Search results for: phase locked loop
4513 A Grid Synchronization Phase Locked Loop Method for Grid-Connected Inverters Systems
Authors: Naima Ikken, Abdelhadi Bouknadel, Nour-eddine Tariba Ahmed Haddou, Hafsa El Omari
Abstract:The operation of grid-connected inverters necessity a single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) is proposed in this article to accurately and quickly estimate and detect the grid phase angle. This article presents the improvement of a method of phase-locked loop. The novelty is to generate a method (PLL) of synchronizing the grid with a Notch filter based on adaptive fuzzy logic for inverter systems connected to the grid. The performance of the proposed method was tested under normal and abnormal operating conditions (amplitude, frequency and phase shift variations). In addition, simulation results with ISPM software are developed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method strategy. Finally, the experimental test will be used to extract the result and discuss the validity of the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: phase locked loop, PLL, notch filter, fuzzy logic control, grid connected invertersProcedia PDF Downloads 75
4512 Noise and Thermal Analyses of Memristor-Based Phase Locked Loop Integrated Circuit
Authors: Naheem Olakunle Adesina
Abstract:The memristor is considered as one of the promising candidates for mamoelectronic engineering and applications. Owing to its high compatibility with CMOS, nanoscale size, and low power consumption, memristor has been employed in the design of commonly used circuits such as phase-locked loop (PLL). In this paper, we designed a memristor-based loop filter (LF) together with other components of PLL. Following this, we evaluated the noise-rejection feature of loop filter by comparing the noise levels of input and output signals of the filter. Our SPICE simulation results showed that memristor behaves like a linear resistor at high frequencies. The result also showed that loop filter blocks the high-frequency components from phase frequency detector so as to provide a stable control voltage to the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). In addition, we examined the effects of temperature on the performance of the designed phase locked loop circuit. A critical temperature, where there is frequency drift of VCO as a result of variations in control voltage, is identified. In conclusion, the memristor is a suitable choice for nanoelectronic systems owing to a small area, low power consumption, dense nature, high switching speed, and endurance. The proposed memristor-based loop filter, together with other components of the phase locked loop, can be designed using memristive emulator and EDA tools in current CMOS technology and simulated.
Keywords: Fast Fourier Transform, hysteresis curve, loop filter, memristor, noise, phase locked loop, voltage controlled oscillatorProcedia PDF Downloads 85
4511 Modeling SET Effect on Charge Pump Phase Locked Loop
Authors: Varsha Prasad, S. Sandya
Abstract:Cosmic Ray effects in microelectronics such as single event effect (SET) and total dose ionization (TID) have been of major concern in space electronics since 1970. Advanced CMOS technologies have demonstrated reduced sensitivity to TID effect. However, charge pump Phase Locked Loop is very much vulnerable to single event transient effect. This paper presents an SET analysis model, where the SET is modeled as a double exponential pulse. The time domain analysis reveals that the settling time of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) depends on the SET pulse strength, setting the time constant and the damping factor. The analysis of the proposed SET analysis model is confirmed by the simulation results.
Keywords: charge pump, phase locked loop, SET, VCOProcedia PDF Downloads 365
4510 Hidden Oscillations in the Mathematical Model of the Optical Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Costas Loop
Authors: N. V. Kuznetsov, O. A. Kuznetsova, G. A. Leonov, M. V. Yuldashev, R. V. Yuldashev
Abstract:Nonlinear analysis of the phase locked loop (PLL)-based circuits is a challenging task. Thus, the simulation is widely used for their study. In this work, we consider a mathematical model of the optical Costas loop and demonstrate the limitations of simulation approach related to the existence of so-called hidden oscillations in the phase space of the model.
Keywords: optical Costas loop, mathematical model, simulation, hidden oscillationProcedia PDF Downloads 356
4509 MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System
Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar
Abstract:This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge (FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regulators to tune and carrier and modulating waves are required to produce switching sequence. Instead, the operational model of VSI is used to synthesize sinusoidal current and track the reference. Model is validated using a three kW PV system at the input of UI-SPI in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation and results demonstrate simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.
Keywords: phase locked loop, voltage source inverter, single phase inverter, model predictive control, Matlab/SimulinkProcedia PDF Downloads 466
4508 On-Chip Aging Sensor Circuit Based on Phase Locked Loop Circuit
Authors: Ararat Khachatryan, Davit Mirzoyan
Abstract:In sub micrometer technology, the aging phenomenon starts to have a significant impact on the reliability of integrated circuits by bringing performance degradation. For that reason, it is important to have a capability to evaluate the aging effects accurately. This paper presents an accurate aging measurement approach based on phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit. The architecture is rejecting the circuit self-aging effect from the characteristics of PLL, which is generating the frequency without any aging phenomena affects. The aging monitor is implemented in low power 32 nm CMOS technology, and occupies a pretty small area. Aging simulation results show that the proposed aging measurement circuit improves accuracy by about 2.8% at high temperature and 19.6% at high voltage.
Keywords: aging effect, HCI, NBTI, nanoscaleProcedia PDF Downloads 290
4507 Extended Multi-Modulus Divider for Open Loop Fractional Dividers and Fractional Multiplying Delay Locked Loops
Authors: Muhammad Swilam
Abstract:Solutions for the wrong division problem of the Extended Multi-Modulus Divider (EMMD) that occurs during modulus extension (i.e. switching the modulus value between two different ranges of division ratios), in open loop fractional dividers and fractional multiplying delay locked loop, is proposed. A detailed study for the MMD with Sigma-Delta is also presented. Moreover, extensive simulations for the divider are presented to ensure and verify its functionality and compared with the conventional dividers.
Keywords: extended multi-modulus divider (EMMD), fractional multiplying delay locked loop, open loop fractional divider, sigma delta modulatorProcedia PDF Downloads 422
4506 Digital Encoder Based Power Frequency Deviation Measurement
Authors: Syed Javed Arif, Mohd Ayyub Khan, Saleem Anwar Khan
Abstract:In this paper, a simple method is presented for measurement of power frequency deviations. A phase locked loop (PLL) is used to multiply the signal under test by a factor of 100. The number of pulses in this pulse train signal is counted over a stable known period, using decade driving assemblies (DDAs) and flip-flops. These signals are combined using logic gates and then passed through decade counters to give a unique combination of pulses or levels, which are further encoded. These pulses are equally suitable for both control applications and display units. The experimental circuit developed gives a resolution of 1 Hz within the measurement period of 20 ms. The proposed circuit is also simulated in Verilog Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and implemented using Field Programing Gate Arrays (FPGAs). A Mixed signal Oscilloscope (MSO) is used to observe the results of FPGA implementation. These results are compared with the results of the proposed circuit of discrete components. The proposed system is useful for frequency deviation measurement and control in power systems.
Keywords: frequency measurement, digital control, phase locked loop, encoder, Verilog HDLProcedia PDF Downloads 127
4505 Model Predictive Control of Three Phase Inverter for PV Systems
Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar
Abstract:This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive three phase inverter (TPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at commercial level. The proposed model uses phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize TPI with the power electric grid (PEG) and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. TPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a three leg voltage source inverter (VSI). Operational model of VSI is used to synthesize sinusoidal current and track the reference. Model is validated using a 35.7 kW PV system in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation and results show simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.
Keywords: model predictive control, three phase voltage source inverter, PV system, Matlab/simulinkProcedia PDF Downloads 476
4504 A Tunable Long-Cavity Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on Nonlinear Amplifier Loop Mirror
Authors: Pinghe Wang
Abstract:In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable long-cavity passive mode-locked fiber laser. The mode locker is a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). The cavity frequency of the laser is 465 kHz because that 404m SMF is inserted in the cavity. A tunable bandpass filter with ~1nm 3dB bandwidth is inserted into the cavity to realize tunable mode locking. The passive mode-locked laser at a fixed wavelength is investigated in detail. The experimental results indicate that the laser operates in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser generates the rectangular pulses with 10.58 ns pulse duration, 70.28nJ single-pulse energy. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser keeps stable mode locking status in the range from 1523.4nm to 1575nm. During the whole tuning range, the SNR, the pulse duration, the output power and single pulse energy have a little fluctuation because that the gain of the EDF changes with the wavelength.
Keywords: fiber laser, dissipative soliton resonance, mode locking, tunableProcedia PDF Downloads 169
4503 Phase Control in Population Inversion Using Chirped Laser
Authors: Avijit Datta
Abstract:We have presented a phase control scheme in population transfer using chirped laser fields. A chirped pulse can do population transfer from one level to another level via adiabatic rapid passage accessible by one photon dipole transition. We propose to use a pair of phase-locked chirped pulses of the same frequency w(t) instead of a singly chirped-pulse frequency w(t). Simultaneous action of phase controlled interference in addition to rapid adiabatic passages due to chirped pulses lead to phase control over this population transfer dynamics. We have demonstrated the proposed phase control scheme over the population distribution from the initial level X(v=0,j=0) to C(v=2,j=1) level of hydrogen molecule using a pair of phase-locked and similarly chirped laser pulses. We have extended this two-level system to three-level 1+1 ladder system of hydrogen molecule from X level to final J(v=2,j=2) level via C intermediate level using two pairs of laser pulses having frequencies w(t) and w'(t) respectively and obtained laudable control over the population distribution among three levels. We also have presented some results of interference effects of w₁(t) and its third harmonics w₃(t).
Keywords: phase control, population transfer, chirped laser pulses, rapid adiabatic passage, laser-molecule interactionProcedia PDF Downloads 302
4502 Interferometric Demodulation Scheme Using a Mode-Locker Fiber Laser
Authors: Liang Zhang, Yuanfu Lu, Yuming Dong, Guohua Jiao, Wei Chen, Jiancheng Lv
Abstract:We demonstrated an interferometric demodulation scheme using a mode-locked fiber laser. The mode-locked fiber laser is launched into a two-beam interferometer. When the ratio between the fiber path imbalance of interferometer and the laser cavity length is close to an integer, an interferometric fringe emerges as a result of vernier effect, and then the phase shift of the interferometer can be demodulated. The mode-locked fiber laser provides a large bandwidth and reduces the cost for wavelength division multiplexion (WDM). The proposed interferometric demodulation scheme can be further applied in multi-point sensing system such as fiber optics hydrophone array, seismic wave detection network with high sensitivity and low cost.
Keywords: fiber sensing, interferometric demodulation, mode-locked fiber laser, vernier effectProcedia PDF Downloads 256
4501 Study on Liquid Nitrogen Gravity Circulation Loop for Cryopumps in Large Space Simulator
Authors: Weiwei Shan, Wenjing Ding, Juan Ning, Chao He, Zijuan Wang
Abstract:Gravity circulation loop for the cryopumps of the space simulator is introduced, and two phase mathematic model of flow heat transfer is analyzed as well. Based on this model, the liquid nitrogen (LN2) gravity circulation loop including its equipment and layout is designed and has served as LN2 feeding system for cryopumps in one large space simulator. With the help of control software and human machine interface, this system can be operated flexibly, simply, and automatically under four conditions. When running this system, the results show that the cryopumps can be cooled down and maintained under the required temperature, 120 K.
Keywords: cryopumps, gravity circulation loop, liquid nitrogen, two-phaseProcedia PDF Downloads 331
4500 Mathematical Modelling and Parametric Study of Water Based Loop Heat Pipe for Ground Application
Authors: Shail N. Shah, K. K. Baraya, A. Madhusudan Achari
Abstract:Loop Heat Pipe is a passive two-phase heat transfer device which can be used without any external power source to transfer heat from source to sink. The main aim of this paper is to have modelling of water-based LHP at varying heat loads. Through figures, how the fluid flow occurs within the loop has been explained. Energy Balance has been done in each section. IC (Iterative Convergence) scheme to find out the SSOT (Steady State Operating Temperature) has been developed. It is developed using Dev C++. To best of the author’s knowledge, hardly any detail is available in the open literature about how temperature distribution along the loop is to be evaluated. Results for water-based loop heat pipe is obtained and compared with open literature and error is found within 4%. Parametric study has been done to see the effect of different parameters on pressure drop and SSOT at varying heat loads.
Keywords: loop heat pipe, modelling of loop heat pipe, parametric study of loop heat pipe, functioning of loop heat pipeProcedia PDF Downloads 339
4499 Dynamic Study of a Two Phase Thermosyphon Loop
Authors: Selva Georgena D., Videcoq Etienne, Caner Julien, Benselama Adel, Girault Manu
Abstract:A Two-Phase Thermosyphon Loop (TPTL) is a passive cooling system which does not require a pump to function. Therefore, TPTL is a simple and robust device and its physics is complex to describe because of the coupled phenomena: heat flux, nucleation, fluid dynamics and gravitational effects. Moreover, the dynamic behavior of TPTL shows some physical instabilities and the actual occurrence of such a behavior remains unknown. The aim of this study is to propose a thermal balance of the TPTL to better identify the fundamental reasons for the appearance of the instabilities.
Keywords: Two-phase flow, passive cooling system, thermal reliability, thermal experimental study, liquid-vapor phase changeProcedia PDF Downloads 45
4498 Combined Fuzzy and Predictive Controller for Unity Power Factor Converter
Authors: Abdelhalim Kessal
Abstract:This paper treats a design of combined control of a single phase power factor correction (PFC). The strategy of the proposed control is based on two parts, the first, for the outer loop (DC output regulated voltage), and the second govern the input current of the converter in order to achieve a sinusoidal form in phase with the grid voltage. Two kinds of regulators are used, Fuzzy controller for the outer loop and predictive controller for the inner loop. The controllers are verified and discussed through simulation under MATLAB/Simulink platform. Also an experimental confirmation is applied. Results present a high dynamic performance under various parameters changes.
Keywords: boost converter, harmonic distortion, Fuzzy, predictive, unity power factorProcedia PDF Downloads 424
4497 Design of Low Power FSK Receiver
Authors: M. Aeysha Parvin, J. Asha, J. Jenifer
Abstract:This letter presents a novel frequency-shift keying(FSK) receiver using PLL-based FSK demodulator, thereby achieving high sensitivity and low power consumption. The proposed receiver comprises a power amplifier, mixer, 3-stage ring oscillator, PLL based demodulator. Moreover, the proposed receiver is fabricated using 0.12µm CMOS process and consumes 0.7Mw. Measurement results demonstrate that the proposed receiver has a sensitivity of -93dbm with 1Mbps data rate in receiving a 2.4 GHz FSK signal.
Keywords: CMOS FSK receiver, phase locked loop (PLL), 3-stage ring oscillator, FSK signalProcedia PDF Downloads 427
4496 UML Model for Double-Loop Control Self-Adaptive Braking System
Authors: Heung Sun Yoon, Jong Tae Kim
Abstract:In this paper, we present an activity diagram model for double-loop control self-adaptive braking system. Since activity diagram helps to improve visibility of self-adaption, we can easily find where improvement is needed on double-loop control. Double-loop control is adopted since the design conditions and actual conditions can be different. The system is reconfigured in runtime by using double-loop control. We simulated to verify and validate our model by using MATLAB. We compared single-loop control model with double-loop control model. Simulation results show that double-loop control provides more consistent brake power control than single-loop control.
Keywords: activity diagram, automotive, braking system, double-loop, self-adaptive, UML, vehicleProcedia PDF Downloads 316
4495 Loop Heat Pipe Two-Phase Heat Transports: Guidelines for Technology Utilization
Authors: Triem T. Hoang
Abstract:Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are two-phase capillary-pumped heat transports. An appropriate working fluid is selected for the intended application temperature range. A closed-loop is evacuated to a high vacuum, back-filled partially with the working fluid, and then hermetically sealed under the fluid own pressure. Heat from a heat source conducts through the evaporator casing to vaporize liquid on the outer surface of the wick structure inside the evaporator. The generated vapor is compelled to vent out of the evaporator and into the vapor line for transport to the condenser assembly. There, heat is removed and rejected to a heat sink to condensed vapor back to liquid. The liquid exits the condenser and travels in the liquid line to return to the evaporator to complete the cycle. The circulation of fluid, and thus the heat transport in the LHP, is accomplished entirely by capillary action. The LHP contains no mechanical moving part to wear out or break down and, therefore possesses, reliability and a long life even without maintenance. In this paper, the author not only attempts to introduce the LHP technology in simplistic terms to those who are not familiar with it but also provides necessary technical information to potential users for the proper design and analysis of the LHP system.
Keywords: two-phase heat transfer, loop heat pipe, capillary pumped technology, thermal-fluid modelingProcedia PDF Downloads 62
4494 Open-Loop Vector Control of Induction Motor with Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique
Authors: Karchung, S. Ruangsinchaiwanich
Abstract:This paper presents open-loop vector control method of induction motor with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique. Normally, the closed loop speed control is preferred and is believed to be more accurate. However, it requires a position sensor to track the rotor position which is not desirable to use it for certain workspace applications. This paper exhibits the performance of three-phase induction motor with the simplest control algorithm without the use of a position sensor nor an estimation block to estimate rotor position for sensorless control. The motor stator currents are measured and are transformed to synchronously rotating (d-q-axis) frame by use of Clarke and Park transformation. The actual control happens in this frame where the measured currents are compared with the reference currents. The error signal is fed to a conventional PI controller, and the corrected d-q voltage is generated. The controller outputs are transformed back to three phase voltages and are fed to SVPWM block which generates PWM signal for the voltage source inverter. The open loop vector control model along with SVPWM algorithm is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink software and is experimented and validated in TMS320F28335 DSP board.
Keywords: electric drive, induction motor, open-loop vector control, space vector pulse width modulation techniqueProcedia PDF Downloads 84
4493 An Optimization Tool-Based Design Strategy Applied to Divide-by-2 Circuits with Unbalanced Loads
Authors: Agord M. Pinto Jr., Yuzo Iano, Leandro T. Manera, Raphael R. N. Souza
Abstract:This paper describes an optimization tool-based design strategy for a Current Mode Logic CML divide-by-2 circuit. Representing a building block for output frequency generation in a RFID protocol based-frequency synthesizer, the circuit was designed to minimize the power consumption for driving of multiple loads with unbalancing (at transceiver level). Implemented with XFAB XC08 180 nm technology, the circuit was optimized through MunEDA WiCkeD tool at Cadence Virtuoso Analog Design Environment ADE.
Keywords: divide-by-2 circuit, CMOS technology, PLL phase locked-loop, optimization tool, CML current mode logic, RF transceiverProcedia PDF Downloads 385
4492 Modelling and Simulation of Hysteresis Current Controlled Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter
Authors: Evren Isen
Abstract:In grid-connected renewable energy systems, input power is controlled by AC/DC converter or/and DC/DC converter depending on output voltage of input source. The power is injected to DC-link, and DC-link voltage is regulated by inverter controlling the grid current. Inverter performance is considerable in grid-connected renewable energy systems to meet the utility standards. In this paper, modelling and simulation of hysteresis current controlled single-phase grid-connected inverter that is utilized in renewable energy systems, such as wind and solar systems, are presented. 2 kW single-phase grid-connected inverter is simulated in Simulink and modeled in Matlab-m-file. The grid current synchronization is obtained by phase locked loop (PLL) technique in dq synchronous rotating frame. Although dq-PLL can be easily implemented in three-phase systems, there is difficulty to generate β component of grid voltage in single-phase system because single-phase grid voltage exists. Inverse-Park PLL with low-pass filter is used to generate β component for grid angle determination. As grid current is controlled by constant bandwidth hysteresis current control (HCC) technique, average switching frequency and variation of switching frequency in a fundamental period are considered. 3.56% total harmonic distortion value of grid current is achieved with 0.5 A bandwidth. Average value of switching frequency and total harmonic distortion curves for different hysteresis bandwidth are obtained from model in m-file. Average switching frequency is 25.6 kHz while switching frequency varies between 14 kHz-38 kHz in a fundamental period. The average and maximum frequency difference should be considered for selection of solid state switching device, and designing driver circuit. Steady-state and dynamic response performances of the inverter depending on the input power are presented with waveforms. The control algorithm regulates the DC-link voltage by adjusting the output power.
Keywords: grid-connected inverter, hysteresis current control, inverter modelling, single-phase inverterProcedia PDF Downloads 410
4491 Carrier Communication through Power Lines
Authors: Pavuluri Gopikrishna, B. Neelima
Abstract:Power line carrier communication means audio power transmission via power line and reception of the amplified audio power at the receiver as in the form of speaker output signal using power line as the channel medium. The main objective of this suggested work is to transmit our message signal after frequency modulation by the help of FM modulator IC LM565 which gives output proportional to the input voltage of the input message signal. And this audio power is received from the power line by the help of isolation circuit and demodulated from IC LM565 which uses the concept of the PLL and produces FM demodulated signal to the listener. Message signal will be transmitted over the carrier signal that will be generated from the FM modulator IC LM565. Using this message signal will not damage because of no direct contact of message signal from the power line, but noise can disturb our information.
Keywords: amplification, fm demodulator ic 565, fm modulator ic 565, phase locked loop, power isolationProcedia PDF Downloads 474
4490 Vacancy-Driven Magnetism of GdMnO₃
Authors: Matúš Mihalik, Martin Vavra, Kornel Csach, Marián Mihalik
Abstract:GdMnO₃ belongs to orthorhombically distorted, GdFeO₃-type family of perovskite compounds. These compounds are naturally vacant and the amount of vacancies depend on the sample preparation conditions. Our GdMnO₃ samples were prepared by float zone method and the vacancies were controlled using an air, Ar and O₂ preparation atmosphere. The highest amount of vacancies was found for sample prepared in Ar atmosphere, while the sample prepared in O₂ was observed to be almost vacancy-free. The magnetic measurements indicate that the preparation atmosphere has no impact on Néel temperature (TN ~ 42 K), however, it has strong impact on the incommensurate antiferromagnetic (IC) to canted A-type weak ferromagnetic (AWF) phase transition at T1: T1 = 23.4 K; 18 K and 6.7 K for samples prepared in Ar; air and O₂ atmosphere; respectively. The hysteresis loop measured at 2 K has a butterfly-type shape with the remnant magnetization (Mr) of 0.6 µB/f.u. for Ar and air sample, while Mr = 0.3 µB/f.u. for O₂ sample. The shape of the hysteresis loop depends on the preparation atmosphere in magnetic fields up to 1.5 T, but is independent for higher magnetic fields. The coercive field of less than 0.06 T and the maximum magnetic moment of 6 µB/f.u. at magnetic field µ0H = 7 T do not depend on the preparation atmosphere. All these findings indicate that only AWF phase of GdMnO₃ compound is directly affected by the vacancies in the system, while IC phase and the field induced ferroelectric phase are not affected.
Keywords: magnetism, perovskites, sample preparation, magnetic phase transitionProcedia PDF Downloads 28
4489 3D Shape Knitting: Loop Alignment on a Surface with Positive Gaussian Curvature
Authors: C. T. Cheung, R. K. P. Ng, T. Y. Lo, Zhou Jinyun
Abstract:This paper aims at manipulating loop alignment in knitting a three-dimensional (3D) shape by its geometry. Two loop alignment methods are introduced to handle a surface with positive Gaussian curvature. As weft knitting is a two-dimensional (2D) knitting mechanism that the knitting cam carrying the feeders moves in two directions only, left and right, the knitted fabric generated grows in width and length but not in depth. Therefore, a 3D shape is required to be flattened to a 2D plane with surface area preserved for knitting. On this flattened plane, dimensional measurements are taken for loop alignment. The way these measurements being taken derived two different loop alignment methods. In this paper, only plain knitted structure was considered. Each knitted loop was taken as a basic unit for loop alignment in order to achieve the required geometric dimensions, without the inclusion of other stitches which give textural dimensions to the fabric. Two loop alignment methods were experimented and compared. Only one of these two can successfully preserve the dimensions of the shape.
Keywords: 3D knitting, 3D shape, loop alignment, positive Gaussian curvatureProcedia PDF Downloads 278
4488 Power Supply Feedback Regulation Loop Design Using Cadence PSpice Tool: Determining Converter Stability by Simulation
Authors: Debabrata Das
Abstract:This paper explains how to design a regulation loop for a power supply circuit. It also discusses the need of a regulation loop and the improvement of a circuit with regulation loop. A sample design is used to demonstrate how to use PSpice to design feedback loop to control output voltage of a power supply and how to check if the power supply is stable or oscillatory. A sample design is made using a specific Integrated Circuit (IC) available in the PSpice library. A designer can experiment feedback loop design using Cadence Pspice tool. PSpice is easy to use, reliable, and convenient. To test a feedback loop, generally, engineers use trial and error method with the hardware which takes a lot of time and manpower. Moreover, it is expensive because component and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) may go bad. PSpice can be used by designers to test their loop designs without using hardware circuits. A designer can save time, cost, manpower and simulate his/her power supply circuit accurately before making a real hardware using this software package.
Keywords: power electronics, feedback loop, regulation, stability, pole, zero, oscillationProcedia PDF Downloads 251
4487 Improvement of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Accuracy by Means of Current Loop Circuit Using Optimal Digital Signal Processing
Authors: Peter A. L’vov, Roman S. Konovalov, Alexey A. L’vov
Abstract:The paper presents the advanced digital modification of the conventional current loop circuit for pressure piezoelectric transducers. The optimal DSP algorithms of current loop responses by the maximum likelihood method are applied for diminishing of measurement errors. The loop circuit has some additional advantages such as the possibility to operate with any type of resistance or reactance sensors, and a considerable increase in accuracy and quality of measurements to be compared with AC bridges. The results obtained are dedicated to replace high-accuracy and expensive measuring bridges with current loop circuits.
Keywords: current loop, maximum likelihood method, optimal digital signal processing, precise pressure measurementProcedia PDF Downloads 446
4486 Structural Magnetic Properties of Multiferroic (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x Ceramics
Authors: Mohammad Shariq, Davinder Kaur
Abstract:A series of multiferroic (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x [x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5] solid solution ceramics were synthesised by conventional solid-state reaction method. Well crystalline phase has been optimized at sintering temperature of 950°C for 2 hours. X rays diffraction studies of these ceramics revealed the existence of a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region in this system, which exhibits co-existence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phase with a large tetragonality (c/a ratio) in the tetragonal phase region. The average grain size of samples was found to be between 1-1.5 µm. The M-H curve revealed the BiFeO3 (BFO) as antiferromanetic material whereas, induced weak ferromagnetism was observed for (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x composites with x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 at temperature of 5 K. The results evidenced the destruction of a space-modulated spin structure in bulk materials, via substituent effects, releasing a latent magnetization locked within the cycloid. Relative to unmodified BiFeO3, modified BiFeO3-PbTiO3 -based ceramics revealed enhancement in the electric-field-induced polarization.
Keywords: BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x ceramic, multiferroic, SQUID, magnetic propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 290
4485 Power Management Strategy for Solar-Wind-Diesel Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy System
Authors: Md. Aminul Islam, Adel Merabet, Rachid Beguenane, Hussein Ibrahim
Abstract:This paper presents a simulation and mathematical model of stand-alone solar-wind-diesel based hybrid energy system (HES). A power management system is designed for multiple energy resources in a stand-alone hybrid energy system. Both Solar photovoltaic and wind energy conversion system consists of maximum power point tracking (MPPT), voltage regulation, and basic power electronic interfaces. An additional diesel generator is included to support and improve the reliability of stand-alone system when renewable energy sources are not available. A power management strategy is introduced to distribute the generated power among resistive load banks. The frequency regulation is developed with conventional phase locked loop (PLL) system. The power management algorithm was applied in Matlab®/Simulink® to simulate the results.
Keywords: solar photovoltaic, wind energy, diesel engine, hybrid energy system, power management, frequency and voltage regulationProcedia PDF Downloads 385
4484 Voltage and Current Control of Microgrid in Grid Connected and Islanded Modes
Authors: Megha Chavda, Parth Thummar, Rahul Ghetia
Abstract:This paper presents the voltage and current control of microgrid accompanied by the synchronization of microgrid with the main utility grid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) satisfy the wide-spread power demand of consumer by behaving as a micro source for a low voltage (LV) grid or microgrid. Synchronization of the microgrid with the main utility grid is done using PLL and PWM gate pulse generation technique is used for the Voltage Source Converter. Potential Function method achieves the voltage and current control of this microgrid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. A low voltage grid consisting of three distributed generators (DG) is considered for the study and is simulated in time-domain using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results depict the appropriateness of voltage and current control of microgrid and synchronization of microgrid with the medium voltage (MV) grid.
Keywords: microgrid, distributed energy resources, voltage and current control, voltage source converter, pulse width modulation, phase locked loopProcedia PDF Downloads 288