Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 282

Search results for: leader

282 Cultural Differences in Gender Stereotyping of Leaders

Authors: Maria Clapham, Krysta Thomason

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This study examined how age and gender of a leader affect characterizations of leaders across cultures. Participants from around the world were randomly assigned to rate one of the following types of leaders: successful leader, female leader over age 50, female leader under age 40, male leader over age 50, or male leader under age 40. Ratings of these leaders on communal, agentic, task-oriented, relationship-oriented, and transformational leadership characteristics were compared across four world regions: Asia, Europe, Latin America, and USA/Canada. Results suggest some similarities and differences in characterizations of leaders across cultures.

Keywords: culture, gender, leadership, stereotyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
281 An Experimental Study on the Positive Streamer Leader Propagation under Slow Front Impulse Voltages in a 10m Rod-Plane Air Gap

Authors: Wahab Ali Shah, Junjia He

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In this work, we performed a large-scale investigation into leader development in a 10 m rod-plane gap under a long front positive impulse. To describe the leader propagation under slow front impulse voltages, we recorded the leader propagation with a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) camera. It is important to figure out this phenomenon to deepen our understanding of leader discharge. The observation results showed that the leader mechanism is a very complex physical phenomenon; it could be categorized into two types of leader process, namely, continuous and the discontinuous leader streamer-leader propagation. Furthermore, we studied the continuous leader development parameters, including two-dimensional (2-D) leader length, injected charge, and final jump stage, as well as leader velocity for rod–plane configuration. We observed that the discontinuous leader makes an important contribution to the appearance of channel re-illuminations of the positive leader. The comparative study shows better results in terms of standard switch impulse and long front positive impulse. Finally, the results are presented with a view toward improving our understanding of propagation mechanisms related to restrike phenomena, which are rarely reported. To clarify the above doubts under long front cases, we carried out extensive experiments in this study.

Keywords: continuous and discontinuous leader, high-speed photographs, long air gap, positive long front impulse, restrike phenomena

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
280 First Time Voters Representation of Leadership as Exemplified by 2016 Presidentiables

Authors: Fevy Kae Mateo, Kimberly Javier, Alyzza Marie Palles

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Leadership is a process of relationship involving interaction with other people. Leaders emphasise authority, which executes and implements regulations, maintains the rules and leads to a better future. The First Time voters are very significant because there are the stakeholders of the type of leader to be deployed. They also have the capacity of engaging the government and can be the agents of change. The objective of the study is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of leader. Moreover, the study identifies the qualities of a leader. Finally, the study determines first-time voter’s representation of a leader. Focus Group Discussion was carried out into two groups of first time voter’s ages 18 to 21 years old. Verbatim transcripts of the discussion were analyzed using Thematic Analysis. Overall results showed super ordinate themes for weaknesses of leader: Lace of transparency in the government, poor communication strategy, and valuing experience over potential and other contributory factor; for strength of a leader: analytical skill, emotional intelligence in political work, analytical ability and economic status on political participation; finally, in the representation of a leader: positive representation of a leader and negative representation of a leader.

Keywords: first time voters, focus group discussion, leadership, qualitative research design

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
279 Leader Personality Traits and Constructive Voice Behavior: Mediating Roles of Empowering Leadership and Leader-Member Exchange

Authors: Umamaheswara Rao Jada, Susmita Mukhopadhyay

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Employee voice behavior has emerged as an important topic in relation to understanding the paybacks within the organizations. Organizations are expecting employees to contribute in the form of suggestions and ideas that not only help an organization to grow but also survive the turbulent times. Leadership in the organization enables and arouses an individual to offer constructive ideas. The significant impact of leadership is undeniable in a context of creating an environment that promotes a free flow of thoughts and ideas in the organization which in turn is significantly influenced by the personality of the leader. Therefore our study aims at examining the underlying factors which influence employee constructive voice behavior in connection with leader’s personality, empowering form of leadership and leader-member exchange in the organization sequentially. A standardized survey questionnaire was used to collect sample of 272 service executives in India. Smart PLS 2.0 was used to test hypothesis and explore the mediation effect. The result shows that the leader personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were positively related to empowering leadership, whereas neuroticism was unrelated to empowering leadership. Empowering leadership influenced followers’ constructive voice behavior significantly. Furthermore, the relationship was partially mediated by leader member exchange relationship. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings, as well as directions for the future line of research, have been presented in the study.

Keywords: constructive voice, empowering leadership, leader member exchange (LMX), leader personality traits

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
278 Ethical Leadership Mediates Subordinates’ Likeness for Leader and Affective Commitment to Squads among Police Cadets

Authors: Odunayo O. Oluwafemi, Valentine A. Mebu

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There is a blur as to whether subordinates’ sheer fondness for a leader or the ethical behaviours demonstrated by such a leader is what engenders subordinates’ affective commitment to the group. This study aimed to depict and clarify that perceived ethical leadership by subordinates outweighs their likeness for a leader in determining their level of affective commitment to the group using a sample of police cadets. Subordinate cadets were asked to rate the ethical leadership behaviours displayed by their cadet Leaders; their likeness for their leaders and also rate their own affective commitment to their squads (N = 252, Mean Age = 22.70, Age range = 17 to 29 years, SD = 2.264, 75% males). A mediation analysis was conducted to test hypotheses. Results showed that there was a significant indirect effect between likeness for leaders and affective commitment through ethical leadership behaviour (b = .734, 95% BCa CI [.413, 1.146], p = .000); and a nonsignificant direct effect between likeness for leader and subordinates’ affective commitment (b = .526, 95% BCa CI [-.106, 1.157], p = .10), this indicated a full mediation. The results strongly suggested that the positive relationship between subordinates’ likeness for their leaders and their affective commitment to the squad is produced by perceived leaders’ ethical behaviours. Therefore, leaders should exhibit and prioritize ethical behaviours over the need to be liked by their subordinates to guarantee their affective commitment to group goals and aspirations.

Keywords: affective commitment, ethical leadership, leader cadets, likeness for leader, subordinate cadets

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277 Educational Leadership for Social Justice: Meeting UK Muslim Expectation

Authors: Mochammad Thalut

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This essay discusses how educational leadership response the Muslims pupils’ problems and their expectation about education in the UK. As we know, the Muslims community in the country is increasing. However, the debate about educational leadership is still limited to the separation between religion and academic by westerns approach. It is found that there are four major problems of Muslims pupils that need to solve by the educational leader to provide social justice in education. Leader-teacher as an Islamic concept of the educational leader is an alternative approach that can be used by the educational leader to overcome the problems. In the end, it is strongly recommended to bring this issue to the leadership development program in the UK to give all aspiring heads understanding about Muslims expectation about education.

Keywords: Muslim, education, leadership, identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
276 The Effect of LEADER and Community-Led Local Development in Spanish Municipal Unemployment: A Difference-in-Difference Approach

Authors: Miguel A. Borrella, Ana P. Fanjul, Suca Munoz, Liliana Herrera

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This paper evaluates the impact of LEADER, a remarkable Community-Led Local Development (CLLD) approach of the European Program for Rural Development applied to rural municipalities of Spain in 2018 and 2019. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy and a newly-constructed database, results show that aided municipalities have significantly lower unemployment levels than non-aided municipalities. Results are significant for the decrease in unemployment for both women and people younger than 25 years old, two of the target groups of the policy. Nevertheless, they are larger for male and older workers. Therefore, findings suggest that LEADER 2017-2018 was successful in reducing unemployment in rural areas.

Keywords: community-led local development, ex-post evaluation, LEADER, rural development

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275 The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support and Leader Member Exchange on Turnover Intention: A Field Study in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Mehtap Öztürk, Adem Öğüt, Emine Öğüt

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Leader member exchange is considered as relationship-based approach to leadership. The focal point of this theory is that effective leadership processes occur when leaders and followers are able to develop mature leadership relationships and thus gain access to a variety of benefits these relationships bring. In this context, it can be claimed that the quality of leader member exchange appears to have a strong affect on perceived organizational support and reduce turnover intention. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the levels of leader member exchange, perceived organizational support and turnover intention on the employees of a health institution operating in the province of Konya. A field study based on survey method on 134 physicians who are employees of a health institution operating in the mentioned sample. In accordance with this purpose, it has been observed that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between leader member exchange and turnover intention. Furthermore, it has been also realized that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between perceived organizational support and turnover intention.

Keywords: leader member exchange, perceived organizational support, social exchange theory, turnover intention

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
274 New Tools and New Ways; Changing the Nature of Leadership and Future Challenges

Authors: Harun Ozdemirci

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Complexity and chaos are the characteristics of our new world today. Either business or governmental sector, inner and outer environment changes in all aspects. To ensure leaders to guide organizations accurately and effectively, leaders also must change their attitudes towards this changing world . We need new tools, new mindsets and new views for new century. Every leader have to operate within an cerative and innovative way of thinking. But how it will occur and at which direction it will be managed or directed? What kind of abilities and attitudes make leader compatible with this ever-changing and ambigous environment? Leader who will lead in the future must have some special skillls. But how can we develop these skills and behaviours? What must be the mindset of a future leader? This paper searchs for answers of some of these questions. But asking questions is more important than giving answers to them. Innovation and creativity have been at the centerpiece of our lives for some years. But we don’t know how to manage and how to tackle with the challenges come up with this new situation. This new world order compel us to take some new positions against new employees who have different types of lives and habits, new productivity processes, new adversaries… Future environment will not be the same as we experience before. So, our responses to this new environment can not be the same as our predecessors gave. We have to innovate new ways of thinking, and new tools for solving new type of problems.

Keywords: innovation, creativity, leader, future, liberal arts

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273 The Influence of Leader’s Sources of Power on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohamed Yunus, Noorlaila Yunus, Kadulliah Ghazali

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In this an era of intense competition, Malaysia aspires to be a fully developed country by 2020 and desires its citizens to perform and execute excellent work behaviors. For that reason, organizations are focusing on employees’ positive and constructive behaviors such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). They expect employees to not only complete their required duties by providing excellent performance but also keenly go beyond their roles that are not specifying in their formal job descriptions to ensure organizational success. The role and duty to acquire employees to engage and connect in OCB is the responsibility of a leader. Thus, leaders can utilize their sources of power to enable subordinates to accomplish organizational objective including OCB. Therefore, this paper formulates a framework postulating leader’s sources of power as an antecedent of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The discussion on implications for future theory development is discussed.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), leader’s sources of power, call centre industry, conceptual paper

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272 What Is the Matter of Identity to Leadership Behavior: Leader-Subordinate Relational Identity and Paternalistic Leadership

Authors: Sung-Chun Tsai, Li-Fang Chou, Chun-Jung Tseng

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How relational identity of leader-subordinate relationship affects behavior of both parties is getting more and more attentions in recent years. Different from past studies on leader-subordinate relationship taking viewpoint of self-concept or interaction between categories, we took perspective of social cognitive schema with special focus on the cognition structure and category content of the vertical leader-subordinate relationship. This study firstly clarified the dimensions and contents of cognitive structure of vertical leader-subordinate relationship. By using two dimensions of “equal/unequal” and “close/distant”, the contents of the leader-subordinate relational identity (LSRI) are classified into four categories: communal affection RI (equal and close), instrumental exchange RI (equal but distant), care-repay RI (unequal but close), and authority-obedience RI (unequal and distant). Furthermore, according to the four dimensions of leader-subordinate relational identity, we explored: (1) how a leader’s LSRI leads to paternalistic leadership; and (2) how paternalistic leadership affects subordinate’s LSRI. Using 59 work group as sample (59 leaders and 251 subordinates), the results of HLM and regression analysis showed: (1) leader’s LSRI significantly affects leadership behavior: instrumental exchange RI is positively relates to authoritarian leadership behavior, but significantly has negative relationship with benevolent leadership; care-repay RI has significantly positive relationship with authoritative leadership; authority-obedience RI has significantly positive relationship with authoritarian leadership; (2) paternalistic leadership is significantly related to subordinates’ LSRI: benevolent leadership is positively related to subordinate’s communal affection and care-repay RI; authoritative leadership has significantly positive relationship with care-repay and authority-obedience RI; authoritarian leadership has significantly positive relationship with subordinate’s instrumental exchange RI. Finally, the main findings, contributions and limits, future research directions, and implications were also discussed.

Keywords: relational identity, leader-subordinate relational identity (LSRI), relational schema, paternalistic leadership

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271 Leadership and Whether It Stems from Innate Abilities or from Situation

Authors: Salwa Abdelbaki

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This research investigated how leaders develop, asking whether they have been leaders due to their innate abilities or they gain leadership characteristics through interactions based on requirements of a situation. If the first is true, then a leader should be successful in any situation. Otherwise, a leader may succeed only in a specific situation. A series of experiments were carried out on three groups including of males and females. First; a group of 148 students with different specializations had to select a leader. Another group of 51 students had to recall their previous experiences and their knowledge of each other to identify who were leaders in different situations. Then a series of analytic tools were applied to the identified leaders and to the whole groups to find out how leaders were developed. A group of 40 young children was also experimented with to find young leaders among them and to analyze their characteristics.

Keywords: leadership, innate characteristics, situation, leadership theories

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
270 Leader-Member Exchange and Affective Commitment: The Moderating Role of Exchange Ideology

Authors: Seung Yeon Son

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In today’s rapidly changing and increasingly complex environment, organizations have relied on their members’ positive attitude toward their employers. In particular, employees’ organizational commitment (primarily, the effective component) has been recognized as an essential component of organizational functioning and success. Hence, identifying the determinants of effective commitment is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of leader-member exchange (LMX) and exchange ideology on employee’s effective commitment. In addition, the interactive effect of LMX and exchange ideology was examined. Data from 198 members of the Korean military supports each of the hypotheses. Lastly, implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: affective commitment, exchange ideology, leader-member exchange, commitment

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269 Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management, and the Leader Role in the Construction of Sustainability

Authors: Leandro da S. Nascimento, Maristela J. Melo

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The increased competition in the globalization drives organizations to innovate in their products and services to remain competitive. Innovation and creativity are incorporated as key aspects to creating value for consumers and for the creation of competitive advantage in organizations. However, there are factors that contribute strong with development of innovation and creation in organizations. These factors are the intellectual capital and knowledge management, which together with sustainability, ensure the development of competitive strategies. However, it is understood that the role of the leader is essential to stimulate the development of human capital, because the human capital is essential for organizations of knowledge. It is the leader who drives the dissemination and sharing of knowledge, an essential aspect for the formation of intellectual capital and therefore should be managed. And it turns out that the management of knowledge through intellectual capital allows the development of environmental initiatives efficiently and effectively. Thus, the research demonstrates the importance of the role of leader / manager in organizations and seeks to analyze how managers can contribute to the adoption of sustainability through intellectual capital and knowledge management.

Keywords: intellectual capital, knowledge management, leadership role, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
268 Elucidation of Leaders' Intrapersonal Competencies in the Workplace

Authors: Prakash Singh

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Employees who are satisfied at their place of work rate their leaders’ intrapersonal competencies as being high. They also believe that a leader’s intrapersonal competencies influence their sense of job satisfaction. Employees who indicate that they are unhappy at their place of work rate their leaders’ intrapersonal competencies as being low. They also believe that a leader’s intrapersonal intelligence influence their feeling of job satisfaction. The leader’s appropriate intrapersonal competencies are crucial to the creation of a motivated and satisfied employee team. In this study, the quantitative research method was used to determine the employees’ perceptions of their leaders’ intrapersonal competencies and their influence on their job satisfaction; the six competencies being self-awareness, self-confidence, self-expression, self-control, adaptability, and optimism. All the competencies of leaders identified in this quantitative study can therefore be described as intervening variables that influence an employee’s sense of job satisfaction. The number of responses that indicate that each of the intrapersonal competencies of a leader that will have an influence on an employee’s sense of job satisfaction, ranges from 93% (a leader’s sense of self-awareness) to 99% (a leader’s ability to be adaptable). As the responses are significantly similar, it can be stated that the respondents indicate that all the intrapersonal competencies of a leader can influence an employee’s sense of job satisfaction. The findings of this study strongly suggest that in order to be satisfied at work, employees prefer to be led by leaders who are confident in their leadership roles; who send out clear, unambiguous messages; who maintain self-control; who are adaptable and flexible;, who face the future with optimism and who support the establishment of a collegial working environment. Evidently, the findings corroborate the hypothesis that employees believe that the intrapersonal competencies of leaders have a positive influence on the employees’ sense of job satisfaction. This study’s findings, therefore, confirm that the key to the leaders’ self-knowledge is access to their own feelings and the ability to discriminate among them and draw upon them to guide behaviour in their organisations. This exploratory study makes a contribution to the emerging research being accomplished on leaders’ intrapersonal intelligence with more research still needing to be attempted to determine to what extent these competencies of leaders can reshape the organizational climate and culture.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, employees’ job satisfaction, leaders’ intrapersonal competencies, leaders’ self-knowledge

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267 Leadership Competences: The Case of Slovenian Healthcare

Authors: Helena Kovačič, Andrej Rus

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This study compared ratings for leadership competence of managers in the healthcare sector and professional managers in Slovenia. Managers’ competence scores were analyzed for Slovenia and compared with some other EU countries. Comparisons of correlations yielded significant differences in leader/non-leader healthcare professionals in their relational competence.

Keywords: management, competence, healthcare, Slovenia

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266 The Virtues and Vices of Leader Empathy: A Review of a Misunderstood Construct

Authors: John G. Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj

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In recent years, there has been a surge in research on empathy across disciplines ranging from management and psychology to philosophy and neuroscience. In organizational behavior, in particular, scholars have become interested in leader empathy given the rise of workplace diversity and the growing perception of leaders as managers of group emotions. It would appear that the current zeitgeist in behavioral and philosophical science is that empathy is a cornerstone of morality and that our world would be better off if only more people – and by extension, more leaders – were empathic. In spite of these claims, however, researchers have used different terminologies to explore empathy, confusing it at times with other related constructs such as emotional intelligence and compassion. Second, extant research that specifies what empathic leaders do and how their behavior affects organizational stakeholders, including themselves, does not devolve from a unifying theoretical framework. These problems plague knowledge development in this important research domain. Therefore, to the authors' best knowledge, this paper provides the first comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on leader empathy by drawing on disparate yet complementary fields of inquiry. It clarifies empathy from other constructs and presents a theoretical model that elucidates the mechanisms by which a leader’s empathy translates into behaviors that could be either beneficial or harmful to the leaders themselves, as well as to their followers and groups. And third, it specifies the boundary conditions under which a leader’s empathy will become manifest. Finally, it suggests ways in which training could be implemented to improve empathy in practice while also remaining skeptical of its conceptualization as a moral or even effective guide in human affairs.

Keywords: compassion, empathy, leadership, group outcomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
265 Emotion Expression of the Leader and Collective Efficacy: Pride and Guilt

Authors: Hsiu-Tsu Cho

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Collective efficacy refers to a group’s sense of its capacity to complete a task successfully or to reach objectives. Little effort has been expended on investigating the relationship between the emotion expression of a leader and collective efficacy. In this study, we examined the impact of the different emotions and emotion expression of a group leader on collective efficacy and explored whether the emotion–expressive effects differed under conditions of negative and positive emotions. A total of 240 undergraduate and graduate students recruited using Facebook and posters at a university participated in this research. The participants were separated randomly into 80 groups of four persons consisting of three participants and a confederate. They were randomly assigned to one of five conditions in a 2 (pride vs. guilt) × 2 (emotion expression of group leader vs. no emotion expression of group leader) factorial design and a control condition. Each four-person group was instructed to get the reward in a group competition of solving the five-disk Tower of Hanoi puzzle and making decisions on an investment case. We surveyed the participants by employing the emotional measure revised from previous researchers and collective efficacy questionnaire on a 5-point scale. To induce an emotion of pride (or guilt), the experimenter announced whether the group performance was good enough to have a chance of getting the reward (ranking the top or bottom 20% among all groups) after group task. The leader (confederate) could either express or not express a feeling of pride (or guilt) following the instruction according to the assigned condition. To check manipulation of emotion, we added a control condition under which the experimenter revealed no results regarding group performance in maintaining a neutral emotion. One-way ANOVAs and post hoc pairwise comparisons among the three emotion conditions (pride, guilt, and control condition) involved assigning pride and guilt scores (pride: F(1,75) = 32.41, p < .001; guilt: F(1,75) = 6.75, p < .05). The results indicated that manipulations of emotion were successful. A two-way between-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine the predictions of the main effects of emotion types and emotion expression as well as the interaction effect of these two variables on collective efficacy. The experimental findings suggest that pride did not affect collective efficacy (F(1,60) = 1.90, ns.) more than guilt did and that the group leader did not motivate collective efficacy regardless of whether he or she expressed emotion (F(1,60) = .89, ns.). However, the interaction effect of emotion types and emotion expression was statistically significant (F(1,60) = 4.27, p < .05, ω2 = .066); the effects accounted for 6.6% of the variance. Additional results revealed that, under the pride condition, the leader enhanced group efficacy when expressing emotion, whereas, under the guilt condition, an expression of emotion could reduce collective efficacy. Overall, these findings challenge the assumption that the effect of expression emotion are the same on all emotions and suggest that a leader should be cautious when expressing negative emotions toward a group to avoid reducing group effectiveness.

Keywords: collective efficacy, group leader, emotion expression, pride, guilty

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264 Unbreakable Obedience of Safety Regulation: The Study of Authoritarian Leadership and Safety Performance

Authors: Hong-Yi Kuo

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Leadership is a key factor of improving workplace safety, and there have been abundant of studies which support the positive effects of appropriate leadership on employee safety performance in the western academic. However, little safety research focus on the Chinese leadership style like paternalistic leadership. To fill this gap, the resent study aims to examine the relationship between authoritarian leadership (one of the ternary mode in paternalistic leadership) and safety outcomes. This study makes hypothesis on different levels. First, on the group level, as an authoritarian leader regards safety value as the most important tasks, there would be positive effect on group safety outcomes through strengthening safety group norms by the emphasis on etiquette. Second, on the cross level, when a leader with authoritarian style has high priority on safety, employees may more obey the safety rules because of fear due to emphasis on absolute authority over the leader. Therefore, employees may show more safety performance and then increase individual safety outcomes. Survey data would be collected from 50 manufacturing groups (each group with more than 5 members and a leader) and a hierarchical linear modeling analysis would be conducted to analyze the hypothesis. Above the predictive result, the study expects to be a cornerstone of safety leadership research in the Chinese academic and practice.

Keywords: safety leadership, authoritarian leadership, group norms, safety behavior, supervisor safety priority

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263 The Examination of the Mediating Role of Leader-Member Exchange on the Association between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Behavior: A Study in Turkish Technological Organizations

Authors: Gultekin Gurcay

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The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behavior and to evaluate the mediating role of leader-member exchange relationships (LMX) on the assumed relationship. This study has focused on the suggestion that LMX might emerge through transformational leadership behaviors and thus could mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative behavior. A cross-sectional survey research has been conducted on the relationship these leadership approaches and their impact on organizational HRM-outcomes has been conducted on two organizations operating in the technical sector in Istanbul-Turkey. The results of the research have supported the hypotheses. Transformational leadership was positively related to the innovative behaviors and LMX emerged to mediate that relationship.

Keywords: innovative leadership, leader-member exchange, transformational leadership, Turkey

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262 Leadership Effectiveness Compared among Three Cultures Using Voice Pitches

Authors: Asena Biber, Ates Gul Ergun, Seda Bulut

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Based on the literature, there are large numbers of studies investigating the relationship between culture and leadership effectiveness. Although giving effective speeches is vital characteristic for a leader to be perceived as effective, to our knowledge, there is no research study the determinants of perceived effective leader speech. The aim of this study is to find the effects of both culture and voice pitch on perceptions of leader's speech effectiveness. Our hypothesis is that people from high power distance countries will perceive leaders' speech effective when the leader's voice pitch is high, comparing with people from relatively low power distance countries. The participants of the study were 36 undergraduate students (12 Pakistanis, 12 Nigerians, and 12 Turks) who are studying in Turkey. National power distance scores of Nigerians ranked as first, Turks ranked as second and Pakistanis ranked as third. There are two independent variables in this study; three nationality groups that representing three levels of power distance and voice pitch of the leader which is manipulated as high and low levels. Researchers prepared an audio to manipulate high and low conditions of voice pitch. A professional whose native language is English read the predetermined speech in high and low voice pitch conditions. Voice pitch was measured using Hertz (Hz) and Decibel (dB). Each nationality group (Pakistan, Nigeria, and Turkey) were divided into groups of six students who listened to either the low or high pitch conditions in the cubicles of the laboratory. It was expected from participants to listen to the audio and fill in the questionnaire which was measuring the leadership effectiveness on a response scale ranging from 1 to 5. To determine the effects of nationality and voice pitch on perceived effectiveness of leader' voice pitch, 3 (Pakistani, Nigerian, and Turk) x 2 (low voice pitch and high voice pitch) two way between subjects analysis of variances was carried out. The results indicated that there was no significant main effect of voice pitch and interaction effect on perceived effectiveness of the leader’s voice pitch. However, there was a significant main effect of nationality on perceived effectiveness of the leader's voice pitch. Based on the results of Turkey’s HSD post-hoc test, only the perceived effectiveness of the leader's speech difference between Pakistanis and Nigerians was statistically significant. The results show that the hypothesis of this study was not supported. As limitations of the study, it is of importance to mention that the sample size should be bigger. Also, the language of the questionnaire and speech should be in the participant’s native language in further studies.

Keywords: culture, leadership effectiveness, power distance, voice pitch

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261 The Effect of Leader Motivating Language on Work Performance and Job Satisfaction as Perceived by the Employees of Soro-Soro Ibaba Development Cooperative in Batangas City

Authors: Marlon P. Perez

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The study entitled “The Effect of Leader Motivating Language on Work Performance and Job Satisfaction as Perceived by the Employees of SoroSoro Ibaba Development Cooperative (SIDC)” primarily aims to evaluate the effect of leader’s use of motivating language in terms of the three types of speech acts namely, direction-giving language, empathetic language and meaning-making language with regard to the work performance and job satisfaction of the employees. The study made use of the descriptive method of this research that it followed certain processes in gathering the necessary and accurate information. Furthermore, survey questionnaires were used in order to congregate the respondents’ outlooks, opinions, and insight in the study. These survey questionnaires were distributed to one hundred fifty (150) employees from the five (5) outlets of SoroSoro Ibaba Development Cooperative (SIDC) in Batangas City who were chosen as the respondents of the study. However, only hundred twenty (120) out of one hundred fifty (150) or eighty (80) percent of the questionnaires were retrieved. Moreover, to accomplish the objectives of the study, different statistical treatments were used for the interpretation and analysis of the gathered data. These were the relative frequency, weighted mean, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson r. Based on those statistical treatments, researchers came up with the following results: first, most of the respondents were below 35 years old, males, college graduates and in regular status; second, direction-giving language, empathetic language, and meaning-making language affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the employees to a great extent; third, there was a non-significant difference with regards to the effect of leader motivating language on the work performance and job satisfaction of the employee; and, last, there was a significant relationship on the assessment of the effect of leader motivating language on work performance and job satisfaction when grouped according to respondents’ profile. Based on these results, various recommendations were conceptualized such as the designing of proposed activities like communication workshop and team-building to augment the communication between the leader and an employee. These activities could help for the development and attainment of an excellent communication within the different organizations and companies that are very important to any business success.

Keywords: leader motivating language, work performance, job satisfaction, employees

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260 Observer-Based Leader-Following Consensus of Nonlinear Fractional-Order Multi-Agent Systems

Authors: Ali Afaghi, Sehraneh Ghaemi

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The coordination of the multi-agent systems has been one of the interesting topic in recent years, because of its potential applications in many branches of science and engineering such as sensor networks, flocking, underwater vehicles and etc. In the most of the related studies, it is assumed that the dynamics of the multi-agent systems are integer-order and linear and the multi-agent systems with the fractional-order nonlinear dynamics are rarely considered. However many phenomena in nature cannot be described within integer-order and linear characteristics. This paper investigates the leader-following consensus problem for a class of nonlinear fractional-order multi-agent systems based on observer-based cooperative control. In the system, the dynamics of each follower and leader are nonlinear. For a multi-agent system with fixed directed topology firstly, an observer-based consensus protocol is proposed based on the relative observer states of neighboring agents. Secondly, based on the property of the stability theory of fractional-order system, some sufficient conditions are presented for the asymptotical stability of the observer-based fractional-order control systems. The proposed method is applied on a five-agent system with the fractional-order nonlinear dynamics and unavailable states. The simulation example shows that the proposed scenario results in the good performance and can be used in many practical applications.

Keywords: fractional-order multi-agent systems, leader-following consensus, nonlinear dynamics, directed graphs

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259 Paradigm Shift of Leadership: Leaders in Information Technology

Authors: Mustafa Hyder, Khalid Mahmood Iraqi, Sameen Mustafa

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They say if the leader limps, all the others will start limping too. Therefore, a very dynamic leadership at all levels within the IT Community is critical to the success of an organization. This paper is an attempt to study the relationship between Information Technology (IT) with leadership and assesses its relevancy in today's fast-paced hi-tech globalized environment. The paper strives to look into the essential qualities and knowledge as needed by today's IT leader, in contrast to essential characteristics common to all the leaders-past, present, and future.

Keywords: leadership, autocratic leaders, characteristics of IT leaders, skills of IT professionals, IT leadership

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258 Community Participation for Sustainable Development Tourism in Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti District, Samutsongkhram Province

Authors: Bua Srikos, Phusit Phukamchanoad

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The purpose is to study the model and characteristic of participation of the suitable community to lead to develop permanent water marketing in Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti District, Samutsongkhram Province. A total of 342 survey questionnaires were administered to potential respondents. The researchers interviewed the leader of the community. Appreciation Influence Control (AIC) was used to talk with 20 villagers on arena. The findings revealed that overall, most people had the middle level of the participation in developing the durable Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti, Samutsongkhram Province and in aspects of gaining benefits from developing it with atmosphere and a beautiful view for tourism. For example, the landscape is beautiful with public utilities. The participation in preserving and developing Bang Noi Floating Market remains in the former way of life. The basic factor of person affects to the participation of people such as age, level of education, career, and income per month. Most participants are the original hosts that have houses and shops located in the marketing and neighbor. These people involve with the benefits and have the power to make a water marketing strategy, the major role to set the information database. It also found that the leader and the villagers play the important role in setting a five-physical database. Data include level of information such as position of village, territory of village, road, river, and premises. Information of culture consists of a two-level of information, interesting point, and Itinerary. The information occurs from presenting and practicing by the leader and villagers in the community.All of phases are presented for listening and investigating database together in both the leader and villagers in the process of participation.

Keywords: participation, community, sustainable development, encouragement, tourism

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257 The Role of Leader, Member Exchange on Psychological Capital, Mediated by Person-Organisational Fit

Authors: Sonja Grobler

Abstract:

Background: Leadership and specifically Leader, member exchange has a definite impact on employee behaviour and attitudes, and specifically their state of psychological capital. The interactionist construct of person-organisational fit (P-O fit), consisting of a combination of supplementary fit (indirect fit or value congruence) and complementary fit (direct or person-job fit, as well as needs-supply fit) may, however, impact on the relationship between LMX and psychological capital. The unique permutations of these relationships are important not only for conceptualisation purposes but also for intervention design to enhance the employees’ psychological capital; this would contribute to positive employee behaviour and attitudes. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between Leader, Member Exchange (LMX) and psychological capital, with possible mediation by P-O fit. Setting: The research was conducted with ± 60 employees from each of 43 private sectors and four public sector organisations in South Africa. Method: This study utilised a positivist methodology based on an empirical approach while using a cross-sectional design and quantitative analysis. The sample is relatively representative (in terms of race, gender, and the South African work force), as it consisted of 60 employees from each of the 43 South African organisations that participated in the study, with 2 486 respondents in total. Results: Significant, positive relationships were found between LMX, P-O fit, and psychological capital. Additionally, it was found that P-O fit partially mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and supervisory trust, confirming the proposed model. Conclusion: A strong, positive relationship exists between LMX (consisting of Affect, Loyalty, Contribution, and Professional Respect) and psychological capital (consisting of Self-efficacy, Hope, Resilience and Optimism) which is partially mediated by P-O fit (consisting of supplementary fit and complementary fit).

Keywords: leader and member exchange, person-organisational fit, psychological capital, positive psychology, interactionist approach

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256 Marketing Strategy Implementation in Developing Sharia Tourism in Indonesia

Authors: Santi Mutiara Asih, Sinta Kemala Asih

Abstract:

Along with the development of tourism in Indonesia, which is increasingly a lot of domestic and foreign public interest in sharia tourism, the Indonesian government is currently developing the program. It was seen that this program would have a good impact, especially for Indonesian tourism. So it is necessary to develop appropriate marketing strategies. Then to develop tourism prospects sharia government could use such a marketing strategy, for instance, marketing mix and Segmenting, Targeting, and Positioning (STP). The marketing mix is a set of marketing tools used by a state or a company to continue achieving its marketing objectives in target market. STP is the most important initial step in identifying customer value. In such away, it is expected from the use of this strategy could make sharia tourism as a market leader in the field of tourism in Indonesia, it also could attract more tourists to visit and increase economic returns.

Keywords: STP, marketing mix, market leader, sharia tourism

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255 The Effectiveness of Conflict Management of Factories' Employee in Thailand

Authors: Pacharaporn Lekyan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the conflict management affecting the workplace and analyze the ability of the prediction of leadership of the headman and the methods to handle the conflict in an organization. The quantitative research and developed the questionnaire in order to collect information from the respondents from 200 samples from leader or manager who worked in frozen food factories in Thailand. The result analysis shows about the problem of the relationship between conflict management factors, leadership, and the confliction in organization. The emotion of the leader in the organization is not the only factor that can affect conflict management but also the emotion of surrounding people which this factor can happen all the time and shows that four out of five factors of interpersonal conflict management have affected on emotion intelligence and also shows that the behaviors of leadership have an influence on conflict management.

Keywords: conflict management, emotional intelligence, leadership, factories' employee

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254 A Leader-Follower Kinematic-Based Control System for a Cable-Driven Hyper-Redundant Manipulator

Authors: Abolfazl Zaraki, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Harry Thorpe, Vincent Strong, Gisle-Andre Larsen, William Holderbaum

Abstract:

Thanks to the high maneuverability of the cable-driven hyper-redundant manipulators (HRMs), this class of robots has shown a superior capability in highly confined and unstructured space applications. Although the large number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of HRMs enhances the motion flexibility and the robot’s reachability range, it highly increases the complexity of the kinematic configuration which makes the kinematic control problem very challenging or even impossible to solve. This paper presents our current progress achieved on the development of a kinematic-based leader-follower control system which is designed to control not only the robot’s body posture but also to control the trajectory of the robot’s movement in a semi-autonomous manner (the human operator is retained in the robot’s control loop). To obtain the forward kinematic model, the coordinate frames are established by the classical Denavit–Hartenburg (D-H) convention for a hyper-redundant serial manipulator which has a controlled cables-driven mechanism. To solve the inverse kinematics of the robot, unlike the conventional methods, a leader-follower mechanism, based on the sequential inverse kinematic, is followed. Using this mechanism, the inverse kinematic problem is solved for all sequential joints starting from the head joint to the base joint of the robot. To verify the kinematic design and simulate the robot motion, the MATLAB robotic toolbox is used. The simulation result demonstrated the promising capability of the proposed leader-follower control system in controlling the robot motion and trajectory in our confined space application.

Keywords: hyper-redundant robots, kinematic analysis, semi-autonomous control, serial manipulators

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253 Team Members' Perception of Team Leader's Effectiveness in Biotechnology Industry in India

Authors: Keerthana Gonella, Kamesh Apparaju

Abstract:

Teams are all pervasive and team leadership is a much discussed topic in managing projects that characterize the modern work environment. Biotechnology industry in India is an area of research interest for scholars on leadership, especially, team leadership. The present paper examines the perception of team members on the effectiveness of their team leaders in the biotechnology industry in India. This is an empirical study in which the data was collected by administering the closed-ended questionnaire to the respondents from across India. The effectiveness of the team leader is dependent upon his goal orientation that creates a collaborative climate. Leaders with technical know-how inspire teamwork with trust. They build confidence, mitigate the differences and expand team capabilities through teamwork. Effective leaders also create team identity making the most of the differences with a vision.

Keywords: collaboration, perception, team, team capabilities, team leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 217