Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 243

Search results for: stakeholder

243 Stakeholder Management for Successful Software Projects

Authors: Kassem Saleh

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An alarming number of software projects fail to deliver the required functionalities within the provided budget and timeframe and with the required qualities. Some of the main reasons for this problem include bad stakeholder management, poor communications and informal change management. Informal processes to identify, engage and control stakeholders lead to these reasons. Recently, to emphasize its importance, the Project Management Institute (PMI) updated the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoK) to explicitly include the stakeholder management knowledge area. This knowledge area consists of four processes to identify stakeholders, plan stakeholder management, and manage and control stakeholder engagement. The use of appropriate techniques for stakeholder management in software projects will definitely lead to higher quality and successful software. In this paper, we describe some of the proven techniques that can be used during the execution of the four processes for stakeholder management. Development of collaboration tools for automating these processes are recommended and need to be integrated in available software project management tools.

Keywords: project management, stakeholder management, software development, project management body of knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
242 Going beyond Stakeholder Participation

Authors: Florian Engel

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Only with a radical change to an intrinsically motivated project team, through giving the employees the freedom for autonomy, mastery and purpose, it is then possible to develop excellent products. With these changes, combined with using a rapid application development approach, the group of users serves as an important indicator to test the market needs, rather than only as the stakeholders for requirements.

Keywords: intrinsic motivation, requirements elicitation, self-directed work, stakeholder participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
241 Knowledge and Organisational Success: Developing a Scale of Knowledge Framework

Authors: Mohammed Almohammedali, David Edgar, Duncan Peter

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The aim of this exploratory research is to further understand how organisations can evaluate their activities, which generate knowledge creation, to meet changing stakeholder expectations. A Scale of Knowledge (SoK) Framework is proposed which links knowledge management and organisational activities to changing stakeholder expectations. The framework was informed by the knowledge management literature, as well as empirical work conducted via a single case study of a multi-site hospital organisation in Saudi Arabia. Eight in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers from across the organisation regarding current and future stakeholder expectations, organisational strategy/activities and knowledge management. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and a hierarchical value map technique to identify activities that can produce further knowledge and consequently impact on how stakeholder expectations are met. The SoK Framework developed may be useful to practitioners as an analytical aid to determine if current organisational activities produce organisational knowledge which helps them meet (increasingly higher levels of) stakeholder expectations. The limitations of the research and avenues for future development of the proposed framework are discussed.

Keywords: knowledge creation, knowledge management, organisational knowledge, analytical aid, stakeholders

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240 Key Factors for Stakeholder Engagement and Sustainable Development

Authors: Jo Rhodes, Bruce Bergstrom, Peter Lok, Vincent Cheng

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The aim of this study is to determine key factors and processes for multinationals (MNCs) to develop an effective stakeholder engagement and sustainable development framework. A qualitative multiple-case approach was used. A triangulation method was adopted (interviews, archival documents and observations) to collect data on three global firms (MNCs). 9 senior executives were interviewed for this study (3 from each firm). An initial literature review was conducted to explore possible practices and factors (the deductive approach) to sustainable development. Interview data were analysed using Nvivo to obtain appropriate nodes and themes for the framework. A comparison of findings from interview data and themes, factors developed from the literature review and cross cases comparison were used to develop the final conceptual framework (the inductive approach). The results suggested that stakeholder engagement is a key mediator between ‘stakeholder network’ (internal and external factors) and outcomes (corporate social responsibility, social capital, shared value and sustainable development). Key internal factors such as human capital/talent, technology, culture, leadership and processes such as collaboration, knowledge sharing and co-creation of value with stakeholders were identified. These internal factors and processes must be integrated and aligned with external factors such as social, political, cultural, environment and NGOs to achieve effective stakeholder engagement.

Keywords: stakeholder, engagement, sustainable development, shared value, corporate social responsibility

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239 Implications of Stakeholder Theory as a Critical Theory

Authors: Louis Hickman

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Stakeholder theory is a powerful conception of the firm based on the notion that a primary focus on shareholders is inadequate and, in fact, detrimental to the long-term health of the firm. As such it represents a departure from prevalent business school teachings with their focus on accounting and cost controls. Herein, it is argued that stakeholder theory can be better conceptualized as a critical theory, or one which represents a fundamental change in business behavior and can transform the behavior of businesses if accepted. By arguing that financial interests underdetermine the success of the firm, stakeholder theory further democratizes business by endorsing an increased awareness of the importance of non-shareholder stakeholders. Stakeholder theory requires new, non-financial, measures of success that provide a new consciousness for management and businesses when conceiving their actions and place in society. Thereby, stakeholder theory can show individuals through self-reflection that the capitalist impulses to generate wealth cannot act as primary drivers of business behavior, but rather, that we would choose to support interests outside ourselves if we made the decision in free discussion. This is due to the false consciousness embedded in our capitalism that the firm’s finances are the foremost concern of modern organizations at the expense of other goals. A focus on non-shareholder stakeholders in addition to shareholders generates greater benefits for society by improving the state of customers, employees, suppliers, the community, and shareholders alike. These positive effects generate further positive gains in well-being for stakeholders and translate into increased health for the future firm. Additionally, shareholders are the only stakeholder group that does not provide long-term firm value since there are not always communities with qualified employees, suppliers capable of providing the quality of product needed, or persons with purchasing power for all conceivable products. Therefore, the firm’s long-term health is benefited most greatly by improving the greatest possible parts of the society in which it inhabits, rather than solely the shareholder.

Keywords: capitalism, critical theory, self-reflection, stakeholder theory

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238 Stakeholder Analysis of Agricultural Drone Policy: A Case Study of the Agricultural Drone Ecosystem of Thailand

Authors: Thanomsin Chakreeves, Atichat Preittigun, Ajchara Phu-ang

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This paper presents a stakeholder analysis of agricultural drone policies that meet the government's goal of building an agricultural drone ecosystem in Thailand. Firstly, case studies from other countries are reviewed. The stakeholder analysis method and qualitative data from the interviews are then presented including data from the Institute of Innovation and Management, the Office of National Higher Education Science Research and Innovation Policy Council, agricultural entrepreneurs and farmers. Study and interview data are then employed to describe the current ecosystem and to guide the implementation of agricultural drone policies that are suitable for the ecosystem of Thailand. Finally, policy recommendations are then made that the Thai government should adopt in the future.

Keywords: drone public policy, drone ecosystem, policy development, agricultural drone

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237 The Corporate Vision Effect on Rajabhat University Brand Building in Thailand

Authors: Pisit Potjanajaruwit

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This study aims to (1) investigate the corporate vision factor influencing Rajabhat University brand building in Thailand and (2) explore influences of brand building upon Rajabhat University stakeholders’ loyalty, and the research method will use mixed methods to conduct qualitative research with the quantitative research. The qualitative will approach by Indebt-interview the executive of Rathanagosin Rajabhat University group for 6 key informants and the quantitative data was collected by questionnaires distributed to stakeholder including instructors, staff, students and parents of the Rathanagosin Rajabhat University group for 400 sampling were selected by multi-stage sampling method. Data was analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling: SEM and also provide the focus group interview for confirming the model. Findings corporate vision had a direct and positive influence on Rajabhat University brand building were showed direct and positive influence on stakeholder’s loyalty and stakeholder’s loyalty was indirectly influenced by corporate vision through Rajabhat University brand building.

Keywords: brand building, corporate vision, Rajabhat University, stakeholder‘s loyalty

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236 Identification and Classification of Stakeholders in the Transition to 3D Cadastre

Authors: Qiaowen Lin

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The 3D cadastre is an inevitable choice to meet the needs of real cadastral management. Nowadays, more attention is given to the technical aspects of 3D cadastre, resulting in the imbalance within this field. To fulfill this research gap, the stakeholder, which has been regarded as the determining factor in cadastral change has been studied. Delphi method, Michael rating, and stakeholder mapping are used to identify and classify the stakeholders in 3D cadastre. It is concluded that the project managers should pay more attention to the interesting appeal of the key stakeholders and different coping strategies should be adopted to facilitate the transition to 3D cadastre.

Keywords: stakeholders, three dimension, cadastre, transtion

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235 The Relation between Earnings Management with the Financial Reporting

Authors: Anocha Rojanapanich

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The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of earnings management on corporate transparency of the company in Dusit area workplace via financial reporting reliability and stakeholder acceptance as independent variable. And the company in Dusit are are taken as the population and sample. The questionnaire is used to collect data. Exploratory Factor Analysis is implemented to ensure construct validity, and correlation statistic is selected to test the relationship among all variable and the ordinary least squares regression is used to explore the hypothesized. The results show that earnings management has a significant and negative impact on financial reporting reliability, stakeholder acceptance, and corporate transparency. Both financial reporting reliability and stakeholder acceptance have an important and positive effect on corporate transparency, and they are then mediators of the earnings management-corporate transparency relationships.

Keywords: dusit area workplace, earnings management, financial report, business and marketing management

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234 Problems in Establishing Alliances to Comply with SDG 17 in the Successful Execution of Environmental Conservation Projects

Authors: Elena Bulmer

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The research for this study has found that the formation of alliances for the successful revitalization of the global partnership for sustainable development, as defined by UN Sustainable Development Goal 17, entails considerable difficulty. This study uses for its empirical work marine environmental conservation projects and analyses the potential involvement of nonhuman actors as primordial stakeholders in these types of projects. The idea is to extend the scope of SDG 17 for it to also consider nonhuman subjects in order for it to better achieve its goal. The results of this study may be extrapolated to the business and management fields, which depend on natural resources for the development of their products. In the same way, in these areas, natural resources as nonhuman actors are not present in the stakeholder maps of these projects. Environmental Conservation projects are thus especially interesting to study with regards to their stakeholder context and have been used as the experimental setting for the empirical work of this study. The primordial stakeholders of these projects are not social objects and therefore go beyond the present limits of present stakeholder theory. The study that has been used to analyse this concept is a marine conservation project based in Spain, and to shed light in potential extending the role of the 17th Sustainable Development Goal to include nonhuman beings to be able to better achieve the rest of the SDGs, in this case, SDG 14 whose aim is to promote the conservation and sustainability of the world´s oceans.

Keywords: SDG 17, sustainability, stakeholder management, environmental conservation projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
233 Sustainability Communications Across Multi-Stakeholder Groups: A Critical Review of the Findings from the Hospitality and Tourism Sectors

Authors: Frederica Pettit

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Contribution: Stakeholder involvement in CSR is essential to ensuring pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours across multi-stakeholder groups. Despite increased awareness of the benefits surrounding a collaborative approach to sustainability communications, its success is limited by difficulties engaging with active online conversations with stakeholder groups. Whilst previous research defines the effectiveness of sustainability communications; this paper contributes to knowledge through the development of a theoretical framework that explores the processes to achieving pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours in stakeholder groups. The research will also consider social media as an opportunity to communicate CSR information to all stakeholder groups. Approach: A systematic review was chosen to investigate the effectiveness of the types of sustainability communications used in the hospitality and tourism industries. The systematic review was completed using Web of Science and Scopus using the search terms “sustainab* communicat*” “effective or effectiveness,” and “hospitality or tourism,” limiting the results to peer-reviewed research. 133 abstracts were initially read, with articles being excluded for irrelevance, duplicated articles, non-empirical studies, and language. A total of 45 papers were included as part of the systematic review. 5 propositions were created based on the results of the systematic review, helping to develop a theoretical framework of the processes needed for companies to encourage pro-environmental behaviours across multi-stakeholder groups. Results: The theoretical framework developed in the paper determined the processes necessary for companies to achieve pro-environmental behaviours in stakeholders. The processes to achieving pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours are stakeholder-focused, identifying the need for communications to be specific to their targeted audience. Collaborative communications that enable stakeholders to engage with CSR information and provide feedback lead to a higher awareness of CSR shared visions and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. These processes should also aim to improve their relationships with stakeholders through transparency of CSR, CSR strategies that match stakeholder values and ethics whilst prioritizing sustainability as part of their job role. Alternatively, companies can prioritize pro-environmental behaviours using choice editing by mainstreaming sustainability as the only option. In recent years, there has been extensive research on social media as a viable source of sustainability communications, with benefits including direct interactions with stakeholders, the ability to enforce the authenticity of CSR activities and encouragement of pro-environmental behaviours. Despite this, there are challenges to implementing CSR, including difficulties controlling stakeholder criticisms, negative stakeholder influences and comments left on social media platforms. Conclusion: A lack of engagement with CSR information is a reoccurring reason for preventing pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours across stakeholder groups. Traditional CSR strategies contribute to this due to their inability to engage with their intended audience. Hospitality and tourism companies are improving stakeholder relationships through collaborative processes which reduce single-use plastic consumption. A collaborative approach to communications can lead to stakeholder satisfaction, leading to changes in attitudes and behaviours. Different sources of communications are accessed by different stakeholder groups, identifying the need for targeted sustainability messaging, creating benefits such as direct interactions with stakeholders, the ability to enforce the authenticity of CSR activities, and encouraging engagement with sustainability information.

Keywords: hospitality, pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours, sustainability communication, social media

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232 Perceptions of Corporate Governance and Business Ethics Practices in Kuwaiti Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi, Salah Alhamadi, Ibraheem Almubarak

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The study attempts to explore both corporate governance (GC) and business ethics (BE) practices in Kuwaiti banks and the relationship between CG and BE, using an accountability framework. By examining the perceptions of key stakeholder groups, this study investigates the practices of BE and CG in Islamic banks (IBs) compared to conventional banks (CBs). We contribute to the scarce studies concerned with relations between CG and BE. We have employed a questionnaire survey method for a random sample of crucial relevant stakeholder groups. The empirical analysis of the participants’ perceptions highlights the importance of applying CG regulations and BE for Kuwaiti banks and the clear link between the two concepts. We find that the main concern is not the absence of CG and BE codes, but the lack of consistent enforcement of the regulations. Such a system needs to be strictly and effectively implemented in Kuwaiti banks to protect all stakeholders’ wealth, not only that of stockholders. There are significant patterns in the CG and BE expectations among different stakeholder groups. Most interestingly, banks’ client groups illustrate high expectations concerning CG and BE practices.

Keywords: corporate governance, GC, business ethics, BE, Islamic banks, IBs, conventional banks, CBs, accountability

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231 Solar Energy Technology Adoption; A Vignette Study for the Up-Scale Residential Sector in Egypt

Authors: Mazen Zaki, Sherwat E. Ibrahim

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Renewable energy has become a very important and critical topic all around the world due to the limited resources that led to shifting to the trend of renewable energy and its integration with the conventional ones. This paper investigates the adoption of the solar energy technology for up-scale residential sector in Cairo, Egypt. The technology acceptance model uses several stakeholder points’ of views to develop vignettes to be used in examining the intention and attitude of the householders to adopt the solar energy technology.

Keywords: solar energy, technology acceptance model, TAM, stakeholder analysis, vignette, residential sector

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230 Developing API Economy: Associating Value to APIs and Microservices in an Enterprise

Authors: Mujahid Sultan

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The IT industry has seen many transformations in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) methodologies and development approaches. SDLCs range from waterfall to agile, and the development approaches from monolith to microservices. Management, orchestration, and monetization of microservices have created an API economy in the modern enterprise. There are two approaches to API design, code first and design first. Design first is gaining popularity in the industry as this allows capturing the API needs from the stakeholders rather than the development teams guesstimating the needs and associating a monetary value with the APIs and microservices. In this publication, we describe an approach to organizing and creating stakeholder needs and requirements for designing microservices and APIs.

Keywords: requirements engineering, enterprise architecture, APIs, microservices, DevOps, continuous delivery, continuous integration, stakeholder viewpoints

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229 Adopting a Stakeholder Perspective to Profile Successful Sustainable Circular Business Approaches: A Single Case Study

Authors: Charleen von Kolpinski, Karina Cagarman, Alina Blaute

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The circular economy concept is often framed by politicians, scientists and practitioners as being the solution to sustainability problems of our times. However, the focus of these discussions and publications is very often set on environmental and economic aspects. In contrast, the social dimension of sustainability has been neglected and only a few recent and mostly conceptual studies targeted the inclusion of social aspects and the SDGs into circular economy research. All stakeholders of this new circular system have to be included to represent a truly sustainable solution to all the environmental, economic and social challenges caused by the linear economic system. Hence, this empirical research aims to analyse, next to the environmental and economic dimension, also explicitly the social dimension of a sustainable circular business model. This inductive and explorative approach applies the single case study method. A multi-stakeholder view is adopted to shed light on social aspects of the circular business model. Different stakeholder views, tensions between stakeholders and conflicts of interest are detected. In semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders of the company, this study compares the different stakeholder views to profile the success factors of its business model in terms of sustainability implementation and to detect its shortcomings. These findings result in the development of propositions which cover different social aspects of sustainable circular business model implementation. This study is an answer to calls for future empirical research about the social dimension of the circular economy and contributes to sustainable business model thinking in entrepreneurial contexts of the circular economy. It helps identifying all relevant stakeholders and their needs to successfully and inclusively implement a sustainable circular business model. The method of a single case study has some limitations by nature as it only covers one enterprise with its special business model. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to research sustainable circular business models from multiple stakeholder perspectives, in different countries and industries. Future research can build upon the developed propositions of this study and develop hypotheses to be tested.

Keywords: circular economy, single case study, social dimension, sustainable circular business model

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228 Collaboration with Governmental Stakeholders in Positioning Reputation on Value

Authors: Zeynep Genel

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The concept of reputation in corporate development comes to the fore as one of the most frequently discussed topics in recent years. Many organizations, which make worldwide investments, make effort in order to adapt themselves to the topics within the scope of this concept and to promote the name of the organization through the values that might become prominent. The stakeholder groups are considered as the most important actors determining the reputation. Even, the effect of stakeholders is not evaluated as a direct factor; it is signed as indirect effects of their perception are a very strong on ultimate reputation. It is foreseen that the parallelism between the projected reputation and the perceived c reputation, which is established as a result of communication experiences perceived by the stakeholders, has an important effect on achieving these objectives. In assessing the efficiency of these efforts, the opinions of stakeholders are widely utilized. In other words, the projected reputation, in which the positive and/or negative reflections of corporate communication play effective role, is measured through how the stakeholders perceptively position the organization. From this perspective, it is thought that the interaction and cooperation of corporate communication professionals with different stakeholder groups during the reputation positioning efforts play significant role in achieving the targeted reputation or in sustainability of this value. The governmental stakeholders having intense communication with mass stakeholder groups are within the most effective stakeholder groups of organization. The most important reason of this is that the organizations, regarding which the governmental stakeholders have positive perception, inspire more confidence to the mass stakeholders. At this point, the organizations carrying out joint projects with governmental stakeholders in parallel with sustainable communication approach come to the fore as the organizations having strong reputation, whereas the reputation of organizations, which fall behind in this regard or which cannot establish the efficiency from this aspect, is thought to be perceived as weak. Similarly, the social responsibility campaigns, in which the governmental stakeholders are involved and which play efficient role in strengthening the reputation, are thought to draw more attention. From this perspective, the role and effect of governmental stakeholders on the reputation positioning is discussed in this study. In parallel with this objective, it is aimed to reveal perspectives of seven governmental stakeholders towards the cooperation in reputation positioning. The sample group representing the governmental stakeholders is examined under the lights of results obtained from in-depth interviews with the executives of different ministries. It is asserted that this study, which aims to express the importance of stakeholder participation in corporate reputation positioning especially in Turkey and the effective role of governmental stakeholders in strong reputation, might provide a new perspective on measuring the corporate reputation, as well as establishing an important source to contribute to the studies in both academic and practical domains.

Keywords: collaborative communications, reputation management, stakeholder engagement, ultimate reputation

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
227 The Role of Businesses in Peacebuilding in Nigeria: A Stakeholder Approach

Authors: Jamila Mohammed Makarfi, Yontem Sonmez

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Developing countries like Nigeria have recently been affected by conflicts characterized by violence, high levels of risk and insecurity, resulting in loss of lives, livelihoods, displacement of communities, degradation of health, educational and social infrastructure as well as economic underdevelopment. The Nigerian government’s response to most of these conflicts has mainly been reactionary in the form of military deployments, as against precautionary to prevent or address the root causes of the conflicts. Several studies have shown that at various points of a conflict, conflict regions can benefit from the resources and expertise available outside the government, mainly from the private sector through mechanisms such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) by businesses. The main aim of this study is to examine the role of businesses in peacebuilding in Northern Nigeria through CSR in the last decade. The expected contributions from this will answer research questions, such as the key business motivations to engage in peacebuilding, as well as the degree of influence exerted from various stakeholder groups on the business decision to engage. The methodology of the study adopts a multiple case study of over 120 businesses of various sizes, ranging from small, medium and large-scale. A mixed method enabled the collection of quantitative and qualitative primary data to augment the secondary data. The results indicated that the most important business motivations to engage in peacebuilding were the negative effects of the conflict on economic stability, as well as stakeholder-driven motives. On the other hand, out of the 12 identified stakeholders, micro-, small- and medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs) considered the chief executive officer’s interest to be the most important factor, while large companies rated the government and community pressure as the highest. Overall, the foreign stakeholders scored low on the influence chart for all business types.

Keywords: conflict, corporate social responsibility, peacebuilding, stakeholder

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226 CSR Communication Strategies: Stakeholder and Institutional Theories Perspective

Authors: Stephanie Gracelyn Rahaman, Chew Yin Teng, Manjit Singh Sandhu

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Corporate scandals have made stakeholders apprehensive of large companies and expect greater transparency in CSR matters. However, companies find it challenging to strategically communicate CSR to intended stakeholders and in the process may fall short on maximizing on CSR efforts. Given that stakeholders have the ability to either reward good companies or take legal action or boycott against corporate brands who do not act socially responsible, companies must create shared understanding of their CSR activities. As a result, communication has become a strategy for many companies to demonstrate CSR engagement and to minimize stakeholder skepticism. The main objective of this research is to examine the types of CSR communication strategies and predictors that guide CSR communication strategies. Employing Morsing & Schultz’s guide on CSR communication strategies, the study integrates stakeholder and institutional theory to develop a conceptual framework. The conceptual framework hypothesized that stakeholder (instrumental and normative) and institutional (regulatory environment, nature of business, mimetic intention, CSR focus and corporate objectives) dimensions would drive CSR communication strategies. Preliminary findings from semi-structured interviews in Malaysia are consistent with the conceptual model in that stakeholder and institutional expectations guide CSR communication strategies. Findings show that most companies use two-way communication strategies. Companies that identified employees, the public or customers as key stakeholders have started to embrace social media to be in-sync with new trends of communication. This is especially with the Gen Y which is their priority. Some companies creatively use multiple communication channels because they recognize different stakeholders favor different communication channels. Therefore, it appears that companies use two-way communication strategies to complement the perceived limitation of one-way communication strategies as some companies prefer a more interactive platform to strategically engage stakeholders in CSR communication. In addition to stakeholders, institutional expectations also play a vital role in influencing CSR communication. Due to industry peer pressures, corporate objectives (attract international investors and customers), companies may be more driven to excel in social performance. For these reasons companies tend to go beyond the basic mandatory requirement, excel in CSR activities and be known as companies that champion CSR. In conclusion, companies use more two-way than one-way communication and companies use a combination of one and two-way communication to target different stakeholders resulting from stakeholder and institutional dimensions. Finally, in order to find out if the conceptual framework actually fits the Malaysian context, companies’ responses for expected organizational outcomes from communicating CSR were gathered from the interview transcripts. Thereafter, findings are presented to show some of the key organizational outcomes (visibility and brand recognition, portray responsible image, attract prospective employees, positive word-of-mouth, etc.) that companies in Malaysia expect from CSR communication. Based on these findings the conceptual framework has been refined to show the new identified organizational outcomes.

Keywords: CSR communication, CSR communication strategies, stakeholder theory, institutional theory, conceptual framework, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
225 Decentralization and Participatory Approach in the Cultural Heritage Management in Local Thailand

Authors: Amorn Kritsanaphan

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This paper illustrates the decentralization of cultural heritage management in local Thailand, a place similar to other middle- income developing countries characterized by rapid tourism-industrialization, weakness formal state institutions and procedures, and intensity use of the cultural heritage resources. The author conducted field research in local Thailand, principally using qualitative primary data gathering. These were combined with records reviews and content analysis of documents. The author also attended local public meetings, and social activities, and interacted casually with local residents and governments. Cultural heritage management has been supposed to improve through multi-stakeholder participation and decentralization. However, processes and outcomes are far from being straightforward and depend on a variety of contingencies and contexts involved. Multi-stakeholder and participatory approach in decentralization of the cultural heritage management in Thailand have pushed to the forefront and sharpened a number of existing problems. However, under the decentralization, the most significant contribution has been in creating real political space where various local stakeholders have become active, respond and address their concerns in various ways vis-à-vis cultural heritage problems. Improving cultural heritage sustainability and viability of local livelihoods through decentralization and participatory approach is by no means certain. However, the shift instead creates spaces potent with possibilities for a meaningful and constructive engagement between and among local state and non-state actors that can lead to synergies and positive outcomes.

Keywords: decentralization, participatory approach, cultural heritage management, multi-stakeholder approach

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224 Study on the Factors that Causes the Malaysian Oil and Gas Equipment (OGSE) Companies being under-Developing

Authors: Low Khee Wai

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Lossing of opportunity by Malaysian Oil and Gas Services Equipment (OGSE) companies can be a major issue in developing and sustain Malaysia’s own Oil & Gas Industry. Despite the rapid growth of Oil & Gas industry in Malaysia for the past 40 years, Malaysia still not developing sufficient OGSE companies in order to support its own Oil & Gas Industry. In examining the scenario, this study aims to identify the factors causing the under-developing of OGSE companies in Malaysia. Conceptual Review method were used to analyse the factors that cause the under-development of Malaysia OGSE. The 4 factors identified were Time, Cost, Human Resource and Stakeholder Management. This survey explained the phenomena and the challenge of the industry and translated into the factors that cause the under-developing of OGSE companies in Malaysia. Finally, it should bring awareness to the government, authorities, and stakeholder in order to improve the ecology of Oil & Gas Industry in Malaysia.

Keywords: oil & gas in Malaysia, Malaysia local oil & gas services equipment (OGSE), oil & gas project management, project performance

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223 Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility in Kuwait: Assessment of Environmental Responsibility Efforts and Targeted Stakeholders

Authors: Manaf Bashir

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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a tool for corporations to meet the expectations of different stakeholders about economic, social and environmental issues. It has become indispensable for an organization’s success, positive image and reputation. Equally important is how corporations communicate and report their CSR. Employing the stakeholder theory, the purpose of this research is to analyse CSR content of leading Kuwaiti corporations. No research analysis of CSR reporting has been conducted in Kuwait and this study is an attempt to redress in part this empirical deficit in the country and the region. It attempts to identify the issues and stakeholders of the CSR and if corporations are following CSR reporting standards. By analysing websites, annual and CSR reports of the top 100 Kuwaiti corporations, this study found low mentions of the CSR issues and even lower mentions of CSR stakeholders. Environmental issues were among the least mentioned despite an increasing global concern toward the environment. ‘Society’ was mentioned the most as a stakeholder and ‘The Environment’ was among the least mentioned. Cross-tabulations found few significant relationships between type of industry and the CSR issues and stakeholders. Independent sample t-tests found no significant difference between the issues and stakeholders that are mentioned on the websites and the reports. Only two companies from the sample followed reporting standards and both followed the Global Reporting Initiative. Successful corporations would be keen to identify the issues that meet the expectations of different stakeholders and address them through their corporate communication. Kuwaiti corporations did not show this keenness. As the stakeholder theory suggests, extending the spectrum of stakeholders beyond investors can open mutual dialogue and understanding between corporations and various stakeholders. However, Kuwaiti corporations focus on few CSR issues and even fewer CSR stakeholders. Kuwaiti corporations need to pay more attention to CSR and particularly toward environmental issues. They should adopt a strategic approach and allocate specialized personnel such as marketers and public relations practitioners to manage it. The government and non-profit organizations should encourage the private sector in Kuwait to do more CSR and meet the needs and expectations of different stakeholders and not only shareholders. This is in addition to reporting the CSR information professionally because of its benefits to corporate image, reputation, and transparency.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, environmental responsibility, Kuwait, stakeholder theory

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222 Corporate Voluntary Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting in United Kingdom: Insights from Institutional and Upper Echelons Theories

Authors: Lyton Chithambo

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This paper reports the results of an investigation into the extent to which various stakeholder pressures influence voluntary disclosure of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in the United Kingdom (UK). The study, which is grounded on institutional theory, also borrows from the insights of upper echelons theory and examines whether specific managerial (chief executive officer) characteristics explain and moderates various stakeholder pressures in explaining GHG voluntary disclosure. Data were obtained from the 2011 annual and sustainability reports of a sample of 216 UK companies on the FTSE350 index listed on the London Stock Exchange. Generally the results suggest that there is no substantial shareholder and employee pressure on a firm to disclose GHG information but there is significant positive pressure from the market status of a firm with those firms with more market share disclosing more GHG information. Consistent with the predictions of institutional theory, we found evidence that coercive pressure i.e. regulatory pressure and mimetic pressures emanating in some industries notably industrials and consumer services have a significant positive influence on firms’ GHG disclosure decisions. Besides, creditor pressure also had a significant negative relationship with GHG disclosure. While CEO age had a direct negative effect on GHG voluntary disclosure, its moderation effect on stakeholder pressure influence on GHG disclosure was only significant on regulatory pressure. The results have important implications for both policy makers and company boards strategizing to reign in their GHG emissions.

Keywords: greenhouse gases, voluntary disclosure, upper echelons theory, institution theory

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221 The Role of Bridging Stakeholder in Water Management: Examining Social Networks in Working Groups and Co-Management

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani

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Comprehensive water management considers economic, environmental, technical and social sustainability of water resources for future generations. Integrated water management implies cooperative approach and involves all stakeholders and also introduces issues to managers and decision makers. Solving these issues needs integrated and system approach according to the recognition of actors or key persons in necessary to apply cooperative management of water resources. Therefore, social network analysis can be used to demonstrate the most effective actors for environmental base decisions. The linkage of diverse sets of actors and knowledge systems across management levels and institutional boundaries often poses one of the greatest challenges in adaptive water management. Bridging stakeholder can facilitate interactions among actors in management settings by lowering the transaction costs of collaboration. This research examines how network connections between group members affect in co- management. Cohesive network structures allow groups to more effectively achieve their goals and objectives Strong; centralized leadership is a better predictor of working group success in achieving goals and objectives. Finally, geometric position of each actor was illustrated in the network. The results of the research based on between centrality index have a key and bridging actor in recognition of cooperative management of water resources in Darbandsar village and also will help managers and planners of water in the case of recognition to organization and implementation of sustainable management of water resources and water security.

Keywords: co-management, water management, social network, bridging stakeholder, darbandsar village

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220 Two-Tier Mudarabah in Islamic Banks: Fiqh Transformation in Business

Authors: Ahmad Dahlan, Aries Indrianto

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Conceptually, mudarabah is the practice of fiqh (jurisprudence) in the bank institutions business that became the basis of the economic development model of modern Islamic financial system. In mudarabah, profit and loss sharing mechanism are integrated between mudarabah on liability side (funding) with mudarabah on the asset side (financing). Islamic (Sharia) Bank is positioned as an intermediary institution like investment manager, although the bank is also involved in direct investment based on bank equity. In practice, mudarabah cannot be done as much as effective at financing because the dominance of debt-financing products. This is a major criticism among experts and Islamic banks practitioners. Ironically, the criticism gets less attention by practitioners of Islamic banks due to many factors. The epistemologies of Islamic banks prioritize shareholder values than stakeholder values, and social culture that has not been ready with the mudarabah totally.

Keywords: two tier mudarabah, intermediary institution, shareholder value, stakeholder value

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219 Advancing the Hi-Tech Ecosystem in the Periphery: The Case of the Sea of Galilee Region

Authors: Yael Dubinsky, Orit Hazzan

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There is a constant need for hi-tech innovation to be decentralized to peripheral regions. This work describes how we applied design science research (DSR) principles to define what we refer to as the Sea of Galilee (SoG) method. The goal of the SoG method is to harness existing and new technological initiatives in peripheral regions to create a socio-technological network that can initiate and maintain hi-tech activities. The SoG method consists of a set of principles, a stakeholder network, and actual hi-tech business initiatives, including their infrastructure and practices. The three cycles of DSR, the Relevance, Design, and Rigor cycles, layout a research framework to sharpen the requirements, collect data from case studies, and iteratively refine the SoG method based on the existing knowledge base. We propose that the SoG method can be deployed by regional authorities that wish to be considered smart regions (an extension of the notion of smart cities).

Keywords: design science research, socio-technological initiatives, Sea of Galilee method, periphery stakeholder network, hi-tech initiatieves

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218 Policy Monitoring and Water Stakeholders Network Analysis in Shemiranat

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani

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Achieving to integrated Water management fundamentally needs to effective relation, coordination, collaboration and synergy among various actors who have common but different responsibilities. In this sense, the foundation of comprehensive and integrated management is not compatible with centralization and top-down strategies. The aim of this paper is analysis institutional network of water relevant stakeholders and water policy monitoring in Shemiranat. In this study collaboration networks between informal and formal institutions co-management process have been investigated. Stakeholder network analysis as a quantitative method has been implicated in this research. The results of this study indicate that institutional cohesion is medium; sustainability of institutional network is about 40 percent (medium). Additionally the core-periphery index has measured in this study according to reciprocity index. Institutional capacities for integrated natural resource management in regional level are measured in this study. Furthermore, the necessity of centrality reduction and promote stakeholders relations and cohesion are emphasized to establish a collaborative natural resource governance.

Keywords: policy monitoring, water management, social network, stakeholder, shemiranat

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217 Participatory Monitoring Strategy to Address Stakeholder Engagement Impact in Co-creation of NBS Related Project: The OPERANDUM Case

Authors: Teresa Carlone, Matteo Mannocchi

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In the last decade, a growing number of International Organizations are pushing toward green solutions for adaptation to climate change. This is particularly true in the field of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and land planning, where Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) had been sponsored through funding programs and planning tools. Stakeholder engagement and co-creation of NBS is growing as a practice and research field in environmental projects, fostering the consolidation of a multidisciplinary socio-ecological approach in addressing hydro-meteorological risk. Even thou research and financial interests are constantly spread, the NBS mainstreaming process is still at an early stage as innovative concepts and practices make it difficult to be fully accepted and adopted by a multitude of different actors to produce wide scale societal change. The monitoring and impact evaluation of stakeholders’ participation in these processes represent a crucial aspect and should be seen as a continuous and integral element of the co-creation approach. However, setting up a fit for purpose-monitoring strategy for different contexts is not an easy task, and multiple challenges emerge. In this scenario, the Horizon 2020 OPERANDUM project, designed to address the major hydro-meteorological risks that negatively affect European rural and natural territories through the co-design, co-deployment, and assessment of Nature-based Solution, represents a valid case study to test a monitoring strategy from which set a broader, general and scalable monitoring framework. Applying a participative monitoring methodology, based on selected indicators list that combines quantitative and qualitative data developed within the activity of the project, the paper proposes an experimental in-depth analysis of the stakeholder engagement impact in the co-creation process of NBS. The main focus will be to spot and analyze which factors increase knowledge, social acceptance, and mainstreaming of NBS, promoting also a base-experience guideline to could be integrated with the stakeholder engagement strategy in current and future similar strongly collaborative approach-based environmental projects, such as OPERANDUM. Measurement will be carried out through survey submitted at a different timescale to the same sample (stakeholder: policy makers, business, researchers, interest groups). Changes will be recorded and analyzed through focus groups in order to highlight causal explanation and to assess the proposed list of indicators to steer the conduction of similar activities in other projects and/or contexts. The idea of the paper is to contribute to the construction of a more structured and shared corpus of indicators that can support the evaluation of the activities of involvement and participation of various levels of stakeholders in the co-production, planning, and implementation of NBS to address climate change challenges.

Keywords: co-creation and collaborative planning, monitoring, nature-based solution, participation & inclusion, stakeholder engagement

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216 Heritage Making Process of Urban Movements: A Case Study on the Public Struggle for 100% Open Tempelhofer Feld

Authors: Dilsad Aladag

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From the closure of Tempelhofer Airport and the field in 2008 till 2014, the field's opening to public use was a subject of an urban movement that comprised demonstrations, protests, squats, workshops, panels, petition campaigns, and a referendum in 2014. As a result, Tempelhofer Feld is an open urban space for the use of Berliners today and protected by 'ThF law'. This analysis questioned how these urban movements' story is narrated and interpreted by two actor groups involved: citizen initiatives and city officials. Representation and communication take a vital part in transmitting and narrating meanings in heritage discourse and practice. Therefore, this research focused on particular websites as channels of representation and communication that these stakeholder groups maintained. The narrative analysis aims to examine meanings and stories portrayed with texts and images on the stakeholder's websites. This paper shares the essential findings of research and draws new questions regarding the urban heritage as both a source and a result of conflicts and stakeholders' role as producers of narrations of urban heritage.

Keywords: conflict, heritage, urban movement, representation

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215 The State Model of Corporate Governance

Authors: Asaiel Alohaly

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A theoretical framework for corporate governance is needed to bridge the gap between the corporate governance of private companies and State-owned Enterprises (SOEs). The two dominant models, being shareholder and stakeholder, do not always address the specific requirements and challenges posed by ‘hybrid’ companies; namely, previously national bodies that have been privatised bffu t where the government retains significant control or holds a majority of shareholders. Thus, an exploratory theoretical study is needed to identify how ‘hybrid’ companies should be defined and why the state model should be acknowledged since it is the less conspicuous model in comparison with the shareholder and stakeholder models. This research focuses on ‘the state model of corporate governance to understand the complex ownership, control pattern, goals, and corporate governance of these hybrid companies. The significance of this research lies in the fact that there is a limited available publication on the state model. The outcomes of this research are as follows. It became evident that the state model exists in the ecosystem. However, corporate governance theories have not extensively covered this model. Though, there is a lot being said about it by OECD and the World Bank. In response to this gap between theories and industry practice, this research argues for the state model, which proceeds from an understanding of the institutionally embedded character of hybrid companies where the government is either a majority of the total shares or a controlling shareholder.

Keywords: corporate governance, control, shareholders, state model

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214 Stakeholder-Driven Development of a One Health Platform to Prevent Non-Alimentary Zoonoses

Authors: A. F. G. Van Woezik, L. M. A. Braakman-Jansen, O. A. Kulyk, J. E. W. C. Van Gemert-Pijnen

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Background: Zoonoses pose a serious threat to public health and economies worldwide, especially as antimicrobial resistance grows and newly emerging zoonoses can cause unpredictable outbreaks. In order to prevent and control emerging and re-emerging zoonoses, collaboration between veterinary, human health and public health domains is essential. In reality however, there is a lack of cooperation between these three disciplines and uncertainties exist about their tasks and responsibilities. The objective of this ongoing research project (ZonMw funded, 2014-2018) is to develop an online education and communication One Health platform, “eZoon”, for the general public and professionals working in veterinary, human health and public health domains to support the risk communication of non-alimentary zoonoses in the Netherlands. The main focus is on education and communication in times of outbreak as well as in daily non-outbreak situations. Methods: A participatory development approach was used in which stakeholders from veterinary, human health and public health domains participated. Key stakeholders were identified using business modeling techniques previously used for the design and implementation of antibiotic stewardship interventions and consisted of a literature scan, expert recommendations, and snowball sampling. We used a stakeholder salience approach to rank stakeholders according to their power, legitimacy, and urgency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders (N=20) from all three disciplines to identify current problems in risk communication and stakeholder values for the One Health platform. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded inductively by two researchers. Results: The following key values were identified (but were not limited to): (a) need for improved awareness of veterinary and human health of each other’s fields, (b) information exchange between veterinary and human health, in particularly at a regional level; (c) legal regulations need to match with daily practice; (d) professionals and general public need to be addressed separately using tailored language and information; (e) information needs to be of value to professionals (relevant, important, accurate, and have financial or other important consequences if ignored) in order to be picked up; and (f) need for accurate information from trustworthy, centrally organised sources to inform the general public. Conclusion: By applying a participatory development approach, we gained insights from multiple perspectives into the main problems of current risk communication strategies in the Netherlands and stakeholder values. Next, we will continue the iterative development of the One Health platform by presenting key values to stakeholders for validation and ranking, which will guide further development. We will develop a communication platform with a serious game in which professionals at the regional level will be trained in shared decision making in time-critical outbreak situations, a smart Question & Answer (Q&A) system for the general public tailored towards different user profiles, and social media to inform the general public adequately during outbreaks.

Keywords: ehealth, one health, risk communication, stakeholder, zoonosis

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