propose guidelines for policy makers in governing blockchain-based cryptocurrency systems.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, money laundering, blockchain, decentralization, traceability

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20 Cryptocurrency Forensics: Analysis on Bitcoin E-Wallet from Computer Source Evidence

Authors: Muhammad Nooraiman bin Noorashid, Mohd Sharizuan bin Mohd Omar, Mohd Zabri Adil bin Talib, Aswami Fadillah bin Mohd Ariffin

Abstract:

Nowadays cryptocurrency has become a global phenomenon known to most people. People using this alternative digital money to do a transaction in many ways (e.g. Used for online shopping, wealth management, and fundraising). However, this digital asset also widely used in criminal activities since its use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money and central banking systems and this makes a user, who used this currency invisible. The high-value exchange of these digital currencies also has been a target to criminal activities. The cryptocurrency crimes have become a challenge for the law enforcement to analyze and to proof the evidence as criminal devices. In this paper, our focus is more on bitcoin cryptocurrency and the possible artifacts that can be obtained from the different type of digital wallet, which is software and browser-based application. The process memory and physical hard disk are examined with the aims of identifying and recovering potential digital evidence. The stage of data acquisition divided by three states which are the initial creation of the wallet, transaction that consists transfer and receiving a coin and the last state is after the wallet is being deleted. Findings from this study suggest that both data from software and browser type of wallet process memory is a valuable source of evidence, and many of the artifacts found in process memory are also available from the application and wallet files on the client computer storage.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, digital wallet, digital forensics

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19 Opportunities of Diversification Strategy Investment among the Top Ten Cryptocurrencies in Crypto Industry

Authors: Surayyo Shaamirova, Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman

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This study investigates the co-integration association between the top 10 cryptocurrencies, namely Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, EOS, Cardano, Litecoin, Stellar, IOTA, and NEO. The study applies Johansen Juselius co-integration test to examine the long-run co-integration and utilize the Engle and Granger casualty test to examine the short-run relationship. The findings of the study show that there is a strong co-integration relationship among the cryptocurrencies; however, in the short run, there is no causal relationship among the crypto currencies. These results, therefore, suggest that there are portfolio diversification opportunities in the cryptocurrencies industry when it comes to long run investment decisions, on the other hand, the cryptocurrencies industry shows the characteristics of efficiency in the short-run. This is an indication of a non-speculation investment in the cryptocurrencies industry in the short term investment.

Keywords: cryptocurrencies, Johansen-Juselius co-integration test, Engle and Granger casualty test, portfolio diversification

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18 Drugs, Silk Road, Bitcoins

Authors: Lali Khurtsia, Vano Tsertsvadze

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Georgian drug policy is directed to reduce the supply of drugs. Retrospective analysis has shown that law enforcement activities have been followed by the expulsion of particular injecting drugs. The demand remains unchanged and drugs are substituted by the hand-made, even more dangerous homemade drugs entered the market. To find out expected new trends on the Georgian drug market, qualitative study was conducted with Georgian drug users to determine drug supply routes. It turned out that drug suppliers and consumers for safety reasons and to protect their anonymity, use Skype to make deals. IT in illegal drug trade is even more sophisticated in the worldwide. Trading with Bitcoins in the Darknet ensures high confidentiality of money transactions and the safe circulation of drugs. In 2014 largest Bitcoin mining enterprise in the world was built in Georgia. We argue that the use of Bitcoins and Darknet by Georgian drug consumers and suppliers will be an incentive to response adequately to the government's policy of restricting supply in order to satisfy market demand for drugs.

Keywords: bitcoin, darknet, drugs, policy

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17 Evotrader: Bitcoin Trading Using Evolutionary Algorithms on Technical Analysis and Social Sentiment Data

Authors: Martin Pellon Consunji

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Due to the rise in popularity of Bitcoin and other crypto assets as a store of wealth and speculative investment, there is an ever-growing demand for automated trading tools, such as bots, in order to gain an advantage over the market. Traditionally, trading in the stock market was done by professionals with years of training who understood patterns and exploited market opportunities in order to gain a profit. However, nowadays a larger portion of market participants are at minimum aided by market-data processing bots, which can generally generate more stable signals than the average human trader. The rise in trading bot usage can be accredited to the inherent advantages that bots have over humans in terms of processing large amounts of data, lack of emotions of fear or greed, and predicting market prices using past data and artificial intelligence, hence a growing number of approaches have been brought forward to tackle this task. However, the general limitation of these approaches can still be broken down to the fact that limited historical data doesn’t always determine the future, and that a lot of market participants are still human emotion-driven traders. Moreover, developing markets such as those of the cryptocurrency space have even less historical data to interpret than most other well-established markets. Due to this, some human traders have gone back to the tried-and-tested traditional technical analysis tools for exploiting market patterns and simplifying the broader spectrum of data that is involved in making market predictions. This paper proposes a method which uses neuro evolution techniques on both sentimental data and, the more traditionally human-consumed, technical analysis data in order to gain a more accurate forecast of future market behavior and account for the way both automated bots and human traders affect the market prices of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. This study’s approach uses evolutionary algorithms to automatically develop increasingly improved populations of bots which, by using the latest inflows of market analysis and sentimental data, evolve to efficiently predict future market price movements. The effectiveness of the approach is validated by testing the system in a simulated historical trading scenario, a real Bitcoin market live trading scenario, and testing its robustness in other cryptocurrency and stock market scenarios. Experimental results during a 30-day period show that this method outperformed the buy and hold strategy by over 260% in terms of net profits, even when taking into consideration standard trading fees.

Keywords: neuro-evolution, Bitcoin, trading bots, artificial neural networks, technical analysis, evolutionary algorithms

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16 Lessons Learned from Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) Organized Campaigns

Authors: Vitali Kremez

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The researcher monitored an organized ransomware campaign in order to gain significant visibility into the tactics, techniques, and procedures employed by a campaign boss operating a ransomware scheme out of Russia. As the Russian hacking community lowered the access requirements for unsophisticated Russian cybercriminals to engage in ransomware campaigns, corporations and individuals face a commensurately greater challenge of effectively protecting their data and operations from being held ransom. This report discusses two notorious ransomware campaigns. Though the loss of data can be devastating, the findings demonstrate that sending ransom payments does not always help obtain data. Key learnings: 1. From the ransomware affiliate perspective, such campaigns have significantly lowered the barriers for entry for low-tier cybercriminals. 2. Ransomware revenue amounts are not as glamorous and fruitful as they are often publicly reported. Average ransomware crime bosses make only $90K per year on average. 3. Data gathered indicates that sending ransom payments does not always help obtain data. 4. The talk provides the complete payout structure and Bitcoin laundering operation related to the ransomware-as-a-service campaign.

Keywords: bitcoin, cybercrime, ransomware, Russia

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15 Thai Perception on Bitcoin Value

Authors: Toby Gibbs, Suwaree Yordchim

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This research analyzes factors affecting the success of Litecoin Value within Thailand and develops a guideline for self-reliance for effective business implementation. Samples in this study included 119 people through surveys. The results revealed four main factors affecting the success as follows: 1) Future Career training should be pursued in applied Litecoin development. 2) Didn't grasp the concept of a digital currency or see the benefit of a digital currency. 3) There is a great need to educate the next generation of learners on the benefits of Litecoin within the community. 4) A great majority didn't know what Litecoin was. The guideline for self-reliance planning consisted of 4 aspects: 1) Development planning: by arranging meet up groups to conduct further education on Litecoin and share solutions on adoption into every day usage. Local communities need to develop awareness of the usefulness of Litecoin and share the value of Litecoin among friends and family. 2) Computer Science and Business Management staff should develop skills to expand on the benefits of Litecoin within their departments. 3) Further research should be pursued on how Litecoin Value can improve business and tourism within Thailand. 4) Local communities should focus on developing Litecoin awareness by encouraging street vendors to accept Litecoin as another form of payment for services rendered.

Keywords: bitcoin, cryptocurrency, decentralized, business implementation

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14 Modelling Volatility of Cryptocurrencies: Evidence from GARCH Family of Models with Skewed Error Innovation Distributions

Authors: Timothy Kayode Samson, Adedoyin Isola Lawal

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The past five years have shown a sharp increase in public interest in the crypto market, with its market capitalization growing from $100 billion in June 2017 to $2158.42 billion on April 5, 2022. Despite the outrageous nature of the volatility of cryptocurrencies, the use of skewed error innovation distributions in modelling the volatility behaviour of these digital currencies has not been given much research attention. Hence, this study models the volatility of 5 largest cryptocurrencies by market capitalization (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tether, Binance coin, and USD Coin) using four variants of GARCH models (GJR-GARCH, sGARCH, EGARCH, and APARCH) estimated using three skewed error innovation distributions (skewed normal, skewed student- t and skewed generalized error innovation distributions). Daily closing prices of these currencies were obtained from Yahoo Finance website. Finding reveals that the Binance coin reported higher mean returns compared to other digital currencies, while the skewness indicates that the Binance coin, Tether, and USD coin increased more than they decreased in values within the period of study. For both Bitcoin and Ethereum, negative skewness was obtained, meaning that within the period of study, the returns of these currencies decreased more than they increased in value. Returns from these cryptocurrencies were found to be stationary but not normality distributed with evidence of the ARCH effect. The skewness parameters in all best forecasting models were all significant (p<.05), justifying of use of skewed error innovation distributions with a fatter tail than normal, Student-t, and generalized error innovation distributions. For Binance coin, EGARCH-sstd outperformed other volatility models, while for Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tether, and USD coin, the best forecasting models were EGARCH-sstd, APARCH-sstd, EGARCH-sged, and GJR-GARCH-sstd, respectively. This suggests the superiority of skewed Student t- distribution and skewed generalized error distribution over the skewed normal distribution.

Keywords: skewed generalized error distribution, skewed normal distribution, skewed student t- distribution, APARCH, EGARCH, sGARCH, GJR-GARCH

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13 Comparison of Blockchain Ecosystem for Identity Management

Authors: K. S. Suganya, R. Nedunchezhian

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In recent years, blockchain technology has been found to be the most significant discovery in this digital era, after the discovery of the Internet and Cloud Computing. Blockchain is a simple, distributed public ledger that contains all the user’s transaction details in a block. The global copy of the block is then shared among all its peer-peer network users after validation by the Blockchain miners. Once a block is validated and accepted, it cannot be altered by any users making it a trust-free transaction. It also resolves the problem of double-spending by using traditional cryptographic methods. Since the advent of bitcoin, blockchain has been the backbone for all its transactions. But in recent years, it has found its roots and uses in many fields like Smart Contracts, Smart City management, healthcare, etc. Identity management against digital identity theft has become a major concern among financial and other organizations. To solve this digital identity theft, blockchain technology can be employed with existing identity management systems, which maintain a distributed public ledger containing details of an individual’s identity containing information such as Digital birth certificates, Citizenship number, Bank details, voter details, driving license in the form of blocks verified on the blockchain becomes time-stamped, unforgeable and publicly visible for any legitimate users. The main challenge in using blockchain technology to prevent digital identity theft is ensuring the pseudo-anonymity and privacy of the users. This survey paper will exert to study the blockchain concepts, consensus protocols, and various blockchain-based Digital Identity Management systems with their research scope. This paper also discusses the role of Blockchain in COVID-19 pandemic management by self-sovereign identity and supply chain management.

Keywords: blockchain, consensus protocols, bitcoin, identity theft, digital identity management, pandemic, COVID-19, self-sovereign identity

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12 Blockchain Solutions for IoT Challenges: Overview

Authors: Amir Ali Fatoorchi

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Regardless of the advantage of LoT devices, they have limitations like storage, compute, and security problems. In recent years, a lot of Blockchain-based research in IoT published and presented. In this paper, we present the Security issues of LoT. IoT has three levels of security issues: Low-level, Intermediate-level, and High-level. We survey and compare blockchain-based solutions for high-level security issues and show how the underlying technology of bitcoin and Ethereum could solve IoT problems.

Keywords: Blockchain, security, data security, IoT

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11 Non-Fungible Token and Block Chain Platform Revenue Model

Authors: Cho Seung Wan, Shin Dong Ho

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In this research paper throughout Block chain and NFT's revenue model. Block chain used newest system for improve that security system. Past, lots of company used server base system. So, they can solve problem faster. But today's blockchain system is usually used for other company. Blockchain is lots of block is chaining each other to one chain. So, all the server has same data and power. Blockchain can solve hard security problem. While server base is one center have all the data and power. That two system is completely different. Anyway, the blockchain's cryptocurrency is very particular then other system to be use blockchain. Cryptocurrency came out to alternate for today's currency system. Typical kind of cryptocurrency is Bitcoin and Ethereum. That two types of cryptocurrencies are using a lot of things. Investigate NFT and resulting revenue model.

Keywords: blockchain, non-fungible token, revenue model, cryptocurrency

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10 A Survey on the Blockchain Smart Contract System: Security Strengths and Weaknesses

Authors: Malaw Ndiaye, Karim Konate

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Smart contracts are computer protocols that facilitate, verify, and execute the negotiation or execution of a contract, or that render a contractual term unnecessary. Blockchain and smart contracts can be used to facilitate almost any financial transaction. Thanks to these smart contracts, the settlement of dividends and coupons could be automated. Smart contracts have become lucrative and profitable targets for attackers because they can hold a great amount of money. Smart contracts, although widely used in blockchain technology, are far from perfect due to security concerns. Since there are recent studies on smart contract security, none of them systematically study the strengths and weaknesses of smart contract security. Some have focused on an analysis of program-related vulnerabilities by providing a taxonomy of vulnerabilities. Other studies are responsible for listing the series of attacks linked to smart contracts. Although a series of attacks are listed, there is a lack of discussions and proposals on improving security. This survey takes stock of smart contract security from a more comprehensive perspective by correlating the level of vulnerability and systematic review of security levels in smart contracts.

Keywords: blockchain, Bitcoin, smart contract, criminal smart contract, security

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9 High-Frequency Cryptocurrency Portfolio Management using Multi-Agent System based on Federated Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Sirapop Nuannimnoi, Hojjat Baghban, Ching-Yao Huang

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Over the past decade, with the fast development of blockchain technology since the birth of Bitcoin, there has been a massive increase in the usage of Cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are not seen as an investment opportunity due to the market’s erratic behavior and high price volatility. With the recent success of deep reinforcement learning (DRL), portfolio management can be modeled and automated. In this paper, we propose a novel DRL-based multi-agent system to automatically make proper trading decisions on multiple cryptocurrencies and gain profits in the highly volatile cryptocurrency market. We also extend this multi-agent system with horizontal federated transfer learning for better adapting to the inclusion of new cryptocurrencies in our portfolio; therefore, we can, through the concept of diversification, maximize our profits and minimize the trading risks. Experimental results through multiple simulation scenarios reveal that this proposed algorithmic trading system can offer three promising key advantages over other systems, including maximized profits, minimized risks, and adaptability.

Keywords: cryptocurrency portfolio management, algorithmic trading, federated learning, multi-agent reinforcement learning

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8 Internet of Assets: A Blockchain-Inspired Academic Program

Authors: Benjamin Arazi

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Blockchain is the technology behind cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. It revolutionizes the meaning of trust in the sense of offering total reliability without relying on any central entity that controls or supervises the system. The Wall Street Journal states: “Blockchain Marks the Next Step in the Internet’s Evolution”. Blockchain was listed as #1 in Linkedin – The Learning Blog “most in-demand hard skills needed in 2020”. As stated there: “Blockchain’s novel way to store, validate, authorize, and move data across the internet has evolved to securely store and send any digital asset”. GSMA, a leading Telco organization of mobile communications operators, declared that “Blockchain has the potential to be for value what the Internet has been for information”. Motivated by these seminal observations, this paper presents the foundations of a Blockchain-based “Internet of Assets” academic program that joins under one roof leading application areas that are characterized by the transfer of assets over communication lines. Two such areas, which are pillars of our economy, are Fintech – Financial Technology and mobile communications services. The next application in line is Healthcare. These challenges are met based on available extensive professional literature. Blockchain-based assets communication is based on extending the principle of Bitcoin, starting with the basic question: If digital money that travels across the universe can ‘prove its own validity’, can this principle be applied to digital content. A groundbreaking positive answer here led to the concept of “smart contract” and consequently to DLT - Distributed Ledger Technology, where the word ‘distributed’ relates to the non-existence of reliable central entities or trusted third parties. The terms Blockchain and DLT are frequently used interchangeably in various application areas. The World Bank Group compiled comprehensive reports, analyzing the contribution of DLT/Blockchain to Fintech. The European Central Bank and Bank of Japan are engaged in Project Stella, “Balancing confidentiality and auditability in a distributed ledger environment”. 130 DLT/Blockchain focused Fintech startups are now operating in Switzerland. Blockchain impact on mobile communications services is treated in detail by leading organizations. The TM Forum is a global industry association in the telecom industry, with over 850 member companies, mainly mobile operators, that generate US$2 trillion in revenue and serve five billion customers across 180 countries. From their perspective: “Blockchain is considered one of the digital economy’s most disruptive technologies”. Samples of Blockchain contributions to Fintech (taken from a World Bank document): Decentralization and disintermediation; Greater transparency and easier auditability; Automation & programmability; Immutability & verifiability; Gains in speed and efficiency; Cost reductions; Enhanced cyber security resilience. Samples of Blockchain contributions to the Telco industry. Establishing identity verification; Record of transactions for easy cost settlement; Automatic triggering of roaming contract which enables near-instantaneous charging and reduction in roaming fraud; Decentralized roaming agreements; Settling accounts per costs incurred in accordance with agreement tariffs. This clearly demonstrates an academic education structure where fundamental technologies are studied in classes together with these two application areas. Advanced courses, treating specific implementations then follow separately. All are under the roof of “Internet of Assets”.

Keywords: blockchain, education, financial technology, mobile telecommunications services

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7 A Modeling Approach for Blockchain-Oriented Information Systems Design

Authors: Jiaqi Yan, Yani Shi

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The blockchain technology is regarded as the most promising technology that has the potential to trigger a technological revolution. However, besides the bitcoin industry, we have not yet seen a large-scale application of blockchain in those domains that are supposed to be impacted, such as supply chain, financial network, and intelligent manufacturing. The reasons not only lie in the difficulties of blockchain implementation, but are also root in the challenges of blockchain-oriented information systems design. As the blockchain members are self-interest actors that belong to organizations with different existing information systems. As they expect different information inputs and outputs of the blockchain application, a common language protocol is needed to facilitate communications between blockchain members. Second, considering the decentralization of blockchain organization, there is not any central authority to organize and coordinate the business processes. Thus, the information systems built on blockchain should support more adaptive business process. This paper aims to address these difficulties by providing a modeling approach for blockchain-oriented information systems design. We will investigate the information structure of distributed-ledger data with conceptual modeling techniques and ontology theories, and build an effective ontology mapping method for the inter-organization information flow and blockchain information records. Further, we will study the distributed-ledger-ontology based business process modeling to support adaptive enterprise on blockchain.

Keywords: blockchain, ontology, information systems modeling, business process

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6 A Business-to-Business Collaboration System That Promotes Data Utilization While Encrypting Information on the Blockchain

Authors: Hiroaki Nasu, Ryota Miyamoto, Yuta Kodera, Yasuyuki Nogami

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To promote Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0 and so on, it is important to connect and share data so that every member can trust it. Blockchain (BC) technology is currently attracting attention as the most advanced tool and has been used in the financial field and so on. However, the data collaboration using BC has not progressed sufficiently among companies on the supply chain of manufacturing industry that handle sensitive data such as product quality, manufacturing conditions, etc. There are two main reasons why data utilization is not sufficiently advanced in the industrial supply chain. The first reason is that manufacturing information is top secret and a source for companies to generate profits. It is difficult to disclose data even between companies with transactions in the supply chain. In the blockchain mechanism such as Bitcoin using PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), in order to confirm the identity of the company that has sent the data, the plaintext must be shared between the companies. Another reason is that the merits (scenarios) of collaboration data between companies are not specifically specified in the industrial supply chain. For these problems this paper proposes a Business to Business (B2B) collaboration system using homomorphic encryption and BC technique. Using the proposed system, each company on the supply chain can exchange confidential information on encrypted data and utilize the data for their own business. In addition, this paper considers a scenario focusing on quality data, which was difficult to collaborate because it is a top secret. In this scenario, we show a implementation scheme and a benefit of concrete data collaboration by proposing a comparison protocol that can grasp the change in quality while hiding the numerical value of quality data.

Keywords: business to business data collaboration, industrial supply chain, blockchain, homomorphic encryption

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5 Cryptocurrency as a Payment Method in the Tourism Industry: A Comparison of Volatility, Correlation and Portfolio Performance

Authors: Shu-Han Hsu, Jiho Yoon, Chwen Sheu

Abstract:

With the rapidly growing of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency, various industries which include tourism has added in cryptocurrency as the payment method of their transaction. More and more tourism companies accept payments in digital currency for flights, hotel reservations, transportation, and more. For travellers and tourists, using cryptocurrency as a payment method has become a way to circumvent costs and prevent risks. Understanding volatility dynamics and interdependencies between standard currency and cryptocurrency is important for appropriate financial risk management to assist policy-makers and investors in marking more informed decisions. The purpose of this paper has been to understand and explain the risk spillover effects between six major cryptocurrencies and the top ten most traded standard currencies. Using data for the daily closing price of cryptocurrencies and currency exchange rates from 7 August 2015 to 10 December 2019, with 1,133 observations. The diagonal BEKK model was used to analyze the co-volatility spillover effects between cryptocurrency returns and exchange rate returns, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility. The empirical results show there are co-volatility spillover effects between the cryptocurrency returns and GBP/USD, CNY/USD and MXN/USD exchange rate returns. Therefore, currencies (British Pound, Chinese Yuan and Mexican Peso) and cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Tether, Litecoin and Stellar) are suitable for constructing a financial portfolio from an optimal risk management perspective and also for dynamic hedging purposes.

Keywords: blockchain, co-volatility effects, cryptocurrencies, diagonal BEKK model, exchange rates, risk spillovers

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4 Mental Accounting Theory Development Review and Application

Authors: Kang-Hsien Li

Abstract:

Along with global industries in using technology to enhance the application, make the study drawn more close to the people’s behavior and produce data analysis, extended out from the mental accounting of prospect theory, this paper provides the marketing and financial applications in the field of exploration and discussions with the future. For the foreseeable future, the payment behavior depends on the form of currency, which affects a variety of product types on the marketing of marketing strategy to provide diverse payment methods to enhance the overall sales performance. This not only affects people's consumption also affects people's investments. Credit card, PayPal, Apple pay, Bitcoin and any other with advances in technology and other emerging payment instruments, began to affect people for the value and the concept of money. Such as the planning of national social welfare policies, monetary and financial regulators and regulators. The expansion can be expected to discuss marketing and finance-related mental problems at the same time, recent studies reflect two different ideas, the first idea is that individuals affected by situational frames, not broad impact at the event level, affected by the people basically mental, second idea is that when an individual event affects a broader range, and majority of people will choose the same at the time that the rational choice. That are applied to practical application of marketing, at the same time provide an explanation in the financial market under the anomalies, due to the financial markets has varied investment products and different market participants, that also highlights these two points. It would provide in-depth description of humanity's mental. Certainly, about discuss mental accounting aspects, while artificial intelligence application development, although people would be able to reduce prejudice decisions, that will also lead to more discussion on the economic and marketing strategy.

Keywords: mental accounting, behavior economics, consumer behaviors, decision-making

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3 Blockchain Is Facilitating Intercultural Entrepreneurship: Memoir of a Persian Non-Fungible Tokens Collection

Authors: Mohammad Afkhami, Saeid Reza Ameli Ranani

Abstract:

Since the bitcoin invention in 2008, blockchain technology surpassed so many innovations that the pioneer networks such as Ethereum are adaptable to host a decentral bunch of information containing pictures, audio, video, domains, etc., or even a metaverse versatile avatar. Transformation of tangible goods into virtual assets, known as AR-utility of luxury products, and the intermixture of reality and virtuality organized a worldwide, semi-regulated, and decentralized marketplace for digital goods. Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are doing a great help to artists worldwide, sharing diverse cultural outlooks by setting up a remote cross-cultural corporation potential and, at the same time, metamorphosizing the middleman role and ceasing the necessity of having a SWIFT-connected bank account. Under critical sanctions, a group of artists in Tehran did not take for granted such an opportunity to show off their artworks undisturbed, offering an introspective attitude, exerting Iranian motifs while intermingling westernized symbols. The cryptocurrency market has already acquired allocation, and interest in the global domain, paving the way for a flourishing enthusiasm among entrepreneurs who have been preoccupied with high-tech start-ups before. In a project found by Iranian female artists, we decipher the ups and downs of the new cyberculture and the environment it provides to fairly promote the artwork and obstacles it put forward in the way of interested entrepreneurs as we get through the details of starting up an NFT collection. An in-depth interview and empirical encounters with diverse Social Network Sites (SNS) and the strategies that other successful projects deploy to sell their artworks in an international and, at the same time, an anonymous market is the main focus, which shapes the paper fieldwork perspective. In conclusion, we discuss strategies for promoting an NFT project.

Keywords: NFT, metaverse, intercultural, art, illustration, start-up, entrepreneurship

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2 A Lightweight Blockchain: Enhancing Internet of Things Driven Smart Buildings Scalability and Access Control Using Intelligent Direct Acyclic Graph Architecture and Smart Contracts

Authors: Syed Irfan Raza Naqvi, Zheng Jiangbin, Ahmad Moshin, Pervez Akhter

Abstract:

Currently, the IoT system depends on a centralized client-servant architecture that causes various scalability and privacy vulnerabilities. Distributed ledger technology (DLT) introduces a set of opportunities for the IoT, which leads to practical ideas for existing components at all levels of existing architectures. Blockchain Technology (BCT) appears to be one approach to solving several IoT problems, like Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum, which offer multiple possibilities. Besides, IoTs are resource-constrained devices with insufficient capacity and computational overhead to process blockchain consensus mechanisms; the traditional BCT existing challenge for IoTs is poor scalability, energy efficiency, and transaction fees. IOTA is a distributed ledger based on Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) that ensures M2M micro-transactions are free of charge. IOTA has the potential to address existing IoT-related difficulties such as infrastructure scalability, privacy and access control mechanisms. We proposed an architecture, SLDBI: A Scalable, lightweight DAG-based Blockchain Design for Intelligent IoT Systems, which adapts the DAG base Tangle and implements a lightweight message data model to address the IoT limitations. It enables the smooth integration of new IoT devices into a variety of apps. SLDBI enables comprehensive access control, energy efficiency, and scalability in IoT ecosystems by utilizing the Masked Authentication Message (MAM) protocol and the IOTA Smart Contract Protocol (ISCP). Furthermore, we suggest proof-of-work (PoW) computation on the full node in an energy-efficient way. Experiments have been carried out to show the capability of a tangle to achieve better scalability while maintaining energy efficiency. The findings show user access control management at granularity levels and ensure scale up to massive networks with thousands of IoT nodes, such as Smart Connected Buildings (SCBDs).

Keywords: blockchain, IOT, direct acyclic graphy, scalability, access control, architecture, smart contract, smart connected buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 22