Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Reuben C. Okocha

14 A Systematic Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fish and Poultry – Health and Environmental Implications for Animal Source Food Production in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa

Authors: Ekemini M. Okon, Reuben C. Okocha, Babatunde T. Adesina, Judith O. Ehigie, Babatunde M. Falana, Boluwape T. Okikiola

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has evolved to become a significant threat to global public health and food safety. The development of AMR in animals has been associated with antimicrobial overuse. In recent years, the number of antimicrobials used in food animals such as fish and poultry has escalated. It, therefore, becomes imperative to understand the patterns of AMR in fish and poultry and map out future directions for better surveillance efforts. This study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses(PRISMA) to assess the trend, patterns, and spatial distribution for AMR research in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa. A literature search was conducted through the Scopus and Web of Science databases in which published studies on AMR between 1989 and 2021 were assessed. A total of 172 articles were relevant for this study. The result showed progressive attention on AMR studies in fish and poultry from 2018 to 2021 across the selected countries. The period between 2018 (23 studies) and 2021 (25 studies) showed a significant increase in AMR publications with a peak in 2019 (28 studies). Egypt was the leading exponent of AMR research (43%, n=74) followed by Nigeria (40%, n=69), then South Africa (17%, n=29). AMR studies in fish received relatively little attention across countries. The majority of the AMR studies were on poultry in Egypt (82%, n=61), Nigeria (87%, n=60), and South Africa (83%, n=24). Further, most of the studies were on Escherichia and Salmonella species. Antimicrobials frequently researched were ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole groups. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent, as demonstrated by antimicrobial resistance patterns. In poultry, Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, oxytetracycline, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, erythromycin, and ampicillin. Salmonella enterica serovars were resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, cefotaxime, and ampicillin. Staphylococcusaureus showed high-level resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim, vancomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Campylobacter isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid at varying degrees. In fish, Enterococcus isolates showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, and tetracycline but sensitive to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampicin. Isolated strains of Vibrio species showed sensitivity to florfenicol and ciprofloxacin, butresistance to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and erythromycin. Isolates of Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species exhibited resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin. Specifically, Aeromonashydrophila isolates showed sensitivity to cephradine, doxycycline, erythromycin, and florfenicol. However, resistance was also exhibited against augmentinandtetracycline. The findings constitute public and environmental health threats and suggest the need to promote and advance AMR research in other countries, particularly those on the global hotspot for antimicrobial use.

Keywords: antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance, bacteria, environment, public health

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
13 Nigerian Movies as a Medium for Repositioning the Nigerian Woman

Authors: Mary Okocha

Abstract:

Over the past two decades, since it came into existence, the Nigerian film industry, also known as Nollywood, has taken a global phenomenon and is reckoned with by most Africans at home or in Diaspora. The themes portrayed in these movies are supposedly made to reflect the social, cultural, economic and religious situations prevalent in Nigeria as well as most African countries. Stories are especially effective in cultural processes because they involve audiences by entertaining them and by challenging them to make sense of the story's symbolic meaning. Using two Nigerian movies, Mammi and Arugba, this paper aims at critically examining the pressures that society places on the Nigerian female and how this same society fails to lend a helping hand in making this possible, but rather turns back to heap blames and question the virtues of the females if, on the long run, these expectations are not met inconsiderate of the circumstances that stood in their ways and how these pressures have stood against the progress of the Nigerian woman. Furthermore, female respondents will be randomly selected and their opinions will be sorted through questionnaires to see what they feel could be done to help in overcoming these challenges and how the movie industry can help in repositioning the Nigerian woman.

Keywords: Nollywood, Nigerian films, audiences, Nigerian woman, Nigerian society, female respondents, repositioning women, societal pressures

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
12 Performativity and Valuation Techniques: Evidence from Investment Banks in the Wake of the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Alicja Reuben, Amira Annabi

Abstract:

In this paper, we explore the relationship between the selection of valuation techniques by investment banks and the banks’ risk perceptions and performance in the context of the theory of performativity. We use inferential statistics to study these relationships by building a unique dataset based on the disclosure of 12 investment banks’ 2012-2015 annual financial statements. Moreover, we create two constructs, namely intensity of use and risk perception. We measure the intensity of use as a frequency metric of how often a particular bank adopts valuation techniques for a particular asset or liability. We measure risk perception based on disclosed ranges of values for unobservable inputs. Our results are twofold: we find a significant negative correlation between (1) intensity of use and investment bank performance and (2) intensity of use and risk perception. These results indicate that a performative process takes place, and the valuation techniques are enacting their environment.

Keywords: language, linguistics, performativity, financial techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
11 A Non-linear Damage Model For The Annulus Of the Intervertebral Disc Under Cyclic Loading, Including Recovery

Authors: Shruti Motiwale, Xianlin Zhou, Reuben H. Kraft

Abstract:

Military and sports personnel are often required to wear heavy helmets for extended periods of time. This leads to excessive cyclic loads on the neck and an increased chance of injury. Computational models offer one approach to understand and predict the time progression of disc degeneration under severe cyclic loading. In this paper, we have applied an analytic non-linear damage evolution model to estimate damage evolution in an intervertebral disc due to cyclic loads over decade-long time periods. We have also proposed a novel strategy for inclusion of recovery in the damage model. Our results show that damage only grows 20% in the initial 75% of the life, growing exponentially in the remaining 25% life. The analysis also shows that it is crucial to include recovery in a damage model.

Keywords: cervical spine, computational biomechanics, damage evolution, intervertebral disc, continuum damage mechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
10 The 'Currency' of Dolus Eventualis Considered during Sentencing for Murder

Authors: Reuben Govender

Abstract:

Culpability is an essential element for an accused to be held liable for a crime. The mental element or mens rea determines blameworthiness of an accused on a charge of killing a person. The mens rea required for a conviction of murder is intent while culpable homicide requires negligence. Central to blameworthiness in mens rea is individual freedom and voluntariness. The test for intent is subjective and objective for negligence. This paper presents a review of dolus eventualis in the context of murder trials and from a South African perspective. This paper poses a central questions namely, is dolus eventualis a ‘weaker currency’ during sentencing for murder? This paper attempts to answer this question by reviewing the concept of dolus eventualis, the test in judicial application, a review of decided South African cases in its application, its incorrect application and finally, considerations for its correct application. Lastly, the ‘weight’ of a dolus eventualis conviction in terms of sentencing will be reviewed to support the central question which is answered in the negative.

Keywords: dolus eventualis, dolus indeterminatus, dolus generalis, mens rea

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
9 A Case for Ethics Practice under the Revised ISO 14001:2015

Authors: Reuben Govender, M. L. Woermann

Abstract:

The ISO 14001 management system standard was first published in 1996. It is a voluntary standard adopted by both private and public sector organizations globally. Adoption of the ISO 14001 standard at the corporate level is done to help manage business impacts on the environment e.g. pollution control. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) revised the standard in 2004 and recently in 2015. The current revision of the standard appears to adopt a communitarian-type philosophy. The inclusion of requirements to consider external 'interested party' needs and expectations implies this philosophy. Therefore, at operational level businesses implementing ISO 14001 will have to consider needs and expectations beyond local laws. Should these external needs and expectations be included in the scope of the environmental management system, they become requirements to be complied with in much the same way as compliance to laws. The authors assert that the recent changes to ISO 14001 introduce an ethical dimension to the standard. The authors assert that business ethics as a discipline now finds relevance in ISO 14001 via contemporary stakeholder theory and discourse ethics. Finally, the authors postulate implications of (not) addressing these requirements before July 2018 when transition to the revised standard must be complete globally.

Keywords: business ethics, environmental ethics, ethics practice, ISO 14001:2015

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
8 Digital Customer Relationship Management on Service Delivery Performance

Authors: Reuben Kinyuru Njuguna, Martin Mabuya Njuguna

Abstract:

Digital platforms, such as The Internet, and the advent of digital marketing strategies, have led to many changes in the marketing of goods and services. These have resulted in improved service quality, enhanced customer relations, productivity gains, marketing transaction cost reductions, improved customer service and flexibility in fulfilling customers’ changing needs and lifestyles. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of digital marketing practices on the financial performance of mobile network operators in the telecommunications industry in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to establish how digital customer relationship management strategies on performance of mobile network operators in Kenya. The study used an explanatory cross-sectional survey research design, while the target population was made up of from the 4 major mobile network operators in Kenya, namely Safaricom Limited, Airtel Networks Kenya Limited, Finserve Africa Limited and Telkom Kenya Limited. Sampling strategy was stratified sampling with a sample size of 97 respondents. Digital customer relationship strategies were seen to influence firm performance, through enhancing convenience, building trust, encouraging growth in market share through creating sustainable relationships, building commitment with customers, enhancing customer retention and customer satisfaction. Digital customer relationship management were seen to maximize gross profits by increasing customer satisfaction, loyalty and retention. The study recommended upscaling the use of digital customer relationship management strategies to further enhance firm performance, given their great potential in this regard.

Keywords: customer relationship management, customer service delivery, performance, customer satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
7 Arterial Compliance Measurement Using Split Cylinder Sensor/Actuator

Authors: Swati Swati, Yuhang Chen, Robert Reuben

Abstract:

Coronary stents are devices resembling the shape of a tube which are placed in coronary arteries, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary arterial diseases. Coronary stents are routinely deployed to clear atheromatous plaque. The stent essentially applies an internal pressure to the artery because its structure is cylindrically symmetrical and this may introduce some abnormalities in final arterial shape. The goal of the project is to develop segmented circumferential arterial compliance measuring devices which can be deployed (eventually) in vivo. The segmentation of the device will allow the mechanical asymmetry of any stenosis to be assessed. The purpose will be to assess the quality of arterial tissue for applications in tailored stents and in the assessment of aortic aneurism. Arterial distensibility measurement is of utmost importance to diagnose cardiovascular diseases and for prediction of future cardiac events or coronary artery diseases. In order to arrive at some generic outcomes, a preliminary experimental set-up has been devised to establish the measurement principles for the device at macro-scale. The measurement methodology consists of a strain gauge system monitored by LABVIEW software in a real-time fashion. This virtual instrument employs a balloon within a gelatine model contained in a split cylinder with strain gauges fixed on it. The instrument allows automated measurement of the effect of air-pressure on gelatine and measurement of strain with respect to time and pressure during inflation. Compliance simple creep model has been applied to the results for the purpose of extracting some measures of arterial compliance. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to study the effect of air pressure on strain at varying time intervals. The results clearly demonstrate that with decrease in arterial volume and increase in arterial pressure, arterial strain increases thereby decreasing the arterial compliance. The measurement system could lead to development of portable, inexpensive and small equipment and could prove to be an efficient automated compliance measurement device.

Keywords: arterial compliance, atheromatous plaque, mechanical symmetry, strain measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
6 Mesenteric Ischemia Presenting as Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Case Review of a Rare Complication and Aberrant Anatomy

Authors: Joshua Russell, Omar Zubair, Reuben Ndegwa

Abstract:

Introduction: Mesenteric ischemia is an uncommon condition that can be challenging to diagnose in the acute setting, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Very rarely has acute acalculous cholecystitis been described in the setting of mesenteric ischemia. Case: This was the case in a 78-year-old male, who initially presented with clinical and radiological evidence of small bowel obstruction, thought likely secondary to malignancy. The patient had a 6-week history of anorexia, worsening lower abdominal pain, and ~30kg of unintentional weight loss over a 12-month period and a CT- scan demonstrated a transition point in the distal ileum. The patient became increasingly hemodynamically unstable and peritonitic, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Intra-operatively, however, no obvious transition point was identified, and instead, the gallbladder was markedly gangrenous and oedematous, consistent with acalculous cholecystitis. An open total cholecystectomy was subsequently performed. The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit post-operatively and continued to deteriorate over the proceeding 48 hours, with two re-look laparotomies demonstrating progressively worsening bowel ischemia, initially in the distribution of the superior mesenteric artery and then the coeliac trunk. On review, the patient was found to have an aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. The extent of ischemia was considered non-survivable, and the patient was palliated. Discussion: Multiple theories currently exist for the underlying pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis, including biliary stasis, sepsis, and ischemia. This case lends further support to ischemia as the underlying etiology of acalculous cholecystitis. This is particularly the case when considered in the context of the patient’s aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery, which occurs in 11-14% of patients. Conclusion: This case report adds further insight to the debate surrounding the pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis. It also presents acalculous cholecystitis as a complication of mesenteric ischemia that should always be considered, especially in the elderly patient and in the context of relatively common anatomical variations. Furthermore, the case brings to attention the importance of maintaining dynamic working diagnoses in the setting of evolving pathophysiology and clinical presentations.

Keywords: acalculous cholecystitis, anatomical variation, general surgery, mesenteric ischemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
5 Barriers and Facilitators for Telehealth Use during Cervical Cancer Screening and Care: A Literature Review

Authors: Reuben Mugisha, Stella Bakibinga

Abstract:

The cervical cancer burden is a global threat, but more so in low income settings where more than 85% of mortality cases occur due to lack of sufficient screening programs. There is consequently a lack of early detection of cancer and precancerous cells among women. Studies show that 3% to 35% of deaths could have been avoided through early screening depending on prognosis, disease progression, environmental and lifestyle factors. In this study, a systematic literature review is undertaken to understand potential barriers and facilitators as documented in previous studies that focus on the application of telehealth in cervical cancer screening programs for early detection of cancer and precancerous cells. The study informs future studies especially those from low income settings about lessons learned from previous studies and how to be best prepared while planning to implement telehealth for cervical cancer screening. It further identifies the knowledge gaps in the research area and makes recommendations. Using a specified selection criterion, 15 different articles are analyzed based on the study’s aim, theory or conceptual framework used, method applied, study findings and conclusion. Results are then tabulated and presented thematically to better inform readers about emerging facts on barriers and facilitators to telehealth implementation as documented in the reviewed articles, and how they consequently lead to evidence informed conclusions that are relevant to telehealth implementation for cervical cancer screening. Preliminary findings of this study underscore that use of low cost mobile colposcope is an appealing option in cervical cancer screening, particularly when coupled with onsite treatment of suspicious lesions. These tools relay cervical images to the online databases for storage and retrieval, they permit integration of connected devices at the point of care to rapidly collect clinical data for further analysis of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Results however reveal the need for population sensitization prior to use of mobile colposcopies among patients, standardization of mobile colposcopy programs across screening partners, sufficient logistics and good connectivity, experienced experts to review image cases at the point-of-care as important facilitators to the implementation of mobile colposcope as a telehealth cervical cancer screening mechanism.

Keywords: cervical cancer screening, digital technology, hand-held colposcopy, knowledge-sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
4 Assessing the Contribution of Informal Buildings to Energy Inefficiency in Kenya: A Case of Mukuru Slums

Authors: Bessy Thuranira

Abstract:

Buildings, as they are designed and used, may contribute to serious environmental problems because of excessive consumption of energy and other natural resources. Buildings in the informal settlements particularly, due to their unplanned physical structure and design, have significantly contributed the global energy problematic scenario typified by high-level inefficiencies. Energy used in buildings in Africa is estimated to be the highest of the total national electricity consumption. Over the last decade, assessments of energy consumption and efficiency/inefficiency has focused on formal and modern buildings. This study seeks to go off the beaten path, by focusing on energy use in informal settlements. Operationally, it sought to establish the contribution of informal buildings in the overall energy consumption in the city and the country at large. This study was carried out in Mukuru kwa Reuben informal settlement where there is distinct manifestation of different settlement morphologies within a small locality. The research narrowed down to three villages (Mombasa, Kosovo and Railway villages) within the settlement, that were representative of the different slum housing typologies. Due to the unpredictability nature and informality in slums, this study takes a multi-methodology approach. Detailed energy audits and measurements are carried out to predict total building consumption, and document building design and envelope, typology, materials and occupancy levels. Moreover, the study uses semi-structured interviews and to access energy supply, cost, access and consumption patterns. Observations and photographs are also used to shed more light on these parameters. The study reveals the high energy inefficiencies in slum buildings mainly related to sub-standard equipment and appliances, building design and settlement layout, poor access and utilization/consumption patterns of energy. The impacts of this inefficiency are high economic burden to the poor, high levels of pollution, lack of thermal comfort and emissions to the environment. The study highlights a set of urban planning and building design principles that can be used to retrofit slums into more energy efficient settlements. The study explores principles of responsive settlement layouts/plans and appropriate building designs that use the beneficial elements of nature to achieve natural lighting, natural ventilation, and solar control to create thermally comfortable, energy efficient, and environmentally responsive buildings/settlements. As energy efficiency in informal settlements is a relatively less explored area of efficiency, it requires further research and policy recommendations, for which this paper will set a background.

Keywords: energy efficiency, informal settlements, renewable energy, settlement layout

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3 Household Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancies in Kigali City, Rwanda

Authors: Dieudonne Uwizeye, Reuben Muhayiteto

Abstract:

Teenage pregnancy is a challenging problem for sustainable development due to restrictions it poses to socioeconomic opportunities for young mothers, their children and families. Being unable to take appropriate economic and social responsibilities, teen mothers get trapped into poverty and become economic burden to their family and country. Besides, teenage pregnancy is also a health problem because children born to very young mothers are vulnerable with greater risk of illnesses and deaths, and teenage mothers are more likely to be exposed to greater risk of maternal mortality and to other health and psychological problems. In Kigali city, in Rwanda, teenage pregnancy rate is currently high and its increase in recent years is worrisome. However, only individual factors influencing the teenage pregnancy tend to be the basis of interventions. It is important to understand the important socioeconomic factors at the household level that are associated with teenage pregnancy to help government, parents, and other stakeholders to appropriately address the problem with sustainable measures. This study analyzed secondary data from the Fifth Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS-V 2014-2015) conducted by the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). The aim was to examine household socio-economic factors that are associated with incidence of teenage pregnancies in Kigali city. In addition to descriptive analysis, Pearson’s Chi Square and Binary Logistic Regression were used in the analysis. Findings indicate that marital status and age of household head, number of members in a household, number of rooms used for sleeping, educational level of the household head and household's wealth are significantly associated with teenage pregnancy in Rwanda ( p< 0.05). It was found that teenagers living with parents, those having parents with higher education and those from richer families are less likely to become pregnant. Age of household head was pinpointed as factor to teenage pregnancy, with teenage-headed households being more vulnerable. The findings also revealed that household composition correlates with the probability of teenage pregnancy (p < 0.05) with teenagers from households with less number of members being more vulnerable. Regarding the size of the house, the study suggested that the more rooms available in households, the less incidences of teenage pregnancy are likely to be observed (p < 0.05). However, teenage pregnancy was not significantly associated with physical violence among parents (p = 0.65) and sex of household heads (p = 0.52), except in teen-headed households of which female are predominantly heads. The study concludes that teenage pregnancy remains a serious social, economic and health problem in Rwanda. The study informs government officials, parents and other stakeholders to take interventions and preventive measures through community sex education, policies and strategies to foster effective parental guidance, care and control of young girls through meeting their necessary social and financial needs within households.

Keywords: household socio-economic factors, Rwanda, Rwanda demographic and health survey, teenage pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2 Inguinal Hernia Preperitoneal Mesh and Internal Hernia with Caecal Volvulus

Authors: Daniel Tani, Goutham Sivasuthan, Reuben Ndegwa, Omar Mansour

Abstract:

We report a case of a caecal volvulus in a 52-year-old female who had an internal hernia from adhesions originating at the region of a previous inguinal hernia mesh repair. The patient described epigastric and right lower quadrant pain for the preceding two weeks that seemed to worsen with oral intake. She had previous laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia repairs with mesh bilaterally; the left in 2007 and the right in 2012. Further surgical history included an open Spigelian hernia repair with mesh in the left lower quadrant and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy 20 years earlier. In addition to this, she had had a colonoscopy done three months prior, which showed no masses or polyps. The patient was hemodynamically stable on review with a soft abdomen. The right lower quadrant was exquisitely tender with a rebound. There were no palpable masses. Blood tests revealed hemoglobin of 155 g/L, a white cell count of 8 x 109/L, and a C-reactive protein of 37 mg/L. A computed tomography scan with portal venous contrast demonstrated a mechanical small bowel obstruction with the terminal ileum and caecum looped around itself in a whirlpool appearance, and the colon collapsed distally. There was a trace of free fluid in the right paracolic gutter and no abdominal free air. Hernia meshes were visible in the inguinal orifices bilaterally and at the left lower quadrant. The mesh on the right inguinal canal appeared to be displaced intraperitoneally. The patient then underwent emergency diagnostic laparoscopy. Intraoperatively, there was a caecal volvulus caused by internal herniation underneath a thick band adhesion at the right iliac fossa. This band appeared to arise from the anterior abdominal wall just posterior to the right inguinal hernia preperitoneal mesh. There was no mesh or tacks exposed and there was no recurrent hernia. A right hemicolectomy was performed with a stapled side-to-side anastomosis. The postoperative course was uncomplicated, and she was discharged on day 6. At follow-up two weeks later, the patient was well and bowel function had returned to normal. Histopathology was negative for dysplasia or malignancy. Inguinal preperitoneal mesh has not been definitively linked to intraabdominal adhesion formation. There has been a study in 2016 that examined the formation of adhesions after ventral hernia repair as detected by MRI and laparoscopic correlation. However, this included intraperitoneal mesh, and the results were not stratified by mesh location. There was an overall 60% rate of adhesions after ventral hernia mesh. There has also been one case report in the literature that describes an adhesional small bowel obstruction that was attributed to a tack that had been placed during a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. In our case report, there was clearly a band adhesion from the preperitoneal mesh that had led to an internal hernia and caecal volvulus; however, whether the mesh had initiated the adhesion is uncertain. While inguinal hernia repair with mesh remains the gold standard, the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions may need to be a consideration in fixation techniques.

Keywords: internal hernia, inguinal hernia mesh, caecal volvulus, adhesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
1 Variation of Warp and Binder Yarn Tension across the 3D Weaving Process and its Impact on Tow Tensile Strength

Authors: Reuben Newell, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger, Calvin Ralph

Abstract:

Modern industry has developed a need for innovative 3D composite materials due to their attractive material properties. Composite materials are composed of a fibre reinforcement encased in a polymer matrix. The fibre reinforcement consists of warp, weft and binder yarns or tows woven together into a preform. The mechanical performance of composite material is largely controlled by the properties of the preform. As a result, the bulk of recent textile research has been focused on the design of high-strength preform architectures. Studies looking at optimisation of the weaving process have largely been neglected. It has been reported that yarns experience varying levels of damage during weaving, resulting in filament breakage and ultimately compromised composite mechanical performance. The weaving parameters involved in causing this yarn damage are not fully understood. Recent studies indicate that poor yarn tension control may be an influencing factor. As tension is increased, the yarn-to-yarn and yarn-to-weaving-equipment interactions are heightened, maximising damage. The correlation between yarn tension variation and weaving damage severity has never been adequately researched or quantified. A novel study is needed which accesses the influence of tension variation on the mechanical properties of woven yarns. This study has looked to quantify the variation of yarn tension throughout weaving and sought to link the impact of tension to weaving damage. Multiple yarns were randomly selected, and their tension was measured across the creel and shedding stages of weaving, using a hand-held tension meter. Sections of the same yarn were subsequently cut from the loom machine and tensile tested. A comparison study was made between the tensile strength of pristine and tensioned yarns to determine the induced weaving damage. Yarns from bobbins at the rear of the creel were under the least amount of tension (0.5-2.0N) compared to yarns positioned at the front of the creel (1.5-3.5N). This increase in tension has been linked to the sharp turn in the yarn path between bobbins at the front of the creel and creel I-board. Creel yarns under the lower tension suffered a 3% loss of tensile strength, compared to 7% for the greater tensioned yarns. During shedding, the tension on the yarns was higher than in the creel. The upper shed yarns were exposed to a decreased tension (3.0-4.5N) compared to the lower shed yarns (4.0-5.5N). Shed yarns under the lower tension suffered a 10% loss of tensile strength, compared to 14% for the greater tensioned yarns. Interestingly, the most severely damaged yarn was exposed to both the largest creel and shedding tensions. This study confirms for the first time that yarns under a greater level of tension suffer an increased amount of weaving damage. Significant variation of yarn tension has been identified across the creel and shedding stages of weaving. This leads to a variance of mechanical properties across the woven preform and ultimately the final composite part. The outcome from this study highlights the need for optimised yarn tension control during preform manufacture to minimize yarn-induced weaving damage.

Keywords: optimisation of preform manufacture, tensile testing of damaged tows, variation of yarn weaving tension, weaving damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 124