Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: Babatunde T. Adesina

57 Competing Risks Modeling Using within Node Homogeneity Classification Tree

Authors: Kazeem Adesina Dauda, Waheed Babatunde Yahya

Abstract:

To design a tree that maximizes within-node homogeneity, there is a need for a homogeneity measure that is appropriate for event history data with multiple risks. We consider the use of Deviance and Modified Cox-Snell residuals as a measure of impurity in Classification Regression Tree (CART) and compare our results with the results of Fiona (2008) in which homogeneity measures were based on Martingale Residual. Data structure approach was used to validate the performance of our proposed techniques via simulation and real life data. The results of univariate competing risk revealed that: using Deviance and Cox-Snell residuals as a response in within node homogeneity classification tree perform better than using other residuals irrespective of performance techniques. Bone marrow transplant data and double-blinded randomized clinical trial, conducted in other to compare two treatments for patients with prostate cancer were used to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed method vis-à-vis the existing ones. Results from empirical studies of the bone marrow transplant data showed that the proposed model with Cox-Snell residual (Deviance=16.6498) performs better than both the Martingale residual (deviance=160.3592) and Deviance residual (Deviance=556.8822) in both event of interest and competing risks. Additionally, results from prostate cancer also reveal the performance of proposed model over the existing one in both causes, interestingly, Cox-Snell residual (MSE=0.01783563) outfit both the Martingale residual (MSE=0.1853148) and Deviance residual (MSE=0.8043366). Moreover, these results validate those obtained from the Monte-Carlo studies.

Keywords: within-node homogeneity, Martingale residual, modified Cox-Snell residual, classification and regression tree

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56 A Systematic Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fish and Poultry – Health and Environmental Implications for Animal Source Food Production in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa

Authors: Ekemini M. Okon, Reuben C. Okocha, Babatunde T. Adesina, Judith O. Ehigie, Babatunde M. Falana, Boluwape T. Okikiola

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has evolved to become a significant threat to global public health and food safety. The development of AMR in animals has been associated with antimicrobial overuse. In recent years, the number of antimicrobials used in food animals such as fish and poultry has escalated. It, therefore, becomes imperative to understand the patterns of AMR in fish and poultry and map out future directions for better surveillance efforts. This study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses(PRISMA) to assess the trend, patterns, and spatial distribution for AMR research in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa. A literature search was conducted through the Scopus and Web of Science databases in which published studies on AMR between 1989 and 2021 were assessed. A total of 172 articles were relevant for this study. The result showed progressive attention on AMR studies in fish and poultry from 2018 to 2021 across the selected countries. The period between 2018 (23 studies) and 2021 (25 studies) showed a significant increase in AMR publications with a peak in 2019 (28 studies). Egypt was the leading exponent of AMR research (43%, n=74) followed by Nigeria (40%, n=69), then South Africa (17%, n=29). AMR studies in fish received relatively little attention across countries. The majority of the AMR studies were on poultry in Egypt (82%, n=61), Nigeria (87%, n=60), and South Africa (83%, n=24). Further, most of the studies were on Escherichia and Salmonella species. Antimicrobials frequently researched were ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole groups. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent, as demonstrated by antimicrobial resistance patterns. In poultry, Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, oxytetracycline, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, erythromycin, and ampicillin. Salmonella enterica serovars were resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, cefotaxime, and ampicillin. Staphylococcusaureus showed high-level resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim, vancomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Campylobacter isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid at varying degrees. In fish, Enterococcus isolates showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, and tetracycline but sensitive to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampicin. Isolated strains of Vibrio species showed sensitivity to florfenicol and ciprofloxacin, butresistance to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and erythromycin. Isolates of Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species exhibited resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin. Specifically, Aeromonashydrophila isolates showed sensitivity to cephradine, doxycycline, erythromycin, and florfenicol. However, resistance was also exhibited against augmentinandtetracycline. The findings constitute public and environmental health threats and suggest the need to promote and advance AMR research in other countries, particularly those on the global hotspot for antimicrobial use.

Keywords: antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance, bacteria, environment, public health

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55 Impacts of Teachers’ Cluster Model Meeting Intervention on Pupils’ Learning, Academic Achievement and Attitudinal Development in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

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Efforts at improving the falling standard of education in the country call for the need-based assessment of the primary tier of education in Nigeria. Teachers’ cluster meeting intervention is a step towards enhancing the teachers’ professional competency, efficient and effective pupils’ academic achievement and attitudinal development. The study thus determined the impact of the intervention on pupils’ achievement in Oyo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. Pre-test, post-test control group, quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Eight intact classes from eight different schools were randomly selected into treatment and control groups. Two response instruments, pupils academic achievement test (PAAT; r = 0.87) and pupils attitude to lesson scale (PALS; r = 0.80) were used for data collection. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyse the collected data. The results showed that the teachers’ cluster meeting have significant impact on pupils academic achievement (F (1,327) =41.79; p<0.05) and attitudinal development (F (1,327) =26.01; p<0.05) in the core subjects of primary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study therefore recommended among others that teachers’ cluster meeting should be sustained for teachers’ professional development and pupils’ upgradement in the State.

Keywords: teachers’ cluster meeting, pupils’ academic achievement, pupils’ attitudinal development, academic achievement

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54 Influence of Alcohol Consumption on Attention in Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Adekunle Adesina, Dorcas Adesina

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This Research investigated the influence of alcohol consumption on attention in Wister albino rats. It was designed to test whether or not alcohol consumption affected visual and auditory attention. The sample of this study comprise of 3males albino rats and 3 females albino rats which were randomly assigned to 3 (male/female each) groups, 1, 2 and 3. The first group which was experimental Group 1 received 4ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). The second group which was experimental group 2 received 2ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). Third group which was the control group only received water (placebo), all these happened within a period of 2 days. Three hypotheses were advanced and testedf in the study. Hypothesis 1 stated that there will be no significant difference between the response speed of albino rats that consume alcohol and those that consume water on visual attention using 5-CSRTT. This was confirmed (DF (2, 9) = 0.72, P <.05). Hypothesis 2 stated that albino rats who consumed alcohol will perform better than those who consume water on auditory accuracy using 5-CSRTT. This was also tested but not confirmed (DF (2, 9) = 2.10, P< .05). The third hypothesis which stated that female albino rats who consumed alcohol would not perform better than male albino rats who consumed alcohol on auditory accuracy using 5-CSRTT was tested and not confirmed. (DF (4) = 0.17, P < .05). Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and T-test for independent measures. It was therefore recommended that government policies and programs should be directed at reducing to the barest minimum the rate of alcohol consumption especially among males as it is detrimental to the human auditory attentional organ.

Keywords: alcohol, attention, influence, rats, Wistar

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53 Efficacy of Teachers' Cluster Meetings on Teachers' Lesson Note Preparation and Teaching Performance in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Sunmaila Oyetunji Raimi, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

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The quality of education and the standard of a nation cannot rise above the quality of the teacher (NPE, 2004). Efforts at improving the falling standard of education in the country call for the need-based assessment of the primary tier of education in Nigeria. It was revealed that the teachers’ standard of performance and pupils’ achievement was below average. Teachers’ cluster meeting intervention was therefore recommended as a step towards enhancing the teachers’ professional competency, efficient and effective proactive and interactive lesson presentation. The study thus determined the impact of the intervention on teachers’ professional performance (lesson note preparation and teaching performance) in Oyo State, Nigeria. The main and interaction effects of the gender of the teachers as moderator variable were also determined. Three null hypotheses guided the study. Pre-test, posttest control group quazi experimental design was adopted for the study. Three hundred intact classes from three hundred different schools were randomly selected into treatment and control groups. Two response instruments-Classroom Lesson Note Preparation Checklist (CLNPC; r = 0.89) Cluster Lesson Observation Checklist (CLOC; r = 0.86) were used for data collection. Mean, Standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyse the collected data. The results showed that the teachers’ cluster meeting have significant impact on teachers’ lesson note preparation (F(1,295) = 31.607; p < 0.05; η2 = .097) and teaching performance (F(1,295) = 20.849; p < 0.05; η2 = .066) in the core subjects of primary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study therefore recommended among others that teachers’ cluster meeting should be sustained for teachers’ professional development in the State.

Keywords: teachers’ cluster meeting, teacher lesson note preparation, teaching performance, teachers’ gender, primary schools in Oyo state

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52 Energy States of Some Diatomic Molecules: Exact Quantization Rule Approach

Authors: Babatunde J. Falaye

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In this study, we obtain the approximate analytical solutions of the radial Schrödinger equation for the Deng-Fan diatomic molecular potential by using exact quantization rule approach. The wave functions have been expressed by hypergeometric functions via the functional analysis approach. An extension to rotational-vibrational energy eigenvalues of some diatomic molecules are also presented. It is shown that the calculated energy levels are in good agreement with the ones obtained previously E_nl-D (shifted Deng-Fan).

Keywords: Schrödinger equation, exact quantization rule, functional analysis, Deng-Fan potential

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51 Class-Size and Instructional Materials as Correlates of Pupils Learning and Academic Achievement in Primary School

Authors: Aanuoluwapo Olusola Adesanya, Adesina Joseph

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This paper examined the class-size and instructional materials as correlates of pupils learning and academic achievement in primary school. The population of the study comprised 198 primary school pupils in three selected schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and were analysed with the use of multiple regression and ANOVA to analysed the correlation between class-size, instructional materials (independent variables) and learning achievement (dependent variable). The findings revealed that schools having an average class-size of 30 and below with use of instructional materials obtained better results than schools having more than 30 and above. The main score were higher in the school in schools having 30 and below than schools with 30 and above. It was therefore recommended that government, stakeholders and NGOs should provide more classrooms and supply of adequate instructional materials in all primary schools in the state to cater for small class-size.

Keywords: class-size, instructional materials, learning, academic achievement

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50 Predicting the Effects of Counseling Psychology on the Sexual Risk Behavior of In-School Adolescents: Implication for National Development

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Adebayo Adeyinka Salako

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The study adopted a descriptive research design. Two hundred (200) in-school adolescents were purposely selected in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State. Two hypotheses were also raised to pilot the study. The researchers developed an instrument which was validated by psychological experts, the instrument tagged counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior questionnaire (CPSRBQ)(r = 0.78). The results were analysed using t-test at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that there is a significant relationship between counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior of in-school adolescents. It was also noticed that there is a significant difference in the sexual risk behavior of male and female adolescents. Based on the findings, it was recommended that more counselors are still needed in Nigeria schools. There is need for restructuring Nigeria Curriculum most especially on sex education and related diseases. Lastly, adolescents should be more exposed to seminars on HIV/AIDS, sex education enlightenment programmes and marital counseling.

Keywords: counseling psychology, sexual behavior, risk and adolescent, cognitive sciences

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49 What Nigeria Education Needs

Authors: Babatunde Joel Todowede

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The challenges of nation building and sustainable development have continued to feature prominently in the general reckoning of problems of underdevelopment in the developing countries of the world. Thus, since the attainment of political independence from the British colonial administration in 1960, one of the critical thrusts of central governance in Nigeria has been the particular policy attention of the educational sector. Of course, education is perceived as the logical bridge between the two contrasting worlds of underdevelopment and development, hence, its fundamental importance. The various public policies and practices associated with the Nigerian educational sector are specifically elaborated and critically assessed in this paper. In the final analysis, it is concluded that the educational sector should be better configured and managed in ways that the wider challenges of nation-building and sustainable development are effectively tractable.

Keywords: Nigeria education, educational need, educational plans and policies, educational challenges, corrective measures, emerging economy

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48 Impact of Strategic Leadership on Corporate Performance

Authors: Adesina Nathaniel Olanrewaju

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The motivation behind this study is the need to see strategic leadership as one of the key driving forces for improving corporate performance. Strategic leadership is seen as a potent source of management development and sustained competitive advantage for both employee and organizational performance. There is currently a charge on leaders as a major cause of organizational failure. Stakeholders give what they can afford, not necessarily what the organization needs and impose operational and financial decisions on the leaders, 200 respondents were fit for the analysis from the six geo-political regions in Nigeria. The selection was done equally among various parastatals through random sampling technique from the south-south, south-east, south-west, north-east, north-west and north-central. A descriptive research of the survey was employed. The data were subjected to t-test analysis and correlation and regression were used for the analysis. The findings revealed that there is a strong relationship and impact between a strategic leader and corporate performance. Recommendations were made based on the findings that strategic leaders should be given the blueprint, company’s policy and the stakeholders’ expectation within a time frame the work is to be carried out.

Keywords: time, strategic, organization, stakeholder, leader, performance

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47 Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing

Authors: Ogunsina Babatunde, Aregbesola Omotayo, Adebayo Adewale, Odunlami Johnson

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The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.

Keywords: properties, flours, staple food, bulk handling

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46 Effect of Cost Control and Cost Reduction Techniques in Organizational Performance

Authors: Babatunde Akeem Lawal

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In any organization, the primary aim is to maximize profit, but the major challenges facing them is the increase in cost of operation because of this there is increase in cost of production that could lead to inevitable cost control and cost reduction scheme which make it difficult for most organizations to operate at the cost efficient frontier. The study aims to critically examine and evaluate the application of cost control and cost reduction in organization performance and also to review budget as an effective tool of cost control and cost reduction. A descriptive survey research was adopted. A total number of 40 respondent retrieved were used for the study. The analysis of data collected was undertaken by applying appropriate statistical tools. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis with the use of SPSS. Based on the findings; it was evident that cost control has a positive impact on organizational performance and also the style of management has a positive impact on organizational performance.

Keywords: organization, cost reduction, cost control, performance, budget, profit

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45 Enhanced Automated Teller Machine Using Short Message Service Authentication Verification

Authors: Rasheed Gbenga Jimoh, Akinbowale Nathaniel Babatunde

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The use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) has become an important tool among commercial banks, customers of banks have come to depend on and trust the ATM conveniently meet their banking needs. Although the overwhelming advantages of ATM cannot be over-emphasized, its alarming fraud rate has become a bottleneck in it’s full adoption in Nigeria. This study examined the menace of ATM in the society another cost of running ATM services by banks in the country. The researcher developed a prototype of an enhanced Automated Teller Machine Authentication using Short Message Service (SMS) Verification. The developed prototype was tested by Ten (10) respondents who are users of ATM cards in the country and the data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Based on the results of the analysis, it is being envisaged that the developed prototype will go a long way in reducing the alarming rate of ATM fraud in Nigeria.

Keywords: ATM, ATM fraud, e-banking, prototyping

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44 Trajectory Tracking Controller Based on Normalized Right Coprime Factorization Technique for the Ball and Plate System

Authors: Martins Olatunbosun Babatunde, Muhammed Bashir Muazu, Emmanuel Adewale Adedokun

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This paper presents the development of a double-loop trajectory-tracking controller for the ball and plate system (BPS) using the Normalized Right Coprime Factorization (NRCF) scheme.The Linear Algebraic (LA) method is used to design the inner loop required to stabilize the ball, while H-infinity NRCF method, that involved the lead-lag compensator design approach, is used to develop the outer loop that controls the plate. Simulation results show that the plate was stabilized at 0.2989 seconds and the ball was able to settle after 0.9646 seconds, with a trajectory tracking error of 0.0036. This shows that the controller has good adaptability and robustness.

Keywords: ball and plate system, normalized right coprime factorization, linear algebraic method, compensator, controller, tracking.

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43 Corrosion Behavior of Induced Stress Duplex Stainless Steel in Chloride Environment

Authors: Serge Mudinga Lemika, Samuel Olukayode Akinwamide, Aribo Sunday, Babatunde Abiodun Obadele, Peter Apata Olubambi

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Use of Duplex stainless steel has become predominant in applications where excellent corrosion resistance is of utmost importance. Corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel induced with varying stress in a chloride media were studied. Characterization of as received 2205 duplex stainless steels were carried out to reveal its structure and properties tensile sample produced from duplex stainless steel was initially subjected to tensile test to obtain the yield strength. Stresses obtained by various percentages (20, 40, 60 and 80%) of the yield strength was induced in DSS samples. Corrosion tests were carried out in magnesium chloride solution at room temperature. Morphologies of cracks observed with optical and scanning electron microscope showed that samples induced with higher stress had its austenite and ferrite grains affected by pitting.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, hardness, nanoceramics, spark plasma sintering

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42 Evaluation of the Potability Qualities of Pretreated Distilled Water Produced from Biomass Fuelled Water Distiller

Authors: E. I. Oluwasola, J. A. V. Famurewa, R. Aboloma, K. Adesina

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Water samples with pretreatment and without pretreatment were obtained from locally constructed biomass fuelled stainless steel water distiller. The water samples were subjected to Microbial, Physicochemical and Minerals analyses for comparison with NAFDAC and WHO Standards for potable water. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the raw water(A), and the two distilled water samples (B; distill water without pretreatment) and (C; distill water with pretreatment) showed reduction in most of the quality parameters evaluated in the distilled water samples to the level that conforms to the W.H.O standards for drinking water however, lower values were obtained for the pretreated distilled water sample. The values of 0.0016mg/l, 0.0052mg/l and 0.0528mg/l for the arsenic, chromium and lead content respectively in the raw water were within the permissible limit specified by WHO however; the values of cadmium (0.067mg/l) and mercury (0.0287mg/l) are above the maximum tolerable for drinking water thus, making the raw water unsafe for human consumption. Similarly, the high total plate count (278cfu /ml) and coliform count (1100/100ml) indicate that the raw water is potentially harmful while the distilled water samples showed nil coliform count and low total plate count (35cfu/ml,18cfu/ml) for B and C respectively making the distilled water microbiologically safer for human consumption.

Keywords: biomass, distillation, mineral, potable, physicochemical

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41 Water Quality at a Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine Sludge Entrenchment Site

Authors: Babatunde Femi Bakare

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Groundwater quality was evaluated at a site for three years after the site was used for entrenchment of Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrine sludge. Analysis performed on the soil characteristics at the entrenchment site indicated that, the soils at the entrenchment site are predominantly sandy. Depth of the water table at the entrenchment site was found to be approximately five meters. Five monitoring boreholes were dug along the perimeter of the sludge trenches and water samples taken from these monitoring boreholes were analyzed for pH, conductivity, sodium ions, chloride ions, phosphate, nitrate, ammonia, and bacteriological analysis. The results obtained from the analysis conducted were compared with the South African Bureau of Standards for drinking water and it was found that the parameters analyzed falls below the specified range. The data obtained from this study indicate that, given the relatively high sludge loading rates, poor soil quality, and the duration of the groundwater quality monitoring, it is unlikely that contamination of groundwater at the entrenchment site will be a major concern. However, caution is advised in extrapolating these results to other locations.

Keywords: boreholes, contamination, entrenchment, groundwater quality, VIP latrines

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40 An Adaptive Distributed Incremental Association Rule Mining System

Authors: Adewale O. Ogunde, Olusegun Folorunso, Adesina S. Sodiya

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Most existing Distributed Association Rule Mining (DARM) systems are still facing several challenges. One of such challenges that have not received the attention of many researchers is the inability of existing systems to adapt to constantly changing databases and mining environments. In this work, an Adaptive Incremental Mining Algorithm (AIMA) is therefore proposed to address these problems. AIMA employed multiple mobile agents for the entire mining process. AIMA was designed to adapt to changes in the distributed databases by mining only the incremental database updates and using this to update the existing rules in order to improve the overall response time of the DARM system. In AIMA, global association rules were integrated incrementally from one data site to another through Results Integration Coordinating Agents. The mining agents in AIMA were made adaptive by defining mining goals with reasoning and behavioral capabilities and protocols that enabled them to either maintain or change their goals. AIMA employed Java Agent Development Environment Extension for designing the internal agents’ architecture. Results from experiments conducted on real datasets showed that the adaptive system, AIMA performed better than the non-adaptive systems with lower communication costs and higher task completion rates.

Keywords: adaptivity, data mining, distributed association rule mining, incremental mining, mobile agents

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39 Urinary Schistosomiasis among Pre-School and School Aged Children in Two Peri-Urban Communities in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Isiaka Akinwale, Tolulope Babatunde, Oladepo Sowemimo

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A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and April, 2016 among pre-school and school-aged children in two peri-urban communities in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria. Urine samples were collected from the pre-school and school-aged children, tested for microhaematuria using reagent strips, processed and examined for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Out of 274 pupils examined, 132 (48.2%) had infection, with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in infection between male (48.6%) and female pupils (47.6%). The prevalence of infection increases significantly with age (P < 0.05), with the peak (93.3%) of infection recorded in pupils aged 15 to 16 years and the lowest infection (10.0%) in pupils aged 3 to 4 years. There was no statistically significant association (P > 0.05) between intensity in male pupils (156.0 ± 34.5/10 ml) and female pupils (141.7 ± 29.5/10 ml). The prevalence of pupils with microhaematuria was 65.0% and it increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). The conclusion drawn from the study is that to reduce the transmission of S. haematobium in endemic communities, health education and provision of potable water are advocated.

Keywords: Schistosoma haematobium, microhaeamturia, prevalence, urinary schistosomiasis, school aged children, Nigeria

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38 Influence of Leadership Tenure and Succession on Institutional Goal Attainment in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (2006-2015)

Authors: Ismial A. Raji, Blessing Egbezieme Oladejo, Babatunde Kasim Oladele

Abstract:

The study investigated the influence of leadership succession and tenure on goal attainment in the University of Ibadan. Leadership styles, tenure politics, organization succession, leadership succession, goal attainment in terms of research, teaching and public services were considered. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was 250 consisting 90 academic staff, 100 Senior Non-Teaching Staff and 60 Junior Non-Teaching Staff. Questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. The instrument reliability coefficient was 0.88. Data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics. The result revealed that a significant relationship exist between leadership succession, tenure and goal attainment (r= .648, 0.466 and 0.479p< .0.5) Also, There was no statistical significant interaction between the effects of leadership tenure and leadership succession on goal attainment, F (38, 131) = 1.356, p = .104. The main influence of the independent variables on goal attainment were significant at F (24, 131) = 1.682, p=.034 and F (26, 131) = 2.182, p=.002. The study concluded that leadership succession and tenure are key factors for goal attainment in the University of Ibadan. The study recommended that an effective leadership succession and tenure processes should be maintained and sustained by higher institutions of learning.

Keywords: leadership tenure, style, succession, institutional goal

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37 Heightening Pre-Service Teachers’ Attitude towards Learning and Metacognitive Learning through Information and Communication Technology: Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Perspective

Authors: Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Ijeoma Ginikanwa Akubugwo

Abstract:

Information and Communication Technology, ICT can heighten pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward learning and metacognitive learning; however, there is a dearth of literature on the perception of the pre-service teachers on heightening their attitude toward learning and metacognitive learning. Thus, this study investigates the perception of pre-service science teachers on heightening their attitude towards learning and metacognitive learning through ICT. Two research questions and four hypotheses guided the research. A mixed methods research was adopted for the study in concurrent triangulation type of integrating qualitative and quantitative approaches to the study. The cluster random sampling technique was adopted to select 250 pre-service science teachers in Oyo township. Two self-constructed instruments: Heightening Pre-service Science Teachers’ Attitude towards Learning and Metacognitive Learning through Information and Communication Technology Scale (HPALMIS, r=.73), and an unstructured interview were used for data collection. Thematic analysis, frequency counts and percentages, t-tests, and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. The perception level of the pre-service science teachers on heightening their attitude towards learning and metacognitive learning through ICT is above average, with the majority perceiving that ICT can enhance their thinking about their learning. The perception was significant (mean=92.68, SD=10.86, df=249, t=134.91, p<.05). The perception was significantly differentiated by gender (t=2.10, df= 248, p<.05) in favour of the female pre-service teachers and based on the first time of ICTs use (F(5,244)= 9.586, p<.05). Lecturers of science and science related courses should therefore imbibe the use of ICTs in heightening pre-service teachers’ attitude towards learning and metacognitive learning. Government should organize workshops, seminars, lectures, and symposia along with professional bodies for the science education lecturers to keep abreast of the trending ICT.

Keywords: pre-service teachers’ attitude towards learning, metacognitive learning, ICT, pre-service teachers’ perspectives

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36 Noise and Thermal Analyses of Memristor-Based Phase Locked Loop Integrated Circuit

Authors: Naheem Olakunle Adesina

Abstract:

The memristor is considered as one of the promising candidates for mamoelectronic engineering and applications. Owing to its high compatibility with CMOS, nanoscale size, and low power consumption, memristor has been employed in the design of commonly used circuits such as phase-locked loop (PLL). In this paper, we designed a memristor-based loop filter (LF) together with other components of PLL. Following this, we evaluated the noise-rejection feature of loop filter by comparing the noise levels of input and output signals of the filter. Our SPICE simulation results showed that memristor behaves like a linear resistor at high frequencies. The result also showed that loop filter blocks the high-frequency components from phase frequency detector so as to provide a stable control voltage to the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). In addition, we examined the effects of temperature on the performance of the designed phase locked loop circuit. A critical temperature, where there is frequency drift of VCO as a result of variations in control voltage, is identified. In conclusion, the memristor is a suitable choice for nanoelectronic systems owing to a small area, low power consumption, dense nature, high switching speed, and endurance. The proposed memristor-based loop filter, together with other components of the phase locked loop, can be designed using memristive emulator and EDA tools in current CMOS technology and simulated.

Keywords: Fast Fourier Transform, hysteresis curve, loop filter, memristor, noise, phase locked loop, voltage controlled oscillator

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35 Analysis on the Building Energy Performance of a Retrofitted Residential Building with RETScreen Expert Software

Authors: Abdulhameed Babatunde Owolabi, Benyoh Emmanuel Kigha Nsafon, Jeung-Soo Huh

Abstract:

Energy efficiency measures for residential buildings in South Korea is a national issue because most of the apartments built in the last decades were constructed without proper energy efficiency measures making the energy performance of old buildings to be very poor when compared with new buildings. However, the adoption of advanced building technologies and regulatory building codes are effective energy efficiency strategies for new construction. There is a need to retrofits the existing building using energy conservation measures (ECMs) equipment’s in order to conserve energy and reduce GHGs emissions. To achieve this, the Institute for Global Climate Change and Energy (IGCCE), Kyungpook National University (KNU), Daegu, South Korea employed RETScreen Expert software to carry out measurement and verification (M&V) analysis on an existing building in Korea by using six years gas consumption data collected from Daesung Energy Co., Ltd in order to determine the building energy performance after the introduction of ECM. Through the M&V, energy efficiency is attained, and the resident doubt was reduced. From the analysis, a total of 657 Giga Joules (GJ) of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was consumed at the rate of 0.34 GJ/day having a peak in the year 2015, which cost the occupant the sum of $10,821.

Keywords: energy efficiency, measurement and verification, performance analysis, RETScreen experts

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34 Investigation of the Influence of Student’s Characteristics on Mathematics Achievement in Junior Secondary School in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Kasim Oladele

Abstract:

This current study investigated students’ characteristics as factors that influence Mathematics Achievement of junior secondary school students. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was one hundred and twenty-three (123) JSS students of secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government in Oyo State. A Mathematics achievement test and three questionnaires on student’s self-efficacy belief, attitude, and learning style were the instruments used. Prior to the administration of the constructed mathematics achievement test, 100-item mathematics was subjected to the expert review, and items analysis was carried out. Fifty items were retained. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficients of the instruments were 0.71, 0.76, and 0.83, respectively. Collected data were analysed using the frequency count, percentages, mean, standard deviation, and Path Analysis in Amos SPSS Version 20. Students characteristics: gender, age, self-efficacy, attitude and learning style had positive direct effects on students’ achievement in Mathematics as indicated by their respective beta weights (β = 0.36, 0.203, 0.92, 0.079, 0.69 p < 0.05). Consequently, the study concluded that student’s characteristics (Age, gender, and learning style) explained a significant part of the variability in students’ achievement in Mathematics.

Keywords: mathematics achievement, students’ characteristics, junior secondary school, Ibadan

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33 Computer Assisted Instructions for a Better Achievement in and Attitude towards Agricultural Economics

Authors: Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Alice M. Olagunju

Abstract:

This study determined the effects of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) and Academic Self-Concepts (ASC) on pre-service teachers’ achievement in AE concepts in CoE in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Two hundred and thirty-two intact 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to three groups (D&PM, 77, TM, 73 and control, 82). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE achievement test (r=0.76), pre-service teachers’ ASC Scale (r=0.81); instructional guides for tutorial (r=0.76), drill and practice (r=0.81) and conventional lecture modes (r=0.83), and teacher performance assessment sheet were used for data collection. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and Scheffe post-hoc at 0.05 level of significance. The participants were 55.6% female with mean age of 20.8 years. Treatment had significant main effects on pre-service teachers’ achievement (F(2,207)=60.52; η²=0.21; p < 0.05). Participants in D&PM (x̄ =27.83) had the best achievement compared to those in TM (x̄ =25.41) and control (x̄ =18.64) groups. ASC had significant main effect on pre-service teachers’ achievement (F(1,207)=22.011; η²=0.166; p < 0.05). Participants with high ASC (x̄ =27.52) had better achievement compared to those with low ASC (x̄ =22.37). The drill and practice and tutorial instructional modes enhanced students’ achievement in Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, the two instructional modes should be adopted for improved learning outcomes in agricultural economics concepts among pre-service teachers.

Keywords: achievement in agricultural economics concepts, colleges of education in southwestern Nigeria, computer-assisted instruction, drill and practice instructional mode, tutorial instructional mode

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32 Genetic Diversity and Variation of Nigerian Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) Populations Based on the Mitochondrial Coi Gene

Authors: Foluke E. Sola-Ojo, Ibraheem A. Abubakar, Semiu F. Bello, Isiaka H. Fatima, Sule Bisola, Adesina M. Olusegun, Adeniyi C. Adeola

Abstract:

The domesticated pigeon, Columba livia domestica, has many valuable characteristics, including high nutritional value and fast growth rate. There is a lack of information on its genetic diversity in Nigeria; thus, the genetic variability in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences of 150 domestic pigeons from four different locations was examined. Three haplotypes (HT) were identified in Nigerian populations; the most common haplotype, HT1, was shared with wild and domestic pigeons from Europe, America, and Asia, while HT2 and HT3 were unique to Nigeria. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.052± 0.025, and nucleotide diversity was 0.026± 0.068 across the four investigated populations. The phylogenetic tree showed significant clustering and genetic relationship of Nigerian domestic pigeons with other global pigeons. The median-joining network showed a star-like pattern suggesting population expansion. AMOVA results indicated that genetic variations in Nigerian pigeons mainly occurred within populations (99.93%), while the Neutrality tests results suggested that the Nigerian domestic pigeons’ population experienced recent expansion. This study showed a low genetic diversity and population differentiation among Nigerian domestic pigeons consistent with a relatively conservative COI sequence with few polymorphic sites. Furthermore, the COI gene could serve as a candidate molecular marker to investigate the genetic diversity and origin of pigeon species. The current data is insufficient for further conclusions; therefore, more research evidence from multiple molecular markers is required.

Keywords: Nigeria pigeon, COI, genetic diversity, genetic variation, conservation

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31 Saline Water Transgression into Fresh Coastal Groundwater in the Confined Aquifer of Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Adebo, Adedeji Adetoyinbo

Abstract:

Groundwater is an important constituent of the hydrological cycle and plays a vital role in augmenting water supply to meet the ever-increasing needs of people for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Unfortunately, this important resource has in most cases been contaminated due to the advancement of seawater into the fresh groundwater. This is due to the high volume of water being abstracted in these areas as a result of a high population of coastal dwellers. The knowledge of salinity level and intrusion of saltwater into the freshwater aquifer is, therefore, necessary for groundwater monitoring and prediction in the coastal areas. In this work, an advection-dispersion saltwater intrusion model is used to study and simulate saltwater intrusion in a typical coastal aquifer. The aquifer portion was divided into a grid with elements and nodes. Map of the study area indicating well locations were overlain on the grid system such that these locations coincide with the nodes. Chlorides at these well were considered as initial nodal salinities. Results showed a highest and lowest increase in simulated chloride of 37.89 mg/L and 0.8 mg/L respectively. It also revealed that the chloride concentration of most of the considered well might climb unacceptable level in the next few years, if the current abstraction rate continues unabated.

Keywords: saltwater intrusion, coastal aquifer, nodal salinity, chloride concentration

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30 Impacts of Computer Assisted Instruction and Gender on High-Flyers Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude towards Agricultural Economics in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Alice Morenike Olagunju, Olufemi A. Fakolade, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Oriyomi Rabiu

Abstract:

The use of computer-assisted instruction(CAI) has been suggested as a way out of the problem of Colleges of Education (CoE) in Southwest, Nigeria persistent high failure rate in and negative attitude towards Agricultural Economics (AE).The impacts of this are yet unascertained on high-flyers. This study, therefore, determined the impacts of CAI onhigh-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude towards AE concepts in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Fourty-nine 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to two groups (CAI, 22 and control, 27). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE Attitude Scale(r=0.80), Instructional guides and Teacher Performance Assessment Sheets were used for data collection. Data were analysed using t-test. The participants were 62.8% male with mean age of 22 years. Treatment had significant effects on high-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude (t = 17.44; df = 47, p < .5). Participants in CAI ( =71.03) had higher post attitude mean score compared to those in control ( = 64.92) groups. Gender had no significant effect on attitude (t= 3.06; df= 47, p > .5). The computer assisted instructional mode enhanced students’ attitude towards Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, CAI should be adopted for improved attitude towards agricultural economics concepts among high-flyers pre-service teachers.

Keywords: attitude towards agricultural economics concepts, colleges of education in southwest Nigeria, computer-assisted instruction, high-flyers pre-service teachers

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29 Ethnic Minority Small and Medium Enterprises and Entrepreneurial Resilience During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case of United Kingdom

Authors: Muhammad Bilal Mustafa, Javed Hussain, Simeon Babatunde

Abstract:

The Covid-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities of countless organisations beyond their size, type, and location. However, some groups and sectors are disproportionally get impacted by the pandemic. In the context of the UK, ethnic Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) turn out to be the most precarious group among all private sectors. Many ethnic SMEs shut down their business operations during a pandemic. A large portion of Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) owners have huge concerns regarding their business’ survival and resilience. The current UK-centric studies have focused on the large business population, and there is a gap in ethnic SMEs and how they get affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. Moreover, there is a need to further knowledge and academic research to investigate the fundamental factors that could strengthen the resilience of ethnic SMEs as well as contribute to long-term sustainability. Therefore, this study aims to capture the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on ethnic SMEs in the UK and assess the survival measures taken by ethnic SMEs during Covid-19. Besides, this study adopts a dynamic capabilities perspective that how firms' specific capabilities enable ethnic SMEs to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities during the Covid-19 pandemic. Finally, this research will help ethnic SMEs to develop vigorous resilience to address future external shocks and market uncertainties.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, ethnic minority SMEs, entrepreneurial resilience, dynamic capabilities, sustainability

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28 Low Back Pain-Related Absenteeism among Healthcare Workers in Kibuli Muslim Hospital, Kampala Uganda

Authors: Aremu Abdulmujeeb Babatunde

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain was not only considered to be the most common reason for functional disability worldwide, but also estimated to have affected 90% of the universal population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, consequences and socio-demographic factors associated with low back pain. Methods; A cross-sectional survey was employed and a total number of 150 self-structured questionnaire was distributed among healthcare workers and this was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain and work related absenteeism. Data was entered using Epi info soft-ware and analyzed using SPSS. Results; An overall response rate of 84% (n = 140) was achieved. The study established that majority (37%) of the respondents were in the age bracket of 20-39 years, 57% female (n=59) and 64% of them were married. the pint prevalence was 84%, 31% of the respondents took leave from work as a result of low back pain. There was high prevalence of sick leave among nursing staff 45.2%, Chi-square test shows that there was a statistically significant association between the respondents occupations and daily time spent during their work (P value 0.011 and 0.042) respectively. Socio-demographic factors like age, marital status and gender were not statistically significant at P<0.05. Conclusions; The medical and socio-professional consequences of low back pain among healthcare workers was as a result of their occupation designations and the daily time spent in carry out this occupations.

Keywords: low back pain, healthcare workers, prevalence, sick leave

Procedia PDF Downloads 241